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Physiology

Supply and Demand

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Key Terms
These are the key terms and concepts covered in this lesson. After you have
learned a term, take a moment to write out your own explanation of the term.

Aerobic metabolism

Anaerobic metabolism

Arterial oxygen content of the


blood (CaO2)

Atherosclerosis

Cardiac catheterization

.
Cardiac output (Q)

Coronary artery

Diastolic pressure

Physiology
Supply and Demand
Endocardium

Epicardium

Fick
. Principle
.
(VO2 = Q × (CaO2 - CvO2 ))

Fluoroscopy

Mean arterial pressure (MAP)

Ohm’s Law analogy


(ΔP = Flow × Resistance)

.
Oxygen consumption (VO2)

Oxygen .delivery
(DO2 = Q × O2 content of blood)

Oxygen demand

Oxygen extraction

Oxygen supply

Poiseuille’s Law (Resistance ∝ 1 / r4


where r = radius)

Systemic vascular resistance (SVR)

Systolic pressure

Physiology
Supply and Demand
Vascular tone

Venous oxygen content of the


blood (CvO2)

Physiology
Supply and Demand
Concept Video Notes
Use the space below to jot down key points for each concept video. Attempt to
make connections between the concepts explained in these videos and others
already covered in the course. Are you unsure about any of the content? After
you take notes on each video, see if you can answer the questions posed with
each video.

Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Metabolism

Video Notes

Key Questions

1) What are the ways in which an imbalance in tissues’ oxygen supply and demand can lead to anaerobic metabolism?

2) What are the potential negative consequences of sustained anaerobic metabolism?

Supply, Part 1 - Oxygen Delivery

Video Notes

Key Questions

1) What is the relationship between oxygen content of blood, cardiac output, and oxygen delivery?

Physiology
Supply and Demand
2) How would you write the Ohm’s Law analogy for the cardiovascular system in terms of cardiac output, systemic vascular
resistance (SVR), and driving pressure (ΔP)?

3) What are the physiological parameters that allow you to calculate driving pressure for the systemic vascular circulation?

Supply, Part 2 - Ohm’s Law

Video Notes

Key Questions

1) What is the relative importance in the body of changes in driving pressure versus changes in resistance in determining flow?

2) What is the effect on blood flow of a partial blockage in a vessel supplying blood and oxygen to an organ?

3) How would you describe the factors that make blood flow to the heart muscle different than blood flow to skeletal muscle?

Physiology
Supply and Demand
The Fick Principle

Video Notes

Key Questions

1) What will happen to oxygen consumption as cardiac output decreases in the scenario posed at the end of the video?

The Fick Principle, Part 2

Video Notes

Key Questions
.
1) What is the relationship for the body as a whole between oxygen consumption (VO2), oxygen content (arterial and venous), and
cardiac output?

2) What happens to oxygen consumption of the body as cardiac output begins to fall below normal resting levels?

Physiology
Supply and Demand
Learning Objectives
After you have completed the lesson, go through the learning objectives again.
Are you able to fill in a complete response to each learning objective?

1) Explain how an imbalance in tissues’ oxygen supply and demand can lead to anaerobic metabolism

2) Understand the potential negative consequences of sustained anaerobic metabolism

3) Recall the relationship between oxygen content of blood, cardiac output, and oxygen delivery

.
4) Write the Ohm’s Law analogy for the cardiovascular system in terms of cardiac output (Q), systemic vascular resistance
(SVR), and driving pressure (ΔP)

5) Understand how to calculate driving pressure for the systemic vascular circulation

6) Explain the relative importance in the body of changes in driving pressure versus changes in resistance in determining flow

Physiology
Supply and Demand
7) Predict the effect on blood flow of a partial blockage in a vessel supplying blood and oxygen to an organ

8) Explain the factors that make blood flow to the heart muscle different than blood flow to skeletal muscle

.
9) Recall the relationship (the Fick equation) between oxygen consumption (VO2), oxygen content (arterial and venous),
and cardiac output

10) Predict what happens to oxygen consumption of the body as cardiac output begins to fall below normal resting levels

11) Predict what happens to oxygen consumption of the heart muscle as flow through vessels supplying the heart muscle
begins to decrease or can no longer increase

12) Explain how supply of oxygen to the heart muscle can increase as demand on the heart increases

Physiology
Supply and Demand
13) Explain the mechanisms that allow oxygen supply to the heart muscle to be maintained for certain levels of demand even with a
moderate partial blockage in a major epicardial coronary artery

14) List factors that can increase the heart muscle’s demand for oxygen

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Physiology
Supply and Demand