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ENERGYCONVERSION

ENERGYCONVERSION Summaries for Card Indexes NEILL WEBER, Scientific Research Department, Ford Motor Company, P.O. Box

Summaries

for

Card

Indexes

ENERGYCONVERSION Summaries for Card Indexes NEILL WEBER, Scientific Research Department, Ford Motor Company, P.O. Box

NEILL WEBER, Scientific Research Department, Ford Motor Company, P.O. Box 2053, Dearborn, Michigan 48121, U.S.A.

A thermeelectric

1-8

(1974).

device

based

on beta-alumina

solid

electrolyte:

Energy

Conversion 14,

Summary-An analysis of a device for the direct conversion of heat to electrical energy is presented. The device makes use of a beta-alumina type solid electrolyte membrane to

accomplish the isothermal expansion of sodium electrical work being extracted via a porous

electrode attached to the membrane. The preparation

of

porous

electrodes

and their

behavior at temperatures

up to 805°C

in a model

device are described.

At 805°C a maxi-

mum power of 05 watts/cm

was achieved

at an overall

thermal

efficiency

of 28 per cent

processes.

Experimental

values

for

the

electronic

con-

for the electrode/electrolyte ductivity of the polycrystalline

j3” alumina

solid

electrolyte

are

also reported.

Key words: Thermoelectricity

beta-alumina

solid electrolyte

Electronic

con-

ductivity Heat engine Sodium

 

MARTIN

WOLF,

University

of

Pennsylvania,

Philadelphia,

Pennsylvania

19104,

U.S.A.

The potential

impacts

of solar energy:

Energy Conversion 14, 9-20 (1974).

 

Summary-The introduction of solar energy utilization in large scale terrestrial applications will primarily have impacts in the energy supply, the economic, and the environmental areas. Large scale introduction can be expected both in smaller units at the location of the energy use and in centralized plants, using the conversion to thermal or to electrical energy, either directly from sunlight or by use of wind or ocean thermal gradients, as well as the conversion to chemical energy via photosynthesis. While the significant potential energy supply impact has been frequently cited, the potential economic impacts are at best worried about. Since cost competitiveness of the generated useable energy with that from other sources is the key towards achieving large scale introduction, the gross economic

impacts-required

peting energy sources. Detai1s-e.g. growth of certain industries-will vary. The environ- mental impacts are basically favorable-no chemical pollution-and can lead to a poten- tially greater energy supply on earth than by use of other energy sources alone, based on heat balance considerations. In ultimate large scale applications however, care will have to be applied not to alter the earth’s albedo.

capital,

labor,

etc.-cannot

significantly

differ from

those

of the com-

Key words:

Solar energy

Solar energy utilization

Environmental

impacts

Economic

impacts

Review of the technologies

Wind energy

Ocean

thermal

gradient

power

plants

Biological

utilization

Direct

heating

Thermal

utilization

Photovoltaic

conversion

Electricity

generation

in synchronous

orbit

for earth

use

heating Thermal utilization Photovoltaic conversion Electricity generation in synchronous orbit for earth use