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Examining the role of urban form in supporting rapid and safe tsunami
evacuations: a multi-scalar analysis in Viña del Mar, Chile

Article  in  Procedia Engineering · January 2018


DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2018.01.081

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Procedia Engineering 212 (2018) 629–636

7th International Conference on Building Resilience; Using scientific knowledge to inform policy
7th
andInternational Conference
practice in disaster on Building
risk reduction, Resilience;
ICBR2017, 27Using scientific knowledge
– 29 November to inform
2017, Bangkok, policy
Thailand
and practice in disaster risk reduction, ICBR2017, 27 – 29 November 2017, Bangkok, Thailand
Examining the role of urban form in supporting rapid and safe
Examining the role of urban form in supporting rapid and safe
tsunami evacuations: a multi-scalar analysis in Viña del Mar, Chile
tsunami evacuations: a multi-scalar analysis in Viña del Mar, Chile
Jorge Leóna,a, b* a a,b a, c
b*, Cyril Mokrania, Patricio Catalána,b, Rodrigo Cienfuegosa, c, Carolina
Jorge León , Cyril Mokrani , Patricio Catalán
Femenías b , Rodrigo Cienfuegos , Carolina
a
Femeníasb
National Research Center for Integrated Natural Disaster Management (CIGIDEN), Chile
a b
National Research Center for
Universidad Integrated
Técnica Natural
Federico SantaDisaster
María, Management (CIGIDEN), Chile
Valparaíso, Chile
b c
Universidad Técnica
Pontificia FedericoCatólica,
Universidad Santa María, Valparaíso,
Santiago, Chile Chile
c
Pontificia Universidad Católica, Santiago, Chile

Abstract
Abstract
Cities are increasingly becoming hot-spots for nature-originated disasters. While the role of the urban built environment in
Cities aredisaster
fostering increasingly becoming
resilience has been hot-spots
recognized for for
nature-originated
some time, it has disasters. Whiletothe
been difficult role ofthis
translate thepotential
urban built environment
into practice. This in
is
fostering disaster
especially resilience
challenging in thehas been
case recognized
of rapid for some
onset crises suchtime, it has been
as near-field difficultwhen
tsunamis, to translate this potential
appropriate into practice.
urban forms This is
have to support
especially
the challenging
populations’ abilityintothe case of rapid carry
autonomously onset outcrises
safesuch
andastimely
near-field tsunamis,
responses. when
In this appropriate
respect, much urban formsresearch
of current have to remains
support
the populations’ ability to autonomously carry out safe and timely responses. In this respect, much
focused on large-scale elements of urban configuration (streets, squares, parks, etc.) through which people move during an of current research remains
focused
emergency.on large-scale
In contrast,elements of urban
the critical configuration
micro-scale (streets,experiences
of evacuees’ squares, parks, etc.)thethrough
within which peopleismove
built environment during an
not commonly
emergency.This
examined. In paper
contrast, the critical
addresses micro-scale
this shortfall through of a evacuees’
macro- andexperiences
micro-scale within
analysisthe of abuilt environment
near-field tsunami isscenario
not commonly
affecting
examined.
the city of This
Viña paper addresses
del Mar, Chile, this shortfall
including through a macro-
a mixed-methods and micro-scale
approach analysis
that combines of a near-fieldmodels
computer-based tsunamiandscenario affecting
fieldwork. The
results show significant macro-scale tsunami vulnerability throughout major areas of the city, which nonetheless couldThe
the city of Viña del Mar, Chile, including a mixed-methods approach that combines computer-based models and fieldwork. be
results show
mitigated significant
by existing macro-scale
nearby high ground tsunami
and anvulnerability
urban form that throughout majorevacuation
allows short areas of times.
the city, which micro-scale
However, nonetheless outcomes
could be
mitigated
show by existing nearby
comparatively deficienthigh groundconditions
spatial and an urban that form thatan
during allows short evacuation
emergency might lead times.
to However,
dangerousmicro-scale
outcomes outcomes
including
show comparatively
bottlenecks, deficient
falls and panic. spatial
Vertical conditionsin that
evacuation, turn, during an emergency
is confirmed might
as a suitable optionleadfortoreducing
dangerous outcomes but
vulnerability, including
further
bottlenecks, falls
examination andshelter’s
of each panic. Vertical evacuation,
characteristics in turn, is confirmed as a suitable option for reducing vulnerability, but further
is required.
examination of each shelter’s characteristics is required.
©
© 2017
2018 The Authors. Published
The Authors. Published by
by Elsevier
Elsevier Ltd.
Ltd.
© 2017 The Authors.
Peer-review under Published by
responsibility of Elsevier
the Ltd. committee of the 7th International Conference on Building Resilience.
scientific
Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the 7th International Conference on Building Resilience.
Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the 7th International Conference on Building Resilience.
Keywords:Urban form; Tsunami; Evacuation; Disasters
Keywords:Urban form; Tsunami; Evacuation; Disasters

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +56 32 26547741


* Corresponding
E-mail author. Tel.: +56 32 26547741
address: jorge.leon@usm.cl
E-mail address: jorge.leon@usm.cl

1877-7058 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


1877-7058
Peer-review©under
2017responsibility
The Authors. of
Published by Elsevier
the scientific Ltd. of the 7th International Conference on Building Resilience.
committee
Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the 7th International Conference on Building Resilience.

1877-7058 © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the 7th International Conference on Building Resilience
10.1016/j.proeng.2018.01.081
630 Jorge León et al. / Procedia Engineering 212 (2018) 629–636
2 Jorge León, Cyril Mokrani, Patricio Catalán, Rodrigo Cienfuegos, and Carolina Femenías / Procedia Engineering 00 (2017) 000–000

1. Introduction

In an increasingly urbanised world most responses to rapid onset disasters have to be undertaken within the built
environment, whose characteristics (particularly its urban form) can increase communities’ capacities to deal with
unfolding crises and aid them in achieving resilience [1]. While this is a growing area of research, it has been
difficult to fully realize the built environment’s potential for delivering disaster risk reduction (DRR) [2]. For
instance, in the case of near-field tsunamis populations usually have to carry out critical response activities (e.g.
evacuation and sheltering) in little time and without official guidance, as governmental and emergency services are
typically overwhelmed by earthquake-provoked cascading failures. This haste and autonomy require a city form
capable of providing adequate support to evacuees, thus allowing them safe and timely evacuations. In this respect,
much of current research and practice efforts on urban tsunami evacuation are largely focused on macro-scale
elements, such as streets, squares and parks, and the way they spatially connect to each other. In contrast, the critical
micro-scale elements that determine evacuation throughout the built environment are not commonly examined. This
paper analyses this gap in the Chilean earthquake- and tsunami-prone city of Viña del Mar, by undertaking a mixed-
methods approach that includes computer-based models and fieldwork.

2. Disaster risk reduction in the built environment

The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 points out that between the years 2005 and 2015
nature-originated disasters affected more than 1.5 billion people globally [3]. This is particularly critical in the case
of cities, where more than 50% of the world’s population is currently living; cities have become hot-spots for
disasters [4]. This is the outcome of the concentration of population, infrastructure and assets [5], rising social
inequalities, poor physical conditions of buildings or infrastructure, lack of institutional capacity [6], market-driven
urbanization, location choices made by dwellers without proper information, and inefficient application of
construction standards [7]. In turn, the urban built environment offers “an important means by which humanity can
reduce the risk posed by hazards, thereby preventing a disaster” [8, p. 15]. Disciplines responsible for shaping this
environment through spatial design (e.g. land use management, urban planning, architecture) thus become
appropriate tools for strengthening disaster risk governance and fostering resilience [3]. Nevertheless, it has been
difficult to translate spatial design’s potential for DRR into practice; while some emerging examples of integration
between these two areas of knowledge do exist, there is no wider set of principles to achieve it [2].
An urban form capable of allowing prompt and adequate responses by vulnerable populations is especially
important in the case of rapid onset disasters such as near-field tsunamis. In cases like this, little time is available for
populations to undertake critical activities such as evacuation and sheltering. Furthermore, these actions usually
have to be conducted without official guidance as the result of overwhelmed governmental emergency services. This
context of crisis requires urban forms to include characteristics capable of promoting resilience by supporting the
populations’ ability to autonomously carry out safe and timely responses.

3. Tsunami evacuation and urban form in Viña del Mar, Chile

3.1 Near-field tsunamis: unpredictable and rapid onset disasters

Tsunamis are long period waves generated by the sudden displacement of a large volume of water. Their most
common causes are undersea earthquakes, submarine and subaerial landslides into a volume of water, and volcanic
eruptions. For a given location, destructive tsunamis are unpredictable and relatively rare but have the potential for
extensive material damage and loss of human life. Therefore, they pose a serious threat to coastal communities
around the world. When classified in accordance to the distance between the source and the affected area, near-field
(or local) tsunamis are those characterized by very short impact times (usually less than 30 minutes). In this respect,
recent experiences in Chile (2014 and 2015) showed tsunami arrival times as short as 12 minutes [9, 10], practically
equating the required time by SHOA (the Chilean Navy agency for tsunami research) for collecting and processing
seismic data and releasing an official tsunami warning.
Jorge León et al. / Procedia Engineering 212 (2018) 629–636 631
Jorge León, Cyril Mokrani, Patricio Catalán, Rodrigo Cienfuegos and Carolina Femenías / Procedia Engineering 00 (2017) 000–000 3

3.2 Tsunami risk mitigation

According to Murata et al. [11], contemporary tsunami risk reduction efforts in coastal settlements include (1)
countermeasures by ‘hardware’ (e.g. civil engineered defenses comprising breakwaters and seawalls; tide control
forests; and land use and built environment planning and design); and (2) countermeasures by ‘software’ (e.g.
evacuation preparation through education and information dissemination). As extensive civil-engineered defenses
for tsunami mitigation remain uncommon outside Japan, in near-field events with short arrival times evacuation
remains “the most important and effective method to save human lives” [12, p. 8].
In case of a near-field tsunami, the vulnerable population has little time to plan and conduct disaster-response
activities such as evacuation and sheltering. Moreover, as the related tsunamigenic earthquake typically triggers a
cascading failure of emergency systems and urban lifelines, evacuees have to autonomously undertake these actions,
which take place within the spatial canvas provided by the built environment composed of buildings, streets and
open spaces. The disciplines that guide and control the morphological development and change of this environment
(such as urban planning and urban design) can therefore have an important influence on the overall outcome of an
emergency evacuation. Significant efforts have been recently developed to examine the role of appropriate urban
forms and their features in achieving successful tsunami evacuations [13, 14]. Nevertheless, much of these efforts
remain focused on large-scale elements of urban configuration, i.e. the system of linked spatial elements (streets,
squares, parks, etc.) through which people move [15] during an emergency. The critical micro-scale of evacuees’
experiences within the built environment (usually in deteriorated conditions after a tsunamigenic earthquake) is not
commonly examined.

3.3 Tsunami risk in Viña del Mar, Chile

Viña del Mar (33º1’S, 71º33’W) is a coastal city of some 310,000 inhabitants. Its site comprises a large coastal
plain, approximately 1.5x1.5 km wide and with a maximum elevation of roughly 20 meters (the Población Vergara
district), surrounded by several steep hills (see Figure 1). Viña del Mar is an earthquake- and tsunami-prone territory
located in the central region of Chile, which was struck by destructive earthquakes in 1575, 1647, 1730, 1822, 1906
and 1985. In turn, the last four of these events caused tsunamis in the area (with variable magnitudes). The last
recorded destructive tsunami occurred on 8 July 1730, provoked by a M8.5-9.0 mega-earthquake that had its
epicenter offshore the neighboring city of Valparaíso [16]; scientists suggest that the ongoing 300-year long gap
between mega-earthquakes could soon be filled by a large seismic event, which in turn might trigger a destructive
tsunami [17]. The 1730 event wiped out Valparaíso’s downtown of less than 1,000 dwellers. Viña del Mar in that
year however was an uninhabited area, so no records exist regarding the impact of the tsunami on its coasts.

Figure 1: Satellite image of


the Población Vergara in
Viña del Mar, including
existing (S1 to S4) and
proposed (V5 to V14)
evacuation shelters,
overlapped with the expected
tsunami flood area (in shades
of red), according to
SHOA’s model. Source:
Google Earth (2017) and
SHOA.
632 Jorge León et al. / Procedia Engineering 212 (2018) 629–636
4 Jorge León, Cyril Mokrani, Patricio Catalán, Rodrigo Cienfuegos, and Carolina Femenías / Procedia Engineering 00 (2017) 000–000

The current flood map of the city developed by SHOA reveals that extensive urban areas in the Población
Vergara are in vulnerable situations (see Figure 1). Since 1930, this area’s population has grown from 13,118 to
28,296 (i.e. +115.7%), as the result of a rapid densification process through high-rise apartment buildings.
Moreover, large-scale facilities (shopping centres, schools, governmental offices, hotels, etc.) are increasingly
located in the district, fostering daily commuting that leads to higher population exposure. These characteristics
(alongside the district’s narrow streets, few open public spaces high levels of traffic) cast doubt on the Población
Vergara’s suitability for rapid and safe tsunami evacuations. The next section provides a careful examination of this
situation, at both the macro- and micro-scale of urban analysis.

4. Research methods and outcomes

4.1 Macro-scale analysis

This scale was examined with the aid of an agent-based computer model. This is a powerful bottom-up modelling
technique that allows the dynamic examination of complex real-life systems and processes, by (1) disaggregating
their elements into representative units: the agents; (2) encoding these agents’ behavior in a set of simple rules; and
(3) observing how these rules affect the interaction between themselves and with their environment [18]. The
Población Vergara’s model was developed with the aid of the PARI-AGENT software, which couples evacuation
and tsunami-flooding parameters [19]. As a worst-case scenario a tsunami was used that was similar to the 1730
event. In this case, the model shows that the tsunami arrives at Viña del Mar’s coasts in approximately 15 minutes.
The results after 2,700 seconds (45 minutes, i.e. the time required to achieve the tsunami’s maximum penetration
inland) also show a run-up elevation (i.e. the difference between the ground elevation of the point reached by the
tsunami, and the average sea level) of around 13 m. with a maximum flow depth (i.e. the height above ground
reached by the water) of 4 m. located in the south-western part of the study area, close to the casino building (V1 on
Figure 1).
The PARI-AGENT software uses these flooding parameters as input for the evacuation model, alongside the
following four features: (1) a description of the evacuation zone’s accessible (i.e. streets and open spaces) and non-
accessible (i.e. buildings) areas; (2) an overall quantity of agents (28,296 for the night-time scenario and 53,743 for
the daytime case), each provided with a randomly assigned location, a walking speed according to age, and an
optimal route, capable in turn of being modified by (i) a random-walk factor of 10º and (ii) a crowd potential
parameter which makes the agent follow the direction in which there are other evacuees; (3) the number and location
of shelters (four in this case, according to ONEMI; see S1, S2, S3 and S4 on Figure 1); and (4) the number, location
and pointing direction of the evacuation signposts (90, as surveyed on the field), which are capable of changing the
agents’ moving direction for any agent located close enough to them (i.e. at least 50 meters). This code was
enhanced with two new parameters: (1) the slope effect on the agents’ speed, i.e. the steeper the gradient, the slower
the movement, according to Tobler’s function [20]; and (2) a delayed or slow starting time for each evacuee,
reflecting the fact that a slow evacuation can be the predominant behavior during an emergency. To randomly assign
a starting time to each agent, a Rayleigh cumulative distribution was considered, with a mean departure time of 10
minutes after the beginning of the tsunamigenic earthquake, which reflects the common time gap between the
earthquake occurrence and the tsunami warning as released by ONEMI. To reduce computing times and the
consumption of computer memory, the Población Vergara district was divided for analysis into five independent
evacuation zones (numbered 109+110, 111, 112, 122 and 123, see Figure 1), according to the division established
by the existing origin-destination study for Viña del Mar.
During each run, the model calculates every agent’s position at each time step (1 second) and by its comparison
to expected tsunami flooding levels it updates the agent’s status to: (1) moving (i.e. alive), (2) dead (i.e. reached by
the water), and (3) escaped (i.e. alive in the shelter). When the model’s running time overpasses the pre-established
final time (45 minutes) the computation stops. As three of the model’s parameters are aleatory (the initial spatial
distribution of agents, the walking speeds, and the starting times), 20 simulation rounds were carried out to obtain
average values of the number of escaped, moving and dead evacuees. This number of rounds was sufficient to
achieve for every zone and time scenario a 95% confidence interval with a margin of error less than 1% in these
quantities.
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The model’s average results (summarized in Table 1) show that in every zone examined a large percentage of
evacuees (above 82%) are capable of reaching a shelter before being reached by the waters, thus saving their lives.
The findings also show that zones 109+110 (located on the south-western part of the district) might find significant
difficulties to successful evacuation, with average casualties above 700 people. Their vulnerable location combines a
long distance to the closest shelter (approximately 2.1 km) with a limited ground elevation (between four and six
meters) and the proximity of the Marga-marga creek. Zone 123, in turn, has an expected average death toll of 101.7
people. Moreover, while ONEMI’s preparedness efforts aim to evacuate Chilean coastal areas in less than 15
minutes during a near-field tsunami, the model shows that this milestone might be very difficult to achieve in
evacuation zones 109+110 (2.2% and 2.1% of daytime and night-time safe evacuees, respectively, in 15 minutes),
111 (31% and 31%) and 123 (31.6% and 54.5%). See Figure 2.

Status after time = 2700 (sec.) (20 runs average)


Existing shelters Existing + vertical shelters
Zone Scenario Population
% % %
Safe Moving Dead % safe Safe Moving Dead % safe % dead
moving dead moving

Daytime 15418 12692.2 1918.4 807.5 82.3 12.4 5.2 15402.6 15.4 0.0 99.9 0.1 0
109+110
Night-time 11718 9619.8 1368.8 729.4 82.1 11.7 6.2 11706.3 11.7 0.0 99.9 0.1 0

Daytime 8835 8436.6 398.5 0.0 95.5 4.5 0.0 8720.1 114.9 0.0 98.7 1.3 0
111
Night-time 3044 2907.2 136.9 0.0 95.5 4.5 0.0 3001.4 42.6 0.0 98.6 1.4 0

Daytime 8096 8096.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 7731.7 364.3 0.0 95.5 4.5 0
112
Night-time 5393 5393.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 5155.7 237.3 0.0 95.6 4.4 0

Daytime 14348 13621.3 726.8 0.0 94.9 5.1 0.0 14233.2 114.8 0.0 99.2 0.8 0
122
Night-time 3811 3621.0 190.0 0.0 95.0 5.0 0.0 3780.5 30.5 0.0 99.2 0.8 0

Daytime 7046 6728.7 215.7 101.7 95.5 3.1 1.4 7046.0 0.0 0.0 100 0 0
123
Night-time 4330 4299.5 0.0 30.5 99.3 0.0 0.7 4330.0 0.0 0.0 100 0 0

Table 1: Average percentage of safe, moving and dead evacuees after 2700 seconds of tsunami propagation, for every evacuation zone and
scenario, not-including and including vertical shelters. Source: the authors.

Figure 2: Average percentage of safe evacuees vs. time for every evacuation zone, during daytime scenario, with only existing shelters (left) and
also including vertical evacuation buildings (right). Source: the authors.
634 Jorge León et al. / Procedia Engineering 212 (2018) 629–636
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4.2 Micro-scale analysis

A fieldwork protocol was applied in the Población Vergara to survey each evacuation route’s micro-scale
conditions to identify the most relevant geophysical features capable of hindering the population’s evacuation and
sheltering actions during a tsunami emergency. The criteria to identify these micro-vulnerabilities were established
according to relevant bibliography on the safety- and evacuation-related characteristics of built indoor and open
spaces during earthquakes, tsunamis and other types of hazards [see for instance 21]. Approximately 29.2 km of
evacuation routes (along 17 main streets, see Figure 1) were surveyed and mapped with the aid of the ArcGIS
software. According to their causes, the micro-vulnerabilities identified along these routes were classified into three
categories: (1) misuse (e.g. car parking on sidewalks); (2) poor maintenance (e.g. cracked roads); and (3) design
problems (e.g. narrow sidewalks, uneven steps, and misallocated urban furniture). As these features can have
different impedance values on walking speeds (from complete blockage e.g. a car parked on a sidewalk, to only a
minor reduction e.g. a broken sidewalk), relevant bibliography [22-24] was used to propose a weighting scheme for
each of them, in order to obtain an overall ‘obstructed area’ for each route.
The analysis focused on the pedestrian-only available escape areas (sidewalks, squares, parks, etc.), as the road is
likely to be blocked by traffic jams during a real emergency. In this respect, 11,655 obstacles were found on the
routes, covering an average of 28.4% of their surfaces. While this percentage reduces to 10.1% when these obstacles
are weighted according to their speed-diminishing capacities, some routes such as 5 Norte, 15 Norte and 15.1 Norte
exhibit comparatively high blockage values (12.6%, 20.4% and 12.7%, respectively). 5 Norte provides one of the
most direct paths of escape for zones 109+110 and 111, which have the potentially highest death rates according to
the macro-scale model. 15 Norte and 15.1 Norte, in turn, are located next to the city’s main commercial hub (zone
122, which doubles its population during rush hour). See Figure 1.

4.3 Vertical evacuation as a possible path to improvement

The previous macro-scale analysis shows significant levels of tsunami vulnerability for populations located in
zones 109+110, 111 and 123. A possible path to improve these conditions is the use of existing high-rise buildings
as vertical evacuation points. While this option is not explicitly sanctioned by the Chilean emergency management
framework and has been deemed unfeasible by some Chilean emergency planners, it is currently suggested by
ONEMI as an alternative in case of imminent danger.
During fieldwork 14 buildings were identified in the vulnerable area (see V1 to V14 in Figure 1) capable of
serving as vertical evacuation points, according to the following requirements [25-27]: (1) a reinforced concrete
structure; (2) a height of 30 meters or at least 8 stories; (3) a guaranteed open access for people (at least during
business hours); (4) an adequate capacity (considering a required space for each evacuee of 0.8 m2). To develop an
enhanced macro-scale analysis, another 20 simulation rounds of the agent-based model were conducted, now
including these 14 buildings as destinations shelters (alongside the four previously mentioned ones). Table 1 and
Figure 2 display the average outcomes of these simulations. The results clearly demonstrate the expected positive
impact of including vertical shelters in the Población Vergara district, by reducing to 0 likely human casualties and
boosting evacuation rates.
Nevertheless, fully realization of this improvement potential would require that each selected building fulfills a
series of micro-scale physical factors, also supported by sound management schemes [25, 28, 29]: (1) an adequate
number of entrances with appropriate characteristics (quantity, visibility from the streets, width); (2) a design of the
building’s circulation system (i.e. internal/external stairs and corridors) capable of fulfilling both daily and
emergency operating conditions; (3) provision of adequate evacuation signage for wayfinding including universal
access standards; (4) trained personnel to guide the evacuations; (5) subsides or tax deductions for private buildings
designed as shelters; (6) periodic inspections for these buildings; (7) trained caretakers to unlock the buildings’
entrances around the clock; and (8) actions for community engagement (including buildings’ owners) to foster
awareness and preparedness.
Jorge León et al. / Procedia Engineering 212 (2018) 629–636 635
Jorge León, Cyril Mokrani, Patricio Catalán, Rodrigo Cienfuegos and Carolina Femenías / Procedia Engineering 00 (2017) 000–000 7

5. Conclusions

At the macro-scale of the urban configuration the Población Vergara district’s urban form is well suited for rapid
tsunami evacuations. The agent-based model shows that during the initial 45 minutes of tsunami propagation more
than 80% of the evacuees in the area can reach a safe destination. While a death toll of about 807 people (daytime)
and 729 people (night-time) is expected in evacuation zones 109+110, alongside about 101 and 30 deaths (during
daytime and night-time scenarios, respectively) in zone 123, these casualties are located only in those zones with the
higher exposure to the tsunami threat. Moreover, the inclusion of 14 new vertical evacuation shelters could reduce
this death toll to 0 and diminish from 35 to around 12 minutes the required time to achieve more than 80% of safe
evacuees in every evacuation zone.
At the micro-scale of the evacuees’ spatial experience, however, the analysis shows comparatively deficient
conditions for evacuation. Obstacles (or micro-vulnerabilities) cover an average 28.4% of the available pedestrian
area along the main escape routes, which might lead to dangerous outcomes and behaviors such as bottlenecks, falls
and panic. It also highlights that some of the particularly at-risk routes are the same that allow escaping the
Población Vergara’s most vulnerable zones, i.e. 109+110. Moreover, fieldwork reconnaissance of (potential)
vertical shelters’ micro-scale characteristics showed that in general terms these are not designed or built to allow a
safe ingress and sheltering of people.
Future work in this area could include, on the one hand, the development of strengthened and more accurate
computer-based models to include the micro-scale of evacuees and the physical interactions among them, with their
built environment and with the tsunami flood. In this respect, flood-evacuation coupled models (like the one used in
this paper) currently have their spatial resolution limited by the exponentially elevated amount of computer
processing required. On the other hand, future work could also include analyses of further case studies, leading to
the identification of larger potentials for evacuation improvement, at both the micro- and macro-urban scales,
according to pre-emptive design standards [30]. These guidelines might encompass features such as street patterns,
safe assembly areas, egress routes, population distributions, vehicular traffic, streetscape morphology, and signage.

Acknowledgments
This research was supported by the National Research Center for Integrated Natural Disaster Management
[CONICYT/ FONDAP/15110017]. The authors are also grateful for the aid provided by Dr. Taro Arikawa from
PARI and Chuo University, Japan.

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