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CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL FOUNDATION
In this section, the writer will explain the definition of writing,cartoon,

Cartoon films method, narrative text, and by presenting some theories related to the

problem above and it will be used as the framework of thought in the next discussion.

A. Definition

1. Definition of Writing

"Writing" is the process of using symbols (letters of the alphabet, punctuation

and spaces) to communicate thoughts and ideas in a readable form. Generally, we

write using a pen/pencil (handwriting) or a keyboard (typing). With a pen/pencil we

usually write on a surface such as paper or whiteboard. A keyboard is normally

attached to a typewriter, computer or mobile device. Voice recognition programs

allow those who can't see or use their hands to have their thoughts transcribed.

According Kitao & Saeki (1992) also reveal that writing is considered as the most

difficult of four skills to be mastered by both native and non-native language writers
To write clearly it is essential to understand the basic system of a language. In

English this includes knowledge of grammar, punctuation and sentence structure.

Vocabulary is also necessary, as is correct spelling and formatting.

When the students understand the knowledge of the language, it means that

they have a language competence. In line with this, Brown (2000: 31) states the

definition of a language competence as “one’s underlying knowledge of system of a

language its rules of grammar, its vocabulary, and all the pieces of language and how

those pieces fit together”. According to Tarigan (1985:5) “writing is productive skills

for writing an indirect communication and the nature of the character is very different

from that expressed by speaking directly, therefore writing is included an ability”

A writer may write for personal enjoyment or use, or for an audience of one person or

more. The audience may be known (targeted) or unknown. Taking notes for study

purposes is an example of writing for one's self. Blogging publicly is an example of

writing for an unknown audience. A letter to a friend is an example of writing for a

targeted audience. As with speaking, it is important to consider your audience when

writing. There are many different styles of writing, from informal to formal.

Another definition of writing skill is also defined by Urquhart and Mclver

and also Harmer. Urquhart and Mclver (2005: 5-6) state that writing is a recursive

process, which means students revise throughout the process, frequently moving

back and forth among the stages. Then, students should learn strategies for

invention and discovery, and teachers should help students generate content and
discover a purpose. Also, it is stated that readers, purpose, and occasion define all

types of writing and effective writing fulfills the writer’s intention and meets the

readers’ needs. It means that writing is a complex process and it seems reasonable

to expect, then, that the teaching of writing is complex as well. Moreover, Harmer

(2004) states that writing encourages students to focus on accurate language use.

It is because students consider the language use when the students engage in their

writing process. This activity will provoke language development because the

students resolve problems what writing puts in students’ minds. Based on the

definitions above, a definition of writing skill can be obtained. Writing is a productive

process done through some stages. Firstly, exploring and transmitting ideas, thought

and feeling into written form. Secondly, conducting a number of revising process to

carry out a grammatically and orderly texts. The writing productions are in the forms

of readable texts which should be meaningful to everyone who read the writing.

Furthermore, based on those definitions, it can be stated that writing skill is a

complex activity in producing a qualified writing. The complex activity consists of

stages as the steps in writing. To improve students’ writing skill, the teaching and

learning process of writing needs to be done well with developed input and effective

activities. As a result, teachers need to consider the teaching of writing skill well

based on their student’s needs, ability and capacity.


2. Definitions of Writing Ability

When we talk about the definition of writing ability according to the approaches to

the teaching of writing, it is not plausible to find “the” writing ability which is

accepted and agreed amongst all researchers and practitioners of English writing.

Since writing ability is multifaceted in its own right, any approach and accordingly its

definition of writing ability cannot be thorough and comprehensive in its own right.

Nunan (2003: 88) states that writing is the mental work of inventing ideas, thinking

about how to express them, and organizing them into statements and paragraphs that

will be clear to a reader. Each approach and definition has its own merits and

demerits, depending on which facet it mainly focuses on among complex aspects of

writing. As a result, it is valuable to investigate each approach and definition. I will,

therefore, examine various definitions according to the approaches to the teaching of

writing one after another. Harmer (2004: 31-33) states that there are many advantages

of learning writing. They are as follows:

a.Writing is often not time- bound in the way conversation is It means that students

have longer time to think than in speaking activity. They can check their grammar

patterns.

b.Writing encourages students to focus on accurate language use because they think

as they write; it may provoke development well as they resolve problems which

writing puts in their mind.


c. Writing is often used as a means of reinforcing language that has been thought.

They use writing skill to make a note about what they have learnt while learning

process happens.

d.Writing is frequently useful as preparation for some other activity.

e.Writing can also, of course, be used as an integral part of larger activity where the

focus is on something else such as language practice, acting out, or speaking. As the

example, the teacher asks the students to make a short dialogue which they will then

act out.

f.Writing is also use in questionnaire type activity.Writing is important to face

questionnaire test. In the examination, students are asked their answer in the form of

written. From the explanation above the writer can conclude that writing

skill is very important to be learnt. Writing helps us in solving and

improving other skills in learning language.

3. Taxonomy

Bloom’s Taxonomy is a classification of the different objectives and skills that

educators set for their students (learning objectives). The taxonomy was proposed in

1956 by Benjamin Bloom, an educational psychologist at the University of Chicago.


The terminology has been recently updated to include the following six levels of

learning. These 6 levels can be used to structure the learning objectives, lessons, and

assessments of your course. :

1. Remembering: Retrieving, recognizing, and recalling relevant knowledge

from long‐term memory.

2. Understanding: Constructing meaning from oral, written, and graphic

messages through interpreting, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing,

inferring, comparing, and explaining.

3. Applying: Carrying out or using a procedure for executing, or implementing.

4. Analyzing: Breaking material into constituent parts, determining how the

parts relate to one another and to an overall structure or purpose through

differentiating, organizing, and attributing.

5. Evaluating: Making judgments based on criteria and standards through

checking and critiquing.

6. Creating: Putting elements together to form a coherent or functional

whole; reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure through

generating, planning, or producing.


4. Narrative Text

A. The definition of narrative text

Narrative text is a story with complication or problematic events and it tries to

find the resolutions to solve the problems. An important part of narrative text is the

narrative mode, the set of methods used to communicate the narrative through a

processnarration.

B. The purpose of narrative text

The Purpose of Narrative Text is to amuse or to entertain the reader with a story.

C. Generic Structures of Narrative Text

1) Orientation

Sets the scene: where and when the story happened and introduces the participants of

the story: who and what is involved in the story.

2) Complication

Tells the beginning of the problems which leads to the crisis (climax) of the main

participants.

3) Resolution

The problem (the crisis) is resolved, either in a happy ending or in a sad (tragic)

ending.
4) Re-orientation/Coda

This is a closing remark to the story and it is optional. It consists of a moral

lesson, advice or teaching from the writer

Example:

Fox and A Cat

One day a cat and a fox were having a conversation. The fox, who was a conceited

creature, boasted how clever she was. 'Why, I know at least a hundred tricks to get

away from our mutual enemies, the dogs,' she said.

'I know only one trick to get away from dogs,' said the cat. 'You should teach me

some of yours!' 'Well, maybe some day, when I have the time, I may teach you a few

of the simpler ones,' replied the fox airily.

Just then they heard the barking of a pack of dogs in the distance. The barking grew

louder and louder - the dogs were coming in their direction! At once the cat ran to the

nearest tree and climbed into its branches, well out of reach of any dog. 'This is the

trick I told you about, the only one I know,' said the cat. 'Which one of your hundred

tricks are you going to use?' The fox sat silently under the tree, wondering which trick

she should use. Before she could make up her mind, the dogs arrived. They fell upon

the fox and tore her to pieces.

5. Definition of Cartoon Films


A cartoon is a type of illustration, possibly animated, typically in a non-

realistic or semi-realistic style. The specific meaning has evolved over time, but the

modern usage usually refers to either: an image or series of images intended for

satire, caricature, or humor; or a motion picture that relies on a sequence of

illustrations for its animation. Someone who creates cartoons in the first sense is

called a cartoonist, and in the second sense they are usually called an animator.

Because of the stylistic similarities between comic strips and early animated movies,

cartoon came to refer to animation, and the word cartoon is currently used in

reference to both animated cartoons and gag cartoons. While animation designates

any style of illustrated images seen in rapid succession to give the impression of

movement, the word "cartoon" is most often used as a descriptor for television

programs and short films aimed at children, possibly featuring anthropomorphized

animals, superheroes, the adventures of child protagonists or related themes.

The researcher proposes Cartoon Films as teaching media to improve students’ skill

in writing narrative texts. Cartoon Films as an audiovisual media can motivate

students in learning process,especially in writing English. Cartoon Films also have

significant advantages in teaching- learning process especially in language teaching.

Kemp (1963: 3) states when such audiovisual materials as slides, filmstrips, overhead

transparencies, and motion pictures (film) are carefully prepared, they can: increase

understanding; add interest to a subject; lengthen the memory of information; and

teach a skill effectively. Cartoon, according to Wittich and Schuller (1953: 138),
elicits great interest, builds confidence. The humor in cartoon has great benefits to

stimulate students in teaching learning process, such as: making students feel relax

and enjoyable in class; making students paid attention to the story of cartoon films.

The action research’s procedure includes planning, action, observation, and reflection.

They are as follows: (1) Planning. The researcher sets the procedures and prepares

everything related to the action that will be implemented, that is, cartoon films. The

forms of the cartoon films are taken from internet. (2) Action includes: giving pre

test, teaching writing narrative texts by using cartoon films, asking the students that

they face some difficulties or not, giving post test. (3) Observation. Observation is

one of the instruments in collecting the data. The researcher observes the application

of the lesson plans, students’ activities in teaching and learning process. (4)

Reflection. The researcher analyzes the collected data, determines whether the action

is successful or unsuccessful.

B. Relevant Research

The following journals are the previous relevant research that are related with

the variables and the spesifications that are used in this research. This relevant

research conducted by Sri Wahyuni The Effect of Animated Film on Students’

Ability to Write Narrative Text at Class X MIA 5 of SMAN 9 Kendari. The

population of this study was the entire of the first grade students of SMAN 9 Kendari

who registers in academic year 2014/2015. This research involved 40 students at class
X. The instrument of this study was writing task in narrative genre. And the criteria of

students‟ writing were assessed from five aspects of writing, namely content,

organization, vocabulary, language use, and mechanic. The data were obtained by

using two essay writing tests. They were pre-test and post-test. The pre-test was given

before the treatment and the post-test was given after the treatment finished.

The data of the pre-test and post-test were analyzed by means of descriptive

and inferential statistics. After the data were tested and found to be normal, the

hypothesis was tested using the analysis of paired sample test. The result showed that

there was significant effect of students‟ writing ability after teaching by using audio

visual media (animated film). It can be seen on the result of the hypothesis testing

using paired sample test. The mean score of pre-test was 61.92 and mean score post-

test was 75.63. Morever, as a result the probability value of .000 (p value) was less

than the level of significant (p < .05). Therefore, it can be said that using audio visual

media (animated film) gives significant effect to increase students‟ ability to write

narrative text at class X Mia 5 of SMAN 9 Kendari.

Second,Vivit Kumala Dewi The Use of Cartoon Films to Improve Students’

Skill in Writing Narrative Texts, The objectives of the research are to find out

whether the students’skill in writing narrative texts can be improved by using cartoon

films. to find out the effectiveness of the teaching and learning process when cartoon

films are used in teaching writing narrative texts. The researcher collected the data
using qualitative and quantitative data. The improvement of students’ writing skill

includes: having an abundance of vocabulary; using correct capitalizations and

spelling; making sentences grammatically; developing their ideas into coherent

paragraphs. The effectiveness of using cartoon films shown in: motivating students

to write; making the lesson more clearly , increasing their interest; increasing their

attention. The students’ score in pre-test was 61.77, post-test 1 in cycle 1 was 70.6,

and post-test 2 in cycle 2 was 74.90. It can be concluded that the use of cartoon films

can improve students’ skill in writing narrative text.

Last,Ilham Sanjaya The Use of Animation Film in Improving Students

Narrative Writing Ability,The objective of this research was to find out whether

teaching narrative writing using animation film can improve students’ narrative

writing ability. In this research, the researcher used pre-test and post-test design.

Based on the data, the researcher found that there were significant improvements in

students’ narrative writing abiltity. It could be seen from the mean score of students’

narrative writing in pre test was 48.33 and in the post test was 68.33. From the result

it was found that there was an improvement and the mean score was 20.0 The data

shows that value of two tail significance was 0.000 and the sign < α (0.000 < 0.05).

Therefore, it can be said that animation film can be used as one of the media in

teaching narrative writing in order to improve students’ narrative writing ability.

C. Frame of Thought
Based on the theoretical description and result of the relevant studies, the

writer arrives at theoretical framework of this study.

In teaching and learning process, especially in English, many problems and activities

face by the students and also the teachers. But, mostly the success of the students in

learning the English should be determined by themselves. Beside the students study

the English at the school, they should hard at home, that is by repeating again what

they are getting at the school from the teacher to recognize or memorize the materials.

In English language teaching in Indonesian, writting is placed in high priority, we can

see it from the curriculums. Senior high school curriculums, junior high school

curriculum, even at elementary school emphasize the English language teaching on

the reading comprehension ability.

Therefore, writting is the most important language skills for students to study

hard, by writting the knowledge will gradually increase, beside developing their

ability in other language skills. But writting without comprehension is means nothing

because writting comprehension is an active process to get the information from the

text.

D. Hypotesis

From the basis of problem of the study and theoretical framework which have

been stated, the writer propose two hypotheses as follows:

1. Null Hypothesis (Ho)


There is no significant effect of Cartoon Films on Grade Ten students’ writing

skills in narrative text at SMA AL FAJAR Bekasi.

2. Alternative Hypothesis (Ha)

There is significant effect of Cartoon Films on Grade Ten students’ writing skills in

narrative text at SMA AL FAJAR Bekasi.