Sei sulla pagina 1di 56

VTI notat 51A-2005 www.vti.

se/publications
Published 2005

VOLVO D12C 420 Euro 3 engine


Emission measurements for VTI and COST 346
Anders Hedbom
Ulf Hammarström (Editor)
Preface
VTI has on commission of VINNOVA and the Swedish Road Administration
(SRA) participated in COST 346: ”Emissions and fuel consumption from heavy
duty vehicles”. In this commission VTI has engaged AVL MTC Motortestcenter
AB. The research efforts at AVL MTC have been executed by Anders Hedbom.
This report, VTI notat 51A-2005, constitutes a documentation of exhaust emission
measurements for one engine, VOLVO D12C 420 Euro 3. In the COST 346
project AVL MTC has performed exhaust emission measurements on three
engines in total.
Project leader at VTI has been Ulf Hammarström. Contact persons: Carl
Naumburg at VINNOVA and Håkan Johansson at SRA. Gunilla Sjöberg, VTI,
has performed the final revision of this document.

Linköping, December 2005

Ulf Hammarström

VTI notat 51A-2005


VTI notat 51A-2005
Contents Page

1 Engine and measuring arrangements 1

2 Facilities 13

3 Program 17

4 Results 21

VTI notat 51A-2005


VTI notat 51A-2005
1 Engine and measuring arrangements

VTI notat 51A-2005 1


2 VTI notat 51A-2005
VOLVO FM12
data
• MODEL YEAR 2001
• 6 x 2 RIGID
• NET VEHICLE WEIGHT 11 800 kg
• GROSS VEHICLE WEIGHT 29 600 kg

VOLVO D12C 420 ENGINE


• 6 INLINE CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE • EURO3 — EM-
EM-EC99
• TURBO, AIR/AIR INTERCOOLER • MAX. POWER 420 hp (309 kW) @ 1800 rpm
• ELECTRONIC UNIT INJECTORS • MAX. TORQUE 2000 Nm @ 1050-
1050-1450 rpm
• 4 VALVES PER CYLINDER • COMPRESSION RATIO 18.1:1
• SWEPT VOLUME 12.1 LITRES • MAX. EXHAUST BRAKE 285 kW @ 2300 rpm

Figure 1 Rental truck Type approval according to 99/96/EC.

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

Figure 2 Right view from brochure Exhaust manifold Turbo – intercooler.

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

VTI notat 51A-2005 3


Figure 3 Left view from brochure Inlet manifold Engine ECU.

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

Figure 4 Engine in reality.

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

4 VTI notat 51A-2005


Figure 5 Front view Intercooler and fan from vehicle Fan locked in fixed
position. Corrections made to net power according to 80/1269/EC.

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

Figure 6 Exhaust manifold Turbo compressor and turbine.

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

VTI notat 51A-2005 5


Figure 7 Connection to torque shaft and brake.

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

Figure 8 Left view Engine ECU Vehicle ECU.

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

6 VTI notat 51A-2005


Figure 9 Vehicle ECU.

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

Figure 10 Network and units needed for communication between engine and
vehicle ECU’s.
VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

VTI notat 51A-2005 7


Figure 11 Engine actuator – pedal potentiometer from vehicle.

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

Figure 12 Combustion air intake. Temperature and pressure measurement.

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

8 VTI notat 51A-2005


Figure 13 Intake manifold. Temperature and pressure measurement.

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

Figure 14 Exhaust gas pipe. Temperature and pressure measurement.

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

VTI notat 51A-2005 9


Figure 15 Exhaust manifold – turbine. Lambda sensor.

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

Figure 16 Etas lambda meter.

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

10 VTI notat 51A-2005


Figure 17 Indimaster equipment.

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

Figure 18 Crank angle measurement; 720 marks per revolution; 2,880 pulses per
cycle.
VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

VTI notat 51A-2005 11


Figure 19 Connection to engine ECU brooken. All communication via a connected
brake-out box instead.
VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

Figure 20 Break-out box.

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

12 VTI notat 51A-2005


2 Facilities

VTI notat 51A-2005 13


14 VTI notat 51A-2005
Blower Unit
Heated sample line
Sample line
Wire
TRANSIENT HEAVY DUTY
ENGINE TEST BED
TRANSIENT HEAVY DUTY Upper Floor

ENGINE TEST BED Dilution Air On Line


Dilution Air Bag
Diluted Sample Bag
Unregulated Emissions Sampling

Dilution
Air System

Flow Controller
CVS
Control Unit Insulated 5” exhaust pipe
NOx / CO Diluted

HORIBA HORIBA

MEXA-9400D MEXA-9400D AVL 439


HC Diluted

ELPI PSS V&F MS


InfraredAnalyzer InfraredAnalyzer
RS 330
AVL 670 Indimaster Line Selector Backpressure
Flame Ionization Flame Ionization Valve
Analyzer Analyzer Line 1
NO Direct
Engine Exhaust

Chemiluminescent Chemiluminescent Line 2


Analyzer Analyzer NOx / CO Direct
HC Direct
Magnetopneumatic- HORIBA HORIBA HORIBA HORIBA
detection AVL 415

Pump dehumid Pump dehumid FlameIonization FlameIonization


NOx/CO/CO2 Analyzer Analyzer
NOx /CO/CO2 O2
Muffler Mass Flow Combustion
Direct Diluted HC Diluted HC Direct Air
Diluted Direct Sensyflow

AVL AVL Torque shaft


Transputer Transputer ELIN
Fuel Mass
Fuel
Conditioning Flow

AVL PUMA
Engine Test System
PUMA 5
ISAC 200

Fully transient asynchronous brake


VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE Figure 21 Dual analysing systems
Full flow tunnel system

VTI notat 51A-2005 15


16 VTI notat 51A-2005
3 Program

VTI notat 51A-2005 17


18 VTI notat 51A-2005
MEASUREMENT PROGRAM
ARTEMIS PROGRAM MTC PROGRAM

FULLOAD PERFORMANCE program


FULLOAD PERFORMANCE
STEADY STATE CYCLES STEADY STATE CYCLES
► ECE R49 ► ECE R49
► ESC ► ESC
► ARTEMIS SS 29 POINTS ► ARTEMIS SS 29 POINTS + 10
5
► ARTEMIS SS 15 POINTS ► ARTEMIS SS 15 POINTS + 2
TRANSIENT CYCLES TRANSIENT CYCLES
► ►
► ETC
► ETC
ETC ETC
► ►
► ELR
ELR
ELR
► ELR
ELR
► TNO-
TNO-REAL WORLD ►
► TNO-
TNO-REAL WORLD
TNO-REAL WORLD CYCLE
CYCLE (12.5 kW/ton)
► TNO-REAL WORLD CYCLE
CYCLE
► ► TUG-
TUG-REAL WORLD
TUG REAL WORLD
► TUG-REAL CYCLE
WORLD CYCLE
CYCLE
► TUG-
TUG-REAL WORLD
TUG-REAL WORLD CYCLE
CYCLE
ALL CYCLES RUN TWICE
ALL CYCLES REPEATED 3 TIMES
PROGRAM PERFORMED WITH
PROGRAM
SWEDISHPERFORMED
EC1 DIESEL WITH
FUEL 2
DIFFERENT DIESEL FUELS
UNDERLINED CYCLES ALSO RUN AS
SINGLE TESTS WITH REFERENCE FUEL

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE Figure 22

FUEL KEY PARAMETERS

Cetan Number
ANALYSIS fuel
UNIT
RESULT
CEC RF-06-99
52,3
EC1
51,3
Cetan Index 51,8
Density @ 15°C kg/m³ 834,0 816,9
Viscosity @ 40°C cSt 2,945 1,959
Calorific Value MJ/kg 43,18 43,14
CFPP °C -26 < -35
Flash Point °C 83 69
Aromatics total %vol 22,0 4,6
Monoaromatics %vol 18,1 4,3
Diaromatics %vol 3,9 0,2
Polyaromatics, tri and higher %vol 0,1 < 0,02
Sulphur content mg/kg 50 3
Distillation
IBP °C 185,9
50 % recovered @ °C 270 235,0
90 % recovered @ °C 269,3
95 % recovered @ °C 345 279,7
FBP °C 349 290,9
HFRR µm 403 235

Figure 23 Major differencies: Density, Viscosity, Aromatic content, Sulphur


content, Destillation curve.
VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

VTI notat 51A-2005 19


20 VTI notat 51A-2005
4 Results

VTI notat 51A-2005 21


22 VTI notat 51A-2005
FULLOAD PERFORMANCE
VOLVO D12C 420 RF AND EC1 FUEL
2200 480

2000 RF FUEL 440


EC1 FUEL
1800 400

1600 360
torque, Nm; NOx rate, g/h

1400 320

power, kW; mg/st


1200 280

1000 240

800 200

600 torque, Nm 160

400 NOx rate, g/h 120


power, kW
200 mg/st 80

0 40
500 700 900 1100 1300 1500 1700 1900 2100

Based on measurements 2042Q002+2042Q003 engine speed, rpm

Figure 24 Measurements have been performed with two fuel qualities, EC1
and RF fuel, see figure 23 Mg/st: milligram fuel per engine stroke.

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

FULLOAD PERFORMANCE
VOLVO D12C 420 & SCANIA DC12 01 RF FUEL
2200 480

2000 440

1800 400

1600 360
torque, Nm; NOx rate, g/h

1400 320
power, kW; mg/st

1200 280

1000 240

800 200

600 torque, Nm 160


NOx rate, g/h
400 power, kW 120
mg/st
200 kW 80

0 40
500 700 900 1100 1300 1500 1700 1900 2100 2300 2500

Based on measurements 2042Q002+2042Q003+5728Q008 engine speed, rpm

Figure 25 Comparison of measured results for VOLVO D12C and SCANIA DC 12


01 (without dots). Note the fuel cut-off region for the SCANIA. SCANIA DC 12 01 was
the first engine in the Swedish COST 346 measuring campaign.

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

VTI notat 51A-2005 23


FULLOAD PERFORMANCE
VOLVO D12C 420 RF FUEL
2200 440
VOLVO HOMOLOGATION:
2000 nlo = 950 rpm 400
A = 1200 rpm nhi = 70% * Pmax
nhi = 1950 rpm B = 1450 rpm
1800 1945 rpm 360
C = 1700 rpm
1600 320
nlo = 50% * Pmax
1400 910 rpm 280
torque, Nm

power, kW
1200 240
CONTROL
1000 AREA 200
ESC
800 160

600 120

400 80

200 40
A B C
0 0
500 700 900 1100 1300 1500 1700 1900 2100

Based on measurements 2042Q002 engine speed, rpm

Figure 26 Emission control area for the Volvo engine.

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

FULLOAD PERFORMANCE
VOLVO D12C 420 RF FUEL
2200 440
VOLVO HOMOLOGATION:
2000 nlo = 950 rpm 400
A = 1200 rpm nhi = 70% * Pmax
nhi = 1950 rpm B = 1450 rpm
1800 1945 rpm 360
C = 1700 rpm
1600 320
nlo = 50% * Pmax
1400 910 rpm 280
torque, Nm

power, kW

1200 240

1000 200

800 160

600 120
ETC POINT DISTRIBUTION
400 80

200 40
A B C
0 0
500 700 900 1100 1300 1500 1700 1900 2100

Based on measurements 2042Q002+2042R004 engine speed, rpm

Figure 27 ETC point distribution in relation to ESC area (A–B–C). Majority of points
in ETC around 1,400 rpm.
VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

24 VTI notat 51A-2005


FULLOAD PERFORMANCE
TUG FUEL
2200 440
SCANIA HOMOLOGATION:
2000 400
nlo = 900 rpm A = 1250 rpm ETC POINT DISTRIBUTION
1800 nhi = 2300 rpm B = 1600 rpm 360
C = 1950 rpm
1600 320
nlo = 50% * Pmax nhi = 70% * Pmax
1400 909 rpm 2275 rpm 280
torque, Nm

power, kW
1200 240

1000 200

800 160

600 120

400 80

200 40

0 0
A B C
500 700 900 1100 1300 1500 1700 1900 2100 2300 2500
engine speed, rpm nref = 2230 rpm
Based on measurements 5728Q008+5728R039

Figure 28 ETC point distribution in relation to the ESC area (A–B–C) for SCANIA
DC 1201 engine running on TUG/RF fuel. Majority of points in ETC around 1,550
rpm for the SCANIA engine.

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

STEADY STATE CYCLE MEASUREMENT POINTS


VOLVO D12C 420
350
fulload performance, VOLVO D12C 420, kW
ARTEMIS 29 POINTS
300 ESC CYCLE
ECE R49
EXTRA MOTORING AND HIGH IDLE
250

200
power, kW

150

100

50

-50
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130
Based on measurements 2042Q001 norm. engine speed, %

Figure 29 Extra motoring and high idle points. With a full load curve consisting of 23
emission measurements there are alltogether 103 points included in the map
calculation. Some of the points though overlaping.

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

VTI notat 51A-2005 25


Test id 2042A002.AAD
Date 2003-05-31 VOLVO D12C420 Test date 17-DEC-02
Time 18:05:20 Test time 19:13:47
Anders Hedbom NOx g/h EC1 fuel Operator: K-E.Å/U.S

2700
Series in PC-TRR files Net versi
2002 juli-dec 2042Q003.AAD
2400 2002 juli-dec 2042A002.AAD
2002 juli-dec 2042M002.AAD
2002 juli-dec 2042X003.AAD
2002 juli-dec 2042B002.AAD
2100 2002 juli-dec 2042S004.AAD

956956 1024 1056 1136


1235
1036 1249
1226
1800 863 1013 10
00
1222
1200 1297
1185 1297
831 929 1254
1161
1047 12001122 1212
772 900 1212041209
712 00
1500 683 820 1202
1158 12
TORQUE [Nm]

762 982 00
640 800 1180
814
580 609
747 792
539 619
110
1200 700 792 885
814
0
452 648 767
676
646 622 600 931
489
900 616 511
526
604 823
603 500
543 534

548
600 342
400
387 352
374 312 317 288
299 309
300
322
300 292 316
210
195 254 200
237 251 248 246
146 236 237
79
81
68 151 103 162 196 200 216
67
0 83 62
70 100
0
0 0 1
0 1
0
0
-300
500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100
SPEED[RPM]
Map calculations based on Artemis SS29 (A-file), Artemis SS15 (B-file), full load (Q-file), ECE R49 (M-file) and ESC (S-file) measurements together with 10 extra points (X-file).

Figure 30

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

Test id 2042A002.AAD
Date 2003-10-13 VOLVO D12C420 Test date 17-DEC-02
Time 15:11:01 Test time 19:13:47
Anders Hedbom NOx g/h EC1 fuel Operator: K-E.Å/U.S

1800

1600

1400

1200
G_NOX [g/h]

1000

800

600

400

200

-200
2000
1800 1800
1500 1600
1200 1400
900 1200
600 1000
TOR
QUE 300 800 PM]
[Nm 0 600 ED [R
] SPE

Map calculations based on Artemis SS29 (A-file), Artemis SS15 (B-file), full load (Q-file), ECE R49 (M-file) and ESC (S-file) measurements together with 10 extra points (X-file).

Figure 31 (Tendency of a ditch between 1,200–1,700 rpm.)

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

26 VTI notat 51A-2005


Test id 2042A002.AAD
Date 2003-05-31 VOLVO D12C420 Test date 17-DEC-02
Time 18:05:47 Test time 19:13:47
Anders Hedbom NOx g/kWh EC1 fuel Operator: K-E.Å/U.S

2700
Series in PC-TRR files Net versi
2002 juli-dec 2042Q003.AAD
2400 2002 juli-dec 2042A002.AAD
2002 juli-dec 2042M002.AAD
2002 juli-dec 2042X003.AAD
2002 juli-dec 2042B002.AAD
2100 2002 juli-dec 2042S004.AAD

4,5 4,5 4,5 4,4 4,6


4,7
4,4 4,6
4. 4,7
1800 4,7 4,3 5 4,5 4,7
4,4 4,7
4,6 4,3 4,5
4.5 4,1
4,3 4,3
5,1
5,1
4,0 4,3 4,2
1500 5,5 5,1 4,4
4,1
TORQUE [Nm]

4,3 3,9
5,7 4,6
4,0
5,9 5,5
5,5 3,9
5.5
5,6
6,3
1200 3,7 4,2

4.5
3,9
6,9 4,2 3,6
4,0
5,9 4,9

4
7,8 4
4,1
900 6,6 3,9
3,9
4,2 5,3
6,7 3,9 3,8
9.5
10
10,0
600 4,4
7,6 4,1
7,7 5,4 4,6 4,1
4,2 4,3
5.5 4,6 4,5 5 6.5
300 11,8 6
10,5

6. 5
7.5 7,5
11
10
.5 99,3
.5 10,4 9,3 9,2 10 9,2 8,4 7

12.5
13
16 11,714,8
.5 10,2 10 8,6 13 13.5
.5 11. 5 12

.5
382,2
445,0 77,5 17 1011
542,5 592,4 2020 1.5.5 1519,6
221 1314 15 12.5
-943,1

16
15.5
16.5 17 8.5

.5
-33,4 8 .5 14.5
0 13 12 115 19.524 23 2

23
16
15 -11,0 7. 5 5 5.5 4 18 22.52 13
9 11.5.5 17 19
.5.5
14
14.5
-146,9 12.5 6. 5 1011.5 18 1415
-0,0 10.5
12 7 -0,0 2 2.53 3.5 4
11.5 -0,0 0 0.5 1.5 0
11 5 6 4. 5 1 -0,0 -0,0
10. -0,0
-0,0
-300
500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100
SPEED[RPM]
Map calculations based on Artemis SS29 (A-file), Artemis SS15 (B-file), full load (Q-file), ECE R49 (M-file) and ESC (S-file) measurements together with 10 extra points (X-file).

Figure 32

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

Test id 2042A002.AAD
Date 2003-10-13 VOLVO D12C420 Test date 17-DEC-02
Time 15:12:48 Test time 19:13:47
Anders Hedbom NOx g/kWh EC1 fuel Operator: K-E.Å/U.S

20
18
16
SP_NOX [g/kWh]

14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0 600
0 800
1000
300
600 1200
900 1400
TOR 1200 1600
M]
QUE 1500 1800 [RP
ED
[Nm
] 1800 2000 SPE

Map calculations based on Artemis SS29 (A-file), Artemis SS15 (B-file), full load (Q-file), ECE R49 (M-file) and ESC (S-file) measurements together with 10 extra points (X-file).

Figure 33

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

VTI notat 51A-2005 27


Test id 2042A002.AAD
Date 2003-05-31 VOLVO D12C420 Test date 17-DEC-02
Time 18:06:13 Test time 19:13:47
Anders Hedbom CO g/h EC1 fuel Operator: K-E.Å/U.S

2700
Series in PC-TRR files Net versi
2002 juli-dec 2042Q003.AAD
2400 2002 juli-dec 2042A002.AAD
2002 juli-dec 2042M002.AAD
2002 juli-dec 2042X003.AAD
2002 juli-dec 2042B002.AAD
2100 2002 juli-dec 2042S004.AAD

606611 443 318 280


180
0 435 150
60 0
20202
1800 526 50 381 163 136

550
5 162
263 127 139
570
148

150
464 500 129 149
524 450
142 155 156
1500 446 500 186 150 139
166
TORQUE [Nm]

217 134
376 119
128

500
355 4565000
211 138
289 424 4 4
350
1200 300 122 95
103
229 78 140
250
150 77
100 77 96
83 69
0
900 20 73
66 70
88 99
67 75 97

32
600 63
42 78
37 49 72 119
108 113
101 114
300 24
39
38 63 106
51 72 80

10
94

0
23 51 72
9 23 26 51 79 106
10
0 10 11
9
2 50
2 2
2 2
3
3
-300
500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100
SPEED[RPM]
Map calculations based on Artemis SS29 (A-file), Artemis SS15 (B-file), full load (Q-file), ECE R49 (M-file) and ESC (S-file) measurements together with 10 extra points (X-file).

Figure 34

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

Test id 2042A002.AAD
Date 2003-10-13 VOLVO D12C420 Test date 17-DEC-02
Time 15:13:14 Test time 19:13:47
Anders Hedbom CO g/h EC1 fuel Operator: K-E.Å/U.S

900

800
700
600
G_CO [g/h]

500
400
300
200
100
0
-100
2000
1800 1800
1500 1600
1200 1400
900 1200
TOR 600 1000
QUE 300 800 PM]
[Nm] 0 600 ED [R
SPE

Map calculations based on Artemis SS29 (A-file), Artemis SS15 (B-file), full load (Q-file), ECE R49 (M-file) and ESC (S-file) measurements together with 10 extra points (X-file).

Figure 35

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

28 VTI notat 51A-2005


Test id 2042A002.AAD
Date 2003-05-31 VOLVO D12C420 Test date 17-DEC-02
Time 18:06:41 Test time 19:13:47
Anders Hedbom CO g/kWh EC1 fuel Operator: K-E.Å/U.S

2700
Series in PC-TRR files Net versi
2002 juli-dec 2042Q003.AAD
2400 2002 juli-dec 2042A002.AAD
2002 juli-dec 2042M002.AAD
2002 juli-dec 2042X003.AAD
2002 juli-dec 2042B002.AAD
2100 2002 juli-dec 2042S004.AAD

2,852,85 1,94 1,34 1,13


0,69
1,84 0,55
0,78
1800 2,88 1,63 0,60 0,49
1,23
0,60 0.5 0,46 0,49
3,17
0,53
0,52 0,52
3,06
3,77
0,51 0,550,55
1500 3,60 1,16 0,51

5
2.
0,59
TORQUE [Nm]

1,22 0,53
3,37 4

3. 5
0,63 0,46
3,62 4,12
3.5 1,55 0,67
3,39 3,80
1200 0,58 0,45
0,49
3,48 0,50 0,66
2
0. 0,46
1,00 0,73 5 0. 0,50
0,57 5
900 4 0,71 0,54
0,54
0,62 0,64
0,74 0,54 0,69
5
0.
3.5

0,58
600 0,81
0,82 0,91 1
0,76 0,84 1,05 1,68
1,52 1,58
1.5 1,44
300 0,99 1,61
1,96
1,83 2,31 3,98 5
3 2,25 2,64 2,94 3,20
5 4.5
5.5

2,33 5 5 2,21 5.5 2,60 5


7.

1,77
5

19,48 5 7. 5 5. 5 7 5.
51,12
44,72
71,45 7 7. 186,50 608,85 6.5 -464,49
8.

8.5

6
7.5
5

4.5
-4,85 99.
5 .5 8.5
4.

1 10 11
6.

9.
10
3. 11.5 7
0 89

6
5

3. 5
4.

3
5

-1,88 5 8 7 9 6 4
5

-18,34 6 6.5 8 6.5


1. 5 4-0,13 4 4
0. 5 0 2.5 2
-0,11 -0,08
-0,08 -0,06 0 -0,06 0
-0,05
-300
500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100
SPEED[RPM]
Map calculations based on Artemis SS29 (A-file), Artemis SS15 (B-file), full load (Q-file), ECE R49 (M-file) and ESC (S-file) measurements together with 10 extra points (X-file).

Figure 36 (Maximum about 4 g/kWh at full load and low speed (SCANIA max 14).)

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

Test id 2042A002.AAD
Date 2003-10-13 VOLVO D12C420 Test date 17-DEC-02
Time 15:13:38 Test time 19:13:47
Anders Hedbom CO g/kWh EC1 fuel Operator: K-E.Å/U.S

10
9
8
7
SP_CO [g/kWh]

6
5
4
3
2
1
0
600
0 800
300 1000
600 1200
900 1400
TOR 1200 1600
QUE 1500 1800 PM]
[Nm 1800 ED [R
] 2000 SPE

Map calculations based on Artemis SS29 (A-file), Artemis SS15 (B-file), full load (Q-file), ECE R49 (M-file) and ESC (S-file) measurements together with 10 extra points (X-file).

Figure 37

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

VTI notat 51A-2005 29


Test id 2042A002.AAD
Date 2003-05-31 VOLVO D12C420 Test date 17-DEC-02
Time 18:07:06 Test time 19:13:47
Anders Hedbom HC g/h EC1 fuel Operator: K-E.Å/U.S

2700
Series in PC-TRR files Net versi
2002 juli-dec 2042Q003.AAD
2400 2002 juli-dec 2042A002.AAD
2002 juli-dec 2042M002.AAD
2002 juli-dec 2042X003.AAD
2002 juli-dec 2042B002.AAD
2100 2002 juli-dec 2042S004.AAD

14,411,4 12,5 15,7 19,2


24,2
20,4 30,7
27,4
1800 10,9 14,6 28 31,0 38,3
12 19,7
27,3 39,2 43,1
15,9
44,2
30,9 47,0
10,8
8,6
43,0 56,655,0
1500 11,3 17,8 58,6
12 50,3
TORQUE [Nm]

19,0 42,1
12,2 61,9
31,9
13,1 16,8
20 19,1 33,6
13,0 14,5
1200 46,3 48,8
46,8
13,0 31,2 44,9
40,1
22,0 25,1 63,7
20,8
900 24,3 30,3
29,6
49,7 60,2
24,4 39,6 41,2
40

21,6
600 24 37,5
27,2 43,7
25,0 22,6 32,1 49,0 60
32 42,4 56 55,2 56
56,6 60,3
300 17,6
23,0
19,9 35,4 54,1
8 27,1 41,2 45,2 54,2
13,3 30,6 41,0 52
10,1
10,4 16,7 24
24,9 30,9 41,4 48,3 48
9,7 44
0 9,5 13,1 40 36 32
10,012
7,0 28
8,6 24
6,3 20
12 12 8 4 8,2 10,6 16 12
10,6 8
13,3 4
-300
500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100
SPEED[RPM]
Map calculations based on Artemis SS29 (A-file), Artemis SS15 (B-file), full load (Q-file), ECE R49 (M-file) and ESC (S-file) measurements together with 10 extra points (X-file).

Figure 38

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

Test id 2042A002.AAD
Date 2003-10-13 VOLVO D12C420 Test date 17-DEC-02
Time 15:13:58 Test time 19:13:47
Anders Hedbom HC g/h EC1 fuel Operator: K-E.Å/U.S

100

90

80

70
G_HC [g/h]

60

50

40

30

20

10
0
2000
1800 1800
1500 1600
1200 1400
900 1200
TORQ 600 1000
300 800 M]
UE [N 0 600 D [RP
m ] SPEE

Map calculations based on Artemis SS29 (A-file), Artemis SS15 (B-file), full load (Q-file), ECE R49 (M-file) and ESC (S-file) measurements together with 10 extra points (X-file).

Figure 39

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

30 VTI notat 51A-2005


Test id 2042A002.AAD
Date 2003-05-31 VOLVO D12C420 Test date 17-DEC-02
Time 18:07:33 Test time 19:13:47
Anders Hedbom HC g/kWh EC1 fuel Operator: K-E.Å/U.S

2700
Series in PC-TRR files Net versi
2002 juli-dec 2042Q003.AAD
2400 2002 juli-dec 2042A002.AAD
2002 juli-dec 2042M002.AAD
2002 juli-dec 2042X003.AAD
2002 juli-dec 2042B002.AAD
2100 2002 juli-dec 2042S004.AAD

0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1


0,1
0,1 0,1
0,1
1800 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,1
0,1 0,1
0,1 0,1 0,2
0,2
0,1 0.1 0,1 0,2
0,1
0,2 0,2 0,2
1500 0,1 0,1 0,2
0,2
TORQUE [Nm]

0,1 0,2
0,1 0.1 0,2
0,2
0,1 0,2
0.2 0,1 0,2
0,2 0,1
1200 0,2 0,2
0,2
0,2 0,2 0,2
0.2

2
0,2

0.
0,3 0,2 0,3
0,2
900 0.3 0,3 0,2
0,2
0,3 0,4
0,3 0,3 0,3

0,4 0.3 0.4


600 0,5
0,5 0,5 0.5
0,5 0,4 0,5 0.6 0,7
0.7 0,6 0,8
0.8 0,8
300 0,7 0.9 0,8
1,1 1
0,9 1.1 1.4 1.5 2,0
1,2 1.3
1,3 1,5 1,7 1.6 1.7 1.8
1.2 1,8
1,3 1,3 1,5
48,7
55,4
83,0 1,3 18,7 112,8 320,5 -211,1
-4,8
0 -2,3
-20,8
-0,4
-0,4 -0,3
-0,3 -0,2
-0,2
-0,2
-300
500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100
SPEED[RPM]
Map calculations based on Artemis SS29 (A-file), Artemis SS15 (B-file), full load (Q-file), ECE R49 (M-file) and ESC (S-file) measurements together with 10 extra points (X-file).

Figure 40

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

Test id 2042A002.AAD
Date 2003-10-13 VOLVO D12C420 Test date 17-DEC-02
Time 15:14:16 Test time 19:13:47
Anders Hedbom HC g/kWh EC1 fuel Operator: K-E.Å/U.S

1,8
1,6
1,4
SP_HC [ g/kWh]

1,2
1,0
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0,0
-0,2
0 600
800
400 1000
1200
800 1400
TOR 1200 1600
QUE 1800 PM]
[Nm 1600 2000 ED [R
] SPE

Map calculations based on Artemis SS29 (A-file), Artemis SS15 (B-file), full load (Q-file), ECE R49 (M-file) and ESC (S-file) measurements together with 10 extra points (X-file).

Figure 41

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

VTI notat 51A-2005 31


Test id 2042A002.AAD
Date 2003-05-31 VOLVO D12C420 Test date 17-DEC-02
Time 18:08:01 Test time 19:13:47
Anders Hedbom FUEL g/min EC1 fuel Operator: K-E.Å/U.S

2700
Series in PC-TRR files Net versi
2002 juli-dec 2042Q003.AAD
2400 2002 juli-dec 2042A002.AAD
2002 juli-dec 2042M002.AAD
2002 juli-dec 2042X003.AAD
2002 juli-dec 2042B002.AAD
2100 2002 juli-dec 2042S004.AAD

0,7250,730 0,788 0,828 0,852


0,896
0,834 0,943
0,886
1800 0,624 0,819 0,943 0,962
0,940 0,957
0,618 0,752 0,987
0.6 1,012
0,856 1,015
0,519
0,485
1,006 1,0131,028
1500 0,428 0,544
0.5
0. 95
0,984
5 1,014 1
TORQUE [Nm]

0,630 0,916
0,386 0.9 0,931
0,729
0,342 0,387
0,465 0.5 0,731 0. 85
0,300 0,387
1200 0,789 0,773
0.8
0,769
0.4 0,779
0,234 5 0,552
0,604 0. 75
0,285 0,367 0,712
0,433 0.7
0.4
900 0,319 0,469
0,496
0,548 0.6 5
0,601
0,314 0. 35 0,511 0,542

0,192
0. 3
600 0,298
0,200 0,342
0,173 0,223 0.25 0,277 0,330
0,312 0,324
0,311 0,328
300 0,101 0.2
0,105
0,091 0,142 0,197
0,122 0,150 0,161 0,186
0.15
0,057 0,121 0,155
0,022
0,018 0,058 0,044 0,070 0,110 0,164
0,016 0.1
0 0,022 0,018
0,018
-0,002 0.05
0 0,001 -0,002
0,003 0,000
0,000
0,002
-300
500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100
SPEED[RPM]
Map calculations based on Artemis SS29 (A-file), Artemis SS15 (B-file), full load (Q-file), ECE R49 (M-file) and ESC (S-file) measurements together with 10 extra points (X-file).

Figure 42

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

Test id 2042A002.AAD
Date 2003-10-13 VOLVO D12C420 Test date 17-DEC-02
Time 15:14:37 Test time 19:13:47
Anders Hedbom FUEL g/min EC1 fuel Operator: K-E.Å/U.S

1,8
1,6
1,4
G_FUEL [kg/min]

1,2
1,0
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0,0
-0,2
2000
1800 1800
1500 1600
1200 1400
900 1200
600 1000
TOR
QUE 300 800 PM]
[Nm ED [R
] 0 600 SPE

Map calculations based on Artemis SS29 (A-file), Artemis SS15 (B-file), full load (Q-file), ECE R49 (M-file) and ESC (S-file) measurements together with 10 extra points (X-file).

Figure 43

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

32 VTI notat 51A-2005


Test id 2042A002.AAD
Dat e 2003-05-31 VOLVO D12C420 Test date 17-DEC-02
Time 18:08:27 Test time 19:13:47
Anders Hedbom FUEL g/kWh EC1 fuel Operator: K-E.Å/U.S

2700
Series in PC-TRR files Net versi
2002 juli-dec 2042Q003.AAD
2400 2002 juli-dec 2042A002.AAD
2002 juli-dec 2042M002.AAD
2002 juli-dec 2042X003.AAD
2002 juli-dec 2042B002.AAD
2100 2002 juli-dec 2042S004.AAD

205205 207 209 206

205
205
211 206
205
1800 210 207 207

5
205

20
208 206
206 211 210
216
209 215
206
209
215 217 216
1500 207 203 217
217
TORQUE [Nm]

213 219
208 217
214
210 210
204 213
211 208210
1200 223 219
220
213 213 222
216
206 207 224
21

205 215
0

900 21
5 206 217
219
230 231
208 220 231
22
0 211
600 210 229
225 236 239
245 229 240
250 213 235 242 280
255 264 272
230
265 277
300 270 246
275 314
26 0 260 314 444
300 25
245
255 322 330 357 380
5
0

29
28

5 343 313 300 285 335


7348
6372
8723 270 1972 15339 50926 -42988
-476 260290 245 240 280
285 190 185
180 175
0 -195 205 195
200 170 165 160155 150 235 275 295 290
-2200
9 230 270 265 260
-3 4 255 250
-6 225
-0 220
-0 210 215
-1
-300
500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100
SPEED[RPM]
Map calculations based on Artemis SS29 (A-file), Artemis SS15 (B-file), full load (Q-file), ECE R49 (M-file) and ESC (S-file) measurements together with 10 extra points (X-file).

Figure 44

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

Test id 2042A002.AAD
Date 2003-10-13 VOLVO D12C420 Test date 17-DEC-02
Time 15:14:53 Test time 19:13:47
Anders Hedbom FUEL g/kWh EC1 fuel Operator: K-E.Å/U.S

360
340
320
SP_FUEL [g/kWh]

300
280
260
240
220
200
180
160
600
0 800
300 1000
600 1200
900 1400
0
TOR 120 1600 M]
QUE 150
0 1800 [RP
[Nm 0 ED
] 180 2000 SPE

Map calculations based on Artemis SS29 (A-file), Artemis SS15 (B-file), full load (Q-file), ECE R49 (M-file) and ESC (S-file) measurements together with 10 extra points (X-file).

Figure 45

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

VTI notat 51A-2005 33


Test id 2042A002.AAD
Date 2003-10-13 VOLVO D12C420 Test date 17-DEC-02
Time 15:15:57 Test time 19:13:47
Anders Hedbom PM g/h EC1 fuel Operator: K-E.Å/U.S

2700
PM measured by TEOM instrument. Series in PC-TRR files Net vers
2002 juli-decþ2042Q003.AAD
2400 2002 juli-decþ2042A002.AAD
2002 juli-decþ2042M002.AAD
2002 juli-decþ2042X003.AAD
2002 juli-decþ2042B002.AAD
2100 2002 juli-decþ2042S004.AAD

11,612,1 12,2 10,8 9,6


8,2
15,1 4
1 8,4 8 8,2
1800 10,7 12 13,5 8,8 7,8
9,6

8
11,4 7,6 10,1
11,3
12,9
10,5 9,5 13,3
10 13,7 14,514,7
11 14
1500 9,1 7,7 13,1
TORQUE [Nm]

12,2 14,9 16
7,4 12 13,9
7 8,1 13,4
7,8
6 7,5
1200 14,9 13,4
22,2 13,9
4,5 8,4
6,9 9,1 14,9
2,9 8,9
900 5,5 9,1
9,3
18,1 18,6
5,1 12,1 18,9

1,6 18
600
6,2 10,4
2,7
2 2,4 5,6 26,2
14,5 21,6
17,7 23,4
300 1
1,4
1,6 2,1 3 3,8 17,1
5,8 8,5
1,7 0,5 3,4 14 18
11,9 16
-0,5
0,1 0,41 0,1 2,7
12

8
0,5
0
0 0,6 -0,5
10
-0,1 0
-0,1 6
-0,4
0,7 0,3 4
0,4 0,2
0 0,9 2
-300
600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100
SPEED [RPM]
Map calculations based on Artemis SS29 (A-file), Artemis SS15 (B-file), full load (Q-file), ECE R49 (M-file) and ESC (S-file) measurements together with 10 extra points (X-file).

Figure 46

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

Test id 2042A002.AAD
Date 2003-10-13 VOLVO D12C420 Test date 17-DEC-02
Time 15:15:09 Test time 19:13:47
Anders Hedbom PM g/h EC1 fuel Operator: K-E.Å/U.S

PM measured by TEOM instrument.

72
64

56

48
G_TEOM [g/h]

40
32
24
16
8
0
-8
2000
1800 1800
1500 1600
1200 1400
900 1200
TOR 600 1000
300 800 M]
QUE D [RP
SPEE
[Nm 0 600
]

Map calculations based on Artemis SS29 (A-file), Artemis SS15 (B-file), full load (Q-file), ECE R49 (M-file) and ESC (S-file) measurements together with 10 extra points (X-file).

Figure 47

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

34 VTI notat 51A-2005


Test id 2042A002.AAD
Date 2003-10-13 VOLVO D12C420 Test date 17-DEC-02
Time 15:15:36 Test time 19:13:47
Anders Hedbom PM g/kWh EC1 fuel Operator: K-E.Å/U.S

2700
PM measured by TEOM instrument. Series in PC-TRR files Net vers
2002 juli-decþ2042Q003.AAD
2400 2002 juli-decþ2042A002.AAD
2002 juli-decþ2042M002.AAD
2002 juli-decþ2042X003.AAD
2002 juli-decþ2042B002.AAD
2100 2002 juli-decþ2042S004.AAD
0,06
0,05 0,05 0,05 0,04
0,03
0,06 0,03
0,03
1800 0,06 0,06 0,03 0,03
0,05 0,04 0,03 0,04
0,06
0,05
0,07 0,04 0,05
0,05 0,05
0,05
0,08 0,05

0,0 5
1500 0,07 0,05 0,05
TORQUE [Nm]

0,0 0,07 0,06 0,06


0,07 5 0,06 0,05
0,07 0,07 0,06 0,07
0,07 0,07
1200 0,07 0,06
0,10,11 0,07

5
0,07 0,05

0 ,0
0,06 0,05 0,08
0,04 0,07
900 0,06 0,07
0,07
0,13 0,12
0,06 0,09 0,13

0,03
600
0,08 0,12
0,05
0,04 0,04 0,08 0,37
0,21 0,3
0,25 0,33
300 0,04
0,07
0,07 0,11 0,64 0,75
0,09 0,14 0,21 ,7
0,1 0,08 0,1 0,39
0,29 0,79 0 0 ,8
0 ,0

0,03 0,03 0,11


-0,42
3,67
4,92 0,1 0,85
5

-0,26 0,4
0 -1,870,09 0,35 0,650,55 0,5 0,4 5
0,6 0,4
0,07 0,01 0,3 5
0,1 0,02 0,3
-0,04 -0,01 0,25 0,2 0,15
-0,010 -0 0,1
0 0 -0,02 0,05 0
-300
500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100
SPEED [RPM]
Map calculations based on Artemis SS29 (A-file), Artemis SS15 (B-file), full load (Q-file), ECE R49 (M-file) and ESC (S-file) measurements together with 10 extra points (X-file).

Figure 48

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

Test id 2042A002.AAD
Date 2003-10-13 VOLVO D12C420 Test date 17-DEC-02
Time 15:16:14 Test time 19:13:47
Anders Hedbom PM g/kWh EC1 fuel Operator: K-E.Å/U.S

PM measured by TEOM instrument.

0,9
0,8
0,7
SP_TEOM [g/kWh]

0,6
0,5
0,4
0,3
0,2
0,1
0,0
-0,1
600
0 800
300 100
0
600 120
0
900 140
0
0
TOR 120 160
0 M]
QUE 150
0 180 [RP
[Nm 0 0 ED
] 180 200
0 SPE

Map calculations based on Artemis SS29 (A-file), Artemis SS15 (B-file), full load (Q-file), ECE R49 (M-file) and ESC (S-file) measurements together with 10 extra points (X-file).

Figure 49

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

VTI notat 51A-2005 35


Test id 2042A002.AAD
Date 2003-10-13 VOLVO D12C420 Test date 17-DEC-02
Time 15:16:34 Test time 19:13:47
Anders Hedbom LAMBDA EC1 fuel Operator: K-E.Å/U.S

2700
LAMBDA measured by ETAS instrument. Series in PC-TRR files Net vers
2002 juli-decþ2042Q003.AAD
2400 2002 juli-decþ2042A002.AAD
2002 juli-decþ2042M002.AAD
2002 juli-decþ2042X003.AAD
2002 juli-decþ2042B002.AAD
2100 2002 juli-decþ2042S004.AAD

1,311,31 1,38 1,43 1,46


1,54
1,39 1,6
1,531,58
1800 1,31 1,42 1,67
1,48 1,59 1,69 1,74
1,3
1,76
1,33 1,69 1,79 1,8
1,31 1,77 1,81
1500 1,33 1,45 1,86
TORQUE [Nm]

1,56 1,86 1,78


1,34 1,93
1,75
1,34 1,32 1,75
1,33 1,46
1,36
1200 1,96 2,03

1 ,5
1,95 2,04
1,36 1,82
1,72 2
1,58 2,2
1,81
900 1,78 1,91
2,04
2,37 2,4
1,77 2,12 2,28
2
2,1
600
2,4 2,62
2,61 2,5
2,78 2,73 2,8 3,16
3 3,08 2,98
2,94 3,04
300 3,48 3,5
4,4
4,5 4,574 4,16 4,1 4,43
5 4,15 4,22 4,23
5,5 5,87 4,99
7,5 6,5 5,465,56 6 8,4 4,166,93 4,14
10,37
11,28
9,98 12,44 7
0 9,9 13,37
10,43 13 16,42
12,5 11,5 16,43
12 11 16,42
10,5 16,42 9 ,5 16,42 16,42
10
9 8,5 8 16,42 8 8,5
-300
600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100
SPEED [rpm]
Map calculations based on Artemis SS29 (A-file), Artemis SS15 (B-file), full load (Q-file), ECE R49 (M-file) and ESC (S-file) measurements together with 10 extra points (X-file).

Figure 50

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

Test id 2042A002.AAD
Date 2003-10-13 VOLVO D12C420 Test date 17-DEC-02
Time 15:16:51 Test time 19:13:47
Anders Hedbom LAMBDA EC1 fuel Operator: K-E.Å/U.S

LAMBDA measured by ETAS instrument.

10
9
8
7
LAMBDA [-]

6
5
4
3
2
1
0 600
800
0
100
300 0
120
600 0
140
900 0
0 160
TOR 120 0 [rp m
]
QUE 0
150 180
0 ED
[ Nm
] 180
0 200 SPE
0

Map calculations based on Artemis SS29 (A-file), Artemis SS15 (B-file), full load (Q-file), ECE R49 (M-file) and ESC (S-file) measurements together with 10 extra points (X-file).

Figure 51

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

36 VTI notat 51A-2005


VOLVO D12C 420
SPEED AND TORQUE POINTS
ETC CYCLE
2400

2200
2042FL01.AA
2000 2042R005.AA

1800

1600

1400

1200
TORQUE [ Nm]

1000

800

600

400

200

-200

-400

-600
600 900 1200 1500 1800
SPEED[ rpm]

Figure 52 (2042: engine number; FL: Full Load; R:ETC test.)

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

TNO HD test cycle


12.5 kW/ton
BAG 1 BAG 2 BAG 3
100

90

80

70
Vehicle speed [km/h]

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000
Time [s]

Figure 53

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

VTI notat 51A-2005 37


VOLVO D12C 420
SPEED AND TORQUE POINTS
TNO CYCLE PART 1
2400

2200
2042FL01.AA
2000 2042C003.AA

1800

1600

1400

1200
TORQUE [ Nm]

1000

800

600

400

200

-200

-400

-600
600 900 1200 1500 1800
SPEED[ rpm]

Figure 54

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

VOLVO D12C 420


SPEED AND TORQUE POINTS
TNO CYCLE PART 2
2400

2200
2042FL01.AA
2000 2042D003.AA

1800

1600

1400

1200
TORQUE [ Nm]

1000

800

600

400

200

-200

-400

-600
600 900 1200 1500 1800
SPEED[ rpm]

Figure 55

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

38 VTI notat 51A-2005


VOLVO D12C 420
SPEED AND TORQUE POINTS
TNO CYCLE PART 3
2400

2200
2042FL01.AA
2000 2042E002.AA

1800

1600

1400

1200
TORQUE [ Nm]

1000

800

600

400

200

-200

-400

-600
600 900 1200 1500 1800
SPEED[ rpm]

Figure 56

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

HC-limit
VOLVO D12C 420
EURO3 / ETC ETC AND TNO CYCLES RF AND EC1 DIESEL FUEL
0,7 7
HC PM TEOM CO NOx
ETC RESULTS TNO CYCLE RESULTS
0,6 6

0,5 5
CO AND NOx g/kWh
HC AN PM, g/kWh

0,4 4

0,3 3

0,2 2

0,1 1

0,0 0
RF EC1 RF EC1
R004 R003+R005 TNO (C+D+E) TNO (C+D+E)
EC1 AVERAGE OF TWO RUNS

Figure 57

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

VTI notat 51A-2005 39


VOLVO D12C 420
ETC AND TNO CYCLES RF AND EC1 DIESEL FUEL
0,7 7
HC PM TEOM CO NOx
ETC RESULTS TNO CYCLE RESULTS
0,6 6

0,5 5

CO AND NOx g/kWh


HC AND PM, g/kWh

0,4 4

0,3 3

0,2 PM-limit 2
EURO3 / ETC

0,1 1

0,0 0
RF EC1 RF EC1
R004 R003+R005 TNO (C+D+E) TNO (C+D+E)
EC1 AVERAGE OF TWO RUNS

Figure 58

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

VOLVO D12C 420


ETC AND TNO CYCLES RF AND EC1 DIESEL FUEL
0,7 7
HC PM TEOM CO NOx
ETC RESULTS TNO CYCLE RESULTS
0,6 6
CO-limit
EURO3 / ETC

0,5 5
HC AND PM, g/kWh

CO AND N O g/kWh

0,4 4

0,3 3

0,2 2

0,1 1

0,0 0
RF EC1 RF EC1
R004 R003+R005 TNO (C+D+E) TNO (C+D+E)
EC1 AVERAGE OF TWO RUNS

Figure 59 Comparison between RF and EC1 fuels for transient conditions. For ETC
and EC1, double tests.
VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

40 VTI notat 51A-2005


VOLVO D12C 420
ETC AND TNO CYCLES RF AND EC1 DIESEL FUEL
0,7 7
HC PM TEOM CO NOx
ETC RESULTS TNO CYCLE RESULTS
0,6 6

NOx-limit
EURO3 / ETC
0,5 5

CO AND NOx, g/kWh


HC AND PM, g/kWh

0,4 4

0,3 3

0,2 PM-limit 2
EURO3 / ETC

0,1 1

0,0 0
RF EC1 RF EC1
R004 R003+R005 TNO (C+D+E) TNO (C+D+E)
EC1 AVERAGE OF TWO RUNS

Figure 60

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

VOLVO D12C 420


ETC AND TNO CYCLES RF AND EC1 DIESEL FUEL
300 1200
avg. power meas.fuel calc.fuel CO2

ETC RESULTS TNO CYCLE RESULTS


250 1000
AVG. POWER, kW; FC, g/kWh

200 800
CO2, g/kWh

150 600

100 400

50 200

0 0
RF EC1 RF EC1
R004 R003+R005 TNO (C+D+E) TNO (C+D+E)
EC1 AVERAGE OF TWO RUNS

Figure 61

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

VTI notat 51A-2005 41


VOLVO D12C 420
ETC CYCLE CHANGE FROM RF TO EC1 DIESEL FUEL
90%
HC PM TEOM CO NOx
80%
COMPARISON BASED ON EMISSIONS IN g/kWh
70%

60%
EMISSION INCREASE

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%

-10%

-20%
delta %
EC1/RF
EC1 AVERAGE OF TWO RUNS

Figure 62

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

VOLVO D12C 420


ETC CYCLE CHANGE FROM RF TO EC1 DIESEL FUEL
4%

avg. power meas.fuel calc.fuel CO2

2%

0%
INCREASE

-2%

-4%

-6%

-8%

COMPARISON BASED ON EMISSIONS AND FC IN g/kWh


-10%
delta %
EC1/RF
EC1 AVERAGE OF TWO RUNS

Figure 63

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

42 VTI notat 51A-2005


HC-limit
VOLVO D12C 420
EURO3 / ESC ESC AND ECE R49 CYCLES RF AND EC1 DIESEL FUEL
0,6 6
HC PM TEOM CO NOx
ESC RESULTS R49 CYCLE RESULTS
0,5 5

0,4 4

CO AND NOx, g/kWh


HC AND PM, g/kWh

0,3 3

0,2 2

0,1 1

0,0 0
RF EC1 RF EC1
S002 S001+S004 M001+M002
EC1 AVERAGE OF TWO RUNS

Figure 64 (S: ESC test; M: R49 test. Double test for EC1 fuel and single test for
RF fuel.)

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

VOLVO D12C 420


ESC AND ECE R49 CYCLES RF AND EC1 DIESEL FUEL
0,6 6
HC PM TEOM CO NOx
ESC RESULTS R49 CYCLE RESULTS
0,5 5

0,4 4
CO AND NOx, g/kWh
HC AND PM, g/kWh

0,3 3

0,2 2

PM-limit
EURO3 / ESC
0,1 1

0,0 0
RF EC1 RF EC1
S002 S001+S004 M001+M002
EC1 AVERAGE OF TWO RUNS

Figure 65

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

VTI notat 51A-2005 43


VOLVO D12C 420
ESC AND ECE R49 CYCLES RF AND EC1 DIESEL FUEL
0,6 6
HC PM TEOM CO NOx
ESC RESULTS R49 CYCLE RESULTS
0,5 5

0,4 4

CO AND NOx, g/kWh


HC AND PM, g/kWh

0,3 3

CO-limit
EURO3 / ESC
0,2 2

0,1 1

0,0 0
RF EC1 RF EC1
S002 S001+S004 M001+M002
EC1 AVERAGE OF TWO RUNS

Figure 66

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

VOLVO D12C 420


ESC AND ECE R49 CYCLES RF AND EC1 DIESEL FUEL
0,6 6
HC PM TEOM CO NOx
NOx-limit ESC RESULTS R49 CYCLE RESULTS
EURO3 / ESC
0,5 5

0,4 4
CO AND NOx, g/kWh
HC AND PM, g/kWh

0,3 3

0,2 2

PM-limit
EURO3 / ESC
0,1 1

0,0 0
RF EC1 RF EC1
S002 S001+S004 M001+M002
EC1 AVERAGE OF TWO RUNS

Figure 67

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

44 VTI notat 51A-2005


VOLVO D12C 420
ESC AND ECE R49 CYCLES RF AND EC1 DIESEL FUEL
300 1200
weighted power meas.fuel calc.fuel CO2
ESC RESULTS R49 CYCLE RESULTS
250 1000
WEIGHTED POWER, kW; FC, g/kWh

200 800

CO2, g/kWh
150 600

100 400

50 200

0 0
RF EC1 RF EC1
S002 S001+S004 M001+M002
EC1 AVERAGE OF TWO RUNS

Figure 68 (Calculated fuel based on carbon balance measurements.)

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

ENGINE SPEED CORRELATION ENGINE TORQUE CORRELATION NOx RATE CORRELATION


ARTEMIS 15 STEP B002 vs B001 ARTEMIS 15 STEP B002 vs B001 ARTEMIS 15 STEP B002 vs B001

1900 2400 1400

1700 y = 0,99x + 9,69 1200 y = 0,97x + 0,54


y = 1,00x - 1,17 1900
TORQUE B002 Nm

R2 = 1,00 R2 = 1,00 R2 = 1,00


SPEED B002 rpm

1500 1000
NOx B002 g/h

1300 1400 800

1100 900 600

900 400
400
700 200

500 -100 0
500 700 900 1100 1300 1500 1700 1900 -100 400 900 1400 1900 2400 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400
SPEED B001 rpm TORQUE B001 Nm NOx B001 g/h

PM RATE CORRELATION TEOM RATE CORRELATION


ARTEMIS 15 STEP B002 vs B001 ARTEMIS 15 STEP B002 vs B001

30 30

y = 1,01x - 0,26
TEOM vs
25 25
y = 1,03x - 0,36
R2 = 0,99
20
R2 = 0,97 GRAVIMETRIC PM
TEOM B002 g/h

20
PM B002 g/h

15
15

10
MEASUREMENT
10
5
5 0 STEADY STATE TEST
0 -5
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
PM B001 g/h TEOM B001 g/h

TEOM vs PM RATE CORRELATION TEOM vs PM RATE CORRELATION TEOM vs PM RATE CORRELATION


ARTEMIS 15 STEP B001 ARTEMIS 15 STEP B002 ARTEMIS 15 STEP B001+B002

30 30 30

25 25 y = 1,08x - 1,43 25
y = 1,09x - 1,51 y = 1,08x - 1,47
TEOM B001+B002 g/h

20 R2 = 0,98 20 R2 = 0,97 20 R2 = 0,98


TEOM B001 g/h

TEOM B002 g/h

15 15 15

10 10 10

5 5 5

0 0 0

-5 -5 -5
-5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
PM B001 g/h PM B002 g/h PM B001+B002 g/h

Figure 69 (B001 and B002 are repeated ARTEMIS 15 mode test series. The first two rows of diagrams describes
the stability when the same test procedure is repeated, first B001 and then B002. The third row of diagrams compare
two measurement methods for PM, TEOM and gravimetric.)

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

VTI notat 51A-2005 45


TEOM vs PM RATE CORRELATION
ALL TRANSIENT TESTS

0,30

0,25 y = 1,05x + 0,01


R2 = 0,99
0,20
TEOM g/kWh

0,15

0,10

0,05

0,00
0,00 0,05 0,10 0,15 0,20 0,25
PM g/kW h

Figure 70 Comparement of two measurement methods, TEOM and


gravimetric, under transient conditions.

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

VOLVO D12C 4 20
LAMBDA MEASUREMENT ETC CYCLE
20 480 21

00 400 18

80 320 15
LAMBDA [ -]
CO^ [ ppm]

60 240 12

40 160 9

20 80 6

0 0 3

20 -80 0

5000 TOR Q UE 2000


SPEED
4000
LAMBDA
1800
ALPHA
CO^
3000 1600
TORQUE [Nm]

SPEED [RPM]

2000 1400

1000 1200

0 1000

-1000 800

-2000 600
300 325 350 375 400
T IM E[sec.]

Figure 71 (ALPHA: % throttle opening.)

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

46 VTI notat 51A-2005


VOLVO D12C 4 20
NOx MEASUREMENT ESC CYCLE
20 800 21

00 700 18

80 600 15

60 500 12
NOX [ppm]

LAMBDA
40 400 9

20 300 6

0 200 3

20 100 0

TORQUE
5000 SPEED 2000
LAMBDA
4000 ALPHA 1800
NO X
3000 1600
TORQUE [Nm]

SPEED [RPM]
2000 1400

1000 1200

0 1000

-1000 800

-2000 600
0 300 600 900 1200 1500
T IM E[sec.]

Figure 72

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

'INJECTION TIMING'
FULL-LOAD PERFORMANCE
VOLVO D12C 420 2042Q003
4000 -5
TORQUE Nm SPEED rpm NOX ppm approx. timing
'inj. timing' °

3500 -10

3000 -15

2500 -20

2000 -25
rpm, Nm, ppm

1500 -30

1000 -35

500 -40

0 -45
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
Injection timing monitored as pump injector voltage seconds

Figure 73

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

VTI notat 51A-2005 47


'INJECTION TIMING'
ESC TEST
VOLVO D12C 420 2042S001
4000 -5

'inj. timing' °
3500 -10

3000 -15

2500 -20

2000 TORQUE Nm SPEED RPM NOX approx. timing -25

1500 -30
rpm, Nm, ppm

1000 -35

500 -40

0 -45

-500 -50
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000
seconds
Injection timing monitored as pump injector voltage

Figure 74

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

'INJECTION TIMING'
ETC TEST
VOLVO D12C 420 2042S001
4000 -5
'inj. timing' °

3500 -10

3000 -15

2500 -20

2000 TORQUE Nm SPEED RPM NOX approx. timing -25

1500 -30
rpm, Nm, ppm

1000 -35

500 -40

0 -45

-500 -50
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800
seconds
Injection timing monitored as pump injector voltage

Figure 75

VOLVO D12C 420 EURO3 ENGINE

48 VTI notat 51A-2005


www.vti.se
vti@vti.se

VTI är ett oberoende och internationellt framstående forskningsinstitut som arbetar med
forskning och utveckling inom transportsektorn. Vi arbetar med samtliga trafikslag och
kärnkompetensen finns inom områdena säkerhet, ekonomi, miljö, trafik- och transportanalys,
beteende och samspel mellan människa-fordon-transportsystem samt inom vägkonstruktion,
drift och underhåll. VTI är världsledande inom ett flertal områden, till exempel simulatorteknik.
VTI har tjänster som sträcker sig från förstudier, oberoende kvalificerade utredningar och
expertutlåtanden till projektledning samt forskning och utveckling. Vår tekniska utrustning består
bland annat av körsimulatorer för väg- och järnvägstrafik, väglaboratorium, däckprovnings-
anläggning, krockbanor och mycket mer. Vi kan även erbjuda ett brett utbud av kurser och
seminarier inom transportområdet.

VTI is an independent, internationally outstanding research institute which is engaged on


research and development in the transport sector. Our work covers all modes, and our core
competence is in the fields of safety, economy, environment, traffic and transport analysis,
behaviour and the man-vehicle-transport system interaction, and in road design, operation
and maintenance. VTI is a world leader in several areas, for instance in simulator technology.
VTI provides services ranging from preliminary studies, highlevel independent investigations
and expert statements to project management, research and development. Our technical
equipment includes driving simulators for road and rail traffic, a road laboratory, a tyre testing
facility, crash tracks and a lot more. We can also offer a broad selection of courses and seminars
in the field of transport.

HUVUDKONTOR/HEAD OFFICE
LINKÖPING BORLÄNGE STOCKHOLM GÖTEBORG
POST/MAIL SE-581 95 LINKÖPING POST/MAIL BOX 760 POST/MAIL BOX 6056 POST/MAIL BOX 8077
TEL +46(0)13 20 40 00 SE-781 27 BORLÄNGE SE-171 06 SOLNA SE-402 78 GÖTEBORG
www.vti.se TEL +46 (0)243 446 860 TEL +46 (0)8 555 77 020 TEL +46 (0)31 750 26 00