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STUDYING THE EFFECT OF CARTOON FILMS AS

INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA ON GRADE TEN STUDENTS

WRITING SKILLS IN NARRATIVE TEXTS AT SMA AL FAJAR

BEKASI IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2018 / 2019

INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Problem

English language is one of foreign language. It becomes very important in

education aspect. Because English language including to several language lesson

in our country. Students learn and acquire language through both written and

spoken ways so that they can improve their communicative competence. In the

process of communication, ideally students know the rules on how to

communicate to others, how to get information, and how to communicate about

the language itself. When the students understand the knowledge of the language,

it means that they have a language competence. In line with this, Brown (2000:

31) states the definition of a language competence as “one’s underlying

knowledge of system of a language – its rules of grammar, its vocabulary, and all

the pieces of language and how those pieces fit together”. Furthermore, Bachman

(1990: 87) divides the language competence into two parts: organization

competence and pragmatic competence. Organization competence is ability to

comprehend and form correct sentences,understand meaning of sentences and


pour theses sentences into a text. The definitions of writing are variously stated by

some experts. According to Rivers (1981: 294), writing is conveying information

or expression of original ideas in a consecutive way in the new language. Brown,

(2001: 336) also claimed that writing is a thinking process. Furthermore, he states

that writing can be planned and given with an unlimited number of revisions

before its release. In addition, Elbow (1973) in Brown (2001: 336) also says that

writing is a two-step process. The first process is figuring out the meaning and the

second process is putting the meaning into language. Writing represents what we

think. It is because the writing process reflects things, which stay in the mind.

Students who are reluctant to write things down often suffer for this activity. The

students find difficulties when they start looking for some reasons to write and

producing written sentences. Another definition of writing skill is also defined by

Urquhart and Mclver and also Harmer. Urquhart and Mclver (2005: 5-6) state that

writing is a recursive process, which means students revise throughout the

process, frequently moving back and forth among the stages.Then, students

should learn strategies for invention and discovery, and teachers should help

students generate content and discover a purpose. Also, it is stated that readers,

purpose, and occasion define all types of writing and effective writing fulfills the

writer’s intention and meets the readers’ needs.It means that writing is a complex

process and it seems reasonable to expect, then, that the teaching of writing is

complex as well. Moreover, Harmer (2004) states that writing encourages students

to focus on accurate language use. It is because students consider the language use

when the students engage in their writing process. This activity will provoke
language development because the students resolve problems what writing puts in

students’ minds.

Based on this statement, it can be concluded that writing is one part of the

competencies. And there are several functions of foreign language:

a. international communication and study of language,

b. language as a system of communication,

c. the most complex of man’s tool,

d. each language is structurally different system.

As an international language, it is used to communicate among people in the

different country. However, it can be an important to that it should be learned by

the students.

According to Baugh (2000, p. 4)

“English is one of the most important languages of the world. Spoken by


more than 370 million people as a first language in the United Kingdom, The
United States, and the former British Empire, it is the largest of the
occidental languages”.

In our country, English learned since elementary school. Because English is

not our native language, the students are difficult to learn it, based on that

statement, English taught with many methods to make student easily to learn

English as their second language. One of method that helps the students to master

English is by using a Cartoon films method.

We know that English not our native language, as a fact that mastery it is not

easy. The components and skill of English language is important for language

learner. The components include grammatical structure, phonology, vocabulary


and pronunciation that can give the effect to the English-language skills; such as

listening, reading, speaking and writing. Writing is the written productive

language skill. It refers to the ability to communicate to the reader with the written

language. Reading is refers to produce the spoken language. Listening is the

receptive spoken. It refers to the ability to understand the spoken language. It is

the skill of a listener or group of listener to interpret information transferred by the

speaker. Speaking is the spoken productive language. It refers to produce spoken

language. It the skill of speaker to communicate the information to the listener.

In writing, students have to know about grammar, vocabulary, sentence

structure, sentence sequence, sentence connection. Sometimes the students could

speak English fluently but they did not definite understand in Writing or making

essay.

But in fact, most Indonesian students could not learn English well, especially

in Writing. It is usually indicated when they write paper or thesis in English.

Many students make mistake when they write essay. Not all students had some

ability in pouring the ideas when they write essay, it is because they do not have

interest in studying writing skill,and and the decisive test in Indonesia is National

examination,and in Indonesia there is no writing test for National examination.


Harmer (2003), Nunan (1995). In the Department of English Language and

Literature, according to direct observation indirectly conducted by researchers,

English writing skills college students have not achieved good abilities and even

tend to be the sufficient or even low category. This can be seen from language

skills like speaking, reading and also listening.

As we all realize the objective of English instruction as stipulated in the

Curiculum of 2013 (known as Kurtilas) goes : The teaching of English in Senior

High School is intended that the Senior High School leavers will be targeted to

reach the functional level namely ability to communicate in English both orally

and in writing.

Yet, the afore-mentioned ideal objective has not yet been satisfactorily

achieved as the large number of of Senior High School leavers are still not able

to communicate in English both orally and in writing (Setiyadi (2012, p.1),

Habbib (Suara Pembaharuan 22/2/2009), Alwasilah ((Media Indonesia -

(01/10/2001), and the late Madjid (Kompas Daily , (24/7/2000: 9).


The statistics in English subject published by the Department of Education

of Bekasi revealed English test scores in 2017/2018 as follows ; Listening 69,3 ,

Speaking 69,6, Reading 68,3, and Writing 62,3. (http://disdik.bekasikab.go.id).

The data above brings to light that the lowest score obtained by the

students is that of writing.

The above facts and statements taken into account, we arrived at the

conclusion that there is a wide gap or discrepancy between the ideal condition or

objective , the condition or obbjective that we unanimously expect and the real

condition, the condition that occur in reality. As far as writing skill is concerned,

there is a discrepancy between the expected condition, the condition in which the

SMA leavers are able to communicate in writing and the real condition, the

reality faced by the SMA leavers, i.e. inability to write, English low writing skill.

Writing, the main purpose of which is to convey or deliver ideas and

thoughts through words, i.e. one of the language skills which is productive and

written in nature, must be acquired in addition to the rest of three other skills:

listening, speaking and reading. However, as described in the preceding section

the majority of students have difficulty in writing English which “leads to poor

performance in this skill”.

Low writing skill is believed to be brought about by a number of

factors. The factors may be linguistic and non linguistic (Sundayana, 2005, p.

34), , writing mechanism, and rhetorical aspects. (Dahlan,2000,Harmer,2003,p.2)

states that the low


Writing skill is caused by many factors including the initial ability of students

(input), interest in learning, motivation to learn, the ability of lecturers (either

mastery of material or delivery of material), teaching materials (textbooks,

dictionaries), teaching tools, and methods or strategies teaching patterns so that

interactions and teaching and learning processes do not occur optimally and

communicatively.

Intternal factors are the factors which lie inside the students, such as

motivation, interest, attitude towards writing English, while students’ external

factors are the factors which exist outside the students, such as learning

environment, classroom, teachers’ way of teaching , i.e. his or her adoption of

instructional model: teaching and learning approach, strategy. method technique,

and tactics (David, 2001, 3), and the use of instructonal media.

As mentioned above, one of the factors which may promote or lower

students’ writing performance or skill is the use of instructional media. Proper and

suitable media can improve students’ writing skill, whereas improper and

inappropriate media may cause opposite results.

One of the most proper and suitable media which are frequently used by

language teachers including English teachers because of their effectiveness and

usefulness in the teaching of language skills,including writing. Kemp (1963: 3)

states when such audiovisual materials as slides,filmstrips, overhead

transparencies, and motion pictures (film) are carefully prepared, they can:

increase understanding; add interest to a subject; lengthen the memory of

information; and teach a skill effectively.


Studies carried out by Vivit Kumala Dewi (2013) and Sri Wahyuni (2016

proved the significant effect of Media on learners’ writing skill. Learners’ writing

performance improved as their motivation and interest in writing increased due to

the use of this media.

Inspired by the benefits and usefulness of Vivit Kumala Dewi as

illustrated by some experts above, and these have been verified by emprical

researches conducted by Katchen (1995), Harmer (2007: 118), and Canning-

Wilson (2000) above,

The writer was interested in carrying out an investigation in the same area

proposing the title STUDYING THE EFFECT OF CARTOON FILMS AS

INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA ON GRADE TEN STUDENTS WRITING SKILLS

IN NARRATIVE TEXTS . The objective of this investigation was to find out

whether also had significant effect on grade TEN students’ writing skill in

narrative texts at SMA AL FAJAR, Bekasi.

Methods or strategies or teaching patterns so that the interaction and

learning process does not occur optimally and communicative. Bistari B.S. et al

(2001) say that the teaching system is still there monotonous, there are no

challenges, no variety in learning, and the learning process does not create an

atmosphere of competition between students. Nunan (1995); Ann Raimes (1983)

argues that students learn and student success is influenced by the methods,

techniques or strategies used by the teacher Leslie J. Briggs (1979) states that

teaching media is a tools physical to convey subject matter in the form of books,

films,video recording.
Where as Gagne states that media is a manifestation of existence various

types of components in the environment students who can stimulate students to

learn. Various types of form as well components found in the environment around

used by the instructors as media to deliver material according to aim from

learning.

Miarso states that the media is everything that can be used for channel the

message which can stimulate thoughts, feelings, attention, and students'

willingness to learn. According to Rudi susilana and Cepi Riyana (2007: 13)

quoted by Sri Narwanti (2011: 37) that the media learning is a container of

messages, the material to be conveyed is the message of learning, the purpose you

want achieved is the learning process.The creative use of media will increase the

possibility for students to learn more, keep in mind what they learn, and improve

their appearance in doing skills according to learning goal.

According to Kemp and Dayton the quoted by Daryanto, (2011: 15) media

teaching has several benefits:

a. Message learning can reach the standard

b. Learner can be more interesting

c. Learner becomes more interactive

d. Learner time can be shortened by applying learning theory

e. Quality of learning can improved

f. The learning process can take place anytime and anywhere

g. The positive attitude of students towards learning materials and the learning

process can be improved


It is for this reason that the writer will conduct the research “The Effect Of

Cartoon Films as Instructional Media Writing Skills In Narative Text”

B. The Identification of the Problem

Problem to be addressed in this research is how can be obtained by using

Cartoon films method in learning to improv students writing skill to Ten Grade

SMA Al Fajar.

C. The Formulation of the Problem

Based on the background mentioned, the problem research is to know the

students’ writing skill through Cartoon films Method. So, the writer thinks the

problem is:

“Is there significant effect of cartoon films as instructional media on grade 10th

students writing skills in narrative texts at Sma Al Fajar Bekasi?”

D.The Aim of the Research

The aim of research is to find out whether or not Cartoon films method has

significant effect on grade ten students’ writing skills in narrative texts at Sma Al

Fajar,Bekasi.

E. Benefits of the Research

The purpose of this research is:


1. To know whether the Effect Cartoon can improve students’ writing skill in

narrative text at Tent Grade of the Sma Al Fajar Bekasi.

2. To help students in improve English.

3. To be requirement for writer to get Tiered Master title One (S1) on As-syafiiyah

University Bekasi.

The result of this research is expected to give contribution to teacher, students

and other researcher. The significance of the studies are:

1. For the writer (researcher)

By using this method perhaps to researcher will get one solution to evaluate.

The researcher will know what the advantages are by using Cartoon Films in

teaching English language. And next time, researcher will choose this method as

one of solution to evaluate.

2. For the teacher

Teacher can evaluate clearly what the result of teaching English language

uses the Cartoon Films. This research can be given to the teacher as variation in

teaching English language.

3. For the student

This research as presence to increase students interest in learning English

language with enjoyable and can be used to broaden and develop.