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Design for Efficiency

Solutions prepared by

Wendy Hawthorne and Michael Johnston

Heating and Cooling of Buildings

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

Contents

Nomenclature....................................................................................................... iii

Conversion factors ............................................................................................... vi

Chapter 1 ............................................................................................................. 1

Chapter 2 ............................................................................................................. 9

Chapter 3 ........................................................................................................... 38

Chapter 4 ........................................................................................................... 59

Chapter 5 ......................................................................................................... 113

Chapter 6 ......................................................................................................... 140

Chapter 7 ......................................................................................................... 165

Chapter 8 ......................................................................................................... 195

Chapter 9 ......................................................................................................... 210

Chapter 10 ....................................................................................................... 239

Chapter 11 ....................................................................................................... 269

Chapter 12 ....................................................................................................... 294

Chapter 13 ....................................................................................................... 312

Chapter 14 ....................................................................................................... 315

i

Heating and Cooling of Buildings

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

To the Instructor

If you discover any errors in these solutions or any errors in the textbook itself,

the authors want to learn of them. Please contact

Kreider & Associates, LLC

1455 Oak Circle

Boulder, CO 80304-1226 USA

(jfk@well.com or kreider@bechtel.colorado.edu)

Thank you.

ii

Heating and Cooling of Buildings

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

Nomenclature

A Annual payment

A Area

Alife Levelized annual cost

Am Annual cost for maintenance, first-year $

AFUE Annual fuel utilization efficiency, %

Ccap Capital cost, first-year $

Cd Draft coefficient for resistance to airflow between floors

Ceff Effective heat capacity of building, Btu/°F [J/°C]

Clife Life cycle cost

Csalv Salvage value, first-year $

Cyr Normalized annual consumption

CLFt Cooling load factor at time t

CLTDt Cooling load temperature difference at time t, °F [°C]

COP Coefficient of performance

CPI Consumer price index

c Cost

c Heat capacity, Btu/°F [kJ/°C]

cp Specific heat, Btu/lbm·°F [kJ/(kg·K)]

d Distance, miles [km]

d Diameter, feet [meters]

CDD(Tbal) Cooling degree-days for base Tbal, °F-days [°C-days]

HDD(Tbal) Heating degree-days for base Tbal, °F-days [°C-days]

E Radiation emissive power, Btu/ft2 [W/m2]

Eb Blackbody emissive power, Btu/ft2 [W/m2]

g Acceleration due to gravity = 32.2 ft/s2 [9.81 m/s2]

Ho Extraterrestrial daily irradiation, [MMBtu/ft2] [MJ/m2]

Hglo, hor Daily global irradiation at earth's surface, [MMBtu/ft2] [MJ/m2]

Hglo, vert Daily global irradiation on vertical surface, [MMBtu/ft2] [MJ/m2]

h Enthalpy, Btu/lbm [kJ/kg]

h Height, feet [meters]

h Hydraulic head referring to pressure, feet [meters]

hcon Convection heat transfer coefficient, Btu/hr-ft2-°F [W/(m2-C)]

hi Indoor surface heat transfer coefficient, Btu/hr-ft2-°F [W/(m2-C)]

ho Outdoor surface heat transfer coefficient, Btu/hr-ft2-°F [W/(m2-C)]

Io Extraterrestrial irradiance, Btu/ft2 [W/m2]

Idif Diffuse irradiance on horizontal surface, Btu/ft2 [W/m2]

Idir Beam (direct) irradiance at normal incidence, Btu/ft2 [W/m2]

Iglo,hor Global horizontal irradiance, Btu/ft2 [W/m2]

Iglo,p Global irradiance on tilted plane, Btu/ft2 [W/m2]

J Joules

Kcond Conductive heat transmission coefficient, Btu/hr-°F [W/°C]

KT Daily solar clearness index

KT Monthly average solar clearness index

Ktot Total heat transmission coefficient of building, Btu/hr-°F [W/°C]

iii

Heating and Cooling of Buildings

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

kT Instantaneous or hourly clearness index

L Load, Btu [kW]

Lat Latitude, deg

Long Longitude, deg

M Mass, lb [kg]

M Mass flow rate, lb/sec [kg/sec]

N System life, yr

Nbin Number of hours per bin of bin method

Ndep Depreciation period, yr

p Pressure, psi [Pa]

(P/F, r, N) Present worth factor

Pmax Peak demand, kW

pdem Demand charge, $/kW/month

PLR Part load ratio

pe Price of energy, $/Btu [$/GJ]

pe Levelized energy price, $/Btu [$/GJ]

pins Price of insulation, $/ft2 [$/m2]

Q Energy consumption, Btu [Joules]

Q Heat flow, Btu/hr [W]

Qannual Annual energy, MMBtu [kWh]

SC Shading coefficient

SEER Seasonal energy efficiency ratio

SHGF Solar heat gain factor, Btu/ft2 [W/m2]

SPF Seasonal performance factor

s Seconds

s Entropy, Btu/lbm-°F [kJ/(kg -°C)]

T Temperature, °F [°C]

Tdb Dry-bulb air temperature, °F [°C]

Tbal Balance-point temperature of building, °F [°C]

Ti Indoor air temperature, °F [°C]

Ttstat Thermostat setpoint temperature, °F [°C]

To Outdoor air temperature, °F [°C]

To, ave Average outdoor temperature on design day, °F [°C]

To, max Design outdoor temperature, °F [°C]

TOS Sol-air temperature, °F [°C]

TOS,t Sol-air temperature of outside surface at time t, °F [°C]

To,t Average outdoor temperature for any hour t of month, °F [°C]

To, yr Annual average temperature, °F [°C]

tsol Solar time, h

tss Sunset time, h

U Overall heat transfer coefficient, Btu/hr-ft2-°F [W/m2-C]

u Wind speed, ft/s [m/s]

V Flow rate, ft3/s or GPM [m3/s or liters/s]

v Volume, ft3 [liters]

v Velocity, ft/s or ft/min [m/s]

iv

Heating and Cooling of Buildings

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

w Thickness of wall, ft [m]

x Distance, ft [m]

Y Annual yield

Greek

β grid penetration, fraction

βs Altitude angle of sun (= 90°- θs)

∆p pressure differential

∆T Indoor/Outdoor temperature difference, Ti - To, °F [°C]

∆t Time step h

∆x Thickness of layer, ft [meters]

δ Solar declination, degrees

η efficiency

θi Incidence angle of sun on plane, degrees

θp Zenith angle of plane (tilt from horizontal, up > 0), degrees

θs Zenith angle of sun, degrees

λ Latitude

ρ Density, lbm/ft3 [kg/m3]

ρg Reflectivity of ground

φp Azimuth angle of plane, degrees

φs Azimuth angle of sun, degrees

v

Heating and Cooling of Buildings

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

Conversion factors

1 km = 0.621 miles

1 m² = 10.76 ft2

1 cm² = 0.155 in2

1 gal ≡ 0.13368 ft3 = 3.785 liters

1 kg = 2.2046 lbm

1 lbf = 4.448 N

1 Btu = 252 cal = 1055 joules

1 Atm ≡ 14.696 lbf/in2 = 101325 Pa

1 mm Hg = 0.01934 lbf/in2

1 kW = 3412 Btu/hr

1 bar ≡ 105 N/m2 = 14.504 lbf/in2

1 Pa ≡ 1 N/m2 = 0.00014504 lbf/in2

1 in Hg ≡ 3376.8 Pa

1 in water ≡ 248.8 Pa

1 W/m2 = 0.3170 Btu/ft2·hr

1 W/m·°C = 0.5778 Btu/hr·ft·°F

1 kJ/kg = 0.4299 Btu/lbm

1 kJ/kg·°C = 0.23884 Btu/lbm·°F

1 watt = 1 joule/second

1 HP ≡ 550 ft·lbf/s = 746 watts

1 Quad = 1015 Btu

°F = °C·1.8 + 32

0°C = 32°F, 273.16 K and 491.69R

vi

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 1

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

Chapter 1

1

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 1

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

1.2)

FIND: output expressed in SI units and number of 100 W light bulbs with the

same output.

SOLUTION:

50,000 ⋅ ⋅ = 14,653 = 14,650 W

hr Btu 3600 s s

14,650 W

= 146.5 bulbs

100 W / bulb

Comment: In commercial buildings, lights are often the largest heat source in

the building, often creating a need for air conditioning all year.

2

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 1

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

1.4)

the pump.

SOLUTION:

J

3.4 ⋅ 10 7 ⋅ (40 L)

L J

= 4.5 ⋅ 10 6 = 4500 kW

5 min⋅ (60s / min) s

The heat transfer rate is 4500 times the average all electric house.

3

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 1

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

1.6)

SOLUTION:

Q = mc p ∆T

J

75GJ = m(4186

)(70 C − 30 C )

kg C

m = 4.5 ⋅ 10 5 kg of water

m 4.5 ⋅ 10 5 kg

v= = = 460 m3 or a storage volume 15 m x 15 m x 2.3 m

ρ 978kg / m 3

4

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 1

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

1.7)

b. Electricity consumption if COP = 2.0

c. Storage volume if ice, with ρ = 0.9 t/m3

d. Value of 1 ton of ice; assume $0.10/kWh

SOLUTION:

Btu

Q = 12,000 (500hr ) = 6 ⋅ 10 6 Btu = 6.33 GJ

hr

Qac 6.33GJ

b. COP = 2 = =

Qelec Qelec

Qelec = 3.17 GJ

6.33GJ

= 19.2 tons of ice

0.33GJ / ton

19.2 tons

= 21.3 m of ice

3

3

0.9 tons / m

1hr kJ $0.10

d. 3.17GJ ( )(1 ⋅ 10 6 )( ) / 19.2 tons = $4.59 / ton

3600 s GJ kWh

5

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 1

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

1.10)

Total U.S. demand = 80 x 1018 J/yr = Q

U.S. land area = 9.16 x 106 km2

biomass (η = 0.01).

SOLUTION:

W W

nq = 0.1(180 2 ) = 18 2

m m

Over the year this will supply

W s J

18 2 (3.15 ⋅ 10 7 ) = 5.7 ⋅ 10 8

m yr yr ⋅ m 2

80 ⋅ 1018 J / yr

= 1.4 x 1011 m2

5.7 ⋅ 10 J / yr / m

8 2

W W

nq = 0.01(180 2 ) = 1.8 2

m m

Over the year this will supply

W s J

1.8 2 (3.15 ⋅ 10 7 ) = 5.7 ⋅ 10 7

m yr yr ⋅ m 2

80 ⋅ 1018 J / yr

= 1.4 x 1012 m2

5.7 ⋅ 10 J / yr / m

7 2

6

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 1

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

1.12)

Annual savings = $200/yr

SOLUTION:

7

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 1

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

1.14)

Annual savings = ½ ($1000/yr) = $500/yr

SOLUTION:

investment = $5000

8

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

Chapter 2

9

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.2)

GIVEN: R-value studs, headers, floor plates: Rstud = 6.88 hr-ft2-ºF/Btu; R-value of

insulation: Rins = 19 hr-ft2-ºF/Btu

FIGURE: P2.2

transfer mode. Siding is 0.5” medium density.

hardboard siding; ks = 1.49 Btu-in/hr-ft2-ºF (Properties of

Materials Table on CD)

SOLUTION:

Area of wood framing:

Aw = 3”x16” + 1.5x16” + 1.5”x(8’x12”/ft-4.5”) + 1.5”(16”-1.5”) = 231 in2 = 1.6 ft2

Area of insulated wall:

Ains = 8’x12”/ft x 16” – 231 in2 = 1305 in2 = 9.1 ft2

∆x dw 0.5in hr ⋅ ft 2 F

Drywall: Rdw = =

= 0.45 (eq. 2.5)

k dw 1.11Btu ⋅ in /(hr ⋅ ft 2 F ) Btu

∆x s 0.5in hr ⋅ ft 2 F

Siding: Rs = =

= 0.34

ks 1.49 Btu ⋅ in /(hr ⋅ ft 2 F ) Btu

Insulated wall equivalent circuit:

Rdw Rins Rs

Rdw Rstud Rs

Rsw, Aw

1 A A 9.1 ft 2 1.6 ft 2

= ins + w = +

RTH Riw Rsw 19.79hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F / Btu 7.67hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F / Btu

10

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.3)

GIVEN: R-value outer layer: Ro = 3 hr-ft2-ºF/Btu; center layer has 6” fiber glass

insulation; To = 0ºF; Ti = 68ºF

FIGURE: 2.2b

FIND: Location in wall where T = 32ºF and best location for vapor barrier

transfer mode.

insulation; kins = 0.25 Btu-in/hr-ft2-ºF (Properties of Materials

Table on CD)

SOLUTION:

∆x 0.5in hr ⋅ ft 2 F

Drywall: Rdw = dw =

= 0 . 45 (eq. 2.5)

k dw 1.11Btu ⋅ in /(hr ⋅ ft 2 F ) Btu

∆x 6in hr ⋅ ft 2 F

Siding: Rs = s =

= 24 . 0

ks 0.25 Btu ⋅ in /(hr ⋅ ft 2 F ) Btu

Rtotal = Rdw + Rins + Ro = (0.45 + 24.0 + 3.0) = 27.45 hr-ft2-ºF/Btu

∆T 68 F − 0 F Btu

q = = = 2.48 (eq. 2.3 and 2.4)

Rtotal 27.45hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F / Btu

2

hr ⋅ ft 2

Since q is constant through the entire assembly, one can find the

temperatures at the junction of each layer, T2 and T3, Fig 2.2b.

Btu Ti − T2 Btu hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

q = 2.48 = ; T = 68

F − 2.48 ⋅ 0.45 = 66.9 F

hr ⋅ ft hr ⋅ ft

2 2 2

Rdw Btu

Btu T − T3

q = 2.48 = i ; T3 = 68 F − 2.48(0.45 + 24.0) = 7.4 F

hr ⋅ ft 2

Rdw + Rins

From this, it is clear that T = 32ºF occurs between T2 and T3, or in the

insulation layer.

Btu 68 F − 32 F ∆x 36 F

q = 2.48 = ; = − Rdw

hr ⋅ ft 2 ∆x k ins 2.48Btu / hr ⋅ ft 2

Rdw +

k ins

36 F hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F Btu ⋅ in

∆x = ( − 0.45 )(0.25 ) ; ∆x = 3.5 in

2.48Btu / hr ⋅ ft 2

Btu hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

32ºF occurs 3.5 in into the insulation layer from the warm side. The

vapor barrier should go on the warm side of the insulation to prevent

warm, moist air from entering the insulation layer and freezing.

11

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.5)

is the only heat transfer mode.

SOLUTION:

Area of exterior walls: Awe = 10’x8’ = 80 ft2

Area of interior walls: Awi = (12’+12’+10’)x8’ = 272 ft2

ceiling

Int. walls

To

Th Tr

Ext. walls

(The heat flow into node Tr equals the heat flow out of node Tr)

Btu

(0.06 )(272 ft 2 )(72 F − Tr ) =

hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

ª Btu Btu º

«(0.2 )(80 ft 2 ) + (0.07 )(120 ft 2 )» (Tr − (−5 F ))

¬ hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F

2

hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F

2

¼

1175 − 16.3 (Tr ) = 24.4 (Tr ) + 122

hr hr ⋅ F

hr ⋅ F

hr

Tr = 25.9 F = −3.4 F

12

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.8)

Exterior wall is 4” face brick

Interior wall is 4” common brick

2” air gap between walls.

FIGURE: P2.8

FIND: Heat flux through wall and percentage heat flow reduction when gap is

filled with 2” of polyisocyanurate.

kcb = 5.0 Btu-in/hr-ft2-ºF (common brick)

kfb = 9.0 Btu-in/hr-ft2-ºF (face brick) (Properties of Materials

Table on CD)

εbrick = 0.93 (Table 2.11)

SOLUTION:

∆x fb 4in hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Face brick; R fb = = = 0 . 44 (eq. 2.5)

k fb 9.0 Btu ⋅ in /(hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F ) Btu

∆xcb 4in hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Common brick; Rcb = = = 0.8

k cb 5.0 Btu ⋅ in /(hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F ) Btu

Rtotal = Rfb + Ras + Rcb where Ras = R-value of air space

Ti − To 65 F − 10 F

q = = (eq. 2.3 and 2.4)

RT (1.24 + Ras )

Ras can be found from Table on CD, Thermal Resistances of Plane Airspaces,

but one needs to know the effective emittance of two brick surfaces, the mean

temperature of the air space, and the temperature difference between the two

interior brick surfaces.

1 1 1 1 1

= + −1 = + − 1 ; E = 0.87 (Table A2-4)

E ε1 ε 2 0.93 0.93

For simplicity, assume that it is adequate to use E = 0.82 in Table.

Since the interior brick offers more resistance than the exterior brick, one can

assume that the mean temperature in the air gap is less than the mean

temperature of the interior and exterior: Tmean < (65ºF+10ºF)/2 < 37.5ºF

13

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.8 continued)

From Table for horizontal heat flow and a 1.5” air gap (this should be close

enough since at E = 0.82 there is little variation in Ras from 1.5” to 3” air

gaps):

Interpolating between (Tmean = 50ºF and ∆T = 30ºF) and (Tmean = 50ºF and ∆T

= 10ºF), Ras at (Tmean = 50ºF and ∆T = 20ºF) = 0.96 hr-ft2-ºF/Btu

Interpolating between (Tmean = 0ºF and ∆T = 20ºF) and (Tmean = 50ºF and ∆T

= 20ºF), Ras at (Tmean = 25ºF and ∆T = 20ºF) = 1.04 hr-ft2-ºF/Btu

65 F − 10 F Btu

q = = 24.12 = heat flow through whole wall

1.24 + 1.04 hr ⋅ ft 2

Btu 65 F − T2

q = 24.12 = ;T2 = 45.7ºF=air gap common brick temp

hr ⋅ ft 2 0.8hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F / Btu

Heat flow through the face brick:

Btu 65 F − T2

q = 24.12 = ; T2 = 20.6ºF = air gap face brick temp

hr ⋅ ft 2 0.44hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F / Btu

Therefore, Tmean = (45.7+20.6)/2 = 33.2ºF

∆T = 45.7-20.6 = 25.1ºF

The first estimates were not correct so another iteration is required, using

Tmean = 33ºF and ∆T = 25ºF

From Table, interpolation results in Ras at (Tmean = 33ºF and ∆T = 25ºF) = 0.97

hr-ft2-ºF/Btu

65 F − 10 F Btu

q = = 24.9

1.24 + 0.97 hr ⋅ ft 2

Heat flow through the interior common brick:

Btu 65 F − T2

q = 24.9 = ;T2 = 45.1ºF=air gap common brick temp

hr ⋅ ft 2 0.8hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F / Btu

Heat flow through the face brick:

Btu 65 F − T2

q = 24.9 = ; T2 = 20.1ºF = air gap face brick temp

hr ⋅ ft 2 0.44hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F / Btu

14

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.8 continued)

∆T = 45.1-20.1 = 25ºF

Since this is very close to our first iteration, Ras = 0.97 hr-ft2-ºF/Btu

65 F − 10 F Btu

q = = 24.9

1.24 + 0.97 hr ⋅ ft 2

with polyisocyanurate:

65 F − 10 F ∆x 2" hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

q = ; Rins = ins = = 14.3

1.24 + Rins k ins 0.14 Btu

55 F Btu

q = = 3.5

15.5hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F / Btu

2

hr ⋅ ft 2

With polyisocyanurate, there is an 86% reduction in heat flow.

15

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.10)

between the pipe and earth is negligible. The pipe surface

temperature remains constant over the mile of pipe

considered. The soil in Northway silt loam, k = 1.73 W/m-K

SOLUTION:

D = 2’ = depth below ground

L = 5280’ = length of pipe

2πL

S=

cosh −1 ( D / r )

2π (5280 ft )

S= −1

= 21,796 ft

cosh (2 ft /(10 / 12 ft ))

Btu ⋅ ft

Q = 1.0 (21,796 ft )(100 F − 45 F )

hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F

2

kBtu

Q = 1199

hr

For a typical pipe velocity of 6 ft/s, the temperature rise in the water would be:

Q 1,998,780 Btu / hr

∆T = =

m c p 20 s Btu lb

(π / 4) ⋅ (6 ft / s ) ⋅ ( ) 2 ft 2 ⋅ 3600 ⋅ 1.0 ⋅ 62.4 2

12 h lb F ft

∆T = 0.4 F

worth $8/hr of $20,000 for a cooling season. Therefore, insulation would be

well justified economically for a life cycle point of view.

16

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.11)

Bahnfleth-Pedersen approach

equation 2.11

Tearth,avg = To,avg = 50.2ºF (Table on CD)

Nday for Dec. 15 = 349

Nday for Apr. 15 = 105

SOLUTION:

Perimeter of slab, Psi = 2(100’) + 2(1000’) = 2200 ft

c = 0.18

P ª 360 º

Q g = c( ) d A(Ti − Tearth,av ) + 0.13P∆Tg sin «( N day + φ ) (eq. 2.11)

A ¬ 365 »¼

Dec.:

2200

Q g = 0.18( 2

) 0.85 (100,000 ft 2 )(60 F − 50.2 F ) +

100,000 ft

ª 360 º

0.13(2200 ft )(22 F ) sin «(349 + 50)

¬ 365 »¼

Btu

Q g = 10,360

hr

Apr.:

2200

Q g = 0.18( 2

) 0.85 (100,000 ft 2 )(60 F − 50.2 F ) +

100,000 ft

ª 360 º

0.13(2200 ft )(22 F ) sin «(105 + 50)

¬ 365 »¼

Btu

Q g = 9,750

hr

OR. It may not be correct for Denver, CO.

17

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.12)

Ti = 72ºF; Tavg,winter = 32ºF, Denver (from software).

insulated to R8.34.

Ksoil = 0.8 Btu/hr-ft2-ºF

LOOKUP VALUES: ∆Tg = 22ºF (Fig. 2.6); Tg,design = 32ºF - 22ºF = 10ºF

SOLUTION:

Walls: uninsulated,

Q

¦ L∆T = 0.41 + 0.222 + 0.155 + 0.119 + 0.096 + 0.079 + 0.069

= 1.15 Btu/hr-ft-ºF

§ Q ·

Q g = ¨¨ ¦ ¸¸( L)(Ti − Tg ,des ) (eq. 2.9)

© L ∆T ¹

Btu

Q g = 1.15 (264 ft )(72 F − 10 F )

hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F

Btu

Q g = 18,823

hr

insulated to R8.34,

Q

¦ L∆T = 0.093 + 0.079 + 0.068 + 0.060 + 0.053 + 0.048 + 0.044

= 0.45 Btu/hr-ft-ºF

§ Q ·

Q g = ¨¨ ¦ ¸¸( L)(Ti − Tg ,des ) (eq. 2.9)

© L ∆ T ¹

Btu

Q g = 0.45 (264 ft )(72 F − 10 F )

hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F

Btu

Q g = 7,366

hr

Floor: U = 0.021 Btu/hr-ft2-ºF (Table 2.5a)

Btu

Q fl = U fl A fl (Ti − Tg ) = 0.021 (32 ft ⋅ 100 ft )(72 F − 10 F )

hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Btu

Q fl = 4,166

hr

Uninsulated: Q = Q g + Q fl = 18,823Btu / hr + 4,166 Btu / hr = 22,900 Btu/hr

Insulated: Q = Q + Q = 7,366 Btu / hr + 4,166 Btu / hr = 11,500 Btu/hr

g fl

18

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.15)

GIVEN: 12” diameter, horizontal pipe, Tr = 65ºF; Ts varies from 80ºF to 150ºF

Ti = 72ºF; Tavg,winter = 32ºF, Denver (from software).

FIND: Variation of hcon (free convection heat transfer coefficient) from the pipe.

SOLUTION:

D3∆T = (1 ft)3(80ºF-65ºF) = 15 < 63 Æ laminar

D3∆T = (1 ft)3(150ºF-65ºF) = 85 > 63 Æ turbulent

§ ∆T ·

1/ 4

© D ¹

1/ 4

§ 80 F − 65 F ·

hcon = 0.27¨¨ ¸¸

© 1 ft ¹

Btu

hcon = 0.53

hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

hcon = 0.18∆T 1 / 3 (eq. 2.21)

(

hcon = 0.18 150 F − 65 F )

1/ 3

Btu

hcon = 0.79

hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

19

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.16)

FIND: The convective heat loss from the room to the skylight

SOLUTION:

L3∆T = ( 32 ft 2 )3(72ºF-50ºF) > 63 Æ turbulent

hcon = 0.22(∆T )

1/ 3

(eq. 2.23)

1/ 3 Btu

hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Q conv = 0.62

Btu

(

(32 ft 2 ) 72 F − 50 F )

hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F

2

Btu

Q conv = 436.5

hr

20

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.18)

Tw = 45ºF; Tr = 70ºF

FIND: The heat gain from the room to the pipe per 100 ft of pipe.

ASSUMPTIONS: Fully developed turbulent water flow through the pipe. The

water temperature doesn’t change over 100 ft. Ignore the

resistance of the pipe itself.

SOLUTION:

1/ 5

§V 4 ·

hcon = 150(1 + 0.011T )¨¨ ¸¸ (eq. 2.28)

© Dh ¹

Dh = D (eq. 2.27)

1/ 5

§ (6 ft / s ) 4 · Btu

hcon = 150(1 + 0.011(45 F )¨¨

¸¸ = 620

© 8in ¹ hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

On the outside of the pipe:

§ ∆T ·

1/ 4

© D ¹

1/ 4

§ 70 F − 45 F · Btu

hcon = 0.27¨¨ ¸¸ = 0.67

© 0.67 ft ¹ hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

The thermal network, ignoring the pipe itself is: RTH,in + RTH,out

1 1 hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

RTH ,in = = = 0 . 0016

hcon,in 620 Btu /( hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F ) Btu

1 1 hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

RTH ,out = = = 1 . 49

hcon,out 0.67 Btu /( hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F ) Btu

The outer resistance is far greater than the inner resistance, so the inner

resistance can be ignored.

A = 2πrL = 2π(0.67 ft/2)(100 ft) = 209.4 ft2

(209.4 ft 2 )(70 F − 45 F )

Btu

Q conv = 0.67

hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Btu

Q conv = 3507 per 100 ft

hr

21

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.20)

GIVEN: Double pipe, counterflow heat exchanger with water as the working

fluids; Vshell = 200 gal/min, Vtube = 200 gal/min; Tci = 50ºF; Tco = 100ºF;

Thi = 115ºF

ρwater = 63.2 lbm/ft3 (Table on CD, Properties of Water at an

average temp. of 75ºF)

SOLUTION:

gal 60 min 1 ft 3 lb lb

m c = 200 ( )( )(63.2 m3 ) = 101377 m

min hr 7.481gal ft hr

m h = m c

Btu lb Btu

C c = 1.0 (101,377 m3 ) = 101,377

lbm F ft hr F

C = C = C = C

h c min max

Q c = C c (Tci − Tco )

Btu Btu

Q c = 101,377 (50 F − 100 F ) = 5,068,850

hr F hr

Q c

ε=

(C )(T − T )

min hi ci

5,068,850 Btu / hr

ε=

(101,377 Btu / hr F )(115 F − 50 F )

ε = 0.77

C min

= 1.0

C max

From figure 2.15 with ε = 0.77, NTU – 3.5

U A

NTU = o o = 3.5 (eq. 2.34)

C min

Btu Btu

U o Ao = C min ( NTU ) = 101,377 (3 . 5) = 354,800

hr F hr F

22

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.22)

GIVEN: Double pipe, counterflow heat exchanger with the cold stream 33%

propylene glycol and the hot stream water; Vc = Vh = 200 gal/min;

Tci = 50ºF; Thi = 115ºF; cp,glycol = 0.95 Btu/lbm-ºF, ρglycol = 64.0 lbm/ft3

SOLUTION:

gal 60 min 1 ft 3 lb lb

m c = 200 ( )( )(64.0 m3 ) = 102,674 m

min hr 7.481gal ft hr

Btu

m h = 101,377 (see solution 2.20)

hr

Btu

C h = 101,377 (see solution 2.20)

hr F

lb Btu Btu

C c = m c c p , glycol = 102,674 m ⋅ 0.95 = 97,540

hr lbm F hr F

C min 97,540

= = 0.96

C max 101,377

From solution 2.20 for two water streams, UoAo = 354,820 Btu/hr-ºF. 90% of

resistance is attributed to convection, equally split between the two water to

tube surfaces (given). The equivalent circuit of UoAo is: Rw + Rpipe + Rw

R = 2.8 x 10-6 hr-ºF/Btu

Rw = 0.45R = 1.3 x 10-6 hr-ºF/Btu

Rpipe = 0.10R = 0.3 x 10-6 hr-ºF/Btu

hcon,w = 1/Rw = 7.7 x 105 Btu/hr-ºF

hcon,g = Fghcon,w (eq. 2.29)

Fg = 0.5 (Fig. 2.11b at 75ºF and 33%)

hcon,g = 0.5(7.7 x 105 Btu/hr-ºF) = 3.85 x 105 Btu/hr-ºF

Rglycol = 1 / hcon,g = 2.6 x 10-6 hr-ºF/Btu

R = (1.3 x 10-6 + 0.3 x 10-6 + 2.6 x 10-6) = 4.2 x 10-6 hr-ºF/Btu

UoAo = 1/ R = 2.4 x 105 Btu/hr-ºF

23

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.22 continued)

U o Ao

NTU = (eq. 2.34)

C min

2.4 ⋅ 10 5 Btu / hr F

NTU = = 2.5

97,540 Btu / hr F

C

Using Figure 2.15 at min = 0.96 and NTU = 2.5, ε = 0.72

C max

24

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.24)

GIVEN: 10,000 ft2 ceiling, 2’ below a roof, Ts,r = 115ºF; Ts,c = 80ºF; εr = εc = 0.8

FIGURE: P2.24

FIND: The shape factor between the roof and ceiling, Frc, and the radiation heat

flux, Q rc

SOLUTION:

As X/D and Y/D approach infinite, F12 Æ 1.0

Frc = 1.0 for this case (Fig. 2.18)

A(σT1 − σT2 )

4 4

Q 12 = (eq. 2.43)

1/ ε1 + 1/ ε 2 − 1

Q 12 = Q rc =

1 / 0.8 + 1 / 0.8 − 1

Btu

Q rc = 2.8 ⋅ 10 5

hr

Comment: In this case of a warm surface facing downward, the radiative portion

of heat transfer is several times the convective portion because a stable

stratification condition exists.

25

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.26)

GIVEN: A room heated by a radiant floor with Tfl = 27ºC; all other surfaces T =

20ºC; ε = 0.8 for all surfaces

FIGURE: P2.26

SOLUTION:

The shape factor from the floor to all other surfaces = F12 = 1.0 since the floor

“sees” only those surfaces.

A1 (σT1 − σT2 )

4 4

Q 12 = (eq. 2.42)

ρ1 / ε 1 + 1 / F12 + ρ 2 A1 / ε 2 A2

τ = 0 since the surfaces are opaque

ρ = 1 − τ − α = 0.2 (eq. 2.38)

A1 = Afl = 5mx7m = 35 m2

A2 = Afl = 5mx7m + 2 x 5mx3m + 2 x 7mx3m = 107 m2

T1 = 27°C = 300 K

T1 = 20°C = 293 K

Q 12 =

0.2 / 0.8 + 1 + 0.2(35m 2 ) / 0.8(107m 2 )

Q 12 = 1090 W

26

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.27)

FIND: Shape factors between the floor and ceiling and between the floor and

each wall.

SOLUTION:

Labeling the floor 1, the ceiling 2, the 7m wide wall 3, and the 5m wide wall 4;

X = 5m

Y = 7m

D = 3m

X/D = 5/3 = 1.67

Y/D = 7/3 = 2.33

F12 = 0.40 (Fig. 2.18)

F13:

X = 7m

Y = 5m

Z = 3m

Z/X = 3/7 = 0.43

Y/X = 5/7 = 0.71

F13 = 0.17 (Fig. 2.19)

F14:

X = 5m

Y = 7m

Z = 3m

Z/X = 3/5 = 0.6

Y/X = 7/5 = 1.4

F14 = 0.13 (Fig. 2.19)

F11 + F12 + F13 +…+ F1j = 1 (eq. 2.41)

F11 = 0 since it is not a concave surface and there are two walls of each the

F13 and F14 values

27

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.30)

FIGURE: P2.30

FIND: Q 1− 2, rad

SOLUTION:

A1 (σT1 − σT2 )

4 4

Q 12 = (eq. 2.42)

ρ1 / ε 1 + 1 / F12 + ρ 2 A1 / ε 2 A2

equation.

Q 12 =

0.2 / 0.8 + 1 + 0

Btu

Q 12 = 168

hr

28

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.32)

SOLUTION:

and sphere-to-sphere.

Asphere = 4π(2D/2)2 = 4πD2

AlampFlamp-sphere = AsphereFsphere-lamp

πD2 (1) = 4πD2 Fsphere-lamp

Fsphere-lamp = 0.25

Flamp-lamp + Flamp-sphere = 1

Flamp-lamp = 0

Fsphere-sphere + Fsphere-lamp = 1

Fsphere-sphere = 1 - 0.25

Fsphere-sphere = 0.75

29

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.34)

80°F, ε2 = 0.7; A1 = A2 = 64 ft2 (8 ft x 8 ft square)

FIND: Q 21

SOLUTION:

Y = 8 ft

X = 8 ft

Z = 8 ft

Z/X = 1.0

Y/X = 1.0

F21 = 0.2 (Fig 2.19)

α1 = ε1 = 0.5 (eq. 2.39)

ρ1 = 1 − α1 = 0.5 (eq. 2.38)

α2 = ε2 = 0.7

ρ2 = 1 − α2 = 0.3

A2 (σT2 − σT1 )

4 4

Q 21 = (eq. 2.42)

ρ 2 / ε 2 + 1 / F21 + ρ1 A2 / ε 1 A1

Q 12 =

0.3 / 0.7 + 1 / 0.2 + 0.5 / 0.5

Btu

Q 12 = 1450

hr

30

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.35)

GIVEN: Vertical wall consisting of 2 x 4 in. framing on 16” centers between two

0.5 in. sheets of drywall; uninsulated stud spaces; Ti = 60°F, To = 72°F.

FIND: The resistance of the airspace and the overall U-value of the wall. Find q .

Kwood = 0.80 Btu-in/hr-ft2-°F

εairspace = 0.82

SOLUTION:

The resistance of the airspace can be found from Table on CD. The mean

temperature in the airspace is (60°F+72°F)/2 = 66°F. The temperature

difference between surfaces is approximately 10°F. Reading the Table for

3.5” airspace and 0.82 emittance:

at Tmean = 90°F, ∆T = 10°F R = 0.85 hr-ft2-°F/Btu

interpolating for 66°F, R = 0.95 hr-ft2-°F/Btu = Rairspace = Ras

1/hi Rdw Ras Rdw 1/ho

60 F 72 F

hi = ho = 1.46 Btu/hr-ft2-°F

∆x 0.5in hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Rdw = dw = = 0 . 45 (eq. 2.5)

k dw 1.11Btu ⋅ in /(hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F ) Btu

∆x stud 3.5in hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Rstud = = = 4 . 38

k wood 0.80 Btu ⋅ in /(hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F ) Btu

RA = 1/hi + Rdw + Ras + Rdw + 1/ho

RA = (0.68 + 0.45 + 0.95 + 0.45 + 0.68) = 3.21 hr-ft2-°F/Btu

RB = (0.68 + 0.45 + 4.38 + 0.45 + 0.68) = 6.64 hr-ft2-°F/Btu

31

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.35 continued)

RA

60 F 72 F

RB

To find the overall effective R-value, one must calculate the percentage of the

wall which is characterized by RA or RB. Since the wall consists of 1.5” of

wood stud in every 16” of wall, the stud section (RB) makes up 1.5”/16” =

9.4% of the wall. Therefore, 90.6% is RA.

1 0.906 0.094

= +

Reff 3.21hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F / Btu 6.64hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F / Btu

2

hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Reff = 3.37

Btu

1

U eff =

Reff

Btu

U eff = 0.296

hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

∆T

q = (eq. 2.3 and 2.4)

R

(72 F − 60 F )

q =

3.37hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F / Btu

Btu

q = 3.56

hr ⋅ ft 2

Comment: In this case the stud actually provides more resistance to heat

flow that the rest of the wall since it is uninsulated.

32

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.37)

Ac =20 m2, Rc = 5.0 m2-K/W, ha,c = 10 W/m2-K, hi = 10 W/m2-K;

Ac =23 m2, Rr = 0.5 m2-K/W, ho = 25 W/m2-K, ha,r = 8 W/m2-K.

FIGURE: P2.37

FIND: The heat transfer through the ceiling and the attic air temperature.

SOLUTION:

1/hi Rc 1/ha,c 1/ha,r Rr 1/ho

Ti

To

However, one must account for the different areas of the ceiling and roof in

calculating an effective R-value.

RTH = 1/10 + 5 + 1/10 = 5.2 m2-K/W

R

R = TH (eq. 2.5)

A

5 .2 m 2 ⋅ K / W K

R= 2

= 0.26

20 m W

From Ta to To, RTH = 1/ha,r + Rr + 1/ho

RTH = 1/8 + 0.5 + 1/25 = 0.67 m2-K/W

R

R = TH (eq. 2.5)

A

0.67 m 2 ⋅ K / W K

R= 2

= 0.029

23 m W

The new circuit diagram is:

0.26 K/W 0.029 K/W

Ti Ta To

∆T

Q = (eq. 2.3 and 2.4)

R

(20 C − (−10 C ))

Q = Q = 104 W

(0.26 + 0.029) K / W

From TI to Ta,

(20 C − Ta )

Q = 104 W = Ta = −7.0 C

0.26 K / W

33

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.39)

GIVEN: Cylindrical tank with radius r = 5ft and height h = 5ft holding steam at Ts

= 250°F in a room at Tr = 80°F. The tank is used 8000 hr/yr and the

steam is valued at $4/Mbtu.

FIND: The steam energy savings if 3 in. of fiberglass insulation is added to the

uninsulated tank.

SOLUTION:

Uninsulated tank:

hcon = 0.19(∆T sin β )1 / 3 with β = 90° (eq. 2.19)

Btu

hcon = 0.19(250 F − 80 F )1 / 3 = 1.05

hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Q con = hcon A∆T (eq. 2.13)

A = 2π(5ft)(5ft) + 2 x 2π(5ft)2 = 314 ft2

Btu Btu

Q con = 1.05 (314 ft 2 )(250 F − 80 F ) = 56,050

hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F

2

hr

A1 (σT1 − σT2 )

4 4

ρ1 / ε 1 + 1 / F12 + ρ 2 A1 / ε 2 A2

Since A2 >> A1, ρ2A1/ε2A2 Æ 0

ρ1 = 1 - ε1 = 1 – 1 = 0

A1 = 314 ft2

F12 = 1 since the tank “sees” only the room.

Q rad =

0 +1+ 0

Btu

Q rad = 91,000

hr

Btu

Q total = Q con + Q rad = 56,050 + 91,000 = 147,050

hr

Insulated tank:

Conduction and convection can be combined in the following equivalent

circuit:

Tins

Ts Tr

1 ln(ro / ri ) 1

Ai hi 2πKL Ao ho

34

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.39 continued)

as in Figure 2.3.

Btu

hi = ho = 1.05 (eq. 2.19)

hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

1 ln(ro / ri ) 1

R= + +

Ai hi 2πKL Ao ho

Ai = 314 ft , Ao = 2π(5.25ft)(5ft) + 2xπ(5.25)2 = 338 ft2

2

1 ln(5.25 / 5.0)

R= + +

314 ft ⋅ 1.05 Btu /( hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F ) 2π (0.25 Btu ⋅ in /(hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F ))(1 ft / 12in)(5 ft )

2 2

1

338 ft ⋅ 1.05 Btu /(hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F )

2

hr F

R = 0.080

Btu

∆T (250 F − 80 F ) Btu

Q cond ⋅conv = =

= 2125

R 0.080hr F / Btu hr

insulation outer surface temperature.

Q cond ⋅conv = 2125 =

hr 1 ln(ro / ri )

+

Ai hi 2πKL

Btu (250 F − Tins )

2125 =

hr (0.078hr F / Btu )

Tins = 84.3 F

Q rad = Ao (σTins − σTr ) (eq. 2.42 with the same assumptions followed for the

4 4

uninsulated case)

Qrad = (338 ft )(0.1714 ⋅ 10 −8 Btu /(hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ R 4 ))(544.3R 4 − 540 R 4 )

2

Btu

Q rad = 1588

hr

Btu

Q total −ins = 2125 + 1588 = 3713

hr

The energy is: 147,050 – 3713 = 143,340 Btu/hr

143,340 Btu/hr * 8000 hr/yr = 1146 MBtu/yr savings

$4/MBtu * 1146 MBtu/yr = $4584 / yr savings

35

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.42)

strikes the roof. There is no wind. To = 90°F = Tatm. No conduction

heat transfer.

a gray body.

SOLUTION:

hcon = 0.22(Tr − 550 R) 1/ 3

(σT1 − σT2 )

4 4

ρ1 / ε 1 + 1 / F12 + ρ 2 A1 / ε 2 A2

α = ε = 0.9 (eq. 2.39)

ρ = 1 - α = 0.1 (eq. 2.38)

A2 >> A1 so ρ2A1/ε2A2 Æ 0

F12 = 1 since the roof “sees” only the atmosphere

4

q rad =

0 .1 / 0 .9 + 1 + 0

Btu

q rad = 1.54 ⋅ 10 −9 (Tr − 550 R 4 )

4

hr ⋅ ft 2

αI sol = q con + q rad

Btu

) = 0.22(Tr − 550 R)1 / 3 (Tr − 550 R) + 1.54 ⋅ 10 −9 (Tr − 550 R 4 )

4

0.9(280

hr ⋅ ft 2

Tr = 665R = 195 F

36

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 2

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

2.44)

GIVEN: Return air plenum above the ceiling in a commercial building with heat

input from lights Q L , and heat loss to the room Q room , and by the flow of

air through the plenum, m r .

FIND: An equation for the plenum temperature which includes Q L , Q room , and

m r . Modify the equation for the top floor of a building.

SOLUTION:

The equivalent circuit diagram is:

Rc

QL

Tr

Tp

m r c p

The plenum loses heat through conduction through the ceiling and through air

flow, but gains from Q L .

A

Q L = c (T p − TR ) + m r c p (T p − Tr )

Rc

A A

Q L + c TR + m r c p Tr = T p ( c + m r c p )

Rc Rc

Q L

Tp = + TR

Ac

( + m r c p )

Rc

If it is a top floor, the heat gain through the roof must be added.

A A

Q L + r (To − T p ) = c (T p − TR ) + m r c p (T p − TR )

Rr Rc

where Ar = area of roof

Rr = thermal resistance of the roof

To = outdoor temperature

A A A A

Q L + r To + c TR + m r c p TR = ( c + m r c p + r )T p

Rr Rc Rc Rr

A A

Q L + r To + ( c + m r c p )TR

Rr Rc

Tp =

A A

( c + m r c p + r )

Rc Rr

37

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

Chapter 3

38

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.3)

SOLUTION:

State 1:

p1υ1 = RT1 (eq. 3.2)

RT

υ1 = 1

p1

287 J / kg ⋅ K (20 + 273) J

υ1 = = 0.11

800,000 Pa kg ⋅ Pa

2

1 J = 1N-m; 1 Pa = 1 N/m (unit conversions)

N ⋅m m 2

m 3

υ1 = 0.11 ( ) = 0.11

kg N kg

V

υ1 =

m1

m3

m1 = 0.11 (20m 3 ) = 181.8 kg

kg

State 2:

RT

υ2 = 2

p2

287 J / kg ⋅ K (20 + 273) J m3

υ2 = = 0.14 = 0.14

600,000 Pa kg ⋅ Pa kg

N ⋅ m m2 m3

υ1 = 0.11 ( ) = 0.11

kg N kg

V

υ2 =

m2

m3

m2 = 0.14 (20m 3 ) = 142.9 kg

kg

m1 = m2 = 181.8 - 142.9 = 38.9 kg air vented

39

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.4)

SOLUTION:

RT

υ= (eq. 3.2)

p

pabs = patm + pg = 14.7 psi + 30 psig = 44.7 psia

υ= = 3.93

44.7lb f / in 2 (144in 2 / ft 2 ) lbm

V

m=

υ

30 ft 3

m=

3.93 ft 3 / lbm

m = 7.63 lbm

40

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.6)

T (°C) p (kPa) v (m3/kg) Phase

60 (1) 3.25 (2)

(3) 175 (4) Saturated vapor

300 300 (5) (6)

100 500 (7) (8)

(9) (10) 0.001097 Saturated vapor

50 10 (11) (12)

SOLUTION:

from steam table on CD. The value for v given lies between vf and vg, so

it is a saturated liquid-vapor mixture and p = 20 kPa .

be found from:

v = vf(1-x) + xvg (eq. 3.11).

3.25 m3/kg = 0.001017 m3/kg (1-x) + x (7.649m3/kg)

x = 0.42

(3) Since it is given tht it is saturated vapor, look at the steam table for the

saturation temperature at a saturation pressure of 175 kPa.

T = 116.06°C

vg = 1.0036 m3/kg

133.55°C. The given temperature of 300°C is greater than the saturation

temperature at the given pressure. Therefore, it is superheated steam.

v = 0.8753 m3/kg

41

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.6 continued)

151.86°C. The given temperature of 100°C is less than the saturation

temperature at the given pressure. Therefore, it is subcooled liquid.

Subcooled liquid properties are generally a function of temperature only

and can be read from the water tables at the given temperature. v = vf at

T = 100°C

v = 0.001043 m3/kg

Table.

T = 155.48°C

(11) The given temperature (50°C) is greater than the saturation temperature

at the given pressure (10kPa), so it is superheated steam.

v = 14.869 m3/kg

42

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.8)

T (°C) p (kPa) v (m3/kg) Phase

(1) (2) 0.65571 Saturated vapor

45 90.754 (3) (4)

10 (5) 0.5 (6)

(7) 83.246 (8) Saturated liquid

SOLUTION:

(1) Since the phase is saturated vapor, find vg = 0.65571 ft3/lbm from R-22

table on CD. Read T and P.

T = 40°F

However, one has no information to determine the quality. All that can be

said is that:

vf ≤ v ≤ vg

1/(78.443 lbm/ft3) ≤ v ≤ 0.6258 ft3/lbm

0.01275 ft3/lbm ≤ v ≤ 0.6258 ft3/lbm

(5) At 10°F, vg = 1.1253 ft3/lbm and vf = 1/82.516 ft3/lbm = 0.0121 ft3/lbm. The

v falls between vg and vf, so it is saturated and p = 47.530 psia

v = vf(1-x) + xvg (eq. 3.11).

0.5 ft3/lbm = 0.0121 ft3/lbm (1-x) + x (1.1253 ft3/lbm)

x = 0.44

(7) Since it is known to be saturated liquid, T can be read from the R-22 table

at p = 83.246 psia.

T = 40°F

v = 0.01265 ft3/lbm

43

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.11)

GIVEN: Vtank = 5 m3, mwater = 10 kg saturated liquid vapor at 75°C. Heat added

until all liquid completely evaporated.

ASSUMPTIONS: The tank is closed and no vapor is lost out of the tank.

SOLUTION:

5m 3 m3

υ= = 0.5 = υ g when the liquid is entirely evaporated.

10kg kg

vg = 0.5 when T = 141°F

44

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.16)

FIND: h, v, T

ASSUMPTIONS: The tank is closed and no vapor is lost out of the tank.

SOLUTION:

h = hf + xhfg (eq. 3.12 for h)

h = 196.26 Btu/lbm + 0.5(960.1 Btu/lbm)

h = 676.3 Btu/lbm

v = vf(1-x) + xvg (eq. 3.11)

v = 0.01683 ft3/lbm(0.5) + 0.5(20.09 ft3/lbm)

v = 10.05 ft3/lbm

T = Tsat = 227.96°F

45

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.18)

T = 140°F; m r = 500 lb/hr. Twi = 105°F, m r = 1500 lb/hr.

FIND: Two

SOLUTION:

2 2

v v

m i ( gz i + i + hi ) + Q = m o ( gz o + o + ho ) + W (eq. 3.19)

2 2

Assuming the height, z, is constant, the flow is steady, and no work is done,

this reduces to:

m i hi + Q = m o ho m i = m o

Q = m (h − h )

o i

lb

Q = 500 m (ho − hi )

hr

ho = 59.078 Btu/lbm = hf (Table on CD sat. steam at 140°F)

hi = 118.653 Btu/lbm = hg

lb Btu Btu Btu

Q = 500 m (59.078 − 118.653 ) = −29,790

hr lbm lbm hr

(The negative sign signifies heat is removed from the refrigerant.)

On the water side, the heat removed from the refrigerant is gained by the

water.

Btu lb

29,790 = 1500 m (1.0 Btu / lbm F )(Two − 105 F )

hr hr

Two = 124.9°F

46

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.19)

GIVEN: 100 ft deep well, ∆p/L = 5 ft W.G./100 ft pipe. ηpump = 0.69, ηmotor = 0.69

SOLUTION:

2 2

v v

m i ( gz i + i + hi ) + Q = m o ( gz o + o + ho ) + W (eq. 3.19)

2 2

With adiabatic, steady flow, this reduces to:

W

hi = gz o + ho + m i = m o

m

W

= (hi − ho ) + gz o

m

∆h = ∆u + W flow = ∆u + ∆pv (by definition of h)

∆u = 0 since adiabatic

∆h = ∆pv v1 = v2 = 0.016 ft3/lbm at standard temperature and pressure.

0.433 psia 144in 2 ft 3 ft ⋅ lb f

∆h = 5 ft W .G.( )( 2

)( 0.016 ) = 5.0

ftW .G. ft lbm lbm

W ft ⋅ lb f 1Btu Btu

= 105 ⋅ = 0.135

m lbm (778.2 ft ⋅ lb f ) lbm

Btu

0.135

W elec W lbm

= =

m m (η pumpη motor ) (0.69 ⋅ 0.88)

W elec Btu ft ⋅ lb f

= 0.222 = 172.8

m lbm lbm

47

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.21)

GIVEN: Refrigerant 134a throttled from a saturated liquid at 70°F to 36.1 psia.

SOLUTION:

State 1:

T1 = 70°F, saturated liquid

h1 = hf = 33.888 Btu/lbm from R-134a Table on CD.

State 2:

In the throttling process, h2 = h1

h2 = h1 = 33.888 Btu/lbm

p2 = 36.1 psia; hf2 = 18.989 Btu/lbm, hg2 = 105.177 Btu/lbm

To find the quality, x, solve eq. 3.11,

h = hf(1-x) + xhg

33.888 Btu/lbm = 18.989 Btu/lbm(1-x) + x(105.177 Btu/lbm)

x = 17.3%

v = 1/(81.762 lbm/ft3)(1-0.173) + 0.173(1.292 ft3/lbm)

v = 0.234 ft3/lbm

∆T = 70°F - 24°F

∆T = 46°F where 24°F is the temperature of saturated Refrigerant 134a at

36.1 psia pressure.

48

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.23)

TAi = 90°F, pai = 14.7 psia, TAo = 140°F;

TAi = 400°F, pai = 30 psia, m s = 30 lbm/min;

TAi = 200°F, pai = 25 psia, m s = 30 lbm/min

FIND: m a

SOLUTION:

2 2

vi vo

m i ( gz i + + hi ) + Q = m o ( gz o + + ho ) + W (eq. 3.19)

2 2

From the assumptions it reduces to

Q = m (ho − hi )

State 1 is superheated steam:

hsi = 1239.6 Btu/lbm at 30 psia and 400°F (HCB software or thermodynamics

text)

State 2(p = 25 psia, T = 200°F) is subcooled liquid, so hso is a function of

temperature only:

hso = hf = 161.23 Btu/lbm at T = 193.19°F

hso = hf = 180.15 Btu/lbm at T = 211.99°F

interpolating for T = 200°F,

hso = 168.08 Btu/lbm at T = 200°F

Q = 30 m (168.08 − 1239.6 ) = −32,146

min lbm lbm min

The heat lost by the steam coil is gained by the air.

Q = m (ho − hi ) = m c p (To − Ti ) (eq. 3.6)

Btu Btu

Q = 32,146 = m a (0.24 )(140 F − 90 F )

min lbm F

lbm

m a = 2679

min

49

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.24)

R22, pri = 69.6 psia, xi = 0.30; m ri = 3.5 lbm/min

R22 leaves as saturated vapor.

SOLUTION:

At p = 69.6 psia, hf = 18.693 Btu/lbm, hg = 107.09 Btu/lbm

hi = xhg + (1-x)hf (eq. 3.11)

hi = (0.3)(107.09 Btu/lbm) + (0.7)( 18.693 Btu/lbm) = 45.21 Btu/lbm

ho = hg = 107.09 Btu/lbm

lb Btu Btu Btu

Q = 3.5 m (107.09 − 45.21 ) = 216.6

min lbm lbm min

The heat lost by the steam coil is gained by the air.

Q = m c p (To − Ti ) (eq. 3.6 and 3.19)

Btu ft 3 lb Btu

− 216.6 = 350 (0.075 m3 )(0.24 )(To − 85 F )

min min ft lbm F

( Q is negative because the heat is removed from the air.)

To = 50.6 F

Btu

Q air = −217

min

50

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.27)

GIVEN: R134a: T1 = 140°F, p1 = 120 psia, m =800 lbm/hr, p2 = 120 psia sat. liquid

Water: T1 = 85°F, p = 30 psia, T2 = 104°F

FIND: m w

SOLUTION:

Refrigerant:

State 1: T1 > Tsat at 120 psia, therefore it is superheated.

hi = 126.5 Btu/lbm, (Table on CD for R134a)

ho = hf = 41.0 Btu/lbm

lb Btu Btu Btu

Q = 800 m (41.0 − 126.5 ) = −68,400

hr lbm lbm hr

The problem states that the water is compressed (or subcooled) in which

case enthalpy is a function of temperature only and can be read from the

Table on the CD at the given temperatures:

h1 = hf at 85°F = 53.08 Btu/lbm

ho = hf at 104°F = 72.03 Btu/lbm

Btu Btu Btu

68,400 = m w (72.03 − 53.08 )

hr lbm lbm

lbm

m w = 3610

hr

51

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.29)

electricity; ηpump = 0.72; water flow.

FIND: m w

SOLUTION:

2 2

v v

m i ( gz i + i + hi ) + Q = m o ( gz o + o + ho ) + W (eq. 3.19)

2 2

With adiabatic, steady flow, and no elevation change, this reduces to:

W = m i (hi − ho ) m i = m o

ft ⋅ lb f / s ft ⋅ lb f

W m = 2hp ⋅ (550 ) = 1100

hp s

ft ⋅ lb f ft ⋅ lb f

W = W m ⋅η pump = 1100 (0.72) = 792

s s

∆h = ∆u + pv (by definition of h)

∆u = 0 since adiabatic

∆h = ∆pv

1 1 ft 3

v= = = 0.016

ρ w 62.4lbm / ft 3 lbm

lb f ft 3 144in 2 ft ⋅ lb f

∆h = 15 2 (0.016 )( ) = 34.56

in lbm ft 2 lbm

ft ⋅ lb f

792

W s

m w = =

∆h ft ⋅ lb f

4.56

lbm

lbm

m w = 22.9

s

52

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.31)

without preheating the air (To,min).

significant.

SOLUTION:

ρ rVr Tr + ρ oVoTo = ρ sVs Ts ρ r = ρ o = ρ s by assumption

V T + V T = V T

r r o o s s

3

ft

Vo = 10,000

min

ft 3

10,000 3

Vs = min = 55,556 ft

0.18 min

by conservation of mass:

m r + m o = m s

since we assumed ρ r = ρ o = ρ s ,

V + V = V

r o s

ft 3

Vr = Vs − Vo = 45,556

min

3

ft ft 3 ft 3

45,556 (74 F ) + 10,000 (To ) = 55,556 (55 F )

min min min

To,min = To = −31.6 F

ignoring this variation does not result in large error since the density depends

on absolute temperature which varies only a few percentage points among

the input, return, and output temperatures.

53

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.33)

GIVEN: Saturated steam at ps = 130 psia; 20 billion Btu lost in steam leaks;

water cost = $1/1000 gallons; steam cost = $3/1000lbm.

SOLUTION:

h = hg = 1192.5 Btu/lbm

steam cost = ($3/1000 lbm)(1.68 x 107 lbm) = $50,400 steam cost

(2.69 x 105 ft3)(7.481 gal/ft3)( $1/1000 gal) = $2014 water cost

54

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.35)

FIGURE: 3.10

FIND: COPcool, Q H

SOLUTION:

Q L

COPcool = (eq. 3.29)

W net

900kJ / min(1 min/ 60 s )

COPcool =

7 kW

COPcool = 2.14

kJ 1 min

Q H = W net + Q L = 7 kW + 900 ( )

min 60 s

Q H = 22 kW

55

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.38)

GIVEN: T1 = 41°F; T2 = 73°F; COPhp = 3.0; W net = 17,750 Btu/hr; m = 1300 lbm;

c = 0.5 Btu/lbm°F

FIGURE: 3.9

SOLUTION:

Q h

COPcool = (eq. 3.30)

W net

Btu Btu

Q h = 17,750 ⋅ 3.0 = 53,250

hr hr

COPcool = 2.14

Btu

1300lbm (0.5

)(73 F − 41 F )

lbm F

t=

Btu

53,250

hr

t = 0.39 hr = 23.4 min

56

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.40)

FIGURE: 3.10

SOLUTION:

Btu

Q L = Q gains = 10,000

min

Q TL

COPc = L = (eq. 3.29)

W net TH − TL

(72 + 460) R

COPc =

(92 − 72) R

COPc = 26.6

W net = =

COPc 26.6

Btu

W net = 375 = 6.6 kW

min

57

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 3

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

3.42)

GIVEN: Q h = 30,000 Btu/min; Th,ideal = 72°F, Tl,ideal = 40°F; Real heat pump

requires 10°F temperature difference to transfer heat from the ideal

reservoirs.

FIGURE: 3.9

SOLUTION:

TL

COPhp ,ideal = + 1 (eq. 3.29 and 3.30)

T H − TL

(40 + 460) R

COPhp ,ideal = +1

(72 − 40) R

COPhp ,ideal = 16.6

In the real case, the heat transfer penalties require that Th =72°F+10°F= 82°F

and TL = 40°F-10°F= 30°F

(30 + 460) R

COPhp , real = +1

(82 − 30) R

COPhp , real = 10.4

58

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

Chapter 4

59

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.2)

FIND: Will moister condense on window at temperature Ts? How much water is

contained in the room?

SOLUTION:

From the psychrometric chart (Fig. 4.6) at φ = 50% and Tdb = 68ºF, traveling

left at a constant humidity ratio finds a dew point of 48ºF.

Since Ts < Tdew, moisture will condense on the window.

W = 0.0072 lbm,w/lbm,da

v = 13.45 ft3/lbm,da

V lbm, w § 1800 ft 3 ·

mw = W ⋅ = 0.0072 ¨ ¸

v lbm ,da ¨ 13.45 ft 3 / lb ¸

© m , da ¹

m w = 0.96 lbm, w

60

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.5)

FIND: φ, W, Tdew, h

SOLUTION:

From the psychrometric chart for 5000 ft (on CD), at the intersection of Tdb =

90ºF and Twb = 55ºF,

φ = 9%

W = 0.0032 lbm,w/lbm,da

Tdew = 28ºF

h = 25 Btu/lbm,da

61

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.7)

SOLUTION:

Twb = 55°F = 515ºR

2 3

§ T · § T · § T ·

K = 4.39553 − 3.469¨ ¸ + 3.072¨ ¸ − 0.8833¨ ¸ (eq. 4.14)

© 1000 ¹ © 1000 ¹ © 1000 ¹

K(Tdb) = 3.28333

K(Twb) = 3.30312

pc = 3226 psia

Tc = 1165.67ºR

p sat (Twb ) = (3226 psia )10 3.30(1−1165.67 / 515) = 0.2165 psia

p m = p¨ db ¸¨1 + ¸ (eq. 4.12)

© 2725 ¹© 1571 ¹

p = 14.7 psia at sea level

§ 535 − 515 ·§ 515 − 492 ·

p m = 14.7 psia ¨ ¸¨1 + ¸ = 0.1095 psia

© 2725 ¹© 1571 ¹

p (T ) − p m

φ = sat wb (eq. 4.11)

p sat (Tdb )

(0.218 psia − 0.1095 psia )

φ= = 0.246 = 24.6%

0.439 psia

pw

φ= (eq. 4.1)

p sat (Tdb )

p w = 0.247(0.439 psia ) = 0.107 psia

Tdew = 100.45 + 33.193α + 2.319α 2 + 0.17074α 3 + 1.2063 p w

0.1984

(eq. 4.15)

α = ln p w = ln(0.108 psia ) = −2.23

Tdew = 36.7 F

62

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.9)

FIND: The maximum relative humidity that can exist without condensation

occurring on a window at temperature Ts.

SOLUTION:

From the psychrometric chart for 5000 ft (on CD), find the intersection of Tdb =

68ºF and Twb = 40ºF (read horizontally from the saturation temperature scale).

The intersection is at φ = 36%. At an RH greater than 36%, condensation will

occur on the 40ºF window.

φmax = 36%

63

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.11)

SOLUTION:

At 70ºF

hda = 16.818 Btu/lbm,da

hd,s = 17.279 Btu/lbm,da

vda = 13.349 ft3/lbm,da

vd,s = 0.339 ft3/lbm,da

§ W ·

h = hda + ¨¨ ¸¸ hd ,s (eq. 4.18a)

© Wsat ¹

Btu § 0.008 · Btu

h = 16.818 +¨ ¸(17.279 )

lbm, da © 0.015832 ¹ lbm,da

Btu

h = 25.55

lbm,da

§ W ·

v = v da + ¨¨ ¸¸v d , s (eq. 4.18b)

© Wsat ¹

ft 3 § 0.008 · ft 3

h = 13.349 +¨ ¸(0.339 )

lbm,da © 0.015832 ¹ lbm ,da

ft 3

h = 13.52

lbm ,da

64

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.13)

FIND: The minimum relative humidity at which moisture condenses on the glass.

SOLUTION:

From the psychrometric chart for 5000 ft (on CD), find the intersection of Tdb =

85ºF and Tdew = 40ºF, at approximately:

φmin = 20%

65

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.14)

SOLUTION:

Line #1: patm = 14.696 psia so use the sea level chart

W = 0.0177 lbm,w/lbm,da, h = 42.6 Btu/lbm,da, Tw = 79ºF, Tdew = 73.2ºF

Line #2: patm = 29.92” Hg so use the sea level chart

W = 0.0063 lbm,w/lbm,da, h = 23.8 Btu/lbm,da, φ = 41%, Tdew = 45ºF

Line #3: patm = 101.325 kPa so use the sea level chart

Td = 36.2ºC, φ = 19%, Twet = 19.2ºC, Tdew = 8.7ºC

Line #4: patm = 101.325 kPa so use the sea level chart

H = 46 kJ/kg, φ = 69%, Twet = 16.2ºC, Tdew = 14ºC

Line #5: patm = 12 psia so use 5000 ft chart

W = 0.0078 lbm,w/lbm,da, h = 23 Btu/lbm,da, φ = 70%, Tw = 49.5ºF

Line #6: patm = 101.325 kPa so use the sea level chart

W = 0.0272 kgw/kgm,da, h = 100 kJ/kgda, φ = 100%, Tdew = 30ºC

Line #7: patm = 101.325 kPa so use the sea level chart

psat = 0.25991 kPa

φp sat

W = 0.622 (eq. 4.10)

p − φ p sat

(0.9)(0.25991kPa)

W = 0.622

(101.325kPa − 0.9(0.25991kPa))

kg

W = 0.0014 w

kg da

hda = -10.057 kJ/kgda

hd,s = 3.986 kJ/kgda

Wsat = 0.0016062 kgw/kgda

§ W ·

h = hda + ¨¨ ¸¸ hd ,s

© Wsat ¹

h = -6.58 kJ/kgda

One can assume that Tdew ≈ Twet since Tdb = -10ºC and 90% RH is very close

to saturation. The HCB software will give a more accurate solution (see 4.15

solution).

66

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.15)

SOLUTION:

The HCB “scratch sheet” allows the user to enter any two of Tdb, Twb, φ, or W

and will calculate the other two as well as h, water partial pressure, ρair, and

Tdew. In the case, such as line #3 of the table, when one of the given values

is h, pw, ρair, or Tdew, one must use trial and error variables. Printouts of the

HCB software “scratch sheets” are shown below.

67

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.16)

FIND: Tdew and h for φ = 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90%

SOLUTION:

pw

φ= (eq. 4.1)

p sat

psat = (0.73966 in. Hg)(0.49115 psia/in. Hg) = 0.3632 psia

0.1984

(eq. 4.15)

α = ln p w

φp sat

W = 0.622 (eq. 4.10)

p − φ p sat

h = 0.240Tdb + W (1061.2 + 0.444Tdb ) (eq. 4.17)

Using the above equations the following values can be calculated and

tabulated.

0.1 0.036 -3.315 10.3 0.00154 18.48

0.3 0.109 -2.217 37.2 0.00464 21.87

0.5 0.182 -1.706 50.6 0.00778 25.30

0.7 0.254 -1.369 59.8 0.01095 28.76

0.9 0.327 -1.118 67.0 0.01415 32.25

68

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.18)

FIND: W, h, and v

SOLUTION:

patm = p = 12.2 psia at 5000 ft

psat = (0.24784 in. Hg)(0.49115 psia/in. Hg) = 0.1217 psia (Table on CD)

φp sat

W = 0.622

p − φ p sat

(1.0)(0.1217 psia )

W = 0.622

(12.2 psia − 0.1217 psia )

lbm, w

W = 0.0063

lbm,da

h = 0.240(40) + 0.0063(1061.2 + 0.444(40))

Btu

h = 16.40

lbm,da

Rair Td

v=

p air

R T

v = air d

p − pw

Rair = 53.35 ft-lbf/lbm-ºR

pw = psat = 0.1217 psia (at φ = 100%)

ft ⋅ lb f

53.35

(40 + 460 R)

lbm R

v=

lb f 144in 2

(12.2 − 0.1217) 2 ( )

in 1 ft 2

ft 3

v = 15.34

lbm,da

69

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.20)

SOLUTION:

Use the psychrometric “scratch sheet” in the HCB software. A printout of the

“scratch sheet” is shown below.

70

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.21)

COP = 2.2, η = 0.75

FIND: The amount of water that must be drained from the evaporator per hour.

The power extracted from the automobile to operate the air conditioner.

SOLUTION:

1 0.0123 36.6 14.3

2 0.0064 17.6 12.8

V

m w = (W1 − W2 )

v1

250 ft 3 / min § 60 min lbm,da ·

m w = ¨ ¸

14.3 ft 3 / lbm,da ¨ hr (0.0123 − 0.0064) lb ¸

© m , da ¹

lbm , w

m w = 6.2

hr

hf2 = 13.09 Btu/lbm,w (Table on CD)

ft 3 60 min

§ Btu Btu lbm, w · 250 min ( hr )

Q c = ¨ (13.09 − 36.6) − 13.09 (0.0064 − 0.0123) ¸

¨ lbm, w lbm, w lbm, da ¸ 14.3 ft 3 / lb

© ¹ m , da

Btu

Q c = −19,850 (negative indicates heat extracted)

hr

Btu

Q 19,850

Q s = c = hr = 9022 Btu

COP 2 .2 hr

Btu

Q 9022

W = s = hr

η 0.75

Btu

W = 12,030 = 4.7 hp

hr

71

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.25)

SOLUTION:

ratio to the left. It is found that 70ºF is greater than the dew point temperature

of approximately 63ºF. Therefore, no moisture condenses in the process.

72

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.27)

GIVEN: Vda =100 ft3/min, Td1 = 55ºF, Tw1 = 39ºF; φ2 = 80%; Ts = 212ºF, saturated

steam; sea level

SOLUTION:

m a h1 + m s hs = m a h2 (conservation of energy)

m aW1 + m s = m aW2 (conservation of mass)

Solving both equations for m s and setting them equal to each other,

m (h − h1 )

m a (W2 − W1 ) = a 2

hs

(h − h1 )

hs = 2

(W2 − W1 )

hs = hg = 1150.5 Btu/lbm (Steam Table)

∆h Btu

= 1150.5

∆W lbm

Using the protractor on Fig. 4.6 find the slope of the process by drawing the

line from the center of the protractor to ∆h/∆W = 1150.5 Btu/lbm labeled on the

protractor outer rim. Locate state 1 on the chart (Td = 55ºF, Tw = 39ºF). Move

from state 1 to φ2 = 80% at the slope determined by ∆h/∆W. Td2 can be read

at the point where the slope line and φ2 intersect.

Td2 = 57.5ºF

m s = m a (W2 − W1 )

W1 = 0.0015 lbm,w/lbm,da

V1 = 13 ft3/lbm,da

W2 = 0.0081 lbm,w/lbm,da

m a = = 3

= 7 .7

v1 13 ft / lbm,da min

lbm ,da lbm, w lbm, w

m s = 7.7 (0.0081 − 0.0015 )

min lbm,da lbm, da

lbm, w lbm, w

m s = 0.05 = 3.05

min hr

73

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.30)

GIVEN: Td1 = 10ºF, φ1 = 70%; Td2 = 70ºF, φ2 = 60%; patm = 14.696 psia (sea

level)

FIND: moisture that must be added to the air to achieve indoor humidity of 60%

SOLUTION:

pw

φ= (eq. 4.1)

p sat

psat = (0.062901 in. Hg)(0.49115 psia/in. Hg) = 0.031 psia

pw1 = psat(φ1) = (0.031 psia)(0.70) = 0.022 psia

p w1

W = 0.622 (eq. 4.10)

p − p w1

0.022 psia lbm, w

W = 0.622 = 0.000932

(14.696 psia − 0.022 psia ) lbm ,da

lbm, w

W = 0.0094 (Fig. 4.6)

lbm,da

lbm , w lbm, w

∆W = 0.0094 − 0.000932

lbm,da lbm, da

lbm , w

∆W = 0.0085 must be added to the air.

lbm,da

74

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.31)

GIVEN: Td1 = 34ºF, Tw1 = 33ºF; Td2 = 68ºF; V = 800 ft3/min; sea level

FIND: The heat rate, Q , and how much of the heat rate is due to the presence

of moisture.

SOLUTION:

h1 = 12 Btu/lbm,da(Fig. 4.6)

v1 = 12.5 ft3/lbm,da

W2 = 0.0038 lbm,w/lbm,da

v2 = 13.4 ft3/lbm,da

Since it is unclear whether 800 ft3/min is the supply air flow to the room or the

intake air flow to the system, use the average specific volume.

v = (13.4+12.5)/2 = 13.0 ft3/ lbm,da

p

φ = w (eq. 4.1)

p sat

psat = (0.062901 in. Hg)(0.49115 psia/in. Hg) = 0.031 psia

pw1 = psat(φ1) = (0.031 psia)(0.70) = 0.022 psia

V 800 ft 3 / min lbm ,da

m a = = = 61 . 5

v1 13.0 ft 3 / lbm,da min

Q = m (h − h ) (eq. 3.16)

a 2 1

Q = 61.5 (20.5 − 12.0 )

min lbm,da lbm,da

Btu Btu

Q = 523 = 31,365

min hr

Q w = m w c p , w ∆T (eq. 3.6 and 3.16)

Q = m W c (T − T ) ; cp,w = 0.446 Btu/lbmºR

w a 1 p,w d2 d1

Q w = 61.5 (0.0038 )(0.466 )(68 R − 34 R )

min lbm, da lbm F

Btu Btu

Q w = 3.5 = 213

min hr

Q w is less than 1% of the total Q .

75

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.32)

GIVEN: Td1 = 10ºF, φ1 = 70%; Td2 = 70ºF, φ2 = 60%; Td2 = 68ºF; sea level

FIND: The energy required to increase the humidity to the required 60%.

SOLUTION:

W

h1 = hda + ( hd , s ) (eq. 4.18a)

Wsat

hda = 2.402 Btu/lbm,da

hd,s = 1.402 Btu/lbm,da

Wsat = 0.0013158 lbm,w/lbm,da

Btu 0.000932 Btu Btu

h1 = 2.402 + (1.402 ) = 3.40

lbm ,da 0.0013158 lbm,da lbm ,da

h2 = 27.2 Btu/lbm,da (Fig. 4.6)

Btu

q T = h2 − h1 = 23.8

lbm,da

The sensible portion of the energy change can be calculated by assuming

that W 2 = W 1 and finding h2’

Btu

q s = h2 '− h1 = 17.6 − 3.4 = 14.2

lbm,da

The portion due to the humidification of the latent portion:

q l = q r − q s = 23.8 − 14.2

Btu

q l = 9.6

lbm,da

76

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.35)

GIVEN: Tdo = 35ºC, Two = 25ºC; Tdr = 25ºC, φr = 50%; m r = 5m o ; m =12 kg/s

FIGURE: P4.35

SOLUTION:

Conservation of mass:

m oWo + m rWr = m mWm

m o + m r = m m

Conservation of energy:

m o ho + m r hr = m m hm

Wo = 0.016 kgw/kgda

ho = 76.0 kJ/kgda

Wr = 0.010 kgw/kgda

hr = 50.5 kJ/kgda

m o + 5m o = m m ; 6m o = m m

Wo + 5Wr = 6Wm

kg kg

0.016 w + 5(0.010 w ) = 6Wm

kg da kg da

kg w

Wm = 0.011

kg da

m o ho + m r hr = m m hm

m o ho + 5m o hr = 6m o hm

ho + 5hr = 6hm

kJ kJ

76.0 + 5(50.5 ) = 6 hm

kg da kg da

kJ

hm = 54.8

kg da

77

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.35 continued)

φm = 50%

Tdm = 26.8ºC

The air must be conditioned from Tdm = 26.8ºC, φm = 50% to Tds = 25ºC, φs =

50%.

kg kJ kJ

Q = 12 (54.8 − 50.5 )

s kg da kg da

Q = 51.6 kW

m w = m s (Wm − Ws ) ; Ws = W r

kg kg kg

m w = 12 (0.011 w − 0.010 w )

s kg da kg da

kg w

m w = 0.012

s

78

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.38)

GIVEN: Tdi = 100ºF, φi = 25%; V = 10,000 cfm; Elevation = 3000 ft; Evaporative

cooler, ε = 0.85

SOLUTION:

pw

φi = = 0.25 (eq. 4.1)

p sat

psat = 1.93492 in. Hg (0.49115 psia/in. Hg) = 0.9503 psia

pw = 0.2376 psia

pw

W = 0.622 (eq. 4.9)

p − pw

(0.2376 psia ) lb

W = 0.622 = 0.0114 w

(13.2 psia − 0.2376 psia ) lbda

at sea level with Td = 100ºF and , φ = 25%, Tw = 71.5ºF (from Fig. 4.6). At

5000 ft with Td = 100ºF and , φ = 25%, Tw = 70.5ºF. One can estimate Tw at

3000 ft as between 70.5ºF and 71.5ºF. The estimated value can be checked

using equations 4.11 to 4.14 or with HCB software.

Twi = 71.0ºF

Tdo = 100ºF – (100ºF – 71.0ºF)(.85)

Tdo = 75.4ºF

Two = Twi = 71.0ºF

Tdo = 75.4ºF = 535.4ºF

Two = 71.0ºF = 531.0ºR

2 3

§ T · § T · § T ·

K = 4.39553 − 3.469¨ ¸ + 3.072¨ ¸ − 0.8833¨ ¸ (eq. 4.14)

© 1000 ¹ © 1000 ¹ © 1000 ¹

K(Tdo) = 3.283

K(Two) = 3.287

pc = 3226 psia

Tc = 1165.67ºR

p sat (Tdo ) = 0.440 psia

p sat (Two ) = 0.380 psia

79

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.38 continued)

§ T − Tw ·§ Tw − 492 ·

p m = p¨ d ¸¨1 + ¸ (eq. 4.12)

© 2725 ¹© 1571 ¹

p = 13.2 psia

§ 535.4 − 531.0 ·§ 531 − 492 ·

p m = 13.2 psia ¨ ¸¨1 + ¸ = 0.0218 psia

© 2725 ¹© 1571 ¹

p (T ) − p m

φ = sat wb (eq. 4.11)

p sat (Tdb )

(0.380 psia − 0.0218 psia )

φo = = 0.814

0.440 psia

φ o = 81.4%

pw

φ= (eq. 4.1)

p sat

p sat ,o = 0.8875in. Hg (0.49115 psia / in. Hg ) = 0.4359 psia

p w,o = 0.814(0.4359 psia ) = 0.3548 psia

pw

W = 0.622 (eq. 4.9)

p − pw

(0.3548 psia ) lb lbw

W = 0.622 = 0.0114 w W = 0.0172

(13.2 psia − 0.3548 psia ) lbda lbda

To find the amount of water evaporated, one must know the mass flow rate of

the air, m da .

V

m da =

v

ft ⋅ lb f

53.35

(100 + 460) R

Rair Td lbm R ft 3

v= = = 16.0

( p − pw ) lb f lb f 144in 2 lb m

(13.2 2 − 0.24 2 )( 2

)

in in ft

ft 3

10,000

m da = min = 625 lbm

ft 3 min

16

lbm

lb lb lb

m w = m da (Wo − Wi ) = 625 m (0.0172 w − 0.0114 w )

min lbda lbda

lbw

m w = 3.6

min

80

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.41)

GIVEN: Td1 = 80ºF, Tw1 = 75ºF; Td2 = 55ºF, φ2 = 100%; Elevation = 5000 ft

SOLUTION:

1 0.0216 43.0

1’ 0.0110 31.5

2 0.0110 25.2

(From psychrometric chart for 5000 ft)

∆W = W1 − W2 = 0.0216 − 0.0110

lbw

∆W = 0.0106

lbda

Btu Btu

q l = h1 '− h1 = 31.5 − 43.0

lbda lbda

Btu

q l = −11.5 (The negative sign indicates heat removed.)

lbda

Btu Btu

q s = h2 − h1 ' = 25.2 − 31.5

lbda lbda

Btu

q s = −6.3

lbda

q s

SHR = (eq. 4.33)

(q s + q l )

− 6.3

SHR =

(−6.3 + (−11.5))

SHR = 0.35

81

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.43)

GIVEN: Office with persons producing 200 Btu/hr sensible heat and 0.25 lb/hr

moisture; Tr = 72ºF, φr = 50%; Ts = 60ºF; sea level

FIND: SHR, W s, m s

SOLUTION:

Q l = m w ⋅ h fg with hg at body temperature

hfg,98.6F = 1037.8 Btu/lb

lb Btu Btu

Q l = 0.25 (30 persons)(1037.8 ) = 7784

hr ⋅ person lb hr

Q s

SHR = (eq. 4.33)

(Q s + Q l )

6000

SHR =

(6000 + 7784)

SHR = 0.44

Use the protractor on Fig. 4.6 to get the slope of the SHR line. Using that

slope, draw a line from Td = 72ºF, φ = 50% to Td = Ts = 60ºF. The point where

the SHR slope line crosses Td = 60ºF is the supply air condition.

Ws = 0.0053 lbw/lbda

Q T = m air (∆hair )

hr = 26.4 Btu/lbda (at 72ºF, 50% RH)

hs = 20.1 Btu/lbda (at 60ºF, W = 0.0053 lbw/lbda)

Q T = Q l + Q s = 6000 + 7784 = 13,784

hr hr hr

Btu

13,784

m air = hr

Btu

(26.4 − 20.1)

lbda

lbda

m air = 2188

hr

82

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.45)

GIVEN: Cooling coil inlet and outlet conditions given in Table. Case 1: Tdi =

80ºF, Twi = 67ºF, Tdo = 50ºF φ2 = 90%; Vi = 10,000 cfm; sea level

SOLUTION:

ho = 19.5 Btu/lbda

Q c = m (ho − hi )

ft 3

V

10,000

Q c = i (ho − hi ) = min (19.5 − 31.5) Btu ( 60 min )

vi ft 3 lbda 1hr

13.8

lbda

Btu

Q c = −521,700 (negative sign indicates heat removed from air.)

hr

83

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.47)

FIND: m o , Wm

SOLUTION:

Conservation of mass:

m r + m o = m m (eq. 4.26)

m rWr + m oWo = m mWm (eq. 4.27)

(m T + m oTo )

Tm = r r (eq. 4.29)

m m

in order to use these equations one must assume a value for vm. An initial

approximation would be the average of vr and vo.

vr = 13.7 ft3/lbda, vo = 12.5 ft3/lbda (Fig. 4.6)

3

vr ≈ (13.7+12.5)/2 = 13.1 ft /lbda

m m = = 3

= 763.4 da

vm 13.1 ft / lbda min

m r = m m − m o = 763.4 − m o (eq. 4.26)

(T m − Tr m r ) (56(763.4) − (763.4 − m o )75)

m o = m m =

To 35

lbda

m o = 362.6

min

lbda

m r = m m − m o = 763.4 − 362.6 = 400.8

min

(m rWr + m oWo )

Wm = (eq. 4.30)

m m

Wr = 0.0093 lbw/lbda, Wo = 0.0017 lbw/lbda (Fig. 4.6)

(400.8(0.0093) + 362.6(0.0017))

Wm =

763.4

lb

Wm = 0.0057 w

lbda

One can check the assumption that vm = 13.1 ft3/lbda by using the

psychrometric chart at Tm = 56ºF and Wm = 0.0057. At that point, vm = 13.1,

so the assumption was correct.

84

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.51)

FIND: WI and φi

SOLUTION:

Wi = (eq. 4.21)

1093 + 0.444Tdi − Tdo

.W o = 0.0132 lbw/lbda (Fig. 4.6 at Tdo, 100% RH)

Wi =

1093 + 0.444(80) − 65

lbw

Wi = 0.0097

lbda

85

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.52)

a) the mean radiant temperature

b) the operative temperature

c) the adiabatic equivalent temperature

SOLUTION:

a) The mean radiant temperature takes into account radiative heat transfer.

heat transfer, or radiation temperature and drybulb air temperature.

convective heat transfer, and evaporation, or radiation temperature,

drybulb air temperature, and humidity.

86

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.54)

b) summer, Ta = 22ºC, Tr = 28ºC, φ = 30%, hc = hr

c) winter, Ta = Tr = 20ºC, φ = 30%

FIND: Whether conditions are expected to be comfortable for light office work.

ASSUMPTIONS: The light office work is less than 1.2 met (Table 4.2). Clothing

is the same as assumed in the ASHRAE comfort chart (Fig.

4.15)

SOLUTION:

hconTa + hrad Tr

a) Top =

hcon + hrad

Ta = Tr = 23ºC

Top = 23ºC

At Top = 23ºC and 60% RH we are in the comfort boundaries for summer

according to to ASHRAE comfort chart. The upper limit is approximately

25ºC and the lower 22.5ºC. Yes.

hconTa + hrad Tr

b) Top =

hcon + hrad

hc = hr

Top = (Ta + Tr )/2 = 25ºC

From the ASHRAE comfort chart at 30% RH, the lower comfort level in

summer is 23ºC and the upper comfort level is 26.7ºCl 25ºC is between

those, so it is expected to be comfortable. Yes.

At 30% RH the winter lower comfort level is 20.3ºC and the winter upper

comfort level is 24ºC. Top = 20ºC is below the lower boundary, so it is not

expected to be comfortable. No.

87

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.57)

GIVEN: ∆T = 0.5 K, t = 10 hr, Ask = 1.8 m2, q = 1 met, mcp = 200 kJ/K

FIND: Contribution of thermal storage in body relative to steady state heat loss.

SOLUTION:

Q = qAsk (eq. 4.34)

q = 1 met = 58.2 W/m2

W

Q = 58.2 2 (1.82m 2 )

m

Q = 104.8 W

Storage,

dT

Q stor = mc p

dt

kJ § 0.5 K ·

Q stor = 200 ¨ ¸

K © 10hr ¹

kJ

Q stor = 10 = 2 .8 W

hr

Storage is less than 3% of the steady state heat loss. Thus, it is usually

ignored.

88

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.58)

GIVEN: Td = 5ºC, V = 0.1 l/hr; no change in evaporative transfer from the body.

FIND: The effect of drinking a liquid at Td and rate V on the thermal balance of

the body.

SOLUTION:

ρ = 1.0 kg/l

cp = 4186 J/kg-K

Q = m c p ∆T

Q = ρVc ∆T

p

kg l J

Q = 1.0 (0.1 )(4186 )(37 C − 5 C )

l hr kg ⋅ K

where the body temperature equals 37ºC

J

Q = 13,400 = 3.7 W

hr

89

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.60)

FIND: Vo needed to keep the NOx level at 100 µg/m3 as provided in Table for

acceptable long-term contamination.

SOLUTION:

Vpol

Ci = C o + (eq. 4.46)

V o

Vpol

Vo =

(C i − C o )

100 µg / s

Vo =

(100 µg / m 3 − 50 µg / m 3 )

m3 l

Vo = 2 = 2000

s s

90

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.62)

GIVEN: Two air streams, both at 5000 cfm, are well mixed inside an air-handling

unit.

Stream 1: Td1 = 80ºF, φ1 = 80%

Stream 2: Td2 = 50ºF, φ2 = 80%

FIND: Resulting mixed air stream temperature (Td3) and relative humidity (φ3)

Process occurs at sea level.

SOLUTION:

Inlet specific volumes are very similar, therefore, ratio of volumetric flows can

be assumed to be ratio of mass flows.

Vd 1 m d 1 Vd 2 m d 2

= =

Vd 3 m d 3 Vd 3 m d 3

m d 1 + m d 2 = m d 3

m d 1 = m d 2 = 0.5m d 3

m da1Td 1 + m da 2Td 2

Td 3 = = 0.5*80 + 0.5*50 = 65ºF

m da 3

connecting states 1 and 2. Intersection of this line with 65ºF dry bulb

temperature line gives relative humidity of 90%.

Td3 = 65ºF

φ3 = 90%

91

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.63)

Sample 1: Td1 = 50ºF, φ1 = 10%

Sample 2: Td2 = 50ºF, φ2 = 90%

SOLUTION:

ft 3 ft 3

v1 = 12.86 v1 = 12.98

lbmda lbmda

1

ρ=

v

lbmda lbmda

ρ1 = 0.078 ρ 2 = 0.077

ft 3 ft 3

92

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.64)

Sample 1: Td1 = 50ºF, φ1 = 50%

Sample 2: Td2 = 80ºF, φ2 = 50%

SOLUTION:

ft 3 ft 3

v1 = 12.92 v1 = 13.84

lbmda lbmda

1

ρ=

v

lbmda lbmda

ρ1 = 0.077 ρ 2 = 0.072

ft 3 ft 3

93

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.65)

GIVEN: Economizer mixes outside air (OA) and building return air (RA) to

minimize amount of energy needed to condition resulting mixed air

stream to match desired supply air (SA) conditions.

OA: TOA = 90ºF, φOA = 40%

RA: TRA = 80ºF, φRA = 70%

SA: TSA = 55ºF, φSA = 80%

FIND: Should economizer control use mostly outside air or mostly return air?

SOLUTION:

The outside air has lower enthalpy than the return air,

so the economizer should use the outside air.

94

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.66)

GIVEN: World Trade Center in New York contains approximately 100 x 106 ft3 of

building air (BA) at TBA,d = 70ºF, φBA = 60%.

Ventilation rate is 0.5 air-changes/hr.

Ambient air design: TOA,d = 92ºF, TOA,wet = 76ºF

FIND: How much water is removed each hour from the outdoor air entering the

building?

SOLUTION:

= 50 x 106 ft3/hr

υOA = 14.26 ft3/lbmda

WOA = 0.0157 lbmwater/lbmair

VOA

m OA = = 3,506,300 lbmda/hr

vOA

υBA = 13.55 ft3/lbmda

WBA = 0.0094 lbmwater/lbmair

VOA

m OA = = 3,506,300 lbmda/hr

vOA

95

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.67)

FIND: Outdoor air conditions that must be met for human breath to me seen.

SOLUTION:

Breath will be seen when condensation occurs. This will happen when the

temperature of the outside air is at the dew point of exhaled air.

Dew point temperature is found at the intersection of the humidity-ratio line

and the saturation curve.

Tdew = 60ºF

The outside air must be around the dew point of breath (60ºF).

96

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.68)

GIVEN: Air leaves a cooling coil at 55ºF and a humidity ratio of 0.008

lbmwater/lbmda. The air then passes through a fan that heats the air

stream up by 2ºF before being supplied to the building

FIND: Is a minimum requirement of 85% relative humidity met before the fan?

After the fan?

SOLUTION:

φ = 87%

φ = 80%

The requirement is met before the fan, but not after the fan.

97

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.69)

SOLUTION:

above saturation (dew point) temperature. Therefore,

98

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.70)

SOLUTION:

below saturation (dew point) temperature. Therefore, follow line of saturation

down to 60ºF.

At this point (60ºF, full saturation), W = 0.0110 lbmwater/lbmda

99

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.71)

GIVEN: Data from a coastal weather station records a daytime high temperature

of 90ºF and a relative humidity of 37%. At night, the temperature drops

to 60ºF and the relative humidity reaches 100%.

FIND: How much has the humidity ratio varied throughout the day?

SOLUTION:

W = 0.0111 lbmwater/lbmda

W = 0.0111 lbmwater/lbmda

Therefore,

100

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.72)

GIVEN: Some buildings use night purge where cool night air is used to cool the

building mass in the evening to reduce cooling energy used the

following day. However, bringing in the cool night air can also cause

the building and its contents to absorb a lot of moisture that can

increase the latent load. The building return air is a constant 78ºF at

70% relative humidity without night purging and 76ºF at 77% relative

humidity with night purging.

SOLUTION:

h1 = 34.53 Btu/lbm

h2 = 34.51 Btu/lbm

No, it doesn’t make sense because the enthalpies of the two air streams are

almost exactly the same. Energy would be used by running the fans at night

and no appreciable cooling load gains would be obtained.

101

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.73)

GIVEN: A small office building has a volume of about 50,000 ft3. The forced

ventilation rate is 0.5 ACH and there are 30 occupants who give off 0.01

ft3 of CO2 per minute.

FIND: How does the CO2 concentration vary throughout the day. Draw a graph

from 8 am to 5 pm showing the concentration.

building concentration of the same amount. Ignore any

infiltration effects and assume that the building air is

thoroughly mixed.

SOLUTION:

Co = 350 ppm

VOA = 50,000 ft3 * 0.5 air-changes/hr = 25,000 ft3/hr

Npol-people = 30 persons * 0.01 ft3/min/person * 60 min/hr = 18 ft3/hr

Npol-ambient = 350/1,000,000 * 25,000 ft3/hr = 8.75 ft3/hr

Npol = Npol-people + Npol-ambient = 26.75 ft3/hr

hours), where:

N pol 1,000,000 parts

C n +1 = C n − C n * 0.5 ACH * n + * *n

Vbuilding 1million

1200

1000

CO2 Concentration (PPM)

800

600

400

200

0

8:00 9:00 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00

Time

Note: Answers will vary depending on selected timestep. This figure shows a

timestep of one minute.

102

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.74)

GIVEN: A party is held in a house during the winter with all the doors and

windows closed. When the guests all leave at midnight, the

concentration of CO2 in the house is 1400 ppm. The house has a

volume of 25,000 ft3 and an infiltration rate of 0.3 ACH.

FIND: How long before the CO2 concentration in the house goes below 500

ppm.

the house.

SOLUTION:

Co = 1400 ppm

C(n) = 500 ppm

Vo = 25,000 ft3 * 0.3 air-changes/hr =7,500 ft3/hr

Npol-ambient = 350/1,000,000 * 7,500 ft3/hr = 2.625 ft3/hr

hours), where:

N pol 1,000,000 parts

C n +1 = C n − C n * 1.0 ACH * n + * *n

Vbuilding 1million

1600

1400

1200

CO2 Concentration (PPM)

1000

800

600

400

200

0

0:00 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00

Time

Note: Answers will vary depending on selected timestep. The answer shown

represents a timestep of one minute. If a timestep of 1 hr is used this gives

an answer of 6 hrs. ½ hr timestep Æ 6 hrs; 10 minutes Æ 6 hrs, 20 minutes.

For accuracy, the timestep used should be 10 minutes or less.

103

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.75)

GIVEN: Problem N.4.13, with the doors and windows opened, increasing the

effective ventilation rate to 1 ACH.

FIND: How long before the CO2 concentration in the house goes below 500

ppm.

the house.

SOLUTION:

Co = 1400 ppm

C(n) = 500 ppm

Vo = 25,000 ft3 * 0.3 air-changes/hr =7,500 ft3/hr

Npol-ambient = 350/1,000,000 * 7,500 ft3/hr = 2.625 ft3/hr

hours), where:

N pol 1,000,000 parts

C n +1 = C n − C n * 1.0 ACH * n + * *n

Vbuilding 1million

1600

1400

1200

CO2 Concentration (PPM)

1000

800

600

400

200

0

0:00 1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00

Time

Note: Answers will vary depending on selected timestep. The answer shown

represents a timestep of one minute. If a timestep of ½ hr is used this gives

an answer of less than l hour. 10 min timestep Æ 1 hr, 5 min. For accuracy,

the timestep used should be 10 minutes or less.

104

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.76)

air stream is measured to have a temperature of 55ºF and a relative

humidity of 90%.

FIND: What is the possible range of air enthalpy for this air stream.

SOLUTION:

105

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.77)

GIVEN: A cooling coil at sea level removes 100,000 Btu/hr from an air stream.

The air flows into the coil at 10,000 cfm. Entering air: Td = 80ºF, φ =

50%.

SOLUTION:

υ = 13.85 ft3/lbmda

V

m da = = 100,00 ft3/min * 60 min/hr / 13.85 ft3/lbmda = 43,320 lbmda/hr

v

Q = m c p (T1 − T2 )

where,

Btu

c p = 0.245 (average specific heat of moist air)

lbm F

Btu

100,000

Q hr

T2 = T1 − = 80 F − = 70.6 F

m c p lb Btu

43,320 m * 0.245

hr lbm F

Since this temperature is above the dew point for the entering air (59.4ºF), no

moisture condenses on the coil, and the humidity ratio is the same.

W1 = W 2 = 0.0109 lbmwater/lbmair

106

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.78)

above sea level.

SOLUTION:

Td = 80ºF, φ = 50% at 10,000 ft:

υ = 20.41 ft3/lbmda

V

m da = = 10,000 ft3/min * 60 min/hr / 20.41 ft3/lbmda = 29,400 lbmda/hr

v

Q = m c p (T1 − T2 )

where,

Btu

c p = 0.245 (average specific heat of moist air)

lbm F

Btu

100,000

Q hr

T2 = T1 − = 80 F − = 66.1 F

mc p lb Btu

29,400 m * 0.245

hr lbm F

Since this temperature is above the dew point for the entering air (59.4ºF), no

moisture condenses on the coil, and the humidity ratio is the same.

W1 = W 2 = 0.016 lbmwater/lbmair

107

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.79)

to quantify the “short-circuiting” of air from the supply diffusers to the

return grill. It is defined such that the true amount of supply air

delivered to the occupied zone is Qsupply*ηvent. A clean room requires a

ventilation of 2.0 ACH and a zone ventilation effectiveness of 0.8.

SOLUTION:

Qactual

Qsup ply =

η vent

2 ACH

Qsup ply =

0.8

108

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.80)

smoke (ETS).

FIND: The minimum required ventilation rate if the goal is to keep the ETS

concentration below 50 µg/m3.

NOTE: The production rate is given here in mass per time and the concentration

is given in mass per volume, by contrast to Eq. 4.46 and Example 4.12

where the production rate is in volume per time (as appropriate for a

gaseous pollutant) and the concentration in ppm.

SOLUTION:

Vo = = = 0.15 = 540

Ci 50µg / m 3 sec hr

3 3

m m

Vo = 0.15 = 540

sec hr

109

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.81)

volume V = 500 m3 with an average outdoor air flow rate corresponding

to an air exchange rate Vo / V = 1.0 ACH.

FIND: The resulting steady-state concentration of ETS if the air is well mixed in

the house. Compare with the EPA standard for exposure to particulate

matter in Table 4.5.

SOLUTION:

Ci = = = 54 3

Vo 3

0.1389m / sec m

From Table 4.5, this exceeds the EPA standard for exposure to particulate

matter, 50 µg/m3.

110

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.82)

persons. The outdoor air intake rate ( Vo ) is 30 liters/person/sec as

recommended by ASHRAE standard 62-89. Smokers introduce ETS at

an average rate of 7.5 µg/sec.

filter and all 10 occupants are smokers. Compare with the EPA standard

for exposure to particulate matter in Table 4.5.

in building.

SOLUTION:

L

Vo = 30 ⋅ 10 persons = 300 L / sec = 0.3 m 3 / sec

person ⋅ sec

µg

N pol = 7.5 ⋅ 10 persons = 75 µg / sec

person ⋅ sec

Ci = = = 250

Vo 0.3m 3 / sec m3

From Table 4.5, this greatly exceeds the EPA standard for exposure to

particulate matter, 50 µg/m3.

111

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 4

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

4.83)

filter with a weight arrestance efficiency of 80%.

ASSUMPTIONS: A supply airflow rate ( Vsup ) of four times the outdoor air intake

rate.

Constant volume system (Fr=1)

Concentration of ETS in outdoor air is zero (Co=0)

Ventilation effectiveness, Ev=1

Fraction of return air that is recirculated, R=1

SOLUTION:

L

Vo = 30 ⋅ 10 persons = 300 L / sec = 0.3 m 3 / sec

person ⋅ sec

µg

N pol = 7.5 ⋅ 10 persons = 75 µg / sec

person ⋅ sec

Vsup = 4 ⋅ Vo = 1.2 m 3 / sec

V = V − V = 0.9 m 3 / sec

r sup o

N − E v Fr RE f C sVr

Vo =

E v (C s − C o )

N 75µg / sec µg

Cs = = = 73.5 3

Vo + E f Vr 0.3m / sec+ 0.8 ⋅ 0.9m / sec

3 3

m

From Table 4.5, this exceeds the EPA standard for exposure to particulate

matter, 50 µg/m3.

112

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

Chapter 5

113

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.2)

FIND: K in the equation µ = kT0.67 for T1, T2, T3. How sensitive is K to T? Does

accuracy improve by using absolute temperatures?

SOLUTION:

For T = 50ºF find µ

T = 44ºF, µ = 0.1176 x 10-4 lbm/ft-s

T = 62ºF, µ = 0.1208 x 10-4 lbm/ft-s

Interpolate for T = 50ºF: µ50 = 0.1208 x 10-4 lbm/ft-s

µ 0.1187 ⋅ 10 −4 lbm / ft ⋅ s −7 lbm

K = 0.67 = = 8 . 63 ⋅ 10 at T = 50 F

T

(50 F ) 0.67

ft ⋅ s ⋅ F

0.1187 ⋅ 10 −4 lbm / ft ⋅ s −7 lbm

K= = 1.82 ⋅ 10 at T = 510 R

(510 R) 0.67

ft ⋅ s ⋅

R

T = 98ºF, µ = 0.1272 x 10-4 lbm/ft-s

T = 116ºF, µ = 0.1303 x 10-4 lbm/ft-s

Interpolate for T = 100ºF: µ100 = 0.1275 x 10-4 lbm/ft-s

µ 0.1275 ⋅ 10 −4 lbm / ft ⋅ s −7 lbm

K = 0.67 = = 5.83 ⋅ 10 at T = 100 F

T

(100 F ) 0.67

ft ⋅ s ⋅ F

lbm

K = 1.84 ⋅ 10 −7 at T = 560 R

ft ⋅ s ⋅ R

T = 134ºF, µ = 0.1334 x 10-4 lbm/ft-s

T = 152ºF, µ = 0.1364 x 10-4 lbm/ft-s

Interpolate for T = 150ºF: µ150 = 0.1361 x 10-4 lbm/ft-s

µ 0.1361 ⋅ 10 −4 lbm / ft ⋅ s −7 lbm

K = 0.67 = = 4 . 74 ⋅ 10 at T = 150 F

T

(150 F ) 0.67

ft ⋅ s ⋅ F

lbm

K = 1.85 ⋅ 10 −7 at T = 560 R

ft ⋅ s ⋅ R

114

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.4)

isothermal.

SOLUTION:

v2

pv = ρ

2g c

[200 ft / min⋅ (1 min/ 60s )] 2 lb

pv = ⋅ 0.075 m3

2 ⋅ 32.2 ft ⋅ lbm / lb f ⋅ s 2

ft

lb f

p v = 0.0129

ft 2

lb f 1 ft 2 27.7 inW .G.

p v = 0.0129 ⋅ ⋅

ft 2 144 in 2

1 psi

p v = 0.00248 inW .G.

115

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.6)

GIVEN: D2 = D1/2 = 2D3/3 = 4”; V1 = 3 ft3/s; V2 = V3 = 1.5 ft3/s; ignore friction

losses; water

FIGURE: P5.6

pressure, ρw = 62.4 lbm/ft3

SOLUTION:

D2 = 4”; D1 = 2D2 = 8”; D3 = 3/2D1 = 6”

A2 = 12.6 in2; A1 = 50.3 in2; A3 = 28.3 in2

V 3 ft 3 / s ft

V1 = 1 = 2

= 8 .6

A1 1 ft s

50.3in 2 ( 2

)

144in

V2 1.5 ft 3 / s ft

V2 = = 2

= 17.1

A2 1 ft s

12.6in 2 ( 2

)

144in

V 1.5 ft 3 / s ft

V3 = 3 = 2

= 7 .6

A3 1 ft s

28.3in 2 ( 2

)

144in

2 2

V1 p V p

+ 1 = 2 + 2 (eq. 5.11 with z1 = z2)

2g c ρ 2g c ρ

§ ·

¨ ¸

§ V1 V2 ·

( )

2 2

2 ¨ 1 ¸ lbm

p 2 − p1 = ¨¨ − ¸ ρ = (8.6 ft / s ) − (17.1 ft / s )

2

¨ ( 62.4 )

© 2g c 2g c ¹

¸ ft ⋅ lbm ¸ ft 3

¨ 2(32.2 ) ¸

¨ lb f ⋅ s 2 ¸¹

©

lb f

p 2 − p1 = −211.7 2 = −1.47 psia

ft

§ ·

¨ ¸

§ V1 V3 ·

( )

2 2

¨ 1 ¸ lb

p3 − p1 = ¨¨ − ¸ ρ = (8.6 ft / s ) − (7.6 ft / s )

¸

2 2

¨ ¸ (62.4 m3 )

© 2g c 2g c ¹ ft ⋅ lbm ft

¨ 2(32.2 )¸

¨ 2 ¸

lb f ⋅ s ¹

©

lb f

p3 − p1 = 15.7 2 = 0.11 psia

ft

116

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.8)

GIVEN: D = 2”; V = 6 ft/s; z1 = 0 ft, z2 = 30 ft; p = 150 psig; L = 500 ft; ignore

friction losses; water

temperature and pressure, ρw = 62.4 lbm/ft3

SOLUTION:

gz1 V1 p gz V p

+ + 1 = 2 + 2 + 2 (eq. 5.11)

g c 2g c ρ g c 2g c ρ

z1 = 0 and V1 = V2 so,

p1 gz 2 p 2

= +

ρ gc ρ

§p gz · § g ·

p 2 = ¨¨ 1 − 2 ¸¸ ρ = p1 − ρz 2 ¨¨ ¸¸

© ρ gc ¹ © gc ¹

lb f in 2 lb § 32.2 ·

p 2 = 150 2 (144 2 ) − 62.4 m2 (30 ft )¨ ¸

in ft ft © 32.2 ¹

lb f

p 2 = 19,728 2 = 137 psig

ft

W = V∆p

V = VA

πD 2

A= = 3.14in 2 = 0.022 ft 2

4

ft ft 3

V = 6 (0.022 ft ) = 0.132

2

s s

ft 3 lb f 144in 2 ft ⋅ lb f

W = 0.132 (150 − 137) 2 ( 2

) = 247.1

s in ft s

ft ⋅ lb f

W = 247.1 = 0.45 hp

s

117

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.9)

GIVEN: V = 10 gal/min; ∆z = 50 ft; friction losses are 6% of the static head, pipe

size is uniform; the fluid is octane.

pressure.

SOLUTION:

g

W = m ∆z

gc

m = Vρ

ρoctane = 43.61 lbm/ft3

gal 1 ft 3 lb 1 min lb

m = 10 ⋅ ⋅ 43.61 m3 ⋅ = 0.972 m

min 7.481gal ft 60 s s

ft

32.2 2 ft ⋅ lb f

lb

W = 0.972 m ⋅ s ⋅ 50 ft = 48.6

s ft ⋅ lbm s

32.2

lb f ⋅ s

Accounting for friction:

ft ⋅ lb f

W s = 1.06W = 51.5

s

ft ⋅ lb f

W s = 51.5 = 0.09 hp

s

118

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.11)

40% ethylene glycol in one case, water in another.

Di = 0.3355 ft (Pipe Properties Table on CD)

ρw = s.g.(ρref) = 0.9991(63.42 lb/ft3) = 63.36 lb/ft3

µgly = 0.00206 lbm/ft-s

ρgly = 66.30 lb/ft3 (from Ethylene Glycol Table on CD,

interpolate between 30% and 50%)

SOLUTION:

1.325

f = (eq. 5.15)

{ln[∈ /(3.7 Dh ) + 5.74 / Re 0.9 ]}2

1

µ= (eq. 5.6)

32.0( D + 8078.4 + D 2 ) − 1786

D ≡ (0.556T − 26.21) F = 7.15 F (eq. 5.7)

1 lb

µ= = 0.000753 2 m

32.0(7.15 + 8078.4 + 7.15 2 ) − 1786 ft ⋅ s

µ 0.000753lbm / ft ⋅ s

ν= = = 1.19 ⋅ 10 −5 ft 2 / s (eq. 5.4)

ρ 63.36lbm / ft 3

vD 7 ft / s ⋅ 0.3355 ft

Re = h = = 1.97 ⋅ 10 5

ν −5

1.19 ⋅ 10 ft / s 2

1.325

f water =

{ln[0.00045 / 3.7 + 5.74 /( 2.97 ⋅ 10 5 ) 0.9 ]}2

f water = 0.018

µ 0.00206lbm / ft ⋅ s

ν= = = 3.11 ⋅ 10 −5 ft 2 / s

ρ 66.30lbm / ft 3

vD 7 ft / s ⋅ 0.3355 ft

Re = h = = 7.55 ⋅ 10 4

ν 3.11 ⋅ 10 −5 ft 2 / s

1.325

f glycol = f glycol = 0.021

{ln[0.00045 / 3.7 + 5.74 /(7.55 ⋅ 10 4 ) 0.9 ]}2

119

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.13)

GIVEN: Tw = 100ºF; 5 in. nominal, schedule 40 steel pipe; hf/L = 4 ft W.G./100 ft;

water.

FIND: Vw

ν = 7.350 x 10-6 ft2/s

∈ / D =0.00037 (Figure 5.2)

SOLUTION:

ª ∈

1.782νD º»

Vw = −0.966 gD 5 (h f / L) ln « + (eq. 5.20)

« 3.7 D gD 5

( h / L ) »

¬ f ¼

ft

gD 5 (h f / L) = (32.2 2 )(0.4206 ft ) 5 (4 ft / 100 ft ) = 0.130 ft 3 / s

s

ª − 6 ft

2

º

ft 3 « 0.00037 1.782(7.35 ⋅ 10 )(0.4206 ft ) »

Vw = −0.966 ⋅ 0.130 ln « + s »

s « 3.7 0.130 ft 3 / s »

«¬ »¼

ft 3

Vw = 1.11

s

ft 3 7.481gal 60s

Vw = 1.11 ⋅( )( )

s ft 3 1 min

gal

Vw = 499

min

120

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.15)

GIVEN: ¾ in. type L copper pipe; L = 300 ft; V = 4 gpm; T = 180ºF, water; heat

exchanger pressure drop equivalent to 30 ft of pipe; valves are

threaded, elbows are soldered.

FIGURE: P5.15

CD)

ν = 3.836 x 10-6 ft2/s

∈ =0.000005 (Figure 5.2)

SOLUTION:

V gal § 1 ft 3 · 1 min ft

v= =4 ¨¨ ¸¸ / 0.00361 ft 2 = 2.47

A min © 7.481gal ¹ 60 s s

VD (2.47 ft / s )(0.06542 ft )

Re = = = 4.21 ⋅ 104

v 3.836 ⋅ 10− 6 ft 2 / s

1.325

f =

{ln[∈ /(3.7 D) + 5.74 / Re0.9 ]}2

f = 0.022

v 2 § fL ·

hL = ¨

2 g ¨© D

+ ¦K f

¸ (eq. 5.24)

¸

fittings ¹

3 gate valves 0.29 (No. 34)

1 swing type check valve 2.00 (No. 32)

2 45º elbows 0.21 (No. 10)

1 tee, line flow 0.90 (No. 18)

7 90º elbows 0.30 (No. 4)

(2.47 ft / s ) 2 § 0.022(300 ft + 30 ft ) ·

hL = 2 ¨

¨ + 6.29 ¸¸

2(32.2 ft / s ) © 0.06542 ft ¹

hL = 11.1 ft W .G.

121

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.17)

GIVEN: V = 100 gpm; 3 in. nominal, schedule 40 steel pipe; water flow; all fittings

are threaded

FIGURE: P5.17

FIND: vw and hL

CD)

SOLUTION:

V gal § 1 ft 3 · 1 min

vw = = 100 ¨ ¸ / 0.05134 ft 2

A min ¨© 7.481gal ¸¹ 60 s

ft

v w = 4.34

s

From Figure 5.4a,

hL,straight = 5 ft W.G./100 ft

For the straight pipe sections,

hL,straight = 5 ft W.G./100 ft (320 ft) = 16 ft W.G.

1 gate valve 0.10 (No. 34)

1 swing type check valve 2.00 (No. 32)

8 90º elbows 0.86 (No. 4)

hL = hL,straight + hL,fittings

V2 § ·

hL = hL , straight + ¨ ¦Kf

¸

¸

2 g ¨© fittings

¹

(4.34 ft / s ) 2

hL = 16 ftW .G. + (8.98)

2(32.2 ft / s 2 )

hL = 18.6 ft W .G.

122

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.22)

FIND: V and v

ducts.

SOLUTION:

On Figure 5.9a, find the intersection of hf = 0.083 in W.G. / 100 ft and duct

diameter = 25”

V = 4700 cfm

v = 1300 fpm

123

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.24)

GIVEN: v = 1800 ft/min, V = 5000 cfm, L = 150 ft; air flowing in duct.

FIND: D and hL

SOLUTION:

D = 23 in.

hL = 0.18 in. W.G./100 ft (150 ft)

124

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.25)

SOLUTION:

ρ2

h f , 2 = h f ,1 ⋅ (eq. 5.35)

ρ1

e − H / 27 , 000

ρ = 39.8 ⋅ ( ) (eq. 3.3)

T + 460

1 lb

ρ1 = 39.8 ⋅ ( ) = 0.077 m3

55 + 460 ft

e −5000 / 27 ,000 lb

ρ 2 = 39.8 ⋅ ( ) = 0.064 m3

55 + 460 ft

0.064

h f , 2 = 2.0 inW .G. ⋅

0.077

h f , 2 = 1.66 inW .G.

125

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.28)

GIVEN: Standard air (ρ = 0.075 lb/ft3); ∆psys = 1.0 in. W.G.; heat is added so ρ =

0.062 lb/ft3 in the duct; ∆pcoil = 0.3 in. W.G. when the heat is off.

SOLUTION:

therefore, ∆p ∝ ρ( m 2/ρ2)

At constant mass flow rate,

∆p2 = ∆p1(ρ1/ρ2)

Assuming that ρ2,coil = the average of the inlet and outlet conditions:

ρ2,coil = (0.075+0.062)/2 = 0.0685 lb/ft3

∆p2duct = (1.0 - 0.3) in. W.G. (0.075/0.062) = 0.85 in. W.G.

∆p2sys = 1.18 in. W.G.

126

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.30)

GIVEN: V = 10,000 cfm; 750 ft of 24” dia ductwork, 6 (r/D = 2) smooth 90°

elbows, one filter at 0.2 in W.G., and one full diameter butterfly damper,

wide open; sea level; standard air.

FIND: hf of system

SOLUTION:

Straight sections:

Fig. 5.9a intersection of V = 10,000 cfm and D = 24”,

hf = 0.47 in W.G./ 100 ft

hf = 0.47 in W.G./ 100 ft x 750 ft = 3.53 in W.G.

V = 3200 ft/min = 53.3 ft/s (fig. 5.9a)

Elbows:

C90 (at r/D = 2) = 0.13 (Table 5.5)

v2

∆Pf = Cρ

2gc

lbm (53.3 ft / s ) 2 lb f

∆Pf = 0.13(0.075 ) = 0.43 2

ft 2 ⋅ 32.2 ft ⋅ lbm / lb f ⋅ s

3 2

ft

lb f 1 ft 2 27.7in W .G.

h f = 0.43 ⋅ ( ) ⋅ ( ) = 0.083in W .G.

ft 2 144in 2 1 psi

For 6 elbows:

h f = 6 ⋅ 0.083in W .G. = 0.50in W .G.

Butterfly damper:

θ = 0° since fully open

D/Do = 1

Co = 0.19 (Table A5.6j)

lb (53.3 ft / s) 2 lb f

∆Pf = 0.19(0.075 m3 ) = 0.63 2

ft 2 ⋅ 32.2 ft ⋅ lbm / lb f ⋅ s 2

ft

lb f1 ft 2 27.7in W .G.

h f = 0.63 2 ⋅ ( ) ⋅ ( ) = 0.083in W .G.

ft 144in 2 1 psi

Filter:

hf = 0.2 in W.G.

Total:

hfT = hf,straight + hf,elbows + hf,damper + hf,filter

hfT = (3.53 + 0.50 + 0.12 + 0.20) in W.G. = 4.35 in W.G.

127

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.33)

FIGURE: P5.33

ducts; smooth radius elbows, r/D = 1.0, θ = 90º.

SOLUTION:

L1 = 120’

V1 = 3000 ft3/min

v = 1800 ft/min

The intersection of V1 and v on Fig. 5.9a results in,

18” duct and hf/L = 0.2 in. W.G./100 ft

hf = 0.2” W.G./100 ft x 120 ft = 0.24 in. W.G.

L2 = 40’

V2 = 2000 ft3/min

v = 1800 ft/min

From Fig. 5.9a,

14” duct and hf/L = 0.32 in. W.G./100 ft

hf = 0.32” W.G./100 ft x 40 ft = 0.13 in. W.G.

L3 = 60’

V3 = 1000 ft3/min

v = 1800 ft/min

From Fig. 5.9a,

10” duct and hf/L = 0.46 in. W.G./100 ft

hf = 0.46” W.G./100 ft x 60 ft = 0.28 in. W.G.

Elbows,

r/D = 1.0, Cao = 0.22 (Table 5.5)

§ ρ ·§ v 2 ·

∆p f = C ¨¨ ¸¸¨¨ ¸¸ (eq. 5.38)

© g c ¹© 2 ¹

§ 0.075lbm / ft 3 ·§ (1800 ft / min) 2 ·§ 1 min · 2 lb f

∆p f = 0.22¨ ¸¨

¨ ¸¸¨ ¸ = 0.23 2

¨ 32.2 ft ⋅ lb / lb ⋅ s ¸©

2

2 ¹© 60s ¹ ft

© m f ¹

128

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.33 continued)

lb f1 ft 2 27.7in. W .G.

h f = 0.23 2 ( )( ) = 0.044 in. W .G.

ft 144in 2 psi

(cfm) (ft/min) (in) (in. (in. (in. (in.

W.G./100 ft) W.G.) W.G.) W.G.)

1 120 3000 1800 18 0.20 0.24 0.044 0.284

2 40 2000 1800 14 0.32 0.13 -- 0.130

3 60 1000 1800 10 0.46 0.28 0.044 0.324

Diff -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 0.100

Total Loss 0.838

The total pressure drop from the fan to outlet B is 0.838 in. W.G.

129

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.35)

GIVEN: V = 5,000 cfm; hL = 2.0 in. W.G.; ηfan = 0.68; sea level and 5000 ft

elevation

SOLUTION:

1 psi 144in 2 lb f

∆p f = 2.0in W .G.( )( )⋅ = 10.4

27.7in W .G. 1 ft 2 ft 2

W fluid = V ⋅ ∆p f (eq. 5.47)

ft 3 lb f 1 min ft ⋅ lb f

W fluid = 5,000 (10.4 2 )( ) = 867

min ft 60s s

W fluid

W shaft = (eq. 5.48)

η fan

867 ft ⋅ lb f / s ft ⋅ lb f

W shaft = = 1275

0.68 s

ft ⋅ lb f 1hp

W shaft = 1275 ⋅( ) = 2.3 hp at sea level

s 550 ft ⋅ lb f / s

ρ

W 2 = W1 ⋅ ( 1 ) (Table 5.6)

ρ2

ρ1 = 0.075 lbm/ft3

0.062

W 2 = 2.3hp ⋅ ( ) = 1.9 hp at 5000 ft

0.075

130

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.37)

FIGURE: P5.37

SOLUTION:

Since curve B is already drawn, one only has to locate the intersection of

curve B and the fan curve to get the operating point. At the operating point:

V = 10,800 cfm

hL = 1.16 in. W.G.

131

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.38)

1.16 in. W.G.

FIGURE: P5.37

FIND: The pressure drop a damper must produce to reduce the flow to 9000 cfm

SOLUTION:

On P5.37 the intersection of V = 9000 cfm and the fan curve occurs at

hL = (1.37 – 1.16) in. W.G. = 0.21 in. W.G.

132

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.41)

GIVEN: Operating point at V = 12,500 cfm and hL = 2.0 in. W.G.; N1 = 575 rpm

FIGURE: P5.37

constant.

SOLUTION:

W1 = 3.05 hp

N

V2 = V1 2 (Table 5.6)

N1

ft 3 § 475 ·

V2 = 12,500 ¨ ¸ = 10,330 cfm

min © 575 ¹

3

§N ·

W 2 = W1 ¨¨ 2 ¸¸ (Table 5.6)

© N1 ¹

3

§ 475 ·

W 2 = 3.05 hp¨ ¸ = 1.72 hp

© 575 ¹

133

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.45)

FIGURE: P5.45

FIND: Most appropriate pump from P5.45, state efficiency, motor power input,

impeller size and NPSH of selection.

SOLUTION:

The point V = 100 gpm and hf = 40 ft W.G. falls between the 6.5” and 7.0”

impeller sizes. The larger size should be chosen.

7.0” Impeller

Since the pump is not a precise match to the specified flow condition one

must find the operating point by plotting the system curve.

h f = CV 2 (from equation 5.24)

40

C= = 0.004

100 2

Plotting on Fig. P5.45

V hf

25 2.5

50 10.0

75 22.5

100 40

125 62.5

The operating point (where the system curve crosses the 6.5” curve) is 110

gpm and 47 ft W.G.

At the operating point,

η = 68%

V ⋅ h f

W s −in = (eq. 3.49)

3960η

110 gpm ⋅ 47 ft W .G.

W s −in = = 1.92 hp = 1.42 kW

3960 ⋅ 0.68

NPSH = 5 ft

134

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.46)

FIGURE: P5.45

FIND: Actual flow by plotting the system curve. What are η and W s if a control

valve is closed to produce 100 gpm.

SOLUTION:

From prob. 4.45, the operating point is approximately 110 gpm, 47.0 ft W.G.

Closing a control value increases the head loss until the desired flow is

achieved. On Fig. P5.45, it is found that at the 100 gpm flow rate on the 7.0”

pump curve, hf = 48 ft W.G.

48

h f = CV 2 (from equation 5.24) C= = 0.0048

100 2

V hf

25 3.0

50 12.0

75 27.0

100 48.0

125 75.0

At 100 gpm, 48 ft W.G.

η = 67%

W s −in = = = 1.8 hp = 1.3 kW

3960η 3960 ⋅ 0.67

135

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.47)

GIVEN: 1750 rpm pump operating at 115 gpm. Pump slowed to reach V2 = 100

gpm

SOLUTION:

§N ·

V2 = V1 ¨¨ 2 ¸¸ (Table 5.7)

© N1 ¹

§ V · § 100 ·

N 2 = N 1 ¨¨ 2 ¸¸ = 1750¨ ¸ = 1522 rpm

© 115 ¹

© V1 ¹

2

§N ·

h2 = h1 ¨¨ 2 ¸¸ (Table 5.7)

© N1 ¹

V1 (gpm) h1 (ft W.G.) V2 (gpm) h2 (ft W.G.)

25 50 21.7 37.8

50 51 43.5 38.6

75 50 65.2 37.8

100 48 87.0 36.3

125 45 108.7 34.0

150 40 130.5 30.3

175 33 152.2 25.0

V1 and h1 are read from Fig. P5.45. V2 and h2 are calculated.

60

New Pump Curve

50

40

head (ft. W.G.)

30

20

10

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

V (gpm)

3

§N ·

W2 = W1 ¨¨ 2 ¸¸ (Table 5.7)

© N1 ¹

W2 = 1.3 hp

136

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.49)

GIVEN: Pitot tube manometer; hf = 1.23 in gauge oil, s.g.oil = 0.826. Wind

measurement.

0.075 lbm/ft3)

SOLUTION:

1/ 2

§ 2∆p ·

V = ¨¨ ¸¸ (eq. 5.57)

© ρ ¹

h f ρg

∆p =

gc

ρ oil = s.g .oil ρ water

lb lb

ρ oil = 0.826(62.4 m3 ) = 51.5 m3

ft ft

lb ft

1.23in(51.5 m3 )(32.2 2 )

ft s 1 ft

∆p oil = ⋅( )

ft ⋅ lbm 12in

32.2

lb f ⋅ s 2

lb f

∆p oil = 5.28

ft 2

1/ 2

§ lb f ·

¨ 2(5.28 2 ) ¸

¨ ft ¸ ft

V =¨ ¸ V = 67.3

lb lb ⋅ ft s

¨ 0.075 m3 / 32.2 m 2 ¸

¨ ft lb f ⋅ s ¸

© ¹

At 2500 ft:

e −2500 / 27 ,000 lb

ρ 2 = 39.8 ⋅ ( ) = 0.068 m3

70 + 460 ft

1/ 2

§ lb f ·

¨ 2(5.28 2 ) ¸

¨ ft ¸ V = 70.7

ft

V =¨ ¸

lb lb ⋅ ft s

¨ 0.068 m3 / 32.2 m 2 ¸

¨ ft lb f ⋅ s ¸

© ¹

137

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.51)

GIVEN: Universal venturi meter; Dpipe = 8”, Vpipe = 6ft/s; ∆p = 6.0 psia; water flow

FIND: Dthroat

SOLUTION:

2∆pg c

vthroat = CE (eq. 5.53)

ρ

by continuity:

Vthroat = V pipe

V = vA

πDthroat 2 πD pipe

2

vthroat ( ) = v pipe ( )

4 4

D

β = throat

D pipe

v pipe 2∆pg c

vthroat = = CE

β2 ρ

1/ 2

1 §¨ v pipe ρ ·¸

2

β2 =

CE ¨© 2∆pg c ¸¹

Since E = (1 − β 4 ) −1 / 2 is dependent on β, this is an implicit equation for β.

However, even for fairly large values of β, E is relatively near unity.

Therefore, assume E = 1 for a first guess.

1/ 2

§ ·

¨ ¸

¨ ¸

2 3

1 ( 6 ft / s ) ( 62 . 4lb / ft )

β2 = ¨

m

0.9797 ft ⋅ lbm ¸

¨ 2(6.0lb f / in 2 )(144in 2 / ft 2 )(32.2 )¸

¨ lb ⋅ s 2 ¸

© f ¹

β = 0.453

Testing the assumption that E = 1,

E = (1 − 0.453 4 ) −1 / 2 = 1.02 which is negligible difference over the assumed

value.

D

β = throat Dthroat = 0.428 (8”) = 3.6”

D pipe

138

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 5

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

5.52)

SOLUTION:

Dorifice

β= = 0.25

D pipe

Since the Reynolds number can’t be found, assume that it is insignificant for a

first guess.

β4

C = 0.5959 + 0.0312 β − 0.184 β + 0.039

2.1 8

− 0.0158β 3 (eq. 5.56 without Re)

(1 − β )

4

C = 0.598

2∆p

v = CE (eq. 5.53)

ρ

E = (1 − B 4 ) −1 / 2 = (1 − 0.25 4 ) −1 / 2 = 1.00 (eq. 5.54)

2 ⋅ 30,000 pa m

v = 0.598(1.00) 3

= 4.65

992.2kg / m s

3

m (0.03m) 4 m

V = vA = 4.65 ⋅ π = 0.0033

s 4 s

vD (4.65m / s )(.0100m)

Re = = = 7.07 ⋅ 10 5

ν −6

0.658 ⋅ 10 m / s

2

0.25 2.5

91.71 = 1.18 ⋅ 10 − 4

(7.07 ⋅ 10 5 ) 0.75

Re was acceptable.

139

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

Chapter 6

140

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.3)

FIND: The yearly and daily variation in Io, extraterrestrial normal solar irradiance

irradiance.

SOLUTION:

ª § 360 + n ·º W

I o = «1 + 0.033 cos¨ ¸» ⋅ 1373 2 (eq. 6.16)

¬ © 365.25 ¹¼ m

Setting the first derivative of Io equal to zero and solving for n will locate the

days on which the minimum and maximum occur.

360 360n

I o ' = −1373(0.033)( ) sin( )=0

365.25 365.25

sin x = 0 when x = 0, 180, 360 …

360n

therefore, Io’ = 0 when =x

365.25

360n

= 180 ; n = 183

365.25

360n

= 360 ; n = 365

365.25

solving Io at n = 183 and n = 365,

Io (n = 183) = 1327.7 W/m2

Io (n = 365) = 1418.3 W/m2

Therefore, Io varies 1418.3 W/m2 – 1327.7 W/m2 = 90.6 W/m2 in 182.5 days.

The average daily variation is 90.6 W/m2/182.5 days = 0.50 W/m2-day.

One can find the maximum daily variation by setting the second derivative to

zero and solving for n.

− 360 360n

Io ''= (44.7) cos( )=0

365.25 365.25

cos x = 0 when x = 90, 270 …

360n

= 90 ; n = 91

365.25

360n

= 270 ; n = 274

365.25

141

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.6)

FIND: The instantaneous solar heat gain and the solar heat gain factor (SHGF)

SOLUTION:

F = 0.64(0.87) = 0.56

SHGF = 0.56 (200 Btu/hr-ft2)

SHGF = 112 Btu/hr-ft2

qsol/A = SC x SHGF

qsol/A = 0.64 x 112 Btu/ hr-ft2

qsol/A = 72 Btu/ hr-ft2

142

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.7)

α/ho = 0.15 hr-ft2-ºF/Btu for light surface

α/ho = 0.30 hr-ft2-ºF/Btu for dark surface

FIND: sol-air temperature Tos for a vertical surface (for both the light and the dark

cases)

SOLUTION:

αI

Tos = To + (eq. 6.39)

ho

a) light surface

hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F Btu

Tos = 80 F + 0.15 (200 )

Btu hr ⋅ ft 2

Tos = 110 F

b) dark surface

hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F Btu

Tos = 80 F + 0.15 (200 )

Btu hr ⋅ ft 2

Tos = 140 F

143

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.8)

SOLUTION:

W W

I glo ,hor = 700 2

cos(30 ) + 150 2

m m

W

I glo ,hor = 756 2

m

144

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.10)

b) Stockholm (λ = 59.35ºN)

SOLUTION:

winter solstice is Dec. 21st, n = 335

summer solstice is June 21st, n = 172

360(n + 10)

sin δ = − sin( 23.45) cos( ) (eq. 6.4)

365.25

cos(ω ss ) = − tan λ tan δ (eq. 6.7)

a) Honolulu: λ = 21ºN

1. winter solstice: n = 355

δ = -23.45º

ωss = 80.4º

Since the number of hours from noon (solar) to sunset is the same as

the number of hours from sunrise to noon,

Day length = 2 x ωss x 24 hr/360º

Day length = 10.7 hrs

δ = 23.45º

ωss = 99.6º

Day length = 2 x 99.6 x 24 hr/360º

Day length = 13.3 hrs

b) Stockholm: λ = 59.35ºN

1. winter solstice: n = 355

δ = -23.45º

ωss = 42.9º

Day length = 2 x 42.9º x 24 hr/360º

Day length = 5.7 hrs

δ = 23.45º

ωss = 137.1º

Day length = 2 x 137.1º x 24 hr/360º

Day length = 18.3 hrs

Comment: The closer one gets to the equator, the less the variation in day

length.

145

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.12)

GIVEN: General case of an unshaded fixed surface at an arbitrary tilt and zero

azimuth. Specific cases at tilt = latitude on summer and winter

solstices.

FIND: Equation for the number of hours per day when direct solar radiation can

reach the surface.

SOLUTION:

ω ss = cos −1 (− tan λ tan δ ) (eq. 6.7)

however the “sunset” on a tilted surface may occur before this, depending on

the tilt of the surface and the time of year:

ω ss ' = cos −1 (− tan(θ − λ ) tan δ )

24hr

τ = 2⋅ ⋅ min[ω ss , ω ss ' ] = number of hours with solar radiation

360

λ = θp, so Wss ' = cos −1 (− tan(0) tan(23.45)) = 90

ωss varies with latitude; at λ = 0º, ωss = 90º; at λ = 55º, ωss = 128º

The minimum is 90º or ωss’ so

24hr

τ = 2⋅

⋅ 90

360

τ = 12 hrs

λ = θp, so ω ss '= 90

ωss varies from 90º at λ = º0 to 41º at λ = 60º

The minimum is ωss so

24hr

τ = 2⋅ ⋅ ω ss

360

24hr

τ = 2⋅

⋅ cos −1 (− tan λ tan(−23.45))

360

146

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.13)

FIND: a) Time of day and time of year when the shadow is 0.5 m long, pointing

due north.

b) Time of day and time of year when the shadow is 0.5 m long, pointing

45º east of north

c) The corresponding standard times

SOLUTION:

θs

Tan θs = 0.5/1

1m rod

sun beam

θs = 26.6º

0.5m shadow

Since the problem states that the shadow is due north, one knows the sun

is due south (φs = 0º) which occurs at solar noon, when W = 0º (hour

angle).

cos(θ s ) = cos λ cos δ cos ω + sin λ sin δ (eq. 6.5)

cos(26.6 ) = cos(40 ) cos δ cos(0 ) + sin( 40 ) sin δ

using the trigonometric identity,

cos A cos B + sin A sin B = cos( A − B)

cos(26.6 ) = cos(40 − δ )

26.6 = ±(40 − δ ) (only the positive answer is meaningful)

δ = 13.4

§ 360(n + 10) ·

sin δ = − sin( 23.45 ) cos¨ ¸ (eq. 6.4)

© 365.25 ¹

§ 360(n + 10) ·

sin 13.4 = − sin( 23.45 ) cos¨ ¸

© 365.25 ¹

n = 117.4 (or April 27)

§ 360(n + 10) · sin 13.4

or, solving cos −1 ¨ ¸ = − for the third quadrant solution

© 365.25 ¹ sin 23.45

n = 227.8 (or Aug. 16)

There will always be two solutions that are an equal number of days away

from the solstice or equinox. In this example, April 27 is 37 days after the

spring equinox and July 28 is 37 days before the fall equinox.

147

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.13 continued)

b) At times other than solar noon, the solution is more complicated, but

solvable.

From part a, θs = 26.6º

φs = 45º since the shadow points 45º east of north

cos(θ s ) = cos λ cos δ cos ω + sin λ sin δ (eq. 6.5)

cos δ sin ω

sin φ s = (eq. 6.8)

sin θ s

rewriting these,

(cosθ s − sin λ sin δ )

cos δ cos ω =

cos λ

cos δ sin ω = sin φs sin θ s

squaring both sides and adding,

§ cosθ s − sin λ sin δ ·

2

2 2 2 2

¸

© cos λ ¹

since (sin 2 ω + cos 2 ω ) = 1 , the equation has only one unknown. Using an

equation solver, such as MathematicaTM, this can be reduced to:

sin δ = sin λ cosθ s ± cos φ s cos λ sin θ s

sin δ = sin λ cosθ s − cos φ s cos λ sin θ s

sin δ = sin( 40 ) cos(26.6 ) − cos(45 ) cos(40 ) sin(26.6 ) δ = 19.4

from eq. 6.4 for δ, n = 138.7 (May 19) or n = 206.5 (July 26)

sin ω = =

cos δ cos19.4

sin ω = 19.6

§ 24hr ·

t = ω¨ ¸

+ 12hr = 13.3 hr or 1:18 pm

© 360 ¹

360 (n − 81)

B=

364

on April 27 (n =117), Et = 2.3 min

Lloc = 75º = Lstd since 75º is a standard time meridian

tstd = tsol – [4(Lstd – Lloc)+Et] (eq. 6.3)

tstd = tsol – Et = 12:00-2.3 min = 11:58 am

148

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.13 continued)

tstd = tsol – Et = 12:00 + 3.9 min = 12:04 pm

if it is an area of daylight savings time, tstd = 1:04 pm

tstd = tsol – Et = 1:18 - 3.6 min = 1:14 pm

if it is an area of daylight savings time, tstd = 2:14 pm

tstd = tsol – Et = 1:18 + 6.2 min = 1:24 pm

if it is an area of daylight savings time, tstd = 2:24 pm

149

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.15)

FIND: a) θs and φs

b) θi

c) Iglo,p when Idir = 700 W/m2 and Idiff = 100 W/m2; ρ = 0.2

d) Repeat part c with ρ = 0.7

e) Repeat part c with specular reflectance

SOLUTION:

360

a) ω = (t sol − 12h) (eq. 6.6)

24hr

tsol = 13.5

360

ω = (13.5 − 12h) = 22.5

24hr

§ 360(n + 10) ·

sin δ = − sin( 23.45 ) cos¨ ¸ (eq. 6.4)

© 365.25 ¹

n = 21

δ = -20.0º

cos(θ s ) = cos λ cos δ cos ω + sin λ sin δ (eq. 6.5)

cos(θ s ) = cos(45 ) cos(−20 ) cos(22.5 ) + sin( 45 ) sin( −20 )

θ s = 68.2

cos δ sin ω

sin φ s = (eq. 6.8)

sin θ s

cos(−20 ) sin(22.5 )

sin φ s =

sin(68.2 )

φ s = 22.8

θp = 90º since it is a vertical plane

cos(θ i ) vert = sin θ s cos(φ s − φ p ) (eq. 6.11)

cos(θ i ) vert = sin(68.2 ) cos(22.8 − 0)

θ i = 31.1

150

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.15 continued)

W W W

I glo ,hor = 700 2

cos(68.2 ) + 100 2 = 360 2

m m m

I diff I glo ,hor ρ g

I glo ,vert = I dir cosθ i + + (eq. 6.24)

2 2

W 100W / m 2 360W / m 2 (0.2)

I glo ,vert = 700 2 cos(31.1 ) + +

m 2 2

W

I glo ,vert = 685 2

m

W

d) I glo ,hor = 360 (from part c); ρ = 0.7

m2

W 100W / m 2 360W / m 2 (0.7)

I glo ,vert = 700 2 cos(31.1 ) + +

m 2 2

W

I glo ,vert = 775 2

m

I diff I diff ρ g

e) I glo ,vert = I dir cosθ i + + I dir cos(θ i ρ ) +

2 2

2

W 100W / m W 100W / m 2 (0.7)

I glo ,vert = 700 cos(31.1

) + + 700 cos(31.1

)( 0.7 ) +

m2 2 m2 2

W

I glo ,vert = 1104

m2

151

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.16)

FIND: a) θs and θI for vertical surfaces facing the four cardinal directions as a

function of time of day. Create a spreadsheet to facilitate different

values for the variables. Produce plots for the equinox and solstices at

40ºN latitude.

b) Add to the spreadsheet Idir and Idif according to Hottel’s clear day model

for a mid-latitude, sea level, 23 km visibility. Plot the direct normal and

diffuse horizontal irradiance vs. time of day for July 21, λ = 40ºN.

SOLUTION:

ª § 360(n + 10) ·º

δ = sin −1 «− sin(23.45 ) cos¨ ¸» (eq. 6.4)

¬ © 365.25 ¹¼

360

ω = (t sol − 12hr ) (eq. 6.6)

24hr

θ s = cos −1 (cos λ cos δ cos ω + sin λ sin δ ) (eq. 6.5)

§ cos δ sin ω ·

φ s = sin −1 ¨¨ ¸¸ (eq. 6.8)

© sin θ s ¹

θ i ,vert = cos −1 [sin θ s cos(φ s − φ p )] (eq. 6.11)

where φp = 0º for south, φp = 90º for west,

φp = -90º for east, φp = 180º for north

a) for the plots, n = 355 for the winter solstice, n = 172 for the summer

solstice, and n = 80 for the spring equinox. (see plots)

360n W

b) I o = [1 + 0.033 cos( )] ⋅ 1373 2 (eq. 6.16)

365.25 m

I dir = I o [a o + a1e − k / cos θ s ] (eq. 6.25)

with,

ao = ro[0.4237 - 0.00821(6 - A)2]

a1 = r1[0.5055 + 0.00595(6.5 - A)2]

k = rk[0.2711 - 0.01858(2.5 - A)2]

from Table 6.2 for 23 km visibility,

with ro = 0.97, r1 = 0.99, rk = 1.02 for a mid-latitude summer (Table 6.2)

152

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.16 continued)

180

South

160 West

East

North

140

Horizontal

Incidence Angle (degrees)

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

0 4 8 12 16 20 24

Time of Day

160

South

140 West

East

North

120 Horizontal

Incidence Angle (degrees)

100

80

60

40

20

0

0 4 8 12 16 20 24

Time of Day

153

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.16 continued)

160

South

140 West

East

North

120 Horizontal

Incidence Angle (degrees)

100

80

60

40

20

0

0 4 8 12 16 20 24

Time of Day

23 km visibility, July 21, Lat. = 40N

900

Direct Normal

800

Diffuse

700

600

Irradiance (W/m^2)

500

400

300

200

100

0

0 4 8 12 16 20 24

Time of Day

154

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.17)

GIVEN: At solar noon on the summer solstice in a location with latitude of 40º,

the length of a telephone pole’s shadow is 5 m.

SOLUTION:

hpole

α

5m

h pole

tan α =

5m

h pole = 16.9 m

155

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.18)

GIVEN: You want to measure the height of a telephone pole without climbing it

and without waiting for a solstice. The location is Boulder, CO (40.00ºN

x 105.27ºW). The shadow is 10 m at 10 AM MDT on May 15.

SOLUTION:

hpole

α

10 m

On May 15, n = 135,

360 ⋅ (n + 10)

sin δ = − sin 23.45 cos δ = 18.5

365.25

For the equation of time,

n − 81

B = 360 ⋅ = 53.4

364

Et = 9.87 sin 2 B − 7.53 cos B − 1.5 sin B = 3.75 min

To find solar time,

t mst = t mdt − 1 = 10.00 − 1 = 9.00

Lstd − Lloc Et

t sol = t std +

+

15 / h 60 min/ h

105.00 − 105.27 3.75

t sol = 9.00 +

+ = 9.0445 hrs

15 / h 60 min/ h

Find hour angle,

(t − 12h) ⋅ 360

ω = sol = −44.33

24h

Find zenith angle,

cosθ s = cos λ cos δ cos ω + sin λ sin δ θ s = 43.64

Solar altitude angle, α = 90 − θ s = 46.35

h pole

tan α =

10 m

h pole = 10.5 m

156

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.19)

107.27ºW) in which you want the sun to illuminate a golden sphere at

sunrise on the summer solstice as the sunlight passes through a notch

between two rocks. The ground is flat at that location.

FIND: At what direction (i.e. angle from due east) should the sphere be placed

relative to the notch?

SOLUTION:

cosω sr = − tan λ tan δ

ω sr = −106.55

cos δ sin ω

sin φ s =

sin θ s

φ s = −61.5

Since the sun is beyond due east during sunrise at this location (λ>δ), the

solar azimuth angle must be corrected, as:

φ s = 180 − φ s = 118.5 east of south

157

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.20)

FIND: At what latitude can you collect the greatest amount of energy on a

horizontal surface? At what latitude is the lowest amount collected?

SOLUTION:

Highest:

Find the latitude at which the absolute value of the sunrise/sunset hour angle

(α = 0º) is maximized:

cosω sr = − tan λ tan δ

ω max = 180 at λ = 66.5º (the north pole)

Highest:

Find the latitude at which the absolute value of the sunrise/sunset hour angle

(α = 0º) is minimized:

cosω sr = − tan λ tan δ

ω min = 0 at λ = -66.5º (the south pole)

158

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.21)

GIVEN: A horizontal surface at solar noon on the summer solstice at the top of

Mt. Whitney (4418 meters) and at the beach in Los Angeles.

FIND: The total direct and diffuse irradiance using the clear-day model of Hottel.

SOLUTION:

§ 360 ⋅ 172 · W W

On summer solstice(n=172): I 0 = ¨1 + 0.033 cos

¨ ¸¸ ⋅ 1373 2 = 1328.4 2

© 365.25 ¹ m m

At solar noon, solar zenith angle, θ s = λ − δ = 36.57 − 23.45 = 73.5

ª k º

Direct radiation (Hottel), I dir = I 0 « a0 + a1 exp(− )»

¬ cosθ s ¼

Diffuse radiation (Liu and Jordan), I dir = (0.271I 0 − 0.2939 I dir ) cosθ s

• Mt. Whitney, A = 4.418 km (assume 23 km visibility, mid-latitude

summer):

From Table 6.2:

r0 = 0.97, r1 = 0.99, rk = 1.02

a 0 = r0 [0.4237 − 0.00821 ⋅ (6.0 − A) 2 ] = 0.391

a1 = r1 [0.5055 + 0.00595 ⋅ (6.5 − A) 2 ] = 0.526

k = rk [0.2711 + 0.01858 ⋅ (2.5 − A) 2 ] = 0.346

At solar noon, solar zenith angle, θ s = λ − δ = 36.57 − 23.45 = 13.12

W W

I dir = 1009.2 I dif = 61.7

m2 m2

summer):

From Table 6.2:

r0 = 0.96, r1 = 0.99, rk = 1.02

a0 = r0 [0.2538 − 0.0063 ⋅ (6.0 − A) 2 ] = 0.0259

a1 = r1 [0.7678 + 0.0010 ⋅ (6.5 − A) 2 ] = 0.802

k = rk [0.2490 + 0.0810 ⋅ (2.5 − A) 2 ] = 0.755

At solar noon, solar zenith angle, θ s = λ − δ = 34.0 − 23.45 = 10.55

W W

I dir = 528.7 I dif = 201.2

m2 m2

159

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.22)

a. Ordinary glass

b. Ordinary glass with vacuum between panes

c. Low emittance coating with ε = 0.05 on both surfaces facing the gap

d. Low emittance coatings as in (c) but with a vacuum between panes

Between panes: hi,con = ho,con = 0.32 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF)

Outside panes: hi = 1.46 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF), ho = 5.0 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF)

For window glass, resistance to heat transfer is negligible.

Neglect edge effects.

SOLUTION:

1 1 1 1 1 Btu

a. = + = + U = 1.13

U hi ho 1.46 5.0 hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

1 1 1 1

b. = + +

U hi hs ho

4σT 3 (460 + 55) 3 Btu

hrad = = 4(0.1714 ⋅ 10 −8 ) = 0.936

1/ ε1 + 1/ ε 2 − 1 1 / 1.0 + 1 / 1.0 − 1 hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Since there is a vacuum between the panes, no convection in gap,

hs = hrad

1 1 1 1 Btu

= + + U = 0.512

U 1.46 0.936 5.0 hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

1 1 1 1

c. = + +

U hi hs ho

4σT 3 (460 + 55) 3 Btu

hrad = = 4(0.1714 ⋅ 10 −8 ) = 0.024

1/ ε1 + 1/ ε 2 − 1 1 / 0.05 + 1 / 0.05 − 1 hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Btu

hs = hrad + 2hcon = 0.024 + 2 ⋅ 0.32 = 0.664

hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

1 1 1 1 Btu

= + + U = 0.418

U 1.46 0.664 5.0 hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Btu

d. hs = hrad = 0.024

hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

1 1 1 1 Btu

= + + U = 0.024

U 1.46 0.024 5.0 hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

160

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.23)

hi = 1.46 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF), ho = 5.0 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF)

SOLUTION:

Find hs:

1 1 1 1

= + +

U hi hs ho

1 1 1 1

= + + hs = 0.896 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF)

0.5 1.46 hs 5.0

U §1 1·

F = τ +αo + aiU ¨¨ + ¸¸

ho © hs ho ¹

0 .5 § 1 1 ·

F = 0.71 + 0.5 + 0.05 ⋅ 0.5¨ + ¸ = 0.793

5 .0 © 0.896 5.0 ¹

F

SC =

0.87

SC = 0.911

161

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.24)

GIVEN: Frost can form on a surface when the humidity is sufficiently high and

the surface temperature falls below freezing. With a single-glazed

window with a U-value of 1 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF) and 60ºF indoor temperature,

FIND: The highest outdoor temperature at which frost can form on the inside.

hi = 1.46 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF), ho = 6.0 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF)

SOLUTION:

§ U· U

Ts = ¨¨1 − ¸¸Ti + To

© hi ¹ hi

h §h · 1.46 § 1.46 ·

To = i Ts − ¨ i − 1¸Ti = 32 − ¨ − 1¸60

U ©U ¹ 1 © 1 ¹

To = 19.1ºF

162

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.25)

GIVEN: You are designing an atrium with single-glazed fenestration and you are

worried about the possibility of the glass cracking when it is heated by

the sun and then suddenly hit by cold water from a nearby sprinkler.

The following conditions apply:

• Outdoor air temperature, To = 40ºC

• Solar radiation incident on the glass is I = 1000 W/m2

• The inside air temperature, Ti = 30ºC

• The U-value of the glazing is 6.0 W/m2-K

• The solar absorptance of the glazing is α = 0.5

• Inside surface convection coefficient is hi = 10 W/m2-K

• Outside surface convection coefficient is ho = 20 W/m2-K

SOLUTION:

αI ∆qir ∆qir

Tos = To + − ≈ 3.9 K for upward facing surfaces

ho ho ho

0.5 ⋅ 1000W / m 2

Tos = 313.15K + − 3.9 K = 334.25K = 61.1 C

20W / m ⋅ K

2

§ U· U

Ts = ¨¨1 − ¸¸Ti + Tos

© hi ¹ hi

§ 6· 6

Ts = ¨1 − ¸30 + 61.1

© 10 ¹ 10

Ts = 48.7ºC

163

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 6

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

6.26)

FIND: The highest instantaneous solar heat gain among the nine glazing types

listed in Table 6.6. What is the lowest?

SOLUTION:

Q sol = A ⋅ SC ⋅ SHGF

With a constant SHGF, the glazing with the highest instantaneous solar heat

gain will be the one with the largest shading coefficient: clear double glazing,

SC = 0.82.

Q sol BTU

= 0.82 ⋅ 200

A hr ⋅ ft 2

Q sol BTU

= 164

A hr ⋅ ft 2

The lowest instantaneous solar heat gain will be the one with the smallest

shading coefficient, reflective double glazing, SC = 0.20.

Q sol BTU

= 0.20 ⋅ 200

A hr ⋅ ft 2

Q sol BTU

= 40

A hr ⋅ ft 2

164

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

Chapter 7

165

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.2)

the building mid-height; Ti = 21ºC

SOLUTION:

ρ 2

∆p wind = ∆C p v (eq. 7.6)

2

1.2kg / m 3 m

∆p wind = 0.3 (6.7 ) 2 = 8.1 pa

2 s

T − To

∆p stack = −C d ρ i g∆h i (eq. 7.7)

To

Cd = 1.0 since there is only one floor

H = -1.5 m (at the base of the building)

To = Ti - 15ºC = 6ºC = 729 K

kg m 15 K

∆p stack = −1.0(1.2 3 )(9..8 2 )(−1.5m)( )

m s 279 K

∆p stack = 0.9 pa

∆p = 8.1 pa + 0.9 pa + 0 pa

∆p = 9.0 pa

166

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.4)

GIVEN: Ten story office building, 50 ft x 50 ft x 130 ft; curtain wall construction

with airtight windows, window area/wall area = 0.5; Cd = 0.65; two

vestibule-type doors on each 100 ft façade; 1 person/150 ft2 of floor

area each making 5 door openings per 10 hrs; Ti = 70°F; To = 20°F;

vwind = 15 mph, parallel to a 50 ft façade; no roof insulation.

FIGURE:

C

D B with sides labeled

for analysis

100 ft

A

wind

b. V inf, total for floors 1, 5 and 10 if the ventilation system is balanced,

∆pvent = 0

c. V inf, total if ∆pvent = -0.2” w.g.

of the building (65 ft). The building is at sea level.

SOLUTION:

The stack effect pressure different will vary from floor to floor, while the wind

effect pressure difference will vary for each side of the building (labeled A,

B, C, and D in the figure). Therefore, the analysis must be done separately

for each floor, side A, B, C, and D. A spreadsheet makes this a much

simple task than the repetitive hand calculations.

g § T − To ·

∆p st − −C d ρ i ∆h¨¨ i ¸¸ from Equation 7.7

gc © To ¹

Cd = 0.65 (given)

ρi = 0.075 lbm/ft3 (for 70°F dry air at sea level)

167

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.4 continued)

be the distance from the ground to the mid-height of the floor of

analysis and NPL is the building midheight (65 ft).

Ti = 70°F = 530°R

To = 20°F = 480°R

For floor 5,

ft

32.2

∆pst = -0.65 · 0.075 lbm/ft3 · s 2 · -6.5 ft · 530°R − 480°R

ft ⋅ lb m 480°R

32.2

lb f ⋅ s 2

2

= 0.033 lbf/ft

= 0.0063 in W.G.

ρ 2

∆p wind = ∆C p v wind from Equation 7.6

2g c

Side A: θ = 0° Cp = 0.6

Side B: θ = 90° Cp = -0.4

Side C: θ = 180° Cp = -0.4

Side D: θ = 90° Cp = -0.4

∆Cp = Cp +0.2

ρ = 0.082 lb/ft3 (dry air at 20°F)

For side B

lb m

0.082

∆pwind = (-0.4 + 0.2) · ft 3 · (22 ft/s)2 · 0.5

ft ⋅ lb m

32.2

lb f ⋅ s 2

168

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.4 continued)

b. Window infiltration

It’s given that the window to wall ratio is 0.5. However, it is necessary to

make some assumptions about the window size to obtain lp. Assume that

the windows are full height and alternate with the curtain wall. Assuming

that each window is 5 ft wide x 13 ft high, lp = 36 ft for each window.

lp = 10 windows · 36 ft = 360 ft

Side B: lp = 5 windows · 36 ft = 180 ft

Side C: lp = 360 ft

Side D: lp = 180 ft

K = 1.0 for tight windows (from Figure 7.8)

∆p = ∆pst + ∆pwind

The negative value for ∆p signifies that this is exfiltration. When doing the

calculation for V w, one must use the absolute value of ∆p and ensure that

V w has the same sign as ∆p, so

V cw = Acw · K · ∆p0.65

Side B: Acw = 0.5 · 50 · 13 = 325 ft2

Side C: Acw = 650 ft2

Side D: Acw = 325 ft2

K = 0.22 for tight construction (from Figure 7.11)

∆p = ∆pst + ∆pwind

169

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.4 continued)

b. Doors infiltration

Two doors on floor 1 side A and two doors on floor 1 side C. Assuming

each door is 6.5 ft x 4.5 ft,

K = 20 for tight construction

n = 0.65 for swinging doors

Door openings

From Figure 7.10b for vestibule-type doors, 42 openings per hour does

not significantly add to the infiltration rate (C=0).

Total infiltration

calculations of part b are performed but with ∆p = -0.2 in W.G. for all floors

and all sides. Only one calculation for each component is necessary.

Windows

170

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.4 continued)

Curtain wall

Acw = 2 · 650 ft2 + 2 · 325 ft2 = 1950 ft2

V cw = -1950 ft2 · 0.22 · (0.2 in W.G.)0.65 = -151 CFM

Doors

For floor 1,

lp = 4 · 22 ft = 88 ft

V d = -88 ft · 20 · (0.2 in W.G.)0.65 = -618 CFM

Total infiltration

Floor 1: V inf = V w + V cw + V d

= -483 CFM – 151 CFM – 618 CFM = -1252 CFM

171

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.4 continued)

Problem 7.4a

Floor Side del h Pstack del Cp Pwind Ptotal

(ft) (in. WG) (in. WG) (in. WG)

1 A -58.5 0.057 0.8 0.095 0.152

1 B -58.5 0.057 -0.2 -0.024 0.033

1 C -58.5 0.057 -0.2 -0.024 0.033

1 D -58.5 0.057 -0.2 -0.024 0.033

5 A -6.5 0.006 0.8 0.095 0.101

5 B -6.5 0.006 -0.2 -0.024 -0.017

5 C -6.5 0.006 -0.2 -0.024 -0.017

5 D -6.5 0.006 -0.2 -0.024 -0.017

10 A 58.5 -0.057 0.8 0.095 0.038

10 B 58.5 -0.057 -0.2 -0.024 -0.081

10 C 58.5 -0.057 -0.2 -0.024 -0.081

10 D 58.5 -0.057 -0.2 -0.024 -0.081

Problem 7.4b

Floor Side lp-wi Vwi Acw Vcw lp-dr Vdr Vtot

(ft) (cfm) (ft2) (cfm) (ft) (cfm) (cfm)

1 A 360 140 650 42 44 258 440

1 B 180 33 325 8 0 0 41

1 C 360 66 650 16 44 97 178

1 D 180 33 325 8 0 0 41

5 A 360 114 650 32 0 0 147

5 B 180 -24 325 -5 0 0 -29

5 C 360 -47 650 -l0 0 0 -58

5 D 180 -24 325 -5 0 0 -29

10 A 360 70 650 17 0 0 87

10 B 180 -51 325 -14 0 0 -65

10 C 360 -102 650 -28 0 0 -130

10 D 180 -51 325 -14 0 0 -65

Problem 7.4c

Floor lp-wi Vwi Acw Vcw lp-dr Vdr Vtot

(ft) (cfm) (ft2) (cfm) (ft) (cfm) (cfm)

1 1080 -483 1950 -151 88 -618 -1252

5 1080 -483 1950 -151 0 0 -634

10 1080 -483 1950 -151 0 0 -634

172

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.5)

GIVEN: There is an odor in your room that you would like to get rid of before

your mother visits later this afternoon. The concentration of the odor-

causing substance needs to be reduced by a factor of 10 in order to

become unnoticeable.

FIND: The number of hours that the windows should be open before mother’s

visit, using Figure 7.2.

side. Wind speed is 3 m/s.

SOLUTION:

From Figure 7.2, use curve 2. At 3 m/s, Air changes per hour, ACH = 3.5.

Co = X

Cf = 0.1X

hours), where:

C n +1 = C n − C n * ACH * n

1.200

1.000

Concentration (% of original)

0.800

0.600

0.400

0.200

0.000

0:00 0:30 1:00 1:30 2:00 2:30 3:00

Time

Note: Answers will vary depending on selected timestep. This figure shows a

timestep of one minute.

173

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.6)

1 m x 1.5 m windows that are not weather-stripped. The indoor

temperature is constant at 20ºC.

d. Assuming an average winter wind speed of 2 m/s and an average

outdoor temperature of 5ºC, what is the infiltration rate?

e. Estimate the associated heat load with this infiltration.

f. If the energy costs are $5/GJ, what is the cost of heating this air?

g. How much money could you save per year if the windows had

weather stripping?

hours).

SOLUTION:

a. From Table 7.1, the best estimate for leakage with a non-weather-stripped

double-hung window is 0.086 in2/ft2.

Awindow = 1 m x 1.5 m = 1.5 m2 = 16.15 ft2

Atotal = 16.15 ft2/window x 10 windows = 161.5 ft2

Leakage area, Aleak = 0.086 in2/ft2 x 161.5 ft2

Aleak = 13.9 in2 = 89.6 cm2

V = A a ∆T + a v 2

;eak s w

as = 0.000290 (L/s)2/(cm4-K)

aw = 0.000231 (L/s)2/[cm4-(m/s)2]

V = 6.057 L / s

c. Estimated heat load:

Q = m c p (Ti − To )

With density, ρ = 1.187 kg/m3,

L 1m 3 kg

m = Vρ = 6.507 ⋅

⋅ 1.187 3 = 0.00772 kg / s

s 1000 L m

kJ

c p = 1.026

kg ⋅ K

kg kJ kJ

Q = 0.00772 ⋅ 1.026 ⋅ (20 − 5) = 0.1189

s kg ⋅ K s

174

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.6 Continued)

kJ 60 2 s hr

Q = 0.1189 ⋅ ⋅ 4380

s hr yr

Q = 1.875 GJ / yr

Cost = 1.875 GJ/yr * $5/GJ = $9.38/yr

From Table 7.1, leakage area is cut in half by weather-stripping, from

0.086 to 0.043 in2/ft2. Therefore, the infiltration rate, the heating load, and

the heating cost will be reduced by ½.

Costsaved = 0.5 * $9.38/yr = $4.69/yr

175

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.8)

attached heated garage.

b. What is the heating load contribution due to conduction if the outdoor

temperature is constant at 5ºF and the indoor temperature is

maintained at 70ºF?

c. How much would the conduction portion of the building heat loss be

reduced by replacing the 0.5 in. plywood sheathing in the walls with

0.75 in. Styrofoam (expanded, extruded polystyrene)?

d. If you needed to reduce conduction through the envelope by 20%,

how would you do it?

SOLUTION:

Wall:

Stud Path Ins. Path

k (Btu-in / U (Btu / Rth ((hr-ft^2- Rth ((hr-ft^2-

Component ∆x (in.) (hr-ft^2-F)) (hr-ft^2-F)) F) / Btu) F) / Btu)

Outdoor surface, ho -- -- 6 0.17 0.17

Wood siding 0.5 0.653 1.31 0.77 0.77

Plywood sheathing 0.5 0.8 1.6 0.63 0.63

Framing 4 0.8 0.2 5.00 --

Fiberglass batt insulation 4 0.25 0.06 -- 16.00

Gypsum 0.5 1.11 2.22 0.45 0.45

Indoor surface, hi -- -- 1.46 0.68 0.68

Rtot = 7.69 18.69

Utot = 1/Rtot = 0.130 0.053

k 1

U= Rth =

∆x U

§A · § A ·

U wall = ¨¨ stud¸¸U stud + ¨¨ ins ¸¸U ins

© Awall¹ © Awall ¹

§ 2· § 14 · Btu

U wall = ¨ ¸0.130 + ¨ ¸0.053 = 0.0626

© 16 ¹ © 16 ¹ hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Awall = 2880 ft 2

Btu

UAwall = 180.4

hr ⋅ F

176

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.8 continued)

Roof:

Truss Path Ins. Path

Component ∆x (in.) (hr-ft^2-F)) (hr-ft^2-F)) F) / Btu F) / Btu

Outdoor surface, ho -- -- 6.00 0.17 0.17

Wood shingles, cedar shake 0.4375 1.49 3.41 0.29 0.29

Felt building paper -- -- -- -- --

Plywood sheathing 0.5 0.8 1.60 0.63 0.63

Basement surface, hb1 -- -- 1.46 0.68 0.68

Basement surface, hb2 -- -- 1.46 0.68 0.68

Framing 6 0.8 0.13 7.50 --

Cellulose insulation 8 0.295 0.04 -- 27.12

Framing 6 0.8 0.13 7.50 --

Gypsum 0.5 1.11 2.22 0.45 0.45

Indoor surface, hi -- -- 1.46 0.68 0.68

Rtot = 18.59 30.71

Utot = 1/Rtot = 0.054 0.033

§A · § A ·

U roof = ¨ truss ¸U roof + ¨ ins ¸U ins

¨A ¸ ¨A ¸

© roof ¹ © roof ¹

§ 2 · § 22 · Btu

U roof = ¨ ¸0.054 + ¨ ¸0.033 = 0.0348

© 24 ¹ © 24 ¹ hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Aroof = 3420 ft 2

Btu

UAroof = 118.8

hr ⋅ F

Windows:

§A · § A ·

U wall = ¨¨ stud ¸¸U stud + ¨¨ ins ¸¸U ins

© Awall ¹ © Awall ¹

Btu

U windows = 0.42

hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Awindows = 332 ft 2

Btu

UAwindows = 139.4

hr ⋅ F

Doors:

Btu

U doors = 0.33

hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Adoors = 70 ft 2

Btu

UAdoors = 23.1

hr ⋅ F

177

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.8 continued)

Garage Door:

Btu

U garage door = 0.55

hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Agarage door = 120 ft 2

Btu

UAgarage door = 66.0

hr ⋅ F

Btu

Q = 34,300

hr

Component ∆x (in.) (hr-ft^2-F)) (hr-ft^2-F)) F) / Btu F) / Btu

Outdoor surface, ho -- -- 6.00 0.17 0.17

Wood siding 0.5 0.653 1.31 0.77 0.77

Styrofoam (exp.., ext. polystyrene) 0.75 0.25 0.33 3.00 3.00

Framing 4 0.8 0.20 5.00 --

Fiberglass insulation 4 0.25 0.06 -- 16.00

Gypsum 0.5 1.11 2.22 0.45 0.45

Indoor surface, hi -- -- 1.46 0.68 0.68

Rtot = 10.07 21.07

Utot = 1/Rtot = 0.099 0.047

§ 2· § 14 · Btu

U wall = ¨ ¸0.099 + ¨ ¸0.047 = 0.0535

© 16 ¹ © 16 ¹ hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Awall = 2880 ft 2

Btu

UAwall = 154.1

hr ⋅ F

Btu

Q = 32,590

hr

Load reduced by 5%.

insulated glass with a storm sash (10% reduction) in conjunction with

Styrofoam addition to the walls and increased insulation in the attic.

178

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.9)

acre lot, which is large compared to most suburban densities, and will

have several small trees and shrubs near the house. The house will

have an estimated 0.5 ACH under typical winter conditions of 10 mph

wind speed and outdoor temperature of 30ºF.

FIND:

a. The effective infiltration leakage area of the house using the LBL

model

b. Calculate the heating load due to infiltration under design winter

conditions of 15 mph wind speed and 2ºF outdoor temperature.

SOLUTION:

V = A a ∆T + a v 2

;eak s w

air changes ft 3 ft 3

V = ACH ⋅ Vhouse = 0.5 ⋅ 23,776 ft 3 = 11,888 = 198.1

hr hr min

From Tables 7.2 and 7.3,

as = 0.0156 (ft3/min)2/(in4-ºF)

aw = 0.0065 (ft3/min)2/[in4-(mi/h)2]

198.1

Aleak =

0.0156 ⋅ (70 − 30) + 0.0065 ⋅ (10) 2

Aleak = 175.5 in 2

b. V = A;eak a s ∆T + a w v 2

ft 3

V = 175.5 0.0156 ⋅ (70 − 2) + 0.0065 ⋅ (15) 2 = 278.8

min

Estimated heat load at 5,000 ft:

Q inf = 0.9 ⋅ CFM ⋅ (Ti − To ) = 0.9 ⋅ 278.8 ⋅ (70 − 2)

Btu

Q = 17,060

hr

179

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.10)

GIVEN: House described in N.7.3) has a heated full basement under all but the

garage. (The garage measures 22.5x19.5 ft.) The basement

foundation wall is insulated on the outside with R4 insulation. The wall

is 7.5 ft high with 1.5 ft above grade. The garage is built on a slab-on-

grade floor. The slab foundation wall is also insulated below grade with

the same insulation. The average winter temperature is 25ºF and that

the soil conductivity is 0.8 Btu/hr-ft-ºF.

FIND: The design heat loss from the basement and garage slab.

width of building is 24 ft. Denver has approximately 5350 ºF-

days. Wall of slab-on-grade is 8 inch block with brick.

SOLUTION:

Basement wall:

From Table 2.4a, the unit heat loss thru the wall is:

Q Btu

¦

depth ( L∆T )

= 0.57

hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F

Tg , des = Tw, avg − ∆Tg = 25 − 20 = 5 F

§ Q ·

Q basement wall = ¨¨ ¦ ¸ L(Ti − Tg ,des )

¸

© depth L ∆T ¹

Btu

Q basement wall = 0.57 ⋅ 276 ⋅ (70 − 5) = 10,226

hr

Basement floor:

Btu

U floor = 0.0265

hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Q =U

floor A (T − T )

floor floor i g ,des

Btu

Q floor = 0.0265 ⋅ 2516 ⋅ (70 − 5) = 4,334

hr

180

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.10 continued)

Btu

Q slab = F2 P(Ti − To ) = 0.5 ⋅ (22.5 ⋅ 2 + 19.5 ⋅ 2) ⋅ (70 − 25) = 2,100

hr

Aabove− grade wall (Ti − To ) 1.5 ⋅ 360 ⋅ (70 − 25) Btu

Q above − grade wall = = = 3,767

Rth ,wall 6.45 hr

Btu

Q basement , slab = 20,430

hr

181

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.11)

GIVEN: One story building; 100 ft x 100 ft x 13 ft; steel deck roof with 3.33”

insulation; steel siding with 4” insulation; window/wall ratio = 0.4;

double-glazed windows; neglect ground losses.

SOLUTION:

Uwall = 0.066 Btu/hr-ft2-ºF (Table 7.7b)

2

Uglaze = 0.50 Btu/hr-ft -ºF (Table 6.6)

(including frame and edge effects)

Awall = (100 ft x 13 ft x 4) x 0.6 = 3120 ft2

Aglaze = (100 ft x 13 ft x 4) x 0.4 = 2080 ft2

Kcond = (0.50 Btu/hr-ft2-ºF)(2080 ft2) + (0.066 Btu/hr-ft2-ºF)(3120 ft2)

+ (0.080 Btu/hr-ft2-ºF)(10,000 ft2)

182

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.12)

GIVEN: Wall consisting of 0.75 in. gypsum plaster, 4.0” glass wool insulation, 4”

face brick.

b) Inside surface temperature of wall if Ti = 70ºF and To = 0ºF

c) Qualitatively what would happen if the order of the brick and the

insulation were interchanged? Would U-value change? Would peak

conductive cooling load change?

Kins = 0.25 Btu/hr-ft2-ºF

Kf-brick = 9.0 Btu/hr-ft2-ºF

SOLUTION:

k

U= (eq. 2.5 and 2.6)

∆x

k gyp 1.11Btu ⋅ in /(hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F ) Btu

a) U gyp = = = 1.48

∆x gyp 0.75in hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

k ins 0.25Btu ⋅ in /(hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F ) Btu

U ins = = = 0.06

∆xins 4.0in hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

k f ⋅brick 9.0 Btu ⋅ in /(hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F ) Btu

U f ⋅brick = = = 2.25

∆x f ⋅brick 4.0in hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

ho = 1.46 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF) at 0 mph (Table on CD)

hi = 1.46 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF)

ho = 6.0 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF) at 15 mph

ho Ufbrick Uins Ugyp hi

1 1 1 1 1 1

= + + + +

U T ho U fb U ins U gyp hi

Btu

at 0 mph wind, U T = 0.052

hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Btu

at 15 mph wind, U T = 0.054

hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Q

b) = U T (Ti − To ) (Eq. 2.3, 2.4, 2.6)

A

183

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.12 continued)

Q Btu Btu

= 0.052 (70 F − 0 F ) = 3.64

A hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F

2

hr ⋅ ft 2

The total U-value from the outdoor air to the inside surface is:

1 1 1 1 1

= + + +

U T ' ho U fb U ins U gyp

Btu

U T ' = 0.054

hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Q

= U T (Ts − To ) where Ts is the inside surface temperature

A

Btu Btu

3.64 = 0.054 (Ts − 0)

hr ⋅ ft 2

hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Ts = 67.4 F (no wind condition)

c) The peak conductive cooling load will decrease if the brick is on the inside

of the insulation because in that position it acts as thermal mass, while on

the outside it was decoupled from the building.

184

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.13)

0.75 inches of gypsum plaster

2 inches of foam insulation

4 inches of lightweight concrete

b) What is the inside surface temperature of the wall if Ti = 70ºF and To =

0ºF?

c) Consider qualitatively what would happen if the order of insulation and

concrete were interchanged. Would the U-value change? How would

the peak conductive cooling load change?

surface. Concrete is 80 lb/ft3. hi = 1.46 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF), hrad,o =

2.275 Btu/(hr-ft2-ºF). L = 15 ft.

SOLUTION:

1/ 5 1/ 5

§ v4 · § 22 4 · Btu

For 15 mph (22 ft/s): hcon = 0.54¨¨ ¸¸ = 0.54¨¨ ¸¸ = 3.725

© L¹ © 15 ¹ hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

At 15 mph:

Btu

ho = hrad + hcon = 6.0

hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Component ∆x (in.) (hr-ft^2-F)) (hr-ft^2-F)) F) / Btu

Outdoor surface, ho -- -- 6.00 0.17

Lightweight concrete 4 2.5 0.63 --

Foam insulation 2 0.25 0.13 8.00

Gypsum 0.75 1.11 1.48 0.68

Indoor surface, hi -- -- 1.46 0.68

Rtot = 9.53

Utot = 1/Rtot = 0.105

Btu

U wall = 0.105

hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

185

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.13 continued)

At 0 mph:

Btu

ho = hrad + hcon = 2.275

hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

Component ∆x (in.) (hr-ft^2-F)) (hr-ft^2-F)) F) / Btu

Outdoor surface, ho -- -- 2.28 0.44

Lightweight concrete 4 2.5 0.63 --

Foam insulation 2 0.25 0.13 8.00

Gypsum 0.75 1.11 1.48 0.68

Indoor surface, hi -- -- 1.46 0.68

Rtot = 9.80

Utot = 1/Rtot = 0.102

Btu

U wall = 0.102

hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

b) The U-value of the gypsum and indoor surface can be defined as:

−1

§ 1 1· Btu

U i , gyp = ¨ + ¸ = 0.735

¨U ¸ hr ⋅ ft 2 ⋅ F

© gyp hi ¹

Q Q

Since = U wall (Ti − To ) and = U i , gyp (Ti − Ts ) ,

A A

U 0.105

Ts = Ti − wall (Ti − To ) = 70 − (70 − 0)

U i , gyp 0.735

Ts = 60 F

c) If the order of insulation and concrete were changed, the U-value would

not change, because the resistance to heat transfer would remain the sum

of the resistances of all wall components. However, the peak conductive

cooling load could be increased if the concrete and the insulation were

switched. This would be due to the location of the smaller capacitance

being closer to the solar gain, allowing the indoor temperature to be more

susceptible to outdoor temperature fluctuations.

186

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.16)

GIVEN: House with Kcond = 120 W/K; ventilation system provides 7.5 l/s-person;

32 people at party; Q gain = 1 kW (from other than people); steady state

conditions.

FIND: a) Latent and sensible heat gains and outdoor air requirements before

and during party.

b) How much the heating load changes relative to steady state conditions

before the party when To = 0ºC and Ti = 20ºC.

c) Does the latent gain have any effect on the heating load if there is no

humidity control in the house?

ρ = 1.2 kg/m3

SOLUTION:

Sensible loads: 75 W/person (Table 7.5)

(These numbers assume that the heat output of the party-goers is similar

to people seated, doing light office work from Table 7.5)

Latent gain = 45 W/person x 2 persons = 90 W

Sensible gain = 75 W/person x 2 persons = 150 W

+ Q gain = 150 W + 1000 W = 1150 W

Ventilation = 7.5 l/s-person x 2 person = 15 l/s

Latent gain = 45 W/person x 32 persons = 1440 W

Sensible gain = 75 W/person x 32 persons = 2400 W

+ Q gain = 2400 W + 1000 W = 3400 W

Ventilation = 7.5 l/s-person x 32 person = 240 l/s

Q = K (T − T ) − Q

tot i o gain ,total (eq. 7.32)

= sensible load

W kg kJ l 1m 3 1000 J

K tot = 120 + 1.2 3 (1.0 )(15 )( )( )

K m kg ⋅ K s 1000l 1kJ

187

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.16 continued)

W

K tot = 138

K

Q gain ,total = 1150 W

W

Q sens = 138 (20 C − 0 C ) − 1150W

K

Qsens = 1610 W

W kg kJ l 1m 3 1000 J

K tot = 120 + 1.2 3 (1.0 )(240 )( )( )

K m kg ⋅ K s 1000l 1kJ

W

K tot = 408

K

Q gain ,total = 3400 W

W

Q sens = 408 (20 C − 0 C ) − 3400W

K

Qsens = 4760 W

The heat load increases almost 300% during the party compared to

before the party.

c) Unless there is humidity control in the house, the latent gain has no effect

on the heating load.

exchanger for heat recovery (heat recovery ventilator or HRV) the

results would be quite different. Assuming an HRV effectiveness

of 70% (i.e. 70% of the energy in the outgoing exhaust air is

imported to the incoming ventilation air), the load before the party

would be 1358 W and during the party would be 728 W.

188

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.17)

Ugar-house = 0.5 W/m2-K

Ugar-out = 5.0 W/m2-K

Floor is 0.1 m concrete; Tgr = 12ºC; V =0.1 ACH; To = -10ºC

transfer. Standard air, ρ = 1.2 kg/m3; Ti = 21ºC

SOLUTION:

For an estimate of the garage temperature one can use a simple thermal

network analysis:

Tgr

To

Ti Tgar

1/(UA)gar-house 1/(ρcpV)

0.1m concrete:

k = 9 Btu-in/(hr-ft2-ºF) = 1.3 W/m-ºC (Properties of Materials on CD)

k 1.3W / m ⋅ C W

U= (eq. 2.5 and 2.6) U fl = = 13 2

∆x 0.1m m ⋅ C

2

Afl = 5m x 5m = 25 m

W W

(UA) gar −out = 5.0 2 (5m ⋅ 5m + 3 ⋅ 5m ⋅ 3m) = 350

m ⋅ C C

kg kJ AC (5m ⋅ 5m ⋅ 3m) 1hr W

ρc pV = 1.2 3 (1.0 )(0.1 ) ( ) = 2 .5

m kg ⋅ C

hr 1AC 3600 s C

Combining the resistances from Tgar to To add (UA)gar-out and ρc V since they

p

W W W

(UA) out = 350 + 2.5 = 352.5

C C C

2

Agar-house = 5m x 3m = 15 m

The steady state heat balance on the Tgar node is:

UflAfl(Tgr – Tgar) + (UA)gar-house(Ti – Tgar) = (UA)out(Tgar – To)

W W

13 2 (25m 2 )(12 − Tgar ) + 0.5 2 (15m 2 )(21 − Tgar )

m ⋅ C m ⋅ C

W

= 352.5 (Tgar − (−10 C ))

C

Tgar = 1.0 C

189

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.19)

ASSUMPTIONS: Sea level; hfg = 1076 Btu/lbm; Ti,db = 70ºF, RHi = 50%

SOLUTION:

lbw

Wo = 0.014 (Fig. 4.6)

lbda

lb

Wi = 0.008 w (Fig. 4.6)

lbda

1 1 lb

ρ= = 3

= 0.074 3 (Fig. 4.6 at indoor conditions)

v 13.5 ft / lb ft

ft 3 lb Btu lb 60 min

Q air ,lat = 20 (0.074 da3 )(1076 )(0.014 − 0.008) w ( )

min⋅ occ ft lbw lbda 1hr

Btu

Q air ,lat = 573

hr ⋅ occ

Btu

Q occ ,lat = 150

hr ⋅ occ

Btu Btu

Q lat = Q air ,lat + Q occ ,lat = 573 + 150

hr ⋅ occ hr ⋅ occ

Btu

Q lat = 723

hr ⋅ occ

190

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.23)

construction type

a) an unshaded window with clear double glazing (SC = 0.88)

b) same as a) but completely shaded from direct solar radiation

c) which glazing types in Tables 6.5 and 6.6 minimize cooling loads.

ASSUMPTIONS: Peak cooling load occurs at 3:00 pm; All assumptions used for

Table on CD for CLTD’s for glass hold true.

SOLUTION:

Q c ,cond , glaz ,t = UA ⋅ CLTD glaz ,t (eq. 7.42)

Q = A ⋅ SC ⋅ SHGF ⋅ CLF

c , sol ,t max t (eq. 7.43)

2

Uglaz = 0.5 Btu/hr-ft -ºF (Table 6.6)

CLTDglaz,1500 = 14ºF

Btu Btu

Q c ,cond . glaz ,1500 = 0.5 (100 ft 2 )(14 F ) = 700

hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F

2

hr

SHGFmax (32ºLat, July, south) = 72 Btu/hr-ft2 (Table on CD for SHGF’s)

CLF1500 (south, med. construction) = 0.53 (Table on CD for CLTD’s)

Btu

Q c , sol ,1500 = 100 ft 2 (0.88)(72 )(0.53)

hr ⋅ ft 2

Btu

Q c , sol ,1500 = 3358

hr

SHGFmax = 41 Btu/hr-ft2

CLF1500 = 0.5

Btu

Q c , sol ,1500 = 100 ft 2 (0.88)(41 )(0.5)

hr ⋅ ft 2

Btu

Q c , sol ,1500 = 1804

hr

c) The portion of the cooling load from windows is the result of both the

conductive and the solar gains. In this example, the conductive portion is

significantly less than the solar portion. Therefore, it is most important to

choose a window with a low shading coefficient. Type #1 in Table 6.6 will

result in the lowest cooling load in this example.

191

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.24)

GIVEN: The following three conductive heat load profiles were calculated for

south facing walls in Denver in July.

FIND: Which wall is which and justify your answer without doing any

calculations.

SOLUTION:

Wall A is the 4” of concrete. This is because Wall A has the shortest time

constant for conduction, meaning a quicker response to outdoor temperature

changes due to solar gain. The wall with the most thermal mass (12”

concrete) is wall C because it has the longest time constant, and is slow to

respond conductive heat. Wall B is the 8” of concrete, because it has a

response between wall A and C.

192

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.34)

FIND: Compare the effect of a dark roof versus a light roof on the total cooling

load. Change the roof type to include more insulation. How does this

affect the total cooling load?

SOLUTION:

193

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 7

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

7.34 continued)

With light roof and increased insulation (2”) (max cooling load = 39,514 Btu/hr):

Going from a dark to a light roof reduces the cooling load by approximately 22%.

Adding insulation has less of an impact, reducing the cooling load by

approximately 12%.

194

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 8

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

Chapter 8

195

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 8

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

8.1)

GIVEN: Ktot = 200 W/K; 4 occupants; Q gain ,lights = 600 W; Isol = 25 W/m2; Aw = 10

m2; Ti = 21ºC

SOLUTION:

Lights: 600 W

Q gain ,total = 1130 W

Q gain ,total

Tbal = Ti − (eq. 8.2)

K tot

1130 W

Tbal = 21 C −

200 W / C

Tbal = 15.4 C

196

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 8

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

8.3)

GIVEN: Ktot = 200 W/K; Ti = 21ºC; Q g = 1200 W; ηheat = 0.80; house located in

Washington, D.C.

FIND: Annual energy consumption using variable base degree days and bin

data method.

SOLUTION:

Degree Day Method

Q g

Tbal = Ti − (eq. 8.2)

K tot

1200 W

Tbal = 21 C −

= 15 C

200 W / C

From Fig. 8.3, Dh (15ºC) = 1890 K-days

K tot

Q h , yr = (eq. 8.6)

η h Dh (Tbal )

200 W / K

Q h , yr =

(0.8)(1890 K ⋅ days)(24hrs / day )

kWh GJ

Q h , yr = 11,340 = 40.8

yr yr

Bin Method

K

Qbin = N bin ( tot )(Tbal − Tbin ) (eq. 8.18)

ηh

Bin

Temp No. Qbin

(C) Hours (kWh)

14 673 168

11 690 690

8 684 1197

6 790 1778

3 744 2232

0 542 2033

-3 254 1143

-6 138 725

-8 54 311

-11 17 111

-14 2 15

Σ= 10400

The bin method and the degree day method resulted in an 940 kWh

difference, with the bin method results about 8% lower than the degree day

method.

197

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 8

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

8.5)

south, open floor plan; Ti = 70°F;

equal windows on all sides with window/wall ratio = 0.25,

Uwi = 0.5 Btu/hr·ft2·°F,

SC = 0.82,

V = 0.5 ac/hr from 8 AM to 6 PM, V = 0.2 ac/hr from 6 PM to 8 AM

Q gain, lights = 3.0 W/ft2 from 8 AM to 6 PM

Q gain, lights = 0.5 W/ft2 from 6 PM to 8 AM

0.01 occupants/ft2 from 8 AM to 6 PM

ηh = 0.8

b) the balance point temperatures corresponding to daytime and nighttime

conditions

c) the heating energy for January using bin data from the HCB software

Uwall = 0.08 Btu/hr·ft2·°F, Uroof = 0.06 Btu/hr·ft2·°F.

SOLUTION:

Roof area, Aroof = 30 ft · 30 ft = 900 ft2

Window area, Awi = 0.25 · 30 ft · 8 ft · 4 = 240 ft2

Wall area, Awall = 0.75 · 30 ft · 8 ft · 4 = 720 ft2

Volume = 30 ft · 30 ft · 8 ft = 7200 ft3

Nighttime

Kcond = Uwi · Awi + Uwall · Awall + Uroof · Aroof (from Equation 7.21)

+ (0.06 Btu/hr·ft2·°F) · (900 ft2) = 231.6 Btu/hr·°F

cp = 0.24 Btu/lb·°R

V = 0.2 ac/hr · 7200 ft3/ac = 1440 ft3/hr

= 261 Btu/hr·°F

198

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 8

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

8.5 Continued)

Q

Q gain

=Ktot · (Ti – To) – Q (from Equation 7.32)

Q

Daytime

V = (0.5 ac/hr) · (7200 ft3/ac) = 3600 ft3/hr

= 305 Btu/hr·°F

Q

occ, gain = (0.01 occ/ft2) · (900 ft2) · (255 Btu/hr·occ) = 2295 Btu/hr

Q

Btu/hr

The peak heating load is 14385 Btu/hr and occurs at night. The additional

gains from people and lights and equipment in the day outweigh the

additional load caused by increased ventilation.

b. Daytime Tbal

From the appendices, the average clearness index for Boston in January

is k T = 0.39

H glo, north = 176 Btu/ft2

H glo, east = 352 Btu/ft2

H glo, south = 800 Btu/ft2

H glo, west = 352 Btu/ft2

From Figure 6.4, sunset occurs 4.75 hours after noon on January 21 at

42°N latitude. Therefore, the day length = 2 x 4.75 = 9.5 hours.

gain, solar, N = (176 Btu/ft2) · (60 ft2) · (0.82) / (9.5 hrs) = 912 Btu/hr

Q

gain, solar, E = (352 Btu/ft2) · (60 ft2) · (0.82) / (9.5 hrs) = 1823 Btu/hr

Q

199

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 8

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

8.5 Continued)

gain, solar, S = (800 Btu/ft2) · (60 ft2) · (0.82) / (9.5 hrs) = 4143 Btu/hr

Q

gain, solar, w = (352 Btu/ft2) · (60 ft2) · (0.82) / (9.5 hrs) = 1823 Btu/hr

Q

gain, solar, total = 912 Btu/hr + 1823 Btu/hr + 4143 Btu/hr + 1823 Btu/hr

Q

= 8701 Btu/hr

gain, lights = 9215 Btu/hr (from part a)

Q

gain, occ = 2295 Btu/hr (from part a)

Q

Q

Tbal = Ti – Q (from Equation 8.2)

Nighttime Tbal

Q

gain, lights = 1536 Btu/hr

Q (from part a)

gain, occ = 0 Btu/hr

Q

c. The bin data analysis is shown in the following spreadsheet. For each bin,

Q

with Ktot = 305 Btu/hr·°F and Tbal = 3.7°F during the day, and

Ktot = 261 Btu/hr·°F and Tbal = 64.1°F at night

(F) Hrs Hrs day night

(MBtu) (MBtu)

52 - 1 0 4

47 - 10 0 56

42 - 25 0 180

37 - 72 0 637

32 - 113 0 1183

27 - 69 0 835

22 - 91 0 838

17 - 36 0 553

12 - 28 0 476

7 - 21 0 391

2 0 0 0 0

Total 5153

200

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 8

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

8.6)

GIVEN: House in New York City with Ktot = 200 W/K; Q gain = 1000 W; ηheat =

0.80; heat capacity of house is negligible.

FIND: The energy savings if the thermostat is reduced from 21ºC to 16ºC 12

hrs/day.

SOLUTION:

Q g

Tbal = Ti − (eq. 8.2)

K tot

1000 W

Tbal , 21 = 21 C −

= 16 C

200 W / C

1000 W

Tbal ,16 = 16 C −

= 11 C

200 W / C

Dh (16ºC) = 2335 ºC-days (Fig. 8.3)

Dh (11ºC) = 1275 ºC-days (Fig. 8.3)

K tot

Q h , yr = (eq. 8.6)

η h Dh (Tbal )

200 W / K

Q h , yr = = 50.4 GJ

(0.8)(2335K ⋅ days)(24hrs / day )(3600s / hr )

200 W / K

Q h , yr = = 39.0 GJ

(0.8)[2335 K ⋅ days + 1275 K ⋅ days)](24hrs / day )(3600s / hr )

The savings would not be as great if the inertia were taken into account. With

heat capacity, the average Ti would be higher resulting in more losses.

201

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 8

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

8.8)

FIND: Cooling degree days using Fig. 8.3 and Table on CD showing annual

average outdoor temperatures

SOLUTION:

To,av = 53.8ºF

Tbal = 72ºF

Dh(72ºF) = 6400ºF-days (Fig. 8.3)

Dc(72ºF) = -243ºF-days

therefore, 0ºF-days.

202

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 8

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

8.9)

FIND: τ and the time it takes for the temperature to drop from Ti to T2

SOLUTION:

τ = RC = C/Ktot (eq. 8.32)

τ = (2.4GJ/K)(1 x 106 kJ/GJ) / 30 kJ/s-K = 8 x 104 s

τ = 22.2 hrs

15ºC = (20ºC)exp(-t/22.2hrs)

0.75 = exp(-t/22.2hrs)

ln(0.75) = -t/22.2hrs

t = 6.4 hrs

203

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 8

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

8.13)

GIVEN: The house of Ex.7.5 (Fig. 7.7) has a forced air heating system with

some air ducts placed directly along the outside walls. The total duct

surface is 20 m2, and the portion in contact with the outside wall is 4 m2;

the surface heat transfer coefficient inside the duct is 20 W/m2. The hot

air is distributed at 60ºC when the furnace is running; when the furnace

is off assume for simplicity that the duct is at Ti=20ºC. Thus on average

the temperature rise above Ti of the duct is proportional to the load.

FIND:

a) How much do these duct losses increase the peak heating load, in

absolute and in relative terms?

b) How much does the annual energy consumption for heating increase,

in absolute and in relative terms?

c) How would these answers change if the duct were insulated with 2.5

cm of glass wool?

d) What is the payback time of adding this glass wool insulation if the

house is heated with natural gas at $5 per GJ, the furnace efficiency

is 90%, and the glass wool costs $25?

SOLUTION:

a) It is not necessary to consider the 16 m2 of duct that does not contact the

exterior wall, since this heat is rejected to the heated space.

From Ex.7.5, Uwall = 0.40 W/(m2-K)

Total U-value from forced air to outdoors is:

−1

§ 1 1 1 ·

U tot = ¨¨ + + ¸¸

© U wall ho hduct ¹

−1

§ 1 1 1 · W

U tot = ¨ + + ¸ = 0.388 2

© 0.40 34.0 20 ¹ m ⋅K

W

Q = UA∆T = 0.388 2 ⋅ 4 m 2 ⋅ (60 − (−10)) = 108.6 W

m ⋅K

Without the duct, the U-value and heat loss over these 4 m2 would be:

−1

§ 1 1 1· W

U tot = ¨¨ + + ¸¸ = 0.377 2

© U wall ho hi ¹ m ⋅K

W

Q = UA∆T = 0.377 2 ⋅ 4 m 2 ⋅ (20 − (−10)) = 45.3 W

m ⋅K

Therefore, the increase in peak heating load:

204

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 8

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

8.13 continued)

For the total heating load, using the heat transmission coefficient found in

Ex.7.5:

W

Q building = K tot (Ti − To ) = 205 (20 − (−10)) = 6150 W

K

Therefore, the increase in the heating load is:

Qadded 63.3

= = 1%

Qbuilding 6150

K tot Dh

b) Qh , yr =

ηh

205W / K ⋅ 2800 K ⋅ days ⋅ 24h / day ⋅ 3600 s / h

Qh , yr = = 55.10 GJ / yr

0 .9

With the duct against the wall, Ktot is increased by 2.11 W/K.

207.11W / K ⋅ 2800 K ⋅ days ⋅ 24h / day ⋅ 3600 s / h

Qh , yr = = 55.67 GJ / yr

0 .9

Annual heating load increases by 0.57 GJ/yr, or 1%.

From the CD, Table of Building Materials,

Glass fiber, organic bonded kwool = 0.036 W/(m-K)

k 0.036 W

U wool = = = 1.44 2

∆x 0.025 m ⋅K

−1

§ 1 1 1 1 ·

U tot = ¨¨ + + + ¸¸

© U wall ho hduct U wool ¹

−1

§ 1 1 1 1 · W

U tot =¨ + + + ¸ = 0.305

© 0.40 34.0 20 1.44 ¹ m2 ⋅ K

W

Q = UA∆T = 0.305 2 ⋅ 4 m 2 ⋅ (60 − (−10)) = 85.5 W

m ⋅K

Without the duct, the U-value and heat loss over these 4 m2 would be:

−1

§ 1 1 1· W

U tot = ¨¨ + + ¸¸ = 0.377

© U wall ho hi ¹ m2 ⋅ K

W

Q = UA∆T = 0.377 ⋅ 4 m 2 ⋅ (20 − (−10)) = 45.3 W

m ⋅K

2

Q added = 85.5 − 45.3

Q added = 40.2 W

205

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 8

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

8.13 continued)

Qadded 40.2

= = 0.65%

Qbuilding 6150

K tot Dh

Qh , yr =

ηh

205W / K ⋅ 2800 K ⋅ days ⋅ 24h / day ⋅ 3600 s / h

Qh , yr = = 55.09 GJ / yr

0 .9

With the duct against the wall, Ktot is increased by 1.34 W/K:

206.34W / K ⋅ 2800 K ⋅ days ⋅ 24h / day ⋅ 3600 s / h

Qh , yr = = 55.46 GJ / yr

0 .9

Annual heating load increases by 0.36 GJ/yr, or 0.66%.

d) Payback:

$25

Payback =

$1.05 / yr

Payback = 23.8 yrs

206

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 8

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

8.15)

GIVEN: Consider a house with Ktot = 500 Btu/hr-ºF and Ti = 70ºF, constant

during the entire heating season.

FIND:

a) What average internal heat gain due to solar, lights, people, and

equipment would be required to give a balance temperature of 65ºF?

b) Using the degree-day data of Figure 8.3, what is the annual heating

energy consumption if the house is heated with a furnace have a

constant efficiency of 82%?

c) What would be the annual heating energy consumption if the house

was moved to a location with the bin data in the following table?

Temperature Nbin

(ºF) (hours)

52.5 32

57.5 180

62.5 300

67.5 620

SOLUTION:

a) Q gain = K tot (Ti − Tbal )

Q = 500(70 − 65)

gain

Btu

Q gain = 2,500

hr

K

Qh , yr = tot Dh (Tbal )

ηh

Btu

500

hr ⋅

F

F ⋅ days hr

Qh , yr = ⋅ 5000 ⋅ 24

0.82 yr day

Qh , yr = 73.2 MBtu / yr

K tot

c) Qbin = N bin (Tbal − To ) +

η

207

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 8

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

8.15 continued)

Temperature Nbin Qbin

(ºF) (hours) (MBtu)

52.5 32 5.9

57.5 180 19.8

62.5 300 11.0

67.5 620 --

Σ= 36.6

Qh , yr = 36.6 MBtu / yr

208

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 8

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

8.16)

GIVEN: Building from Example 8.1 and Figure 7.7. Assume the internal

temperature remains constant through the year and that the house is

slab-on-grade construction with uniform horizontal insulation under the

slab. The insulation is 2.5 cm of polyisocyanurate (conductivity of 0.02

W/m-K).

FIND: The annual mean and peak heat gain/loss from this slab.

New York. From the CD: To,avg = 12.5ºC To,winter,des = -11.7ºC

To,summer,des = 33.33ºC.

SOLUTION:

k 0.02 W 1 1 m 2 ⋅W

U ins = = = 0 .8 2 Rth = = = 1.25

∆x 0.025 m ⋅K U 0.8 K

Q edge = F2 P(Ti − To )

W

F2 = 0.85

m⋅K

P = 48 m

Average loss:

Q avg = 0.85 ⋅ 48 ⋅ (20 − 12.5)

Q avg = 306 W

Max loss:

Q avg = 0.85 ⋅ 48 ⋅ (20 − (−11.7))

Max gain:

Q avg = 0.85 ⋅ 48 ⋅ (20 − 33.33)

209

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

Chapter 9

210

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.1)

GIVEN: Type 3 gas furnace; DDh = 6500ºF-days; Qfuel = 100 MBtu; Ts = 72ºF;

New Ts = 68ºF

ASSUMPTIONS: Ktot and Q gain remain the same at the new Ts.

SOLUTION:

AFUE = 78% (Table 9.1)

Qyr = 78 MBtu

Ktot = 78 MBtu / 6500ºF-days

Use Fig. 8.3 to find the new degree-days at the new Ts. A line is not drawn

for Chicago, but Washington D.C. shows almost the same degree-days at

72ºF, so can be used to estimate Chicago’s. Also, the slopes of the lines for

New York, Denver, and Washington D.C. are very similar at the higher

balance point temperatures, giving more validity to the idea of using

Washington D.C. data to estimate Chicago’s.

The new DDh is therefore,

DDh = 5500ºF-days

Qyr = 66 MBtu

Qfuel = 84.6 MBtu

211

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.2)

GIVEN: Qh = 120 MBtu; oil heating value = 140 MBtu/gal; oil cost = $1.05/gal;

Replacing standard oil-fired furnace with condensing type; condensing

furnace costs $800 more than replacing standard type.

FIND: Gallons of oil saved, annual cost saving, and simple payback of

condensing furnace.

time.

SOLUTION:

AFUE = 91% for condensing oil furnace

Standard: Qfuel,1 = 120 MBtu / 0.71 = 169 MBtu

Condensing: Qfuel,2 = 120 MBtu / 0.91 = 132 Mbtu

Oil Savings = 37 x 106 Btu / (140 x 103 Btu/gal oil)

Oil Savings = 264 gal oil

Annual cost savings = $277/yr

Simple Payback = $800 / ($277/yr)

Simple Payback = 2.9 years

212

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.5)

GIVEN: Flue gas analysis: 11% CO2, 5% O2, 83.5% N2, 0.5% CO.

SOLUTION:

O2 − 0.5CO

f exc ,air = (eq. 9.5)

0.264 N 2 − (O2 − 0.5CO )

5 − 0.5(0.5)

f exc ,air =

0.264(83.5) − (5 − 0.5(0.5))

f exc ,air = 27.5%

10% and 50% so adjustments are not necessary.

213

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.7)

CH4 + 2O2 Æ CO2 + 2H2O

SOLUTION:

MW CH4 = 16

MW O2 = 32

The equation for combustion shows that 2 moles of oxygen are needed for

every one mole of methane. Avogadro’s Law states that a mole of any two

gases at the same temperature and pressure occupies the same volume.

Therefore, 2 ft3 of oxygen are needed for every 1 ft3 of methane.

2 ft3 / 0.23 = 8.7 ft3 of air per 1 ft3 of methane

214

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.9)

high, flat roof; Rroof = Rwalls = R20; 0.7 ACH; ignore slab losses.

FIND: Estimate the boiler input heat rating using a “rule of thumb”. Check the

estimate by calculation. Select boilers for the warehouse.

ASSUMPTIONS: Ti = 60ºF

SOLUTION:

Input heat rating = 1/3 to 1/5 x ∆Tdes x Afl

assume 1/5 since it is well-insulated.

Input heat rating = 1/5 x (60ºF - 0ºF)(200,000 ft2) = Qin

Qin = 2400 kBtu

By calculation,

Aroof = 200,000 ft2

Awalls = (200,000 ft2)1/2 x 10 ft x 4 = 17,890 ft2

AT

K tot = + ρc pV

RT

200,000 ft 2 + 17,890 ft 2 Btu ac

K tot = + (0.018 3 )(0.7 )(200,000 ft 2 ⋅ 10 ft / ac)

20hr ⋅ ft ⋅ F

2

ft ⋅ F hr

Btu

K tot = 36,095

hr ⋅ F

Q h = K tot (Ti − Tdes )

Btu kBtu

Q h = 36,095 (60 F − 0 F ) = 2166

hr ⋅ F

hr

However, Qh is the heat load, not the input heat rating. Assuming an

efficiency of 80%:

Q 2166kBtu

Q in = h =

η 0.8

Q = 2708 kBtu

in

Two model 686 with output of 1160 kBtu each would satisfy the load.

215

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.13)

GIVEN: Boiler with peak efficiency η = 0.90 and peak load of 5 MBtu/hr

FIGURE: P9.13

SOLUTION:

At 45% load, PLR = 0.45, Q in / Q in , full = 0.52

At 80% load, PLR = 0.80, Q in / Q in , full = 0.83

At 45% load, Q o = 0.45(5MBtu / hr ) = 2.25MBtu / hr

At 80% load, Q = 0.80(5MBtu / hr ) = 4.0 MBtu / hr

o

At full load,

Q o, full

η = 0.90 =

Q in , full

5MBtu / hr

Q in , full = = 5.56 MBtu / hr

0 .9

At 45% load,

Q in / Q in , full = 0.52

Q = 0.52(5.56 MBtu / hr ) = 2.89 MBtu / hr

in

Q o 2.25

η= = = 78%

Q in 2.89

At 80% load,

Q / Q

in = 0.83

in , full

Q 4.0

η= o = = 87%

Qin 4.61

216

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.15)

Q =11 MBtu/hr; ηfull = 0.82; Q / Q

boil , full = 0.10 + 0.9 PLR ; Ti = 72ºF

i i , full

FIND: Annual energy consumption, annually averaged efficiency, and the annual

PLR of the boiler.

SOLUTION:

First, find the overall building KTOT from the known condition at –2.5ºF:

Q 10MBtu Btu

K TOT = = = 1.34 ⋅ 10 5 at peak load

(Ti − Ta ) (72 − (−2.5)) F

hr F

Use the following equations to set up a spreadsheet with bin data from the

CD for Denver.

Q o

PLR =

Q o, full

Q out , full

Q in , full =

η full

Q = Q

in (0.10 + 0.9 PLR )

in , full

Q out

η=

Qin

Net Output = Q out ⋅ N bin

217

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.15 continued)

Qboil,full = 11 MBtu/hr

ηfull = 0.82

Ktot = 1.34E+05 Btu/hr-F

Tbal = 62 F

Heating

Load, Fuel Net

Bin Temp Bin Size Qout Qin Boiler Used Output

(F) (hrs) (MBtu/hr) PLR (Mbtu/hr) Efficiency (MBtu) (MBtu)

57 731 0.67 0.061 2.08 0.323 1518 490

52 678 1.34 0.122 2.81 0.476 1907 909

47 704 2.01 0.183 3.55 0.567 2497 1415

42 692 2.68 0.244 4.28 0.626 2964 1855

37 717 3.35 0.305 5.02 0.668 3598 2402

32 721 4.02 0.365 5.75 0.699 4148 2898

27 553 4.69 0.426 6.49 0.723 3588 2594

22 359 5.36 0.487 7.22 0.742 2594 1924

17 216 6.03 0.548 7.96 0.758 1719 1302

12 119 6.7 0.609 8.70 0.771 1035 797

7 78 7.37 0.670 9.43 0.782 736 575

2 36 8.04 0.731 10.17 0.791 366 289

-3 22 8.71 0.792 10.90 0.799 240 192

-8 6 9.38 0.853 11.64 0.806 70 56

-13 1 10.05 0.914 12.37 0.812 12 10

-18 1 10.72 0.975 13.11 0.818 13 11

Σ= 27005 17719

The annual energy consumption is the total of the “Fuel Used” column,

Annual Energy consumption = 27,005 MBtu/yr.

The annual efficiency is the totaled output column divided by the totaled fuel

used column,

Annual Efficiency =66%

The annual PLR can be calculated by taking tha weighted average of the PLR

values.

PLR = (PLR1(Nbin1) + PLR2(Nbin2) + PLR3(Nbin3)…) / Total Hours

Annual PLR =0.286

218

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.16)

FIND: Annual energy consumption, annually averaged efficiency, and the annual

PLR of the boiler using the HCB software.

SOLUTION:

The site location, Tbal, ηboiler, and the maximum boiler input are entered into

the PLR analysis of a steam boiler portion of the HCB software. The PLR

equation coefficients are also entered. The printouts of the software are

shown below. Due to the nature of the program, one must use the leaders on

the input screen to specify balance temp, heat loss coefficient, max boiler

input, and boiler efficiency. These leaders only allow for certain accuracy,

and values for inputs can be made close, but not exact (e.g. 61.9 rather than

62ºF balance temp). These differences have fairly negligible impacts on

results of the analysis.

219

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.16 continued)

220

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.19)

GIVEN: Gas boiler to supply space heat to building. Tbal = 57.5ºF; Q in, full = 8750

kBtu/hr; Q = 7000 kBtu/hr; ηfull = 0.80; Bin temperatures and hours,

o , full

and corresponding heating loads are given in Table 9.5. Three boilers

Q i

each with capacity Q o, full /3 are used. = 0.1 + 1.6( PLR ) − 0.7( PLR ) 2

Qi , full

SOLUTION:

A spreadsheet solution is shown below. The first three columns are taken

from Table 9.5. As an example, the calculations for the 22.5ºF bin are shown.

Bin Fuel

Range Bin Load Qin1 Qin2 Qin3 Qin,t Used

(F) (hr) (kBtu/hr) PLR1 PLR2 PLR3 (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (MBtu)

57.5 762 0 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

52.5 783 500 0.21 -- -- 1198 -- -- 1198 938

47.5 716 1000 0.43 -- -- 1917 -- -- 1917 1372

42.5 665 1500 0.64 -- -- 2448 -- -- 2448 1628

37.5 758 2000 0.86 -- -- 2792 -- -- 2792 2116

32.5 713 2500 1.00 0.07 -- 2917 615 -- 3532 2519

27.5 565 3000 1.00 0.29 -- 2917 1459 -- 4376 2473

22.5 399 3500 1.00 0.50 -- 2917 2115 -- 5032 2008

17.5 164 4000 1.00 0.71 -- 2917 2584 -- 5501 902

12.5 106 4500 1.00 0.93 -- 2917 2865 -- 5782 613

7.5 65 5000 1.00 1.00 0.14 2917 2917 918 6752 439

2.5 80 5500 1.00 1.00 0.36 2917 2917 1699 7533 603

-2.5 22 6000 1.00 1.00 0.57 2917 2917 2293 8127 179

Σ = 15789.3

Q o

PLR = (eq. 9.8)

Q o , full

at 22.5ºF

PLR1 = MIN[1.0, 3500 kBtu/hr/(2333 kBtu/hr)]

PLR1 = MIN[1.0, 1.2] = 1.0

PLR2 = MAX[0.0, (3500 kBtu/hr - 2333 kBtu/hr)/2333 kBtu/hr]

PLR2 = MAX[0.0, 0.5] = 0.5

8750kBtu / hr kBtu

Q i , full = = 2917 for each boiler

3 hr

221

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.19 continued)

at 22.5 ºF

kBtu kBtu

Q in ,1 = 2917 [0.1 + 1.6(1.0) − 0.7(1.0) 2 ] = 2917

hr hr

kBtu kBtu

Q in , 2 = 2917 [0.1 + 1.6(0.5) − 0.7(0.5) 2 ] = 2115

hr hr

Qin ,t = Qin ,1 + Qin , 2 + Qin ,3

at 22.5ºF

kBtu kBtu

Q in ,t = (2917 + 2115) = 5032

hr hr

Fuel used = Qin ,t (# bin hrs )

At 22.5ºF

Fuel used = (5032 kBtu/hr)(399 hrs) = 2008 MBtu

The total annual fuel energy use is the sum of the “fuel used” column:

Qtotal = 15,800 MBtu

The energy saved was:

Qtotal – Qtotal’ = 6000 MBtu or 27%

222

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.21)

GIVEN: Tsource = 48ºF; 40 meals/hr peak; 280 meals/ day daily total;

Vr = 40 gal/hr

FIND: The peak and daily water heating loads. The size of the storage tank to

meet the recovery rate.

SOLUTION:

maximum hourly demand =1.5 gal/max meals/hr

average daily demand = 2.4 gal/avg. meals/day

Daily demand = 2.4 gal/(meals/day)*(280 meals) = 672 gal/day

Peak:

m w = Vw ρ w

ρw at 140ºF = 0.9832(63.42 lbm/ft3) = 62.35 lbm/ft3

gal 1 ft 3 lb lb

m w = 60 ( )(62.35 m3 ) = 500.1 m

hr 7.481gal ft hr

Btu

c w = 1.0

lbm F

lb Btu

Q peak = 500.1 m (1.0

)(140 F − 48 F ) = 46.0 kBtu/hr

hr lbm F

Daily:

gal 1 ft 3 lb lb

m w = 672

( )(62.35 m3 ) = 5600 m

day 7.481gal ft hr

Btu

c w = 1.0

lbm F

lb Btu

Q peak = 5600 m (1.0

)(140 F − 48 F ) = 515.3 kBtu/day

hr lbm F

( f usefulVtan k )

Vwater = Vr +

∆t

gal gal (0.8Vtan k )

60 = 40 + Vtan k = 75 gal

hr hr 3hrs

223

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.23)

GIVEN: Carnot heat pump in Nashville; TH = 70ºF, TL varies; Ktot= 500 Btu/hr-ºF,

Tbal = 64ºF; Q o , full = 16,000 Btu/hr at 32ºF

SOLUTION:

Bin data are taken from the CD and are shown in the first two columns of the

spreadsheet below.

Bin Heat HP Aux. Heat Energy

Temp Bin Load Output HP Input Power Output Input

(F) (hrs) (Btu/hr) COP (Btu/hr) (Btu/hr) (Btu/hr) (kBtu) (kBtu)

62 738 1000 66.3 1000 15 0 738 11

57 697 3500 40.8 3500 86 0 2440 60

52 637 6000 29.4 6000 204 0 3822 130

47 619 8500 23.0 8500 369 0 5262 228

42 627 11000 18.9 11000 581 0 6897 364

37 565 13500 16.1 13500 841 0 7628 475

32 463 16000 13.9 16000 1147 0 7408 531

27 263 18500 12.3 14140 1147 4360 4866 1449

22 132 21000 11.0 12667 1147 8333 2772 1251

17 67 23500 10.0 11472 1147 12028 1575 883

12 28 26000 9.1 10483 1147 15517 728 467

7 9 28500 8.4 9651 1147 18849 257 180

2 3 31000 7.8 8941 1147 22059 93 70

-3 1 33500 7.3 8329 1147 25171 34 26

-8 1 36000 6.8 7795 1147 28205 36 29

Σ= 44553 6154

QH TH

COPhp = = (eq. 3.30)

W TH − T L

TH = 70ºF + 460 = 530ºR

TL = (Tbin + 460)ºR

HP output equals the heat load until the temperature drops below 32ºF, the

heat pump output equals COPhp(W in), where Win is calculated by:

Q o , full

W in , full =

COP32

224

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.23 continued)

Heat pump input equals the heat pump output divided by the COP for the bins

32ºF and warmer. Below 32ºF, the heat pump input = W in , full .

(In reality, the heat pump input would always be W , but it would cycle on

in , full

QH

COPseasonal =

Win

44553kBtu

COPseasonal =

6154kBtu

44553kBtu

COPseasonal =

6154kBtu

COPseasonal = 7.2

225

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.25)

FIND: The heat pump balance point for each heat pump.

SOLUTION:

Btu

Q = K tot (Tbal − To ) = 1700 (66 F − To )

hr F

To (ºF) Q (Btu/hr)

70 --

60 10200

50 27200

40 44200

30 61200

20 78200

10 95200

0 112200

Plot these values on P9.25. The intersection of this line and the heat pump

line is the heat pump balance point.

Capacity Balance Point

4 tons 40ºF

5 tons 35ºF

7.5 tons 27ºF

10 tons 21ºF

226

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.27)

FIGURE: P9.27

FIND: SPF of model C, B, A heat pumps and the overall heating SPF for each

system.

SOLUTION:

The bin temperatures and hours are taken from the CD. The heat load for

each bin is calculated:

Btu

Q h = K tot (Tbal − Tbin ) = 700 (68 F − Tbin )

hr F

The “Max. HP Output” and the “max. HP Input” are from figure P9.27.

HPout

COP =

HPin

HPoutoput = MIN ( Heat Load , Max. HPoutput )

HPinput = HPoutput / COP

Aux. Power = Heat Load − HPoutput

HPoutput (energy ) = HPoutput ⋅ N bin

HPinput (energy ) = HPinput ⋅ N bin

Aux.input = Aux. Power ⋅ N bin

a) Model C

Heating

Bin Bin Load, Max HP Max HP HP Aux. HP HP Aux.

Temp Size Qout Output Input Output HP Input Power Output Input Power

(F) (hrs) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kW) COP (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu) (kBtu) (kBtu)

67 575 0.7 34.2 4.10 2.44 0.70 0.29 0.00 403 165 0

62 643 4.2 33.8 4.00 2.48 4.20 1.70 0.00 2701 1090 0

57 702 7.7 33.0 3.90 2.48 7.70 3.10 0.00 5405 2180 0

52 786 11.2 31.8 3.80 2.45 11.20 4.57 0.00 8803 3589 0

47 798 14.7 30.3 3.70 2.40 14.70 6.12 0.00 11731 4888 0

42 878 18.2 28.2 3.60 2.30 18.20 7.93 0.00 15980 6960 0

37 829 21.7 25.9 3.50 2.17 21.70 10.01 0.00 17989 8295 0

32 522 25.2 23.7 3.40 2.04 23.70 11.60 1.50 12371 6056 783

27 307 28.7 21.5 3.30 1.91 21.50 11.26 7.20 6601 3457 2210

22 148 32.2 19.6 3.20 1.80 19.60 10.92 12.60 2901 1616 1865

17 53 35.7 17.6 3.10 1.66 17.60 10.58 18.10 933 561 959

12 26 39.2 15.8 3.00 1.54 15.80 10.24 23.40 411 266 608

7 14 42.7 14.0 2.90 1.41 14.00 9.89 28.70 196 139 402

2 6 46.2 12.6 2.80 1.32 12.60 9.55 33.60 76 57 202

-3 2 49.7 11.1 2.70 1.20 11.10 9.21 38.60 22 18 77

Σ = 86521 39336 7107

227

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.27 Continued)

HPoutput 86521

SPFHP = = SPFHP = 2.20

HPinput 39336

( HPoutput + Auxinput ) (86521 + 7107)

SPFSYS = = SPFHP = 2.01

( HPinput + Auxinput ) (39336 + 7107)

b) Model B

Heating

Bin Bin Load, Max HP Max HP HP Aux. HP HP Aux.

Temp Size Qout Output Input Output HP Input Power Output Input Power

(F) (hrs) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kW) COP (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu) (kBtu) (kBtu)

67 575 0.7 35.4 4.30 2.41 0.70 0.29 0.00 403 167 0

62 643 4.2 35.0 4.20 2.44 4.20 1.72 0.00 2701 1106 0

57 702 7.7 34.1 4.10 2.44 7.70 3.16 0.00 5405 2218 0

52 786 11.2 32.9 3.90 2.47 11.20 4.53 0.00 8803 3561 0

47 798 14.7 31.4 3.80 2.42 14.70 6.07 0.00 11731 4844 0

42 878 18.2 29.2 3.70 2.31 18.20 7.87 0.00 15980 6909 0

37 829 21.7 27.0 3.60 2.20 21.70 9.87 0.00 17989 8184 0

32 522 25.2 24.6 3.50 2.06 24.60 11.94 0.60 12841 6234 313

27 307 28.7 22.5 3.40 1.94 22.50 11.60 6.20 6908 3561 1903

22 148 32.2 20.6 3.30 1.83 20.60 11.26 11.60 3049 1666 1717

17 53 35.7 18.5 3.20 1.69 18.50 10.92 17.20 981 579 912

12 26 39.2 16.6 3.10 1.57 16.60 10.58 22.60 432 275 588

7 14 42.7 14.8 3.00 1.45 14.80 10.24 27.90 207 143 391

2 6 46.2 13.2 2.90 1.33 13.20 9.89 33.00 79 59 198

-3 2 49.7 11.7 2.80 1.22 11.70 9.55 38.00 23 19 76

Σ = 87531 39524 6097

87531

SPFHP = SPFHP = 2.21

39524

(87531 + 6097)

SPFSYS = SPFHP = 2.05

(39524 + 6097)

Model A

Heating

Bin Bin Load, Max HP Max HP HP Aux. HP HP Aux.

Temp Size Qout Output Input Output HP Input Power Output Input Power

(F) (hrs) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kW) COP (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu) (kBtu) (kBtu)

67 575 0.7 27.4 3.60 2.23 0.70 0.31 0.00 403 180 0

62 643 4.2 27.1 3.60 2.21 4.20 1.90 0.00 2701 1224 0

57 702 7.7 26.4 3.50 2.21 7.70 3.48 0.00 5405 2445 0

52 786 11.2 25.5 3.40 2.20 11.20 5.10 0.00 8803 4005 0

47 798 14.7 24.3 3.30 2.16 14.70 6.81 0.00 11731 5435 0

42 878 18.2 22.4 3.20 2.05 18.20 8.87 0.00 15980 7789 0

37 829 21.7 20.4 3.10 1.93 20.40 10.58 1.30 16912 8768 1078

32 522 25.2 18.3 3.00 1.79 18.30 10.24 6.90 9553 5343 3602

27 307 28.7 16.4 2.90 1.66 16.40 9.89 12.30 5035 3038 3776

22 148 32.2 14.6 2.80 1.53 14.60 9.55 17.60 2161 1414 2605

17 53 35.7 13.0 2.70 1.41 13.00 9.21 22.70 689 488 1203

12 26 39.2 11.7 2.60 1.32 11.70 8.87 27.50 304 231 715

7 14 42.7 10.6 2.50 1.24 10.60 8.53 32.10 148 119 449

2 6 46.2 9.5 2.40 1.16 9.50 8.19 36.70 57 49 220

-3 2 49.7 8.6 2.30 1.10 8.60 7.85 41.10 17 16 82

Σ = 79898 40545 13730

228

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.27 Continued)

79898

SPFHP = SPFHP = 1.97

40545

(87531 + 13730)

SPFSYS = SPFHP = 1.90

(39524 + 13730)

Model B has the highest SPFsys, so uses the least energy overall. Model A

uses the most energy and requires a large amount of auxiliary energy. Model

C is very close to Model B in performance, so may be chosen if its capital

cost is significantly lower than model B’s.

229

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.29)

FIGURE: P9.27

FIND: SPF of model C, B, A heat pumps and the overall heating SPF for each

system using the HCB software.

SOLUTION:

Use the “Building simulation” section of the HCB software. In the load

calculations example change the default values (“enter building data”) to get

Ktot = 650 Btu/hr-ºF and Tbal = 68ºF. Check your changes in the “Bin

Calculations” section. When Ktot = 650 Btu/hr-ºF and Tbal = 68ºF proceed to

“configure Heat Pump” and enter the data from Fig. P9.29. The printouts

from the software using Model A heat pump are shown below.

230

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.29 continued)

231

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.29 continued)

232

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.31)

GIVEN: Ktot = 800 Btu/hr-ºF, Tbal = 64.5ºF; Models D and F heat pumps in Fig

P9.27.

FIGURE: P9.27

SOLUTION:

To solve this problem one can graph the building load vs. temperature and

the heat pump capacity vs. temperature. The intersection of the lines is the

heat pump balance point.

The heat pump capacity vs. temperature is provided in P9.27. The Load vs.

temperature is found from:

Btu

Q = K tot (Tbal − To ) = 800 (64.5 F − To )

hr F

Heat Pump Balance Point

70

model D

60 model F

Building Load

50

Capacity or Load (kBtu/hr)

40

30

20

10

0

-30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Temperature (F)

The balance point for model F is 27ºF.

233

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.36)

GIVEN: Ground source heat pump, Tsource = 48ºF; Ktot = 700 Btu/hr-ºF, Tbal =

68ºF; Location is Boise, Idaho; Heat pump model C in Fig P9.27.

FIGURE: P9.27

SOLUTION:

From Figure P9.27, find the heat pump input and output at 48ºF for model C.

At 52ºF, hp output = 31.8 kBtu/hr

At 47ºF, hp output = 30.3 kBtu/hr

Interpolating, at 48ºF, hp output = 30.6 kBtu/hr

At 47ºF, hp input = 3.7 kW

Interpolating, at 48ºF, hp output = 3.72 kW = 12.7 kBtu/hr

Heating

Bin Bin Load, HP Aux. HP HP Aux.

Temp Size Qout Output HP Input Power Output Input Power

(F) (hrs) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu) (kBtu) (kBtu)

67 575 0.7 0.70 0.29 0.00 403 167 0

62 643 4.2 4.20 1.74 0.00 2701 1121 0

57 702 7.7 7.70 3.20 0.00 5405 2243 0

52 786 11.2 11.20 4.65 0.00 8803 3653 0

47 798 14.7 14.70 6.10 0.00 11731 4867 0

42 878 18.2 18.20 7.55 0.00 15980 6631 0

37 829 21.7 21.70 9.00 0.00 17989 7464 0

32 522 25.2 25.20 10.46 0.00 13154 5458 0

27 307 28.7 28.70 11.91 0.00 8811 3656 0

22 148 32.2 32.20 13.36 0.00 4766 1977 0

17 53 35.7 30.60 12.70 5.10 1622 673 270

12 26 39.2 30.60 12.70 8.60 796 330 224

7 14 42.7 30.60 12.70 12.10 428 178 169

2 6 46.2 30.60 12.70 15.60 184 76 94

-3 2 49.7 30.60 12.70 19.10 61 25 38

Σ = 92833 38520 795

HPoutput 92833

SPFHP = = SPFHP = 2.41

HPinput 38520

( HPoutput + Auxinput ) (92833 + 795)

SPFSYS = = SPFHP = 2.38

( HPinput + Auxinput ) (38520 + 795)

234

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.37)

GIVEN: Double pipe, counter-flow heat exchanger between two water streams;

Vcold = 300 gpm, Vhot = 500 gpm, Tci = 50ºF, Tco = 100ºF, Thi = 115ºF

SOLUTION:

m cold (Tco − Tci ) = m hot (Thi − Tho ) ; ρ ⋅ c p ,cold = ρ ⋅ c p ,hot

300 gpm(100 F − 50 F ) = 500 gpm(115 F − Tho )

Tho = 85 F

∆T2 = Tho − Tci = 85 F − 50 F = 35 F

∆T1 − ∆T2 15 − 30

LMTD = = = 21.6 F (eq. 9.16)

ln(∆T1 / ∆T2 ) ln(15 / 30)

Q = m c p ∆T

m = ρV

on the cold side the average ρ,

ρ = 0.9973 x 63.42 lbm/ft3 = 63.25 lbm/ft3 (from CD prop. of water at 75ºF)

cp = 1.0 Btu/lbm-ºF

lb gal 1 ft 3 Btu

Q = 63.25 m3 (300 )( )(1.0 )(100 F − 50 F )

ft min 7.481gal lbm F

kBtu MBtu

Q = 126.8 = 7 .6

hr hr

Q 7.6MBtu / hr

U o Ao = = (eq. 9.15)

LMTD 21.6 F

kBtu

U o Ao = 352

hr F

Q

ε= (eq. 2.32)

(m c p ) min (Thi − Tci )

ρc pVc (Tco − Tci ) (100 F − 50 F )

ε= =

ρc pV (Thi − Tci ) (115 F − 50 F )

ε = 0.77

235

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.40)

GIVEN: Counter-flow heat exchanger between two water steams; Thi = 60ºC,

m h = 12 kg/s, Tci = 8ºC, Tco = 42ºC, m c = 15 kg/s

FIND: UoAo, ε

SOLUTION:

kg kg

15 (42 C − 8 C ) = 12 (60 C − Tho )

s s

Tho = 17.5 C

∆T2 = Tho − Tci = 17.5 C − 8 C = 9.5 C

LMTD = = = 13.3 C (eq. 9.16)

ln(∆T1 / ∆T2 ) ln(18 / 9.5)

Q = m c p ∆T

kg kJ

Q = 12 (4.186 )(60 C − 17.5 C )

s kg C

Q = 2134.9kW

Q 2134.9kW

U o Ao = = (eq. 9.15)

LMTD 13.3 C

kW

U o Ao = 160.5

C

m h c p (Thi − Tho )

ε=

(m c p ) min (Thi − Tci )

m h c p = (m c p ) min

(60 C − 17.5 C )

ε=

(60 C − 8 C )

ε = 0.82

236

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.41)

GIVEN: Counter-flow heat exchanger between two water steams; Thi = 60ºC,

m h = 12 kg/s, Tci = 10ºC, m c = 15 kg/s, UoAo = 0.8(117.7 kW/ºC)

FIND: ε and Q . By how much does the hot fluid inlet temperature have to be

increased to achieve the same heat transfer rate in 9.40.

SOLUTION:

kW kW

U o Ao = (1.0 − 0.18)(160.5

) = 131.6

C C

Q

U o Ao =

LMTD

Q = m c (Tco − Tci ) = m h (Thi − Tho ) ; c p ,c = c p , h

kg kg

15 (Tco − 8 C ) = 12 (60 C − Tho )

s s

12

Tco = (60 C − Tho ) + 8 C

15

∆T2 = Tho − Tci = Tho − 8 C

∆T1 − ∆T2

LMTD = (eq. 9.16)

ln(∆T1 / ∆T2 )

12

plugging in Tco = (60 C − Tho ) + 8 C into the LMTD equation will result in one

15

equation and one unknown.

(60 − (0.8(60 − Tho ) + 8) − (Tho − 8))

LMTD =

§ 60 − (0.8(60 − Tho ) + 8) ·

ln¨¨ ¸¸

© (T ho − 8) ¹

(12 − 0.2Tho )

LMTD =

§ 4 + 0.8Tho ·

ln¨¨ ¸¸

© (Tho − 8) ¹

Q

U o Ao =

LMTD

Q = mh c p (Thi − Tho )

kg kJ

Q = 12 (4.186 )(60 C − Tho ) = 3014kW − (50.2Tho )kW

s kg C

237

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 9

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

9.41 continued)

(12 − 0.2Tho )

131.6 = (3014 − (50.2Tho )) /

§ 4 + 0.8Tho ·

ln¨¨ ¸¸

© (Tho − 8) ¹

by trial and error, Tho = 19.7ºC

kg kJ

Q = 12 (4.186 )(60 C − 19.7 C ) = 2024kW

s kg C

(T − Tho ) (60 − 19.7)

ε = hi = = 0.78

(Thi − Tci ) (60 − 8)

Q clean = 2135kW

(T − Tho )

Since, ε = 0.78 = hi

(Thi − Tci )

Thi − Tho = 0.78(Thi − Tci )

Q = 2135kW = m h c p (Thi − Tho ) = m h c p (0.78)(Thi − Tci )

kg kJ

2135kW = 12 (4.186 )(0.78)(Thi − 8 C )

s kg C

Thi = 62.5 to achieve the same output as the clean heat exchanger.

238

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

Chapter 10

239

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.1)

SOLUTION:

Center digit = Hydrogen atoms + 1

Right digit = Fluorine atoms

CCl2FCCLF2

Left digit = 2 – 1 = 1

Center digit = 0 + 1 = 1

Right digit = 3

R-113

CClF3

Left digit = 1 – 1 = 0

Center digit = 0 + 1 = 1

Right digit = 3

R-13

240

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.3)

FIGURE: 10.1

FIND: Q L , W i , COP

cycle.

SOLUTION:

a standard thermodynamics text, find the properties at each point.

h1 = 102.66 Btu/lbm, s1 = 0.2255 Btu/lbm-ºF (from CD)

h2 = 122.20 Btu/lbm (from CD)

h3 = 50.34 Btu/lbm (from CD)

lb Btu

Q L = m (h1 − h4 ) = 1000 m (102.66 − 50.34)

hr lbm

Btu

Q L = 52,320

hr

lb Btu

W i = m (h2 − h1 ) = 1000 m (122.20 − 102.66)

hr lbm

Btu

W i = 19,540

hr

Q L 52,320

COP = =

W i 19,540

COP = 2.68

tables, rather than the pressure-enthalpy diagram.

241

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.8)

GIVEN: Ideal chiller using R22; p1 = 65 psia, p2 = 250 psia; Q L = 200 tons

FIGURE: 10.1

cycle.

SOLUTION:

Using Table on CD for saturated R-22 and superheated R-22,

Point 1: p = p1 = 65 psia, saturated vapor

At p = 63.505 psia, T = 25ºF, hg = 106.65 Btu/lbm, sg = 0.222 Btu/lb-ºF

At p = 69.641 psia, T = 30ºF, hg = 107.09 Btu/lbm, sg = 0.221 Btu/lb-ºF

Interpolate for T, hg, and sg at p = 65.0 psia

T1 = 26.2ºF

h1 = 106.76 Btu/lbm

s1 = 0.222 Btu/lbm-ºR

h2 = 122.0 Btu/lbm, T2 = 145ºF (Fig. 3.4)

At p = 241.13 psia, T = 110ºF, hf = 42.422 Btu/lbm

At p = 274.73 psia, T = 120ºF, hf = 45.694 Btu/lbm

Interpolate for T and hf at p = 250 psia

T3 = 112.6ºF

h3 = 43.3 Btu/lbm

Btu / hr MBtu

Q L = 200 tons (12,000 ) = 2 .4

ton hr

QL = m r (h1 − h4 )

2.4 MBtu / hr lbm

m r = m r = 37,800

(106.76 − 43.3) Btu / lbm hr

lb kBtu

W i = 576

Btu

W i = m r (h2 − h1 ) = 37,800 m (122.0 − 106.76)

hr lbm hr

Q 2.4

COP = L = COP = 4.17

W 0.576

i

242

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.9)

GIVEN: Ideal chiller using R22 with compressor efficiency of 85% and 9ºF

superheat at the compressor inlet; p1 = 65 psia, p2 = 250 psia; chiller

capacity is 200 tons.

FIGURE: 10.1

FIND: W i , COP, Q L

cycle except inefficiencies described.

SOLUTION:

State 1: T1 = Tideal + 9ºF = 26.2ºF + 9ºF = 35.2ºF

p1 = 65 psia

h1 = 109 Btu/lbm (Fig. 3.9)

s1 = 0.23 Btu/lbm-ºR

h2,act = h1 + (1/ηc)(h2,ideal – h1)

h2,act = 109 Btu/lbm + (1/0.85)(125 Btu/lbm – 109 Btu/lbm)

h2,act = 127.8 Btu/lbm

Btu / hr MBtu

Q L = 200 tons (12,000 ) = 2 .4

ton hr

QL = mr (h1 − h4 )

2.4 MBtu / hr lb

m r = m r = 36,500 m

(109 − 43.3) Btu / lbm hr

lb kBtu

W i = 687

Btu

W i = m r (h2 − h1 ) = 36,500 m (127.8 − 109)

hr lbm hr

Q 2.4

COP = L = COP = 3.49

W

i 0.687

243

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.12)

FIGURE: 10.1

FIND: m r , p1, p3, COP. Compare COP with COP of Carnot refrigeration cycle

with Th = 125ºF, Tl = 35ºF.

cycle.

SOLUTION:

State 1: T1 = 35ºF, saturated vapor

p1 = 45.093 psia

h1 = hg = 106.71 Btu/lbm

s1 = sg = 0.219 Btu/lbm-ºF

p3 = 199.236 psia

h3 = hf = 53.33 Btu/lbm

s2 = s1 = 0.219 Btu/lbm-ºF

h2 = 119.5 Btu/lbm

Btu / hr MBtu

Q L = 200 tons (12,000 ) = 2 .4

ton hr

Q L = m r (h1 − h4 )

2.4 MBtu / hr lbm

m r = m r = 4,500

(106.71 − 53.33) Btu / lbm hr

lb kBtu

W i = 57.5

Btu

W i = m r (h2 − h1 ) = 4,500 m (119.5 − 106.71)

hr lbm hr

Q 2.4

COP = L = COP = 4.17

W 0.575

i

Tl

Carnot cycle: COPcarnot = (eq. 3.29)

Th − Tl

(35 + 460) R

COPcarnot = COP = 5.5

(125 − 35) R

The main reason the vapor compression cycle does not reach the Carnot

COP is that real refrigerants do not have ideal thermodynamic properties.

244

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.14)

0.85, 9ºF superheat at the compressor inlet.

FIGURE: 10.1

cycle except inefficiencies stated.

SOLUTION:

Ideal State 1: p1 = 55 psia, saturated vapor

Interpolating from R-22 table on CD

T1 = 17.4ºF

h1 = 105.97 Btu/lbm

s1 = 0.224 Btu/lbm-ºR

p3 = 311.66 psia

h3 = 49.064 Btu/lbm

s2 = s1 = 0.222 Btu/lbm-ºR

h2 = 125.5 Btu/lbm (Fig. 3.4)

p1 = 55 psia

h1 = 106.5 Btu/lbm

p1 = 55 psia

h1 = 106.5 Btu/lbm

Btu Btu

W ideal = m (h2 − h1 ) = m (125.5 − 105.97) = 19.53 (m )

lbm lbm

W Btu Btu

W real = ideal = 19.53 (m ) / 0.85 = 22.98 (m )

0.85 lbm lbm

Btu Btu

W real = 22.98 (m ) = m (h2 '− h1 ' ) = m (h2 '−106.5 )

lbm lbm

Btu Btu

h 2 ' = (22.98 + 106.5) = 129.5

lbm lbm

245

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.14 continued)

Btu Btu

Q L = m (h1 '− h4 ) = m (106.5 − 49.064) = 57.4 (m )

lbm lbm

Btu

W real = 22.98 (m )

lbm

W real Btu Btu

= 22.98 / 57.4

Q lb m mlb

L

= 22.98 (1055 )( ) /[57.4 ( )( )]

Q lbm Btu 3600s lbm 1hr 12,000 Btu / hr

L

W real kW

= 1.41

QL ton

246

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.17)

T3 = 210ºF; Tabs = T1 = 93ºF; m =100 lbm/min

FIGURE: 10.4

saturation; Ignore all pressure and heat losses in piping.

SOLUTION:

p4 = 0.9503 psia

p4 = p3 = p2

h4 = 68.05 Btu/lbm

Interpolating from steam saturation table on CD,

p4 = 0.142 psia

p5 = p1

Interpolating for hg at T5 = 44ºF

h5 = 1080.7 Btu/lbm

State 1: Find the intersection of p1 = 0.142 psia and T1 = 93ºF on Fig. 10.5.

X1 = 0.54 LiBr

h1 = -75 Btu/lbm

p3 = 0.9503 psia

h3 = 1154.66 Btu/lbm (from CD)

X2 = 0.68 LiBr

h2 = -25 Btu/lbm

lb

m 2 + m 3 = m 1 = 100 m (eq. 10.3)

min

m 1 X 1 = m 2 X 2 (eq. 10.4)

lb

100 m (0.54) = m 2 (0.68)

min

lb

m 2 = 39.7 m

min

247

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.17 continued)

lbm lb lb

m 3 = m 1 − m 2 = 100 − 39.7 m = 60.3 m

min min min

m 3 = m 4 = m 5

lb Btu

Q evap = m 5 (h5 − h4 ) = 60.3 m (1080.7 − 68.05)

min lbm

Btu

Q evap = 61,060 = 305 tons cooling

min

Q gen = m 3 h3 + m 2 h2 − m 1 h1

lb Btu lb Btu lb Btu

Q gen = 60.3 m (1154.7 ) + 39.7 m (−25 ) − 100 m (−75 )

min lbm min lbm min lbm

Btu

Q gen = 76,140

min

Q evap 61060

COP = =

Q gen 76,140

COP = 0.80

248

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.18)

refrigerant cycle; polytropic exponent for compressor = 1.35

FIGURE: 10.1

SOLUTION:

Interpolating, vg = 0.83 ft3/lbm = vi

( n −1) / n

npi vi ª§ po · º

w= «¨¨ ¸¸ − 1» (eq. 10.10)

n − 1 «© pi ¹ »

¬ ¼

2

lb f in ft 3

1.35(65 2 )(144 2 )(0.83 ) (1.35−1) / 1.35

in ft lbm ª§ 250 · º

w= «¨ ¸ − 1»

1.35 − 1 ¬«© 65 ¹ »¼

ft ⋅ lb f

w = 12,525

lbm

ft ⋅ lb f 1Btu

w = 12,525 ⋅ = 16.1

lbm 778.2 ft ⋅ lb f

w real = m w

lbm

m = 630.3 (see solution 10.1.8)

min

lb Btu Btu

w real = 630.3 m (16.1 ) = 10,150

min lbm min

w 9600

η comp = ideal =

w real 10,150

η comp = 94.6%

249

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.20)

Btu/lb, m = 630.3 lb/min (see solution 10.8)

SOLUTION:

1/ 2

ª Btu 778.2 ft ⋅ lb f ft ⋅ lbm º

u to = (ho − hi ) 1/ 2

= «(122.0 − 106.8) ( )(32.2 )» (eq. 10.17)

«¬ lbm Btu lb f ⋅ s 2 »¼

ft

u to = 617.2

s

rev rad 1 min rad

ω = 1800 (2π )( ) = 188.5

min rev 60 s s

u to = ω ro (eq. 10.14)

617.2 ft / s

ro =

188.5 / s

ro = 3.3 ft

250

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.22)

GIVEN: 300 ton chiller; Vw =4 gpm/ton; Tdb = 95ºF, Twb = 75ºF air; Tw,i = 100ºF;

Tw,o = 85ºF; Air leaves tower at 92ºF, 90% R.H.

SOLUTION:

Use the psychrometric chart or equations to define the inlet and outlet air

conditions (Fig. 4.6)

Wa,i = 0.0142 lbm,w/lbm,da

ha,i = 38.6 Btu/lbm,da

At Tdb = 92ºF and φ = 90%

Wa,o = 0.0297 lbm,w/lbm,da

ha,o = 54.8 Btu/lbm,da

s.g. water at 92.5ºF = 0.9945 (Table A5.2)

ρwater = 0.9445(63.42 lbm/ft3) = 63.1 lbm/ft3

gal 1 ft 3 lb lbm

m w = Vw ρ w = 4 ( )(63.1 m3 ) = 33.7

min⋅ ton 7.481gal ft min⋅ ton

lbm lb

m w = 300tons ⋅ 33.7 = 10,110 m

min⋅ ton min

m da (ha ,o − ha ,i ) = m w c w (Tw,i − Tw,o ) + m da (Wo − Wi )c wTw,o (eq. 10.19)

(m w c w (Tw,i − Tw,o ))

m da =

[(h a ,o − ha ,i ) − (Wo − Wi )c wTw,o ]

lbm Btu

(10,110 )(1.0 )(100 F − 85 F ))

min lbm F

m da =

ª Btu lbm, w Btu º

«(54.8 − 38.6) − (0.0297 − 0.0142) (1.0 )(85 F )»

«¬ lbm lbm, da lbm F »¼

lb

m da = 10,190 m

min

lbm ,da lbm, w lbm,w

H 2 O consumed = m da (Wo − Wi ) = 10,190 (0.0297 − 0.0142) = 157.9

min lbm,da min

Tower Range = 100ºF - 85ºF = 15ºF

251

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.27)

m da = 300 lbm/min

FIND: εtower

SOLUTION:

ha,i = 36.6 Btu/lbm,da (Fig. 4.6)

Q

ε tower =

m da (ha ,sat − ha ,i )

600,000 Btu / hr

ε tower =

lb min Btu

300 m (60 )(81.375 − 36.6)

min hr lbm

ε tower = 0.74

252

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.29)

(see solution 10.12)

FIGURE: 10.1

FIND: COP

cycle.

SOLUTION:

p1 = 45.093 psia (from CD)

h1 = hg = 106.71 Btu/lbm

s1 = sg = 0.219 Btu/lbm-ºF

p3 = 168.29 psia

h3 = hf = 49.615 Btu/lbm

h2 = 118.0 Btu/lbm (from CD)

lb Btu

Q L = m r (h1 − h4 ) = 4496 m (106.71 − 49.615)

hr lbm

Btu

Q L = 256,700

hr

lb Btu

W i = m r (h2 − h1 ) = 4496 m (118.0 − 106.71)

hr lbm

Btu

W i = 50,760

hr

Q L 256,700

COP = =

W i 50,760

COP = 5.06

253

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.31)

SOLUTION:

Use the protractor on the psychrometric chart (Fig. 4.6). Draw the line from

the protractor center cross to 0.7 on the SHR scale. This is the slope of the

cooling coil process. Locate 75ºF and 50% RH on the psychrometric chart.

Draw a line at the slope of the SHR line from 75ºF and 50% RH. If the line

intersects the 100% saturation line on the psychrometric chart, the process is

feasible. In this problem, the slope line intersects the 100% saturation line at

approximately 46ºF, so the process is feasible .

254

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.32)

SOLUTION:

Find the process line slope by drawing a line from the protractor cross center

to SHR = 0.5. Find the lowest RH at 70ºF at which this slope crosses the

saturation line on the psychrometric chart. It is about 74%.

To increase the SHR at the coil inlet, one could dry the air separately with a

desiccant or heat the coil incoming air with a waste heat source.

255

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.34)

GIVEN: = , COPfull = 1.2

Q i , full PLR

SOLUTION:

Q cool , full

COPfull = 1.2 =

Q in , full

Q cool

PLR =

Q cool , full

Q cool § Q in , full ·

COP = = COPfull ( PLR )¨ ¸

Q in ¨ Q in

©

¸

¹

1.2( PLR ) 2

COP =

0.11 + 0.36( PLR ) + 0.53( PLR ) 2

1.2

0.8

COP

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

PLR

256

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.36)

GIVEN: Commercial building in Dallas with Q peak = 875 tons at 95ºF and 0

cooling load at 55ºF; Q =925 tons rated at 0.692 kW/ton.

full

SOLUTION:

Find bin data for Dallas from the HCB software. The spreadsheet analysis is

shown below.

Bin Load Win Used Output

Bin Temp Hours (Btu/hr) PLR (Btu/hr) (MBtu) (MBtu)

57.5 622 656250 0.059 512577 318.8 408.2

62.5 615 1968750 0.177 669474 411.7 1210.8

67.5 687 3281250 0.296 839873 577.0 2254.2

72.5 805 4593750 0.414 1023776 824.1 3698.0

77.5 512 5906250 0.532 1221181 625.2 3024.0

82.5 362 7218750 0.650 1432090 518.4 2613.2

87.5 222 8531250 0.769 1656502 367.7 1893.9

92.5 97 9843750 0.887 1894417 183.8 954.8

3826.8 16057.1

Q cool , full

COPfull = 1.1 =

Q in , full

Q cool = (Tbin − Tbal ) K tot

at 95ºF, Q = 875 tons

cool

Btu

875tons (12,000 ) = (95 F − 55 F ) K tot

hr ⋅ ton

Btu

K tot = 262,500

hr ⋅ F

Btu

at 72.5ºF, Q cool = 262,500 (72.5 F − 55 F ) = 4.59 ⋅ 10 6 Btu / hr

hr F

Q

Qcool

PLR = cool =

Q full (925tons ⋅ 12,000 Btu )

hr ⋅ ton

4.59 ⋅ 10 Btu / hr

6

at 72.5ºF, PLR = = 0.41

11.1 ⋅ 10 6 Btu / hr

257

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.36 continued)

Q full

W in = [ A + B( PLR ) + C ( PLR ) 2 ]

COPfull

A = 0.201, B = 0.555, C = 0.221 (Table A10.1)

Btu

1ton(12,000 )

COPfull = hr ⋅ ton = 5.08

Btu

(0.692kW ⋅ 3413 )

hr ⋅ kW

925tons ⋅ 12,000 Btu / hr ⋅ ton

W in = [0.201 + 0.555( PLR ) + 0.221( PLR ) 2 ]

5.08

at 72.5ºF,

11.1 ⋅ 10 6 Btu / hr

W in = [0.201 + 0.555(0.41) + 0.221(0.41) 2 ]

5.08

Btu

W in = 1,067,590

hr

at 72.5ºF, Electricity used = 1,067,590 Btu/hr * 805 hr = 859 MBtu

at 72.5ºF, Cool Output = 4,593,750 Btu/hr * 805 hr = 3698 MBtu

The annual energy consumption is the sum of the electricity used column.

The annual average COP is the sum of the cool output column divided by the

annual energy consumption.

COP = 4.05

258

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.38)

GIVEN: Commercial building in Chicago with Q cool = 875 tons at 95ºF and 0

cooling load at 55ºF; Chillers Q = 300 tons rated at 0.673 kW/ton.

full

FIND: Annual energy consumption and annual average COP of the 3 chiller

system.

SOLUTION:

Use bin data from the HCB software.

Ktot = 262,500 Btu/hr-ºF and the cooling load is found by Q cool = Ktot(Tbin – 55ºF)

(see solution for 10.36)

The spreadsheet solution is shown below.

Range Bin Load Win1 Win2 Win3 Win,t Used Output

(F) (hr) (kBtu/hr) PLR1 PLR2 PLR3 (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (MBtu) (MBtu)

57.5 622 656 0.18 -- -- 219 -- -- 219 136 408

62.5 615 1969 0.55 -- -- 404 -- -- 404 248 1211

67.5 687 3281 0.91 -- -- 623 -- -- 623 428 2254

72.5 805 4594 1.00 0.28 -- 681 263 -- 944 760 3698

77.5 512 5906 1.00 0.64 -- 681 457 -- 1138 583 3024

82.5 362 7219 1.00 1.00 0.01 681 681 141 1504 544 2613

87.5 222 8531 1.00 1.00 0.37 681 681 310 1672 371 1894

92.5 97 9844 1.00 1.00 0.73 681 681 512 1875 182 955

Σ= 3253 16057

If PLR1 = 1.0, then calculate PLR2

PLR2 = MIN[1.0, ( Q cool – (300t)(12000Btu/hr/t)) / ((300t)(12000Btu/hr/t))]

If PLR2 = 1.0, then calculate PLR3

PLR3 = MIN[1.0, ( Q cool – 2(300t)(12000Btu/hr/t)) / ((300t)(12000Btu/hr/t))]

Q full

W in = (0.201 + 0.602 PLR + 0.185PLR 2 ) (eq. 10.29)

COPfull

1ton(12,000 Btu / hr / t )

COPfull = = 5.22

(0.673kW )(3413Btu / hr ⋅ kW )

For each non-zero PLR, calculate Win

Win ,T = Win1 + Win 2 + Win 3

Electricity used = Win ,T (#hrs in bin)

The annual energy consumption is the sum of the values of “elec. used”.

Annual energy consumption = 3253 MBtu/yr

The annual average COP is the totaled “cool output”/annual energy consump.

COP = 16057 / 3253

COP = 4.94

259

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.40)

GIVEN: Commercial building in Chicago with Q cool = 875 tons at 95ºF and 0

cooling load at 55ºF; Q = 925 tons; COPfull = 1.1; Absorption chiller

full

SOLUTION:

Use bin data from HCB software for Chicago. The spreadsheet solution is

shown below.

Bin Heat Cool

Range Bin Load Qin Used Output

(F) (hr) (kBtu/hr) PLR (kBtu/hr) (MBtu) (MBtu)

57.5 622 656 0.06 26125 16250 408

62.5 615 1969 0.18 11942 7344 1211

67.5 687 3281 0.30 9592 6590 2254

72.5 805 4594 0.41 8932 7191 3698

77.5 512 5906 0.53 8836 4524 3024

82.5 362 7219 0.65 8997 3257 2613

87.5 222 8531 0.77 9295 2063 1894

92.5 97 9844 0.89 9676 939 955

48157 16057

Ktot = 262,500 Btu/hr-ºF and the cooling load is found by

Q cool = Ktot(Tbin – 55ºF)

Q cool

PLR =

Q

cool , full

Btu Btu

Q cool , full = Q full = 925ton ⋅ 12,000 = 11.1 ⋅ 10 6

hr ⋅ ton hr

Qin = Qin , full (0.13 + 0.36 PLR + 0.51PLR ) / PLR 2

Q in , full = = = 10.09 ⋅ 10 6

COPfull 1.1 hr

Heat used = Q (#hrs in bin)

in

Annual energy consumption = 48,157 MBtu

The annual average COP is the totaled “cool output” column divided by the

annual energy consumption.

COP = 16,057 / 48157

COP = 0.33

260

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.41)

GIVEN: Commercial building in Chicago with Q cool = 875 tons at 95ºF and 0

cooling load at 55ºF; Two absorption chillers, one with Q = 617 cool , full

tons and the other with Q cool , full = 308 tons; COPfull = 1.1; chillers defined

by eq. 10.33 with A = 0.13, B = 0.36, and C = 0.51.

FIND: Annual energy consumption and annual average COP of the entire

system.

SOLUTION:

The spreadsheet solution is shown below. The first three columns are the

same as in solution 10.40.

Bin Heat Cool

Range Bin Load Qin1 Qin2 Qin,t Used Output

(F) (hr) (kBtu/hr) PLR1 PLR2 (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (kBtu/hr) (MBtu) (MBtu)

57.5 622 656 0.00 0.18 0 3974 3974 2472 408

62.5 615 1969 0.00 0.53 0 2942 2942 1810 1211

67.5 687 3281 0.00 0.89 0 3223 3223 2214 2254

72.5 805 4594 0.12 1.00 10056 3360 13416 10800 3698

77.5 512 5906 0.30 1.00 6379 3360 9739 4986 3024

82.5 362 7219 0.48 1.00 5895 3360 9255 3350 2613

87.5 222 8531 0.65 1.00 6005 3360 9365 2079 1894

92.5 97 9844 0.83 1.00 6327 3360 9687 940 955

Σ = 28651 16057

Chiller #1 is 617 tons and chiller #2 is 308 tons in this analysis. Chiller #2 is

operated first until full capacity.

PLR2 = MIN[1.0, Q cool /((308t)(12000Btu/hr/t))]

If PLR2 = 1.0, then calculate PLR1

PLR1 = MIN[1.0, ( Q cool – (308t)(12000Btu/hr/t)) / ((617t)(12000Btu/hr/t))]

Q = Q

in (0.13 + 0.36 PLR + 0.51PLR 2 ) / PLR (eq. 10.33)

in , full

Q in , full1 = = = 6.73 ⋅ 10 6

COPfull 1.1 hr

Q cool , full 2 308ton ⋅ 12000 Btu / hr / ton Btu

Q in , full 2 = = = 3.36 ⋅ 10 6

COPfull 1.1 hr

Q = Q + Q

in ,T in1 in 2

The annual energy consumption is the sum of the values of “heat used”.

Annual energy consumption = 28,651 MBtu/yr

The annual average COP is the totaled “cool output”/annual energy consump.

COP = 16057 / 3253

COP = 4.94

261

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.42)

GIVEN: Tdi = 100ºF, Twi = 60ºF, εevap = 85%; direct evaporative cooler at sea

level.

FIND: Tdo, φo

SOLUTION:

(Tdi − Tdo )

ε evap = (eq. 10.34)

(Tdi − Twi )

(100 − Tdo )

0.85 =

(100 − 60)

Tdo = 66.0ºF

At Tdo = 66.0ºF and Two = 60ºF

φo = 71%

262

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.44)

GIVEN: V = 9000 cfm standard air; Tdi = 95ºF, Twi = 59ºF, εevap = 84%

FIND: Q sens

SOLUTION:

(Tdi − Tdo )

ε evap = (eq. 10.34)

(Tdi − Twi )

(95 − Tdo )

0.84 =

(95 − 59)

Tdo = 64.8ºF

3

ft lb Btu

Q sens = 9000 (0.075 m3 )(0.24 )(95 F − 64.8 F )

min ft lbm F

Btu

Q sens = 4892 = 24.5 tons of cooling

min

263

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.47)

GIVEN: εevap = 0.87, direct evaporative cooler; Tdi = 95ºF, Twi = 67ºF, Tr = 78ºF,

Q sens = 62,000 Btu/hr

SOLUTION:

(Tdi − Tdo )

ε evap = (eq. 10.34)

(Tdi − Twi )

(95 − Tdo )

0.87 =

(95 − 67)

Tdo = 70.6ºF

Btu

62,000

V = hr

lbm Btu

(0.075 3

)(0.24 )(78 F − 70.6 F )

ft lbm F

ft 3

V = 465,465

hr

V = 7760 cfm

The assumption that ρair = 0.075 lb/ft3 can be refined by finding the actual ρair

at Tdo = 70.6ºF and Two = Twi = 67ºF. From the psychrometric chart (Fig. 4.6),

ρair = 1/13.65 lb/ft3 = 0.073 lb/ft3.

264

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.50)

GIVEN: Bin data in Table 10.6; direct evaporative cooler, εevap = 87%, location is

Denver.

example 10.9.

SOLUTION:

(F) Temp (F) Hours (F) (kBtu/hr) Q (MBtu)

95 60 78 64.55 1315 103

85 59 371 62.38 977 363

75 58 541 60.21 639 346

65 55 750 56.3 376 282

1093

Q = Q cool N bin

Total cooling effect is the sum of the values in the “Q” column:

This is 24% higher than the indirect cooler in example 10.9.

265

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.51)

GIVEN: Summer bin data for sea level location in table; direct evaporative

cooler, εevap = 0.85, V = 3000 cfm; building load = 36,000 Btu/hr at 95ºF

and decreases linearly with dry bulb temperature to zero at 70ºF. Fan

motor is 25 hp.

SOLUTION:

Find Ktot from the known condition:

Ktot = 36,000 Btu/hr / (95ºF – 70ºF) = 1440 Btu/hr-ºF

The spreadsheet solution follows:

Bin Wet Cool Fan

Temp Bulb Hours Load Temp Qcool Energy Fan Energy

(F) (F) Occur (Btu/hr) Out (F) (Btu/hr) (kBtu) Hours (kBtu)

95 62 120 36000 67.0 9882 1186 120 76

85 57 420 21600 61.2 28512 11975 318 202

75 54 490 7200 57.2 41634 20401 85 54

Σ= 33562 Σ= 333

Temp out = Td,o = Tdi – ε(Tdi – Twi); ε = 0.85

Q cool = Vρc p ∆T

ft 3 60 min lb Btu

Q cool = 3000 ( )(0.075 3 )(0.24 )(70 F − Tdo )

min hr ft lb ⋅ F

(assuming that the building temperature is 70ºF, this is the cooling

provided to the building. Which is the significant value whne examining the

building load.)

Cool Energy = Q cool (#hrs in bin)

Fan hours is the equivalent number of hours that the fan operates. If Q is

cool

less than or equal to the load, the fan will operate during all of the bin hours

as is the case for the 95ºF temperature bin. However, if Q cool is greater than

the load, the fan will cycle on and off to provide the same cooling energy as

the load requires. In this case,

Fan hours = Load x (#hrs in bin) / Q cool

Fan energy = 0.25hp(2545.2Btu/hr/hp)(Fan hours)

COP = 101

266

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.55)

0.33

FIND: ε for six-inch pad at varying velocities and ε for fixed velocity of 8 ft/s with

varying thicknesses.

SOLUTION:

0.9

0.85

0.8

Effectiveness

0.75

0.7

0.65

0.6

0.55

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20

Velocity (ft/s)

267

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 10

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

10.55 continued)

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

Effectiveness

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Thickness (ft)

for the fan to work against. However, at lower velocity, large area and large

duct work is necessary to deliver the same cooling at a higher velocity.

increases. Thicker pads will, however, cause more pressure drop for the fan,

thus requiring more fan power.

268

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

Chapter 11

269

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

11.1)

FIND: C for flow into the two input connections for branch flow area ratios

between 0.3 and 1.0.

SOLUTION:

Qs = Qb = ½ Qc

Qb / Qc = 0.5

Ab / Ac Cc,b Cc,s

0.3 3.2 0.53

0.4 1.1 0.53

0.6 0.66 0.53

0.8 0.99 0.53

1.0 0.42 0.53

When the branch area, Ab is 0.6x the main area Ac or smaller, the pressure

loss coefficient in the branch becomes higher than that in the main.

270

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

11.3)

GIVEN: Round duct transitions with area ratio 2:1 used in supply (transition to a

smaller duct and return (transition to a larger duct); θ = 15º

FIND: Which transition has a larger pressure drop and by how much.

SOLUTION:

Supply transition:

Ao/A1 = 2/1 = 2 , θ = 15º

C = 0.20 supply

Return transition:

Ao/A1 = 1/2 = 0.5 , θ = 15º

C = 0.13 return

V2

Since ∆p f = C ( ρ ) (eq. 5.38), the pressure drop is directly proportional to

2

C. The supply transition has a 54% greater pressure drop than the return

transition.

271

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

11.5)

GIVEN: A butterfly damper is used to balance the flow of a duct branch that has

one less 3-piece, r/D = 1 round 90º elbow that the other branch.

FIND: The angle for the butterfly damper with D/Do = ½ which will balance the

flow.

SOLUTION:

The pressure coefficient caused by the extra 3-piece, r/D = 1, 90º elbow:

C = 0.42

Find the butterfly damper angle which will have the same C. At D/Do = 0.5,

C = 0.37 at θ = 30º. Interpolating for C = 0.42,

(0.49 – 0.37)/(30º – 20º) = (0.49 – 0.42)/(30º – θº)

θ = 24º

272

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

11.6)

GIVEN: Round ductwork; design pressure drop, ∆p/L = 0.1 in. W.G.; Pressure

loss at each branch outlet grill = 20 ft of duct; Elbows at G and E are full

radius (r/D = 1.0); Located at 4000 ft altitude.

FIGURE: 11.10

ASSUMPTIONS: Ignore pressure loss due to duct size transitions. Tair = 70ºF.

SOLUTION:

This solution will be the same as that presented in Table 11.3 except for the

columns pv, fitting loss, and Total.

e − H / 27 , 000

ρ air = 39.8

T + 460

e −4000 / 27, 000 lb

ρ air = 39.8 = 0.0648 m3

70 + 460 ft

ρv 2

pv = (eq. 11.9)

2gc

(0.0648lbm / ft 3 )v 2

pv =

lb ⋅ ft 2 1 ft 2 27.7"W .G.

2(32.2 m 2 )( )( )

lb f ⋅ s 144in 2

1 psi

∆p fit = C fit ( p v )

Duct

Loss Pv (in. Fit Loss Total

Sec. (in. W.G.) V (ft/min) W.G.) Cfit (in. W.G.) (in. W.G.)

A-B 0.05 1210 0.079 -- 0.000 0.050

B-C 0.03 1070 0.062 0.48 0.030 0.060

D 0.02 1070 0.062 -- 0.000 0.020

B-D 0.06 1080 0.063 0.011 0.001 0.061

D-G 0.04 935 0.047 0.013 0.001 0.041

G-H 0.06 935 0.047 0.22 0.010 0.070

H 0.02 935 0.047 -- 0.000 0.020

D-E 0.04 890 0.043 0.025 0.001 0.041

E-F 0.04 890 0.043 0.011 0.000 0.040

F 0.02 890 0.043 -- 0.000 0.020

0.423

as compared to 0.464 in. W.G. at sea level.

273

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

11.8)

GIVEN: Air distribution system at sea level to be analyzed using the equal

friction method (∆p/L = 0.25 in. W.G./100 ft); Ductwork is round; Elbows

are smooth-radius, round, R/D = 1, Diverging tees at B and C are

round, conical branch designs, All size transitions are 15º converging

designs.

FIGURE: P11.8

SOLUTION: The velocities and duct sizes in the branch sections must be

calculated to find the pressure loss coefficients for the tees and the

size transitions. Figure 11.9 can be used to find the velocity and

duct diameter given ∆p/L and V for each section.

Section V' (cfm) W.G./100 ft) (in.) V (fpm)

AB 10000 0.25 28 2400

BC 7000 0.25 24 2200

CD 4000 0.25 20 2000

size transition. The pressure coefficients can be

found for each separately.

Point B tee: (using Table on CD for the main branch

of a diverging conical tee)

Vs/Vc = VBC/VAB = 2200/2400 = 0.92

Interpolating for Cc,s at Vs/Vc = 0.92, C = 0.008

Point B size transition: (Table on CD for round

transition)

Ao/A1 = AAB/ABC = DAB2/DBC2 = 282 / 242 = 1.36

θ = 15º

interpolating for Ao/A1 = 1.36 and θ = 15º, C = 0.072

Point C tee: (using Table on CD for the main branch

of a diverging conical tee)

Vs/Vc = VCD/VBC = 2000/2200 = 0.91

Interpolating, C = 0.009

274

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

11.8 continued)

transition)

Ao/A1 = ABC/ACD = DBC2/DCD2 = 242 / 202 = 1.44

θ = 15º

interpolating for Ao/A1 = 1.51 and θ = 15º, C = 0.088

r/D = 1, θ = 90º

C = 0.22

1 v2

∆p fit = C ( ρv 2 ) = C ( ) (eq. 11.9 and 11.10)

2 4005

with ∆pfit in in. W.G. and v in fpm

Section L (ft) W.G./100 ft) W.G.) Cfit V (fpm) W.G.) W.G.)

AB 100 0.25 0.25 0.008 2400 0.003 0.253

0.072 2400 0.026 0.026

BC 100 0.25 0.25 0.009 2200 0.003 0.253

0.088 2200 0.027 0.027

CD 75 0.25 0.1875 0.22 2000 0.055 0.242

0.800

is:

∆pABCD = 0.80 in. W.G.

true pressure drop.)

275

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

11.9)

GIVEN: Air distribution system at sea level to be analyzed using the equal

friction method (∆p/L = 0.25 in. W.G./100 ft); Branch CD pressure drop

(including size transition and tee) is ∆pCD = 0.269 in. W.G. (see 11.8)

FIGURE: P11.8

branch CD.

SOLUTION:

Branches CD and CE are similar in that they are each

75’ long and each have on 90ºF elbow. However, CD

has the main branch of the tee and a size transition

while CE has the diverging branch of the tee.

Elbow: C = 0.22

Tee: C is dependent on V which depends on D.

Straight section: ∆p/L depends on D.

VCE = 1680 fpm, DCE = 15”

Tee: Vb/Vc = VCE/VBC=1680 fpm / 2200 fpm = 0.76

C = 0.54 (Table A5.6h)

2 2

§ v · § 1680 ·

pv = ¨ ¸ =¨ ¸ = 0.176 in. W .G.

© 4005 ¹ © 4005 ¹

∆pT = (0.25”W.G./100 ft)(75 ft) + 0.176(0.22+0.54) in.

W.G.

∆pT = 0.321 in. W.G., which is too high

pressure drop. From Fig. 11.9 at 2000 cfm, D = 16”

VCE = 1490 fpm, ∆p/L = 0.19 in. W.G./100 ft

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Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11

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C = 0.58 (Table A5.6h)

2 2

§ v · § 1680 ·

pv = ¨ ¸ =¨ ¸ = 0.138 in. W .G.

© 4005 ¹ © 4005 ¹

∆pT = (0.19”W.G./100 ft)(75 ft) + 0.138(0.22+0.58) in.

W.G.

∆pT = 0.252 in. W.G., which is lower than desired but

the closest from a standard size.

Therefore, the diameter of branch CD should be 16

inches.

277

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

11.12)

GIVEN: Residential air heating distribution system; main duct velocity shouldn’t

exceed 1000 fpm; branch duct velocity shouldn’t exceed 600 fpm.

FIGURE: P11.12

SOLUTION:

velocity stipulations and the air volumes provided on

P11.12.

1 900 1000 13

2 650 1000 11

3 350 600 11

4 300 600 10

5 250 600 9

278

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

11.13)

GIVEN: Residential air heating distribution system; main duct velocity shouldn’t

exceed 1000 fpm; branch duct velocity shouldn’t exceed 600 fpm.

FIGURE: P11.12

SOLUTION:

The round duct equivalents were found in solution 11.12 using Fig. 5.9a.

Convert these to rectangular ducts using,

(WH ) 0.625

Deq = 1.30 (eq. 5.34)

(W + H ) 0.25

1 13

2 11

3 11

4 10

5 9

Round duct sizes from solution 11.12.

With H = 8 in, Deq can be calculated for several values of W. Typically these

values are presented in Table form.

8 8.74

9 9.27

10 9.76

13 11.07

18 12.85

19 13.18

Section 1: 8” x 19”

Section 2: 8” x 13”

Section 3: 8” x 13”

Section 4: 8” x 11”

Section 5: 8” x 8”

279

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11

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11.15)

FIGURE: 11.13

FIND: Recommended diffuser throat diameter and static pressure drop if there is

no damper.

SOLUTION:

T = ½(40 ft) = 20 ft

fpm scale and V = 2000 cfm. Move vertically down to the bottom scale to

read Ds = 18” = throat D .

AK = 1.5 ft2 at Ds = 18”

V 2000 ft 3 / min ft

VK = = 2

= 1333

AK 1.5 ft min

Read Ps w/o damper from the pressure drop table at VK = 1333 fpm.

Ps = 0.037 in. W.G.

280

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

11.16)

GIVEN: 15 kW electric input fan equipped with either a VSD or inlet vane

control. Part load hours given in table; VSD costs $700 more than inlet

vanes; pe = $0.08/kWh.

FIND: kWh saving due to use of the VSD; payback period for VSD approach.

ASSUMPTIONS: The typical equations for VSD and inlet vane control provided

in the book are adequate for the chosen equipment. The

electricity price is constant.

SOLUTION:

VSD: W = W rate (0.00153 + 0.0052 PLR + 1.1086 PLR 2 − 0.1164 PLR 3 ) (eq. 11.6)

IVC: W = W (0.351 + 0.308 PLR − 0.541PLR 2 + 0.872 PLR 3 ) (eq. 11.8)

rate

W rate = 15 kW

PLR hrs (kW) (kWh) (kW) (kWh)

0.2 300 0.69 207 5.97 1791

0.4 700 2.60 1822 6.65 4656

0.6 900 5.68 5111 7.94 7147

0.8 250 9.83 2458 10.46 2616

1 50 14.98 749 14.85 743

10348 16952

The VSD will use 10,348 kWh while the inlet vane control will require 16,952

kWh.

At $0.08/kWh:

VSD = $0.08/kWh (10,348 kWh) = $828

IVC = $0.08/kWh (16,952 kWh) = $1356

Payback = $700 / ($1356 – $828)

Payback = 1.3 years

281

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

11.18)

SOLUTION:

gal 1 ft 3 1 min ft

V = 500 ( )( ) = 1.11

min 7.481gal 60s s

h f ρg

∆p = (eq. 5.10)

gc

20 ft (62.4lbm / ft 3 )(32.2 ft / s 2 ) lb f

∆p = = 1248 2

lb ft ft

32.2 m

lb f s

ft lb f ft ⋅ lb f

W fluid = 1.11 ⋅ 1248 2 = 1385 = 2.52 hp

s ft s

W fluid 2.52 hp

W elec = =

η pumpη motor (0.91 ⋅ 0.72)

11.16.

W shaft = = = 3.51 hp

3960η pump 3960 ⋅ 0.72

W shaft 3.51 hp

W elec = = = 3.85 hp

η motor 0.91

282

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

11.22)

GIVEN: 100 gal. Water in nominal 4 in. steel pipe; T1 = 100ºF, T2 = 200ºF

ASSUMPTIONS: The tank is isothermal and does not track the system

operating temperature. Air charge is added to the tank after

system is filled at its operating pressure.

SOLUTION:

v 2 / v1 − 1 − 3α∆T

Vexp = Vsys (eq. 11.18)

1 − p1 / p 2

at 100ºF, SG = 0.9930 Æ ρ1 = 0.9930(63.42 lbm/ft3) =

62.98 lbm/ft3

at 200ºF, SG = 0.9631 Æ ρ2 = 0.9631(63.42 lbm/ft3) =

61.08 lbm/ft3

υ2 = 1/ ρ2 = 1/61.08 lbm/ft3 = 0.0164 ft3/lbm

αsteel = 0.000065/ºF

Vsys = 100 gal

gas, the pressures in equation 11.18 can be replaced

by the ratio of absolute temperatures.

Vexp = 100 gal

1 − 559.67 / 659.67

283

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

11.24)

GIVEN: T1 = 100ºF, T2 = 200ºF; water in nominal 3 in. steel pipe; 70 gal water at

100ºF

FIND: Length change of pipe if it expands freely. Design U-type expansion loop

so length change can be accommodated (fixed anchors located at the

ends of this pipe).

SOLUTION:

From Table on CD for properties of wrought steel and iron pipe, the flow area

of 3 in. schedule 40 steel pipe is 0.05134 ft2 rated at 70ºF. The volume of

water at 70ºF must be calculated to find the length of pipe.

At 100ºF, V = 70 gal = 9.36 ft3

9.36 – Vo = Vo(3α∆T)

Vo = 9.36 ft3 / [3(6.5x10-6/ºF)(100ºF – 70ºF) + 1] = 9.35 ft3 at 70ºF

Lo = Vo/A = 9.35 ft3/0.05134 ft2 = 182 ft at 70ºF

L = 0.154 ft = 1.85 inches

From pipe expansion nonograms on CD, pt. III, enter the right part of the

figure at ∆T = 100ºF; move up to the 3” pipe size then draw a horizontal line

to the left. When the line intersects the vertical 200-ft distance line, the

intersection is the design point for 200-ft long pipe. Move up and to the left

parallel to the “O” dimension lines and read 0200 = 7 ft.

O180 = O200 x 180/200

O180 = 6.3 ft

284

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

11.26)

level

SOLUTION:

v 2 / v1 − 1 − 3α∆T

Vexp = Vsys (eq. 11.18)

1 − p1 / p 2

υ1 = 0.016024 ft3/lbm

υ2 = 0.016846 ft3/lbm

Vexp = 150 gal

1 − 29.7 / 74.7

285

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

11.28)

GIVEN: VT = 20,000cfm, fixed volume with minimum fresh air 18%VT assuming

dry bulb control. Ts = 55ºF, Tr = 77ºF, φr = 50%; At 10ºF = To, the fresh

air is at its minimum.

FIGURE: 11.20b

FIND: Plot of the economizer outside airflow. How is the high temperature

return to minimum flow determined?

SOLUTION:

25000

20000

Outdoor Air (cfm)

15000

Maximum possible

economizer envelope.

Adjust high limit temp.

per note below.

10000

5000

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Outdoor Temp (F)

If the outside air enthalpy is less than the return air enthalpy, it will

take less energy to cool it than the return air. However, typically we

only have dry bulb temperature control and do not know the outdoor

air enthalpy. In dry climates you can set the economizer high

temperature return to minimum flow at the return air temperature and

expect that the outdoor enthalpy will be lower than the return air

enthalpy. In humid climates, the economizer high temperature would

be set a few degrees lower than the return air temperature.

286

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

11.30)

GIVEN: VAV system; Tr = 75ºF, φR = 40%; Load varies from Q = 2000 Btu/hr to

5000 Btu/hr; Load is entirely sensible; Ts = 56ºF

SOLUTION:

ρ at 75ºF, 70% RH = 0.073 lbm/ft3 (Fig. 4.6)

cp = 0.24 Btu/lbm-ºF

Q

V =

ρc p ∆T

2000 Btu / hr

V1 =

(0.073lbm / ft )(0.24 Btu / lbm ⋅ F )(75 F − 56 F )

3

ft 3

V1 = 6000

hr

5000 Btu / hr

V2 =

(0.073lbm / ft )(0.24 Btu / lbm ⋅ F )(75 F − 56 F )

3

ft 3

V2 = 15,000

hr

287

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

11.32)

GIVEN: Commercial building with 4 zones, each with a load of Q peak = 30,000

Btu/hr. Tci = 84ºF, φci = 38%; Tco = 53ºF, φco = 90%; Diversity = 80%.

FIND: Air handler fan flow rate and the sizes of the main and branch ducts

(square in cross section).

SOLUTION:

Btu Btu

Q peak ,total = 4 ⋅ 30,000 ⋅ 0.8 = 96,000

hr hr

Q

V = (eq. 11.28)

ρ air (hcoil ,i − hcoil ,o )

From the psychrometric chart,

hci = 30.8 Btu/lbm,da at T = 84ºF, φ = 38%

hco = 21.2 Btu/lbm,da at T = 53ºF, φ = 90%

96,000 Btu / hr

V =

(0.075lbm / ft 3 )(30.8 − 21.2) Btu / lbm

ft 3

V = 133,333 = 2222 cfm

hr

30,000 Btu / hr ft 3

V = = 41,667 = 694 cfm

(0.075lbm / ft 3 )(30.8 − 21.2) Btu / lbm hr

Since the total airflow is less than 2500 cfm, it is considered a low

velocity system. On Fig. 11.9 the shaded band shows suggested

pressure drops for a low velocity system of 0.08 to 0.15 in. W.G./100 ft.

∆p/L = 0.1 in. W.G./100 ft (Fig. 11.9 or 5.9)

∆p/L = 0.1 in. W.G./100 ft (Fig. 5.9)

to find the equivalent square duct flow areas.

288

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

11.32 continued)

(WH ) 0.625

Deq = 1.30

(W + H ) 0.25

Since they are square, W = H

(W 2 ) 0.625 W 1.25

Deq = 1.30 = 1.30

(2W ) 0.25 (2W ) 0.25

Deq ⋅ 2 0.25

W=

1.3

W = 16.5”: 17” x 17” square duct

W = 10.98”: 11” x 11” square duct

289

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

11.34)

GIVEN: VAV system located in Denver; V = 3200 cfm; RH coil outlet = 90%;

∆Tsa = 20ºF; ∆Tsupply fan = 1.5ºF; ∆Treturn fan = 1.0ºF; ηfan = 63%, Hf = 3.5

in. W.G.

Zone 1 (exterior) Zone 2 (interior)

Sensible peak cooling load Q s1 = 150,000 Btu/hr Q s 2 = 250,000 Btu/hr

Latent peak cooling load Q = 40,000 Btu/hr

l1 Q l 2 = 60,000 Btu/hr

Heating peak cooling load Q h1 = 300,000 Btu/hr Q = 70,000 Btu/hr

h2

Zone temperature, Tzone 75ºF 75ºF

LOOKUP VALUES: 2.5% summer design conditions for Denver Tdb = 91ºF, Twb

= 59ºF; 97.5% winter design Tdb = 1ºF (Table on CD for

Design Conditions for US)

At 5000 ft, Tdb = 91ºF, Twb = 59º, W = 0.0056 lbw/lbda, v =

16.8 ft3/lb (Psychrometric chart for 5000 ft)

SOLUTION:

1. Loads (given)

150,000 Btu / hr

V1 = (eq. 11.24)

(0.060lbm / ft 3 )(0.24 Btu / lbm ⋅ F )(20 F )

ft 3

V1 = 520,833 = 8,681 cfm

hr

250,000 Btu / hr

V2 =

(0.060lbm / ft 3 )(0.24 Btu / lbm ⋅ F )(20 F )

ft 3

V2 = 868,056 = 14,468 cfm

hr

Vtotal = V1 + V2 = 23,149 cfm

VH

fan power = W shaft = (eq. 5.50)

6356η fan

23,149(3.5)

W shaft = = 20.2 hp

6356(0.63)

Tsa = Tzone – ∆Tsa = 75ºF – 20ºF = 55ºF

290

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11

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11.34 continued)

Tcoil,out = Tsa – ∆Tsupply fan – ∆Tduct = 55ºF – 1.5ºF = 53.5ºF

Tr = Tzone + ∆Tduct = 75ºF

Q lat = Vρh fg (Wra − Wi ) (eq. 7.26)

Q lat

Wra = + Wi

Vρh ) fg

(40,000 + 60,000) Btu / hr lb

Wra = 3 3

+ 0.0094 w

(23,149 ft / min)(0.060lbm / ft )(1075Btu / lbm )(60 min/ hr ) lbda

lb

Wra = 0.0105 w

lbda

Tra = Tzone + ∆Treturn fan = 75ºF + 1.0ºF = 76.0ºF

(assuming densities of air streams are the same)

Vtotal (Tmix ) = Vvent (To ) + Vreturn (Tra )

V = 3200 cfm

vent

Vreturn = (23,149 − 3200) cfm = 19,949 cfm ; Tra = 76.0ºF

(3200cfm)(91 F ) + (19,949cfm)(76 F )

Tmix = Tma =

23,149cfm

Tma = 78.1 F

V

total (W ) = V (W ) + V

ma vent o (W )

return ra

lb

Wo = 0.0056 w

lbda

(3200cfm)(0.0056) + (19,949cfm)(0.0105)

Wma =

23,149cfm

lb

Wo = 0.0098 w

lbda

291

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11

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11.34 continued)

8. Coil loads

Q coil , sens = ρVc p ∆Tcoil

lb ft 3 Btu

Q coil , sens = (0.060 3 )(23,149 )(0.24 )(78.1 F − 53.5 F )

ft min lb ⋅ F

Btu Btu

Q coil , sens = 8200 = 492,018

min hr

Qcoil ,lat = ρVh fg ∆Wcoil

3

lb ft 3 Btu lb

Q coil ,lat = (0.060 3 )(23,149 )(1075 )(0.0098 − 0.0094) w

ft min lb lbda

Btu Btu

Q coil ,lat = 1348 = 80,897

min hr

Btu Btu

Q tot ,coil = 492,018 + 80,897

hr hr

Btu

Q tot ,coil = 572,900

hr

Q ph = ρVvent c p (Tcoil ,out − Tdes ,heat )

lb ft 3 Btu

Q ph = (0.060 3 )(3200 )(0.24 )(53.5 F − 1 F )

ft min lb ⋅ F

Btu

Q ph = 145,100

hr

Q h = Q h1 + Q h 2 + ρVvent c p (Tzone − Tsa )

Btu

Q h = (300,000 + 70,000) +

hr

lb ft 3 60 min Btu

(0.060 3 )(3200 )( )(0.24 )(75 − 55) F

ft min hr lb F

Btu

Q h = 425,300

hr

Btu

Q heat ,total = (425,300 + 145,100)

hr

Btu

Q heat ,total = 570,400

hr

292

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 11

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11.38)

GIVEN: The reheat coil in an air handling system is located in the return duct

down-stream of the building exhaust for freeze protection.

SOLUTION:

heat transfer between the coil and the air will be

reduced due to a smaller temperature difference

between them. A slightly larger coil will be necessary

to compensate for this effect.

293

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 12

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

Chapter 12

294

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 12

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

12.2)

GIVEN: Heating system with a wall thermostat, a gas valve, and a furnace.

FIND: Identify the sensor, controller, actuator, process, and controlled variable.

SOLUTION:

Controller: Linkage from the thermostat to the gas valve (e.g. an electric

signal to operate a motorized valve)

295

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 12

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12.3)

controller signal ranging from 0 VDC to 5 VDC.

SOLUTION:

Throttling range = 5 VDC

Q max − Q min 10 kW − 0 kW

Kp = = (eq. 12.4)

∆Vmax 5 VDC

kW

Kp = 2

VDC

296

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 12

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

12.4)

GIVEN: Electric duct heater with output ranging from 0 to 10 kW. Thermostat

output voltage varies from 0 to 5 VDC decreasing linearly with

temperature between 90ºF and 60ºF; Tset = 75ºF

SOLUTION:

Q max − Q min

Kp = (eq. 12.4)

∆Vmax

∆Vmax = 90ºF – 60ºF = 30ºF

10 kW − 0 kW

Kp =

= 1 kW / 3 F

30 F

Q

Q = K p (Tset − Tsensed ) + max (eq. 12.5)

2

1 kW

Q = (75 F − Tsensed ) + 5 kW

3 F

297

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 12

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

12.8)

FIND: After how many seconds does T(t) = 65ºC? What is T(t) after 15.0 s?

SOLUTION:

T2 − T (t )

e −t / τ =

T2 − T1

75 C − 65 C

e −t / 5.0 s =

75 C − 55 C

e −t / 5.0 s = 3.47 s

75 C − T (t )

e −15.0 / 5.0 =

75 C − 55 C

T (t ) = 74.0 C

298

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 12

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12.9)

FIND: Cv and the gain expressed on the basis of its total stem travel and on the

basis of the control actuator voltage (0-10V).

SOLUTION:

V = C v ∆p (eq. 12.18)

V 100

Cv = =

∆p 5

C v = 44.7

K=

1.0 in − 0 in

K = 100 gpm/in. on the basis of stem travel

K=

10V − 0V

K = 10 gpm/V. on the basis of voltage

299

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 12

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12.10)

GIVEN: ∆psys = 85 kPa, ∆pcoil = 2.5 V 2 . System made up of coil and linear valve.

FIND: Plot system flow vs. percent of valve travel for Cv = 0.5 and Cv = 1.3.

SOLUTION:

Vvalve ,max = C v ∆p des (eq. 12.18)

For a linear valve:

V Z ∆pvalve

=

Vmax Z max ∆p des

Z ∆p des

Vmax = V max

Z ∆pvalve

substituting Vmax into 12.18

Z ∆p des

V max = C v ∆p des

Z ∆p valve

Z

V = C v ∆p valve

Z max

§ V Z max ·

2

∆p sys = 85kPa = ∆p coil + ∆p valve = 2.5V + ¨ (

2

¨ ¸

)¸

© Cv Z ¹

now vary Z/Zmax and plot V for the two valves of Cv.

Comparison of Two Cv Valves

6

Cv = 0.5

Cv = 1.3

5

4

Flow (l/s)

1

0

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Fraction of Valve Stem Travel

300

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 12

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

12.14)

FIND: Cv and gain based on stem travel (2.0 in.) and on control actuator voltage

(0-5 V)

SOLUTION:

V

Cv = (eq. 12.18)

∆p

20 gpm

Cv =

4 psi

C v = 10

20 gpm

Kp =

2.0in

gpm

K p = 10

in

20 gpm

Kp =

5V

gpm

Kp = 4

V

301

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 12

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

12.34)

varying the size of the diaphragm used in the actuator. 15-psi control

signal.

FIND: What actuator force can the signal exert if the round diaphragm is 3

inches in diameter? 6 inches in diameter? 12 inches in diameter.

SOLUTION:

3-inch diameter:

πd 2 π ⋅ 3 2

A= = = 7.07 in 2

4 4

lb f

F = P ⋅ A = 15 2 ⋅ 7.07 in 2

in

F = 106 lb f

6-inch diameter:

πd 2 π ⋅ 6 2

A= = = 28.27 in 2

4 4

lb f

F = P ⋅ A = 15 2 ⋅ 28.27 in 2

in

F = 424 lb f

12-inch diameter:

πd 2 π ⋅ 12 2

A= = = 113.10 in 2

4 4

lb f

F = P ⋅ A = 15 2 ⋅ 113.10 in 2

in

F = 1696 lb f

302

Heating and Cooling of Buildings Chapter 12

Kreider, Curtiss and Rabl

12.35)

FIND: The effect on the controlled variable as the temperature sensor is moved

farther away from the coil.

SOLUTION:

As the temperature sensor is moved farther away from the coil, the lag time of

the process increases. The sensor response will be delayed, and it will

appear as if the time constant of the system has increased. Consequently,

the controlled variable (Tsa) is more likely to experience overshoot or

undershoot in response to changes in the setpoint and airflow rate.

The system controller will most likely require an increased derivative gain.

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12.36)

of 1 mA. The nominal resistance of the RTD is 100 Ω at 0ºC. The air

around the RTD is at 20ºC but the current running through the RTD

causes it to heat up.

b) The power dissipated by the RTD in the form of heat.

c) If the heat loss for the RTD to the environment is 0.05 W/ºC, what is

the actual temperature of the RTD including the effect of self-heating?

SOLUTION:

R = Ro (1 + kT )

R = 100 Ω ⋅ (1 + 3.85 ⋅ 10 −3 C −1 ⋅ 20 C )

R = 107.7 Ω

b) P = I 2 R

( 2

)

P = 1 ⋅ 10 −3 A ⋅ 107.7 Ω

P = 1.303 ⋅ 10 −4 W

Q in = Q out

W

1.303 ⋅ 10 − 4 W = 0.05 (Tact − 20 C )

C

Tact = 20.003 C

The resistive self-heating does not have much of an effect on the actual

temperature of the RTD. Note, however, that the self-heating is a function

of the square of the current, so at higher reference currents the self-

heating effect becomes much more pronounced.

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12.37)

RTD to a building energy management system using 200 ft of 20-gauge

wire. The wire has a resistance of 10 Ω/1000 ft.

FIND: How much error does the wire resistance introduce into the measurement

if the nominal resistance of the RTD is 100 Ω at 32ºF? How much error

would the wire resistance add if the sensor is a thermistor with a nominal

resistance of 25 kΩ at 32ºF?

SOLUTION:

For RTD:

10 Ω

Rwire = ⋅ 200 ft = 2 Ω

1000 ft

for an RTD of k = 3.85 x 10-3 ºC-1, the error introduced by the line resistance

is about

For Thermistor:

R = Ae B / T

B

T=

ln( R / A)

The wire resistance is very small relative to the nominal resistance (about

0.02%) and therefore negligible.

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12.38)

value for a measured voltage. A temperature sensor produces a 0 to

10 VDC signal over the range of -20ºF to 120ºF. The signal is

converted into an 8-bit value, which means that the total voltage range

is divided into 28 = 256 discrete values.

FIND: The minimum temperature change that can be recorded using this

temperature sensor.

SOLUTION:

Since the temperature range is 140ºF, and the total range can be divided into

256 discrete values, the minimum temperature change that can be recorded

using this sensor is:

140 F

= 0.55 F

256 values

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12.39)

GIVEN: Air at 55ºF enters a heating coil and comes out at 75ºF. You measure

the relative humidity with a hand-held probe and find an inlet relative

humidity of 59% and an outlet relative humidity of 31%.

sense?

SOLUTION:

Since no water is being added or removed, the humidity ratio of the inlet air

and the outlet air should be equal. From the “Psychrometric Scratch Sheet”,

we see that they are not:

With a 0.0054 lbwater/lbdryair humidity ratio, at 75ºF, the exit humidity should

read, 29%. However, when considering the accuracy of hand-held humidity

probes (±2-5%), the readings of the sensor make sense.

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12.40)

GIVEN: Air economizer mode attempts to mix outside air and building return air

to minimize the amount of energy needed to condition the resulting

mixed air stream to match the desired supply air conditions. Suppose

the conditions are outside air at 90ºF and 40% relative humidity, the

return air is at 80ºF and 70% relative humidity, and the supply air

setpoint is 55ºF and 80% relative humidity.

FIND: Should the economizer control use mostly outside air or mostly building

return air?

SOLUTION:

The economizer control should use mostly outside air, because it has a

lower enthalpy than the return air.

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12.41)

proportional-only control. The inlet temperature is 40ºF, the setpoint is

55ºF, and the controller gain is 0.1.

SOLUTION:

The controller output is the product of the gain and the error,

u = Kp · e

The error is the difference between the setpoint and the measured value, in

this case the coil outlet temperature,

e = 55ºF – Tout

The coil outlet temperature is a function of the inlet air temperature, the

throttling range, and the controller output,

= 55°F – (40°F + Kp · e · 20°F)

Rearranging for e,

e = 15°F / (1 + 20 · Kp)

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12.42)

GIVEN: The hot water coil on an air-handling unit has 120ºF inlet water

temperature, 110ºF outlet water temperature, and a water flow rate of

30 GPM. 10,000 CFM of air enters this coil at 57ºF and leaves at 73ºF.

The temperature sensors are accurate to within ±1ºF.

ASSUMPTIONS: The flow rates of air and water are measured without error.

SOLUTION:

Air side:

Q = 1.1 ⋅ CFM ⋅ (Tout − Tin )

Q = 1.1 ⋅ 10,000 ⋅ (73 − 57)

Q = 176,000 Btu / hr

However, the rate of heat transfer could be much lower, when considering the

accuracy of the temperature measurements:

Q min = 1.1 ⋅ 10,000 ⋅ (72 − 58)

Q = 154,000 Btu / hr

min

Water side:

Q = 500 ⋅ GPM ⋅ (Tout − Tin )

Q = 500 ⋅ 30 ⋅ (120 − 110)

Q = 150,000 Btu / hr

However, the rate of heat transfer could be much higher, when considering

the accuracy of the temperature measurements:

Q max = 500 ⋅ 30 ⋅ (121 − 109)

Qmax = 180,000 Btu / hr

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12.44)

GIVEN: Airflow measurements are often made at several points across the face

of an airstream so that the average airflow rate can be determined. A

pitot tube is often used for these kinds of measurements. The dynamic

pressure measurements at five points are 0.23, 0.20, 0.18, 0.25, 0.20

(all in equivalent inches of water).

SOLUTION:

2∆p

v=

ρ

where ∆p is the dynamic pressure (difference between total and static) and ρ

is the air density. Since one in W.G. is 5.2 lbf/ft2, the first measurement gives

2 ⋅ 1.2 lb f / ft 2

v= = 32.1 ft/s

(0.075 lb m / ft 3 ) /[32.2 lb m ⋅ ft /(lb f ⋅ s 2 )]

Repeating this for the other measurements gives velocities of 29.9, 28.3,

33.4, and 29.9 ft/s. The average velocity is therefore 30.7 ft/s

Note that this is not the same as taking the average pressure difference and

then calculating the resulting velocity. You must first calculate the velocity at

each point because the square relationship between pressure and velocity.

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Chapter 13

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13.7)

incandescent bulb. A particular task requires 200 lumens. A 50 W

fluorescent light bulb has a life of 7500 hours and an efficacy of 70

lm/W while a 50 W incandescent bulb has a life of 1000 hours and an

efficacy of 15 lm/W. The compact fluorescent bulb costs $20, the

incandescent bulb costs $1, and electricity costs 8¢ per kWh.

FIND: If it makes sense over the long run to use the compact fluorescent.

SOLUTION:

Fluorescent: 50 W ⋅ 70 lm / W = 3500 lm

Incandescent: 50 W ⋅ 15 lm / W = 750 lm

Incandescent:

7500 hrs

0.050 kW ⋅ 7500 hrs ⋅ $0.08 / kWh + ⋅ $1 / bulb = $37.50

1000 hrs / bulb

Therefore, in this case, it does not make sense to used compact fluorescents

over the long run. However, in this case, the fluorescent bulb is providing

many more lumens than necessary. CFL’s would be cost effective if a lower

wattage fluorescent bulb could be used.

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13.10)

FIND: The glazing that will minimize the cooling load among the types listed in

Table 6.6.

SOLUTION:

The glazing that provides the most visible light with the least amount of

transmitted daylight is the best glazing to choose. The quantity, Ke (= τv /

SC) is proportional to the luminous efficacy of transmitted daylight.

Therefore, the best glazing will be the one with the highest Ke. This is

glazing #9 in Table 6.6, Low-ε double glazing, green.

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Chapter 14

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14.12)

internal gains of 3400 Btu/hr. Natural gas costs $6/GJ and electricity

costs 8¢/kWh.

FIND: Compare the annual energy costs of heating this house with the following

three options:

• A conventional natural gas furnace (η = 75%)

• A conventional natural gas furnace (η = 93%)

• A heat pump with these characteristics:

COP = 2.6 for To > 50ºF

COP = 2.2 for 30ºF < To < 50ºF

COP = 1.7 for 15ºF < To < 30ºF

COP = 1.0 for To < 15ºF

SOLUTION:

Q gain 3400 Btu / hr

Tbal = Ti − = 68 F − = 59.3 F

K tot 389 Btu / hr ⋅ F

Create a spreadsheet with bins below 60ºF, using the following equations:

K (T − T )

¦ Q heat ,bin = totη bal o ⋅ N hours

furnace

Q

¦ Q furnace,bin = η heat ,bin

furnace

Ti = 68 deg F Natural Gas Cost = 6 $/GJ

Ktot = 389 Btu/hr-F Electricity Cost = 0.08 $/kWh

Tbal = 59.3 deg F

ηlow = 75%

ηhigh = 93%

Energy

Needed Low- High- Work into Electricity

Avg. for Efficiency Efficiency Heat into Heat

Outdoor Hours in Heating Furnace Furnace Pump Pump

Temp Bin (MBtu) (MBtu) (MBtu) COP (MBtu) (kWh)

57 673 0.60 0.80 0.65 2.6 0.23 68

52 690 1.96 2.61 2.11 2.6 0.75 221

47 684 3.27 4.36 3.52 2.2 1.49 436

42 790 5.32 7.09 5.72 2.2 2.42 708

37 744 6.45 8.61 6.94 2.2 2.93 860

32 542 5.76 7.67 6.19 2.2 2.62 767

27 254 3.19 4.26 3.43 1.7 1.88 550

22 138 2.00 2.67 2.15 1.7 1.18 345

17 54 0.89 1.18 0.96 1.7 0.52 153

12 17 0.31 0.42 0.34 1.0 0.31 92

7 2 0.04 0.05 0.04 1.0 0.04 12

Σ= 39.73 32.04 Σ= 4212

Σ (in GJ) = 41.91 33.80 Annual Cost = $337

Annual Cost = $251 $203

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14.13)

automatically reduces the setpoint temperature from 68ºF to 60ºF

during the hours of 8 PM through 8 AM. Conventional (low efficiency

furnace).

ASSUMPTIONS: The hours in each bin are equally split between the nighttime

period of 8 PM to 8 AM and the daytime period of 8AM to 8

PM. Neglect any transient behavior of the heating system or

any thermal storage effects in the house.

SOLUTION:

Q gain 3400 Btu / hr

Tbal , day = Ti ,day − = 68 F − = 59.3 F

K tot 389 Btu / hr ⋅ F

Q gain 3400 Btu / hr

Tbal , night = Ti , night − = 60 F − = 51.3 F

K tot 389 Btu / hr ⋅ F

Create a spreadsheet dividing day and nighttime energy use for each data

bin:

Ti,day = 68 deg F

Ti,night = 60 deg F

Ktot = 389 Btu/hr-F

Tbal,day = 59.3 deg F

Tbal,night = 51.3 deg F

ηlow = 75%

Natural Gas Cost = 6 $/GJ

Without

Setback With Setback

Nighttime/D Typical Daytime Nighttime

Avg. aytime Energy Use Energy Use Energy Use

Outdoor Hours in Hours in by Furnace by Furnace by Furnace

Temp Bin Bin (MBtu) (MBtu) (MBtu)

57 673 337 0.80 0.40 --

52 690 345 2.61 1.31 --

47 684 342 4.36 2.18 0.76

42 790 395 7.09 3.54 1.91

37 744 372 8.61 4.30 2.76

32 542 271 7.67 3.84 2.71

27 254 127 4.26 2.13 1.60

22 138 69 2.67 1.33 1.05

17 54 27 1.18 0.59 0.48

12 17 9 0.42 0.21 0.17

7 2 1 0.05 0.03 0.02

Σ= 39.73 19.86 11.47

Σ (in GJ) = 41.91 20.96 12.10

Annual Cost = $251 $126 $73

Simple Payback = $100 / $52/yr = 1.92 yrs

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Notes

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Notes

319

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