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eyewitness travel

AUSTR ALIA
eyewitness travel

AUSTR ALIA
Main Contributors
Jan Bowen, Helen Duffy
Paul Kloeden, Jacinta le Plaistrier
Sue Neales, Ingrid Ohlssen
Tamara Thiessen
Contents
How to Use This Guide 6

Introducing
Produced by Duncan Baird Publishers London, England
Australia
Managing Editor Zoë Ross

Managing Art Editors Vanessa Marsh (with Clare Sullivan and Virginia Walters)
Discovering Australia 10
Editor Rebecca Miles
Putting Australia
Commissioning Designer Jill Mumford on the Map 18
Designers Dawn Davis-Cook, Lucy Parissi

Consultant Helen Duffy


A Portrait of Australia 20

Main Contributors Jan Bowen, Helen Duffy, Paul Kloeden, Jacinta le Plaistrier, Sue Neales,
Australia Through
Ingrid Ohlssen, Tamara Thiessen.
the Year 44
Photographers Max Alexander, Alan Keohane, Dave King, Rob Reichenfeld, Peter Wilson.

Illustrators Richard Bonson, Jo Cameron, Stephen Conlin, Eugene Fleury, Chris Forsey, The History of Australia 50
Steve Gyapay, Toni Hargreaves, Chris Orr, Robbie Polley, Kevin Robinson, Peter Ross,
John Woodcock.

Printed and bound in China

First published in the UK in 1998 by Dorling Kindersley Limited


80 Strand, London WC2R 0RL

15 16 17 18 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Reprinted with revisions 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2008,
2010, 2012, 2014, 2016
Copyright 1998, 2016 © Dorling Kindersley Limited, London
A Penguin Random House company

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval
system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission
of the copyright owner.
A CIP catalogue record is available from the British Library. Giraffe in Sydney’s Taronga Zoo
ISBN 978 0 24120 388 0

Sydney
Introducing Sydney 66

The Rocks and


Circular Quay 78

The information in this


DK Eyewitness Travel Guide is checked regularly.
City Centre and
Every effort has been made to ensure that this book is as up-to-date as possible Darling Harbour 90
at the time of going to press. Some details, however, such as telephone numbers,
opening hours, prices, gallery hanging arrangements and travel information are
liable to change. The publishers cannot accept responsibility for any consequences Botanic Gardens and
arising from the use of this book, nor for any material on third-party websites, and
cannot guarantee that any website address in this book will be a suitable source of
the Domain 108
travel information. We value the views and suggestions of our readers very highly.
Please write to: Publisher, DK Eyewitness Travel Guides, Dorling Kindersley,
80 Strand, London, WC2R 0RL, UK, or email: travelguides@dk.com. Kings Cross, Darlinghurst
and Paddington 120
Front cover main image: Uluru in the Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park, Northern Territory
Sunset at the magnificent Three Sisters, in the Blue Mountains National Park, New South Wales
Victoria
Introducing Victoria 376

Melbourne 384

Western Victoria 426

Ben Boyd National Park on the south coast of New South Wales Eastern Victoria 442

Practical Information 132 The Red Centre 282 Tasmania

Sydney Street Finder 152 Western Australia Introducing Tasmania 458

New South Wales Introducing Western Tasmania 460


and ACT Australia 296
Travellers’ Needs
Introducing New South Perth and
Wales and ACT 162 the Southwest 302 Where to Stay 478

The Blue Mountains North of Perth 324 Where to Eat and Drink 498
and Beyond 168
South Australia Shopping 536
The South Coast and
Snowy Mountains 186 Introducing South
Specialist Holidays
Australia 338
and Activities 538
Canberra and ACT 194
Adelaide and the
Southeast 344 Survival Guide
Queensland
The Yorke and Eyre Practical Information 544
Introducing
Peninsulas and South
Queensland 214
Australian Outback 362 Travel Information 554
Brisbane 222

South of Townsville 238

Northern Queensland 252

The Northern
Territory
Introducing the Northern
Territory 264

Darwin and the


Rippon Lea
Top End 270 in Melbourne
6  How To uSe THiS guide

HOW TO USE THIS GUIDE


This guide helps you to get the most from on subjects of regional interest. Suggestions
your visit to Australia. Introducing Australia on restaurants, accommodation, shopping
maps the whole country and sets it in its and entertainment are in Travellers’ Needs.
historical and cultural context. The 17 The Survival Guide has tips on getting around
regional chapters, including Sydney, describe the country. The cities of Sydney, Melbourne
important sights with maps, pictures and and Brisbane also have their own Practical
illustrations, as well as introductory features Information sections.

Sydney BOTANIC GARDENS


SYDNEY  109

1 Area Map
AND THE DOMAIN
The centre of Sydney has been This tranquil part of Sydney can seem a The Domain, an open, grassy space, was

Sights are numbered on


world away from the bustle of the city centre. originally set aside by the colony’s first

divided into four sightseeing It is rich in the remnants of Sydney’s convict


and colonial past: the site of the first farm
governor for his private use. Today it is
filled with joggers and touch footballers

a map. Sights in the city


and the boulevard-like Macquarie Street sidestepping picnickers and sunbathers. In

areas. Each area has its own


where the barracks, hospital, church and January, during the Festival of Sydney, it hosts
mint – bastions of civic power – are among free outdoor concerts. The Royal Botanic
the oldest surviving public buildings in Gardens has for almost 200 years collected,

chapter which opens with a list


Australia. This street continues to assert
its dominance today as the location of the
state government of New South Wales.
grown, researched and conserved plants from
Australia and the rest of the world. The result
is a parkland of great diversity and beauty.
centre are also shown on
of the sights described. All the Sights at a Glance
Historic Streets and Buildings
the Sydney Street Finder
2 Conservatorium of Music
7 State Library of New South Wales
(see pp152–9). Melbourne
sights are numbered and plotted 8 Parliament House
9 Sydney Hospital

also has its own Street


0 The Mint
q Hyde Park Barracks Museum

on an Area Map. Information on


See also Street Finder,
Museums and Galleries
maps 1 and 4
5 Art Gallery of New South Wales
pp114–17
Churches
Finder (see pp418–25).
each sight is easy to locate within w St James’ Church
Islands
4 Fort Denison
SYDNEY

the chapter as it follows the


Monuments
MRS
H

3 Mrs Macquaries Chair


ARBOUR

MACQUARIES
POINT
Parks and Gardens
TUNNEL

1 Royal Botanic Gardens pp110–11

numerical order on the map. A locator map shows where


Andrew (Boy)
6 The Domain Farm Charlton Pool

Cove
AD
RO

you are in relation to other


S
RIE
UA
CAHILL

CQ
AD
STREET

MA
RO

ROYAL BOTANIC
MRS
EXP

areas of the city centre.


ES

GARDENS
RI
RE

UA

SW
S

CQ

AY
MA

SHAKESPEARE
0 metres 250 PLACE
M RS

0 yards 250
ROAD
MACQUARIE

HOSPITAL

THE
DOMAIN
D
A

Martin
O

R
Place Y
ER
LL

Sights at a Glance lists the


QUEENS A
G
SQUARE
T NG

St James
RT

EN U
A

SC YO

ST M
AR
C RE H N

YS

chapter’s sights by category:


JO
RO

R
AD

SI

92  SYDNEY CITY CENTRE AND DARLING HARBOUR  93

Historic Streets and Buildings, The airy interior of the Art Gallery of New South Wales
Street-by-Street: City Centre
For keys to symbols see back flap
3 Strand Arcade
A reminder of the late 19th century CITY CENTRE
BOTANIC
GARDENS
AND THE

Museums and Galleries, Parks


Victorian era when Sydney was famed DOMAIN
Although closely rivalled by Melbourne, Sydney is the as a city of elegant shopping arcades,
business and commercial capital of Australia. Vibrant this faithfully restored example is said
by day, at night the streets are far less busy when to have been the finest of them all. DARLING
HARBOUR

and Gardens etc. office workers and shoppers have gone home. The
comparatively small city centre of this sprawling
metropolis seems to be almost jammed into a few
city blocks. Because Sydney grew in such a haphazard Locator Map
See Central Sydney map pp66–7
fashion, with many of today’s streets following tracks
from the harbour originally made by bullocks, there was
no allowance for the expansion of the city into what has
become a major international centre. A colourful night 1. Queen Victoria Building ET
scene of cafés, restaurants and theatres is emerging, Taking up an entire city block, this RE
ST

All pages relating to Sydney


however, as more people return to the city centre to live. 1898 former produce market was
lovingly restored in 1986 and is
now a shopping mall. E
RG

have orange thumb tabs.


EO
G
MLC
Centre
M
A
RT
IN
PL
K

4. Martin Place
IN

2
E
G

T Martin Place’s 1929 Art Deco


E
Cenotaph is the site of annual

Street-by-Street Map
E
R
2 State Theatre T T Anzac Day war remembrance
S E
A gem from the golden age of movies, E T services including the solemn
K T
R EE
this 1929 cinema was once hailed as “the R S R dawn service.
ST
ST

Empire’s greatest theatre”. It now hosts O

This gives a bird’s-eye view of the


Y
TT ET
R

live concerts too. PI RE


EE

ST
T

H
G
A
M

RE

heart of each sightseeing area.


A

LE
R

E ST
K

G CA ET
E

R
RE
T

O
G
E ST
S
T
R
E

To Sydney
E

T Theatre Royal
T

Town Hall EE
R
ST ET H
T RE ET
IT ST A
B Westfield Sydney, one of the
P
IZ city’s main shopping centres,
EL features the David Jones and

A suggested route for a walk covers the


0 metres 100 Myer department stores
0 yards 100 (see p137), speciality shops
H and a large food court.
G
A ET
RE RE

more interesting streets in the area.


Key
LE ST
The Queen Victoria Statue was Suggested route ST
P

A Hyde Park’s
A

found after a worldwide search C


R

H northern end
K

in 1983 ended in a small Irish ET


B
village. It had lain forgotten and A
neglected since being removed IZ
EL
S
T

from the front of the Irish 5. Sydney Tower


R
E

Parliament in 1947. The tower tops the city skyline, giving


E
T

Marble Bar was once a landmark bar in the a bird’s eye view of the whole of
1893 Tattersalls hotel. It was re-erected in the Sydney. It rises 305 m (1,000 ft) above
basement of the Sydney Hilton in 1973, and the ground and can be seen from as
again in 2005 when the hotel was rebuilt. far away as the Blue Mountains.
For hotels and restaurants in this area see pp482–97 and pp504–35

82  SYDNEY T H E R O C K S A N D C I R C U L A R Q UAY  83

works by Hockney, Warhol,


Lichtenstein and Christo was
4 Sailors’ Home Stars indicate sights that
no visitor should miss.
106 George St, The Rocks. Map 1 B2.
transferred to this 1950s Art @ Sydney Explorer, 339, 340, 431,
Deco-style building at Circular 432, 433, 434.
Quay West. As well as showing
its permanent collection, the Built in 1864 as lodgings
museum hosts exhibitions by for visiting sailors, the first
local and overseas artists. The and second floors here were
MCA Store sells distinctive gifts dormitories, but these were
by Australian designers. later divided into 56 cubicles
or “cabins” which were
arranged around open Terrace restaurants at Campbell’s Storehouses on the waterfront
3 Cadman’s galleries and lit by four
Cottage enormous skylights. At the 6 Campbell’s outdoor eating establishments

3
110 George St, The Rocks.
time it was built, the Sailors’ Storehouses very popular with local business

Detailed Information
Map 1 B2. @ 431, 432, 433, 434. Home was a welcome people and tourists alike.
alternative to the many seedy 7–27 Circular Quay West, The Rocks.
Closed to the public.
inns and brothels in the area, Map 1 B2. @ Sydney Explorer, 431,
Built in 1816 as barracks for saving sailors from the perils 432, 433, 434. 7 7 Sydney
Harbour Bridge
on each Sight
the crews of the governor’s of “crimping”. “Crimps” would
boats, this sandstone cottage tempt newly arrived men into Robert Campbell, a prominent See pp84–5.
is Sydney’s oldest surviving bars providing much sought- Scottish merchant in the early
dwelling. Visitors can walk after entertainment. While days of Sydney, purchased

All the sights in Sydney are


around the small, historic site, drunk, the sailors would be this land on Sydney Cove in
Old-fashioned Australian goods at the corner shop, Susannah Place but cannot enter the building. sold on to departing ships, 1799. In 1802 he began
The cottage is named after waking miles out at sea and constructing a private wharf
1 Susannah Place when the Builders Labourers’ John Cadman, a convict who returning home in debt. and storehouses in which to

described individually. Useful


Federation imposed a “green was transported in 1798 for Sailors used the home until house the tea, sugar, spirits and
58–64 Gloucester St, The Rocks.
ban” on The Rocks, temporarily horse-stealing. By 1813, he 1980. It is now home to the cloth he imported from India.
Map 1 B2. Tel (02) 9241 1893.
@ Sydney Explorer, 431, 432, 433, halting all redevelopment work was coxswain of a timber highly-regarded Sailors’ Thai Campbell was the only
434.  Circular Quay, Wynyard. which was destructive to boat and later, coxswain of restaurant and noodle bar. merchant operating in Australia

addresses, telephone numbers,


Open 2–5pm daily. Closed Good Fri, cultural heritage. government craft. He was who managed to infiltrate the
25 Dec. & 8 ∑ sydneyliving granted a full pardon and monopoly held by the British
in 1827 he was made boat 5 The Rocks East India Company. The first
museums.com.au
2 Museum of superintendent and moved Discovery Museum five sandstone bays were built

opening hours and other practical


This terrace of four brick and Contemporary Art to the four-room cottage Kendall Lane, The Rocks. Map 1 B2.
between 1839 and 1844. A
sandstone houses dating back Circular Quay West, The Rocks.
that now bears his name. Tel (02) 9240 8680. @ Sydney further seven bays were built
to 1844 has a rare history of Map 1 B2. Tel (02) 9245 2400. Cadman married Elizabeth Explorer, 431, 432, 433, 434. between 1854 and 1861. The
continuous domestic @ 431, 432, 433, 434, Sydney Mortimer in 1830, another  Circular Quay. Open 10am–5pm full row of storehouses were
occupancy from the 1840s
through to 1990. It is now a
museum examining the
living conditions of its former
Explorer. Open 10am–5pm daily
(to 9pm Thu). Closed 25 Dec.
7 8 ∑ mca.com.au
ex-convict who was sentenced
to seven years’ transportation
for the theft of one hairbrush.
They lived in the cottage until
daily. Closed Good Fri, 25 Dec. 7
∑ therocks.com.au

This fascinating museum, in


finally completed in 1890,
including a brick upper storey.
Part of the old sea wall and 11
of the original stores are still
The historic Hero of Waterloo Inn, built in
the 19th century
information are provided for each
inhabitants. Rather than
re-creating a single period, the
museum retains the renovations
carried out by different tenants.
When Sydney art collector John
Power died in 1943, he left his
entire collection and a financial
bequest to the University of
1845. Cadman’s Cottage was
built on the foreshore of
Sydney Harbour. Now, as
a result of successive land
a restored 1850s sandstone
coach house, is home to
a unique collection of
archaeological artifacts and
standing. The pulleys that were
used to raise cargo from the
wharf can be seen near the top
of the preserved buildings.
8 Hero of Waterloo
81 Lower Fort St, The Rocks. Map 1 A2.
entry. The key to all the symbols
used in the information block is
Tel (02) 9252 4553. @ 431, 432, 433,
Built for Edward and Mary Riley, Sydney. In 1991 the collection, reclamations, it is set well images that detail the story The area fell into disrepair 434. Open 10am–11:30pm Mon–Wed,
who arrived from Ireland with which by then included back from the water’s edge. of The Rocks from the pre- during the first half of the 10am–midnight Thu–Sat, 10am–10pm
their niece Susannah in 1838, European days to the present. 20th century. However, in Sun. Closed Good Fri, 25 Dec.
these houses have basement There are four permanent the 1970s the Sydney Cove

shown on the back flap.


7 limited.
kitchens and backyard exhibitions which are highly Redevelopment Authority
outhouses. Piped water and interactive, making use of finalized plans and began This picturesque old inn is
sewerage were probably added touch screens and audio and renovating the site. Today the especially welcoming in the
by the mid-1850s. visual technology. Some of bond stores contain a range of winter with its log fires.
The terrace escaped the the artifacts were found at fine restaurants catering to all Built in 1844, this was a
wholesale demolitions that the archaeological site on tastes, from contemporary favourite drinking place for the
occurred after the outbreak Cumberland Street. Australian to Chinese and nearby garrison’s soldiers. Some
of bubonic plague in 1900, as The Rocks Discovery Italian. Their virtually sea captains were said to use
well as later clearings of land Museum has been developed unimpeded views across the hotel to recruit. Patrons who
to make way for the Sydney in close consultation with Circular Quay towards the drank too much were pushed
Harbour Bridge (see pp84–5) and local Aboriginal groups, so Sydney Opera House (see pp88– into the cellars via a trapdoor.
the Cahill Expressway. In the that their story of the area is 9) and Sydney Harbour Bridge Tunnels then led to the wharves
1970s it was saved once again The Art Deco-style Museum of Contemporary Art, with the adjoining modern extension properly told. (see pp84–5) make these and on to waiting ships.
For hotels and restaurants in this area see pp482–3 and pp504–7
How to use tHis guide  7
SOUTH AUSTRALIA  345

ADELAIDE AND
THE SOUTHEAST
The Southeast is a region rich with pine forests, wineries
and a spectacular coastline. The state capital, Adelaide,
Australia Area by Area
is a vibrant city, whose surrounding hills abound with
vineyards from the Barossa to McLaren Vale. To the east,

Apart from Sydney, Australia has been


1
the great Murray River meanders from the Victoria border

Introduction
down to the Southern Ocean. Just off the Fleurieu Peninsula
lies Kangaroo Island, a haven for wildlife.

Home to Aborigines for more than of motor vehicles and household divided into seven chapters. Within
50,000 years, this region was settled by appliances. Adelaide still has a focus
The landscape, history
the chapters the regions are further
Europeans in 1836 when Governor John on high technology.
Hindmarsh proclaimed the area a British South Australia has always had a
colony. William Light, the Surveyor General, tradition of tolerance. Many of the first
and character of each
divided into 16 areas. The most
chose the site of the city of Adelaide. settlers were non-conformists from Great
The settlement was based on a theory Britain seeking a more open society.
of free colonization funded solely by land
sales, and no convicts were transported
Other early migrants included Lutherans
escaping persecution in Germany. They region is described here,
here. Elegant Adelaide was carefully
planned by Colonel Light: its ordered
grid pattern, centred on pretty squares
settled in Hahndorf and the Barossa,
where they established a wine industry.
With high rainfall and irrigated by showing how the area interesting towns and places to visit
and gardens, is surrounded by parkland.
Wealth from agriculture and mining paid
for many of Adelaide’s fine Victorian
the Murray River, the region is the most
fertile in the state. The coastline includes
the Fleurieu Peninsula and the beautiful has developed over the are numbered on an Regional Map at
buildings. In the mid-20th century,
the city established a significant
manufacturing industry, in particular
Coorong National Park. Offshore,
Kangaroo Island has stunning scenery
and bountiful native wildlife. centuries and what it the beginning of each chapter.
offers to the visitor today.

346  SOUTH AUSTRALIA ADELAIDE AND THE SOUTHEAST  347

Exploring Adelaide and the Southeast Each area of Australia can be


Adelaide and the Southeast area encompass the most bountiful and
Port and sherry casks at aproductive
winery in the Barossa
regions of South Australia. Adelaide, the state’s capital city identified quickly by its own colour
Evening falls on the and theofmost obvious base for exploring the region, lies on a MU

coding, which is shown on the


vineyards the Barossa Morgan RRA
YR
flat plain between the Mount Lofty Ranges and the popular Riverton Waikerie
I VER Renmark

white sandy beaches of Gulf St Vincent, to the east of Cape Port Pirie
Jervis. The city itself is green and elegant, with many historic Barmera

inside front cover.


Berri
Kapunda Mildura
Blanchetown Murray River
sites to explore. To the northeast, beyond the Adelaide Hills, National Park
are quaint 19th-century villages and the many wineries of Tanunda Angaston Loxton
the Barossa. To the east and south lie Australia’s largest Gawler Swan Reach
THE BAROSSA
river, the Murray River, and the rolling hills of the
Gulf St Springton Alawoona
Fleurieu Peninsula. Further to the southeast the beauty BIRDWOOD
Vincent GORGE
of the coastal Coorong National Park and the Southern WILDLIFE PARK
Sandalwood
Ocean coastline contrasts with the flat, agricultural ADELAIDE MOUNT Mannum
area inland. Offshore lies the natural splendour of LOFTY

2
Kangaroo Island, with its abundance of native HAHNDORF
Karoonda
BELAIR NATIONAL PARK

Regional Map
wildlife and striking rock formations. Murray Bridge
Port Noarlunga
Pinnaroo
McLaren Vale STRATHALBYN Murray River winding between Swan Reach and
Ouyen
Peake Lameroo Walker Flat

This shows the main road


ula Lake
ns
ni Alexandrina
Pe Goolwa
u
Cape Jervis ur
ie
Victor Port
Getting Around
le Harbor Elliot Ngarkat
Kingscote The inner city of Adelaide is best explored
F

Li Coonalpyn Conservation

network and gives an


Meningie
m Park on foot; it is compact, well laid out and
Penneshaw
e flat. There is a public transport system of
DU

Parndana American
KE

River mostly buses, and some trains, throughout


st

GAROO ISLA HI
KAN ND GH
on

the metropolitan area, although services


Co

Tintinara W

illustrated overview of the


AY
or

Flinders Chase
are often restricted at weekends. However,
e

on

National Park
g

Keith for those with a car, the city’s roads are


Co

Cape du Couedic good and the traffic generally light.


Na

Outside Adelaide, public transport is very


as

whole area. All interesting


tio

PRIN

Bordertown limited, although coach tours are available


na
t

Sights at a Glance
CES
l

9 Mount Gambier
Willalooka Mundulla to most areas. A car provides the most
1 Adelaide pp348–53 Horsham
efficient means of exploring the region,
HI G
Par

2 Belair National Park 0 Penola


with a network of high-standard roads
HW
k

places to visit are numbered


3 Gorge Wildlife Park q Naracoorte Caves
and highways. In addition, a domestic air
AY

RI

National Park
DD

4 Hahndorf Padthaway service operates between Adelaide and


OC

5 Strathalbyn w Murray River Lacepede


H

Mount Gambier. Kangaroo Island is


HI

Bay
6 Mount Lofty
GH

serviced by air from Adelaide and also by

and there are also useful tips


Tour
WA

7 Birdwood Kingston SE ferry from Cape Jervis. The predominantly


Y

e The Barossa Naracoorte


8 Kangaroo Island flat landscape also makes this a popular
NARACOORTE CAVES area for cyclists and walkers.
NATIONAL PARK
Robe

Furner
Bool
Lagoon
Game Reserve Key
Highway
on getting around the region.
PENOLA
Major road
Beachport
Minor road
Millicent Scenic route
Tantanoola
Main railway
MOUNT Minor railway
GAMBIER
State border
Portland
Port MacDonnell
0 kilometres 50

0 miles 50

St Peter’s Anglican Cathedral, seen across Adelaide’s parkland


356  S O U TFor
H additional
A U S T R Amap
L I Asymbols see back flap THE SOUTHEAST  357

native Australian species, of the city from the modern


including kangaroos, dingos, lookout at the summit, where
wombats, wallabies and fruit there is also an interpretive centre.
bats. There are also birds – The hills are dotted with grand
from ostriches to fairy wrens – summer houses to which
and a colony of free-flying Adelaide citizens retreat during
rainbow lorikeets. For those the summer heat.
who prefer their animals Just below the summit is the
crawling or swimming, there Cleland Wildlife Park where
is a reptile house. The most visitors can stroll among the

3
popular residents of the park, kangaroos and emus, have a

Detailed Information
however, are the koalas. Nineteenth-century mill in the historic town of Hahndorf photograph taken with a koala
Cuddling sessions with these or walk through the aviary
friendly marsupials are held Just outside Hahndorf is The renowned as one of the to observe native birds at
three times daily (11:30am, Cedars, the former home of earliest wine-growing regions close quarters.

All the important towns


Old Government House in Belair National Park 1:30pm and 3:30pm, subject South Australia’s best-known in Australia; wine has been About 1.5 km (1 mile) south
to weather conditions). landscape artist, the late Sir Hans produced here since the 1850s. of here, Mount Lofty Botanic
2 Belair days of extreme fire danger. The park also offers a kiosk, a Heysen (see p38). Both his home Gardens feature temperate-
National Park Within the park lies Old souvenir shop, picnic areas and his studio are open to the climate plants such as rhodo-

and other places to visit are


Government House. Built in and free gas BBQs. public. South of the town is Nixon’s dendrons and magnolias.
Tel (08) 8278 5477. £ from Adelaide.
1859 as the governor’s summer Mill, a stone mill built in 1842.
Open 8am–sunset daily. Closed 25 Dec.
& for cars only. 7 limited.
residence, it offers a glimpse O Cleland Wildlife Park
of the lifestyle enjoyed by the P The Cedars 365 Mount Lofty Summit Rd, Crafters.
∑ environment.sa.gov.au

described individually. They


colonial gentry. Heysen Rd. Tel (08) 8388 7277. Open Tel (08) 8339 2444. Open 9:30am–5pm
Established in 1891, Belair is the 10am–4:30pm Tue–Sun & public hols. daily. Closed 25 Dec. & 8 7 =
P Old Government House Closed Good Fri, 25 & 26 Dec. & 7 - ∑ environment.sa.gov.au
eighth-oldest national park in
Belair National Park. Tel (08) 8278 ∑ hansheysen.com.au
the world. Only 9 km (5 miles)
5477. Open 1–4pm Sun & public hols.

are listed in order, following


from Adelaide, it is one of the
Closed Good Fri, 25 Dec. &
7 Birdwood
most popular parks in South
Australia. Tennis courts and 5 Strathalbyn * 1,300. n FJ Café, Shannon St
(08) 8568 5577.
pavilions are available for hire
3 Gorge * 6,000. @ n Railway Station,

the numbering on the Regional


and there are picnic facilities South Terrace 1300 007 842. Nestled in the Adelaide Hills is
throughout the park. Visitors Wildlife Park the quiet little town of Birdwood.
can meander through the tall Redden Drive, Cudlee Creek. Tel (08) The designated heritage town In the 1850s, wheat was milled
eucalypt forests and cool 8389 2206. @ Adelaide. Open 9am– of Strathalbyn was originally in the town and the old wheat

Map. Within each town or city,


valleys, and see kangaroos, 5pm daily. Closed 25 Dec. & = settled by Scottish immigrants St Andrew’s Church, Strathalbyn mill now houses Birdwood’s most
emus, echidnas and other ∑ gorgewildlifepark.com.au in 1839. Links with its Scottish famous asset: the country’s
native wildlife. ancestry can still be seen 6 Mount Lofty largest collection of vintage,
In spring, many native plants Situated on 5.5 ha (14 acres) today in much of the town’s veteran and classic motor cars,

there is detailed information


@ Mount Lofty Summit Rd. n Mount
bloom. The park is closed of land, Gorge Wildlife Park A koala at Gorge Widlife Park architecture, which is reminis- trucks and motorbikes. The
Lofty Summit Information Centre (08)
occasionally in summer on is home to an abundance of cent of small highland towns 8370 1054. = - The Summit Open National Motor Museum has
4 Hahndorf in Scotland. 9am–5pm Mon–Fri, 8:30am–5pm Sat more than 300 on display and is
Situated on the banks of considered to be one of the best

on important buildings and


* 1,800. @ from Adelaide. n 68 & Sun. 0 ∑ mtloftysummit.com
the Angas River, Strathalbyn collections of its kind in the world.
Mount Barker Rd (08) 8388 1185.
∑ hahndorfsa.org.au is dominated by St Andrew’s The hills of the Mount Lofty
Church with its sturdy tower. Ranges form the backdrop to E National Motor Museum
Hahndorf is the oldest surviving A number of original buildings Adelaide. The highest point, Shannon St. Tel (08) 8568 4000. Open

other sights. German settlement in Australia.


The first settlers arrived in 1838
aboard the Zebra under the
command of Captain Dirk Hahn.
have been preserved. The police
station, built in 1858, and the
1865 courthouse together
house the National Trust
Mount Lofty, reaches 727 m
(2,385 ft) and offers a fine view
10am–5pm daily. Closed 25 Dec. &
7 ∑ motor.history.sa.gov.au

Escaping religious persecution Museum. The prominent two-


in their homeland, they settled storey London House, built as a
in the Adelaide Hills and general store in 1867, has, like a
established Hahndorf (Hahn’s number of buildings in or near
Village), a German-style town. the High Street, found a new
The tree-lined main street use as an antiques store. As
has many examples of classic in many country towns in
German architecture, such as Australia, the hotels and banks
houses with fachwerk timber are also architectural reminders
framing filled in with wattle and of the past. About 16 km (10
daub, or brick. Visitors can take miles) southeast of Strathalbyn,
a stroll around the town and on the banks of the Bremer
Wallabies roaming through Gorge Wildlife Park enjoy its historic atmosphere. River, is Langhorne Creek, Hand-feeding kangaroos at Cleland Wildlife Park, Mount Lofty
352  SOUTH AUSTRALIA A D EinLthis
For hotels and restaurants A Iarea 
3 5 3 and pp504–35
D Esee pp482–97

Ayers House . State Dining Room


Sir Henry loved to
VISITORS’ CHECKLIST

Ayers House is one of the best examples of colonial entertain, and lavish Practical Information
dinners were often held 288 North Terrace, Adelaide.

For all the top sights, a visitors’ checklist


Regency architecture in Australia. From 1855 until here. It boasts a hand- Tel (08) 8223 1234.
his death in 1897, it was the home of Sir Henry painted ceiling, grained Open 10am–4pm Tue–Fri;
Ayers, a former Premier of South Australia and an woodwork and the 1–4pm Sat, Sun & public hols.
original gas-lamp

provides the practical information needed


influential businessman. The original house was Closed Mon, Good Fri, 25 Dec.
chandeliers. & 8 = 7 ground floor only.
quite simple but was expanded over the years with
the growing status and wealth of its owner. The Transport

to plan your visit.


final form of this elegant mansion is due largely to @ 99c.

the noted colonial architect Sir George Strickland


Kingston. The restored house is now run by the Front of the house viewed from North Terrace
National Trust and also incorporates a function
centre. The oldest section is open to the public and
houses a fine collection of Victorian furniture,
furnishings, memorabilia and art.

. Bedroom
4 Australia’s Top Sights
Historic buildings are dissected
to reveal their interiors; museums
The main bedroom has been carefully

and galleries have colour-coded


restored to its late-Victorian style.
Its authentic furnishings reflect the
prosperity brought by South
Australia’s rich mining

floorplans; the national parks have


discoveries in the 1870s.

KEY

1 The Library, furnished with


a long dining table, can be hired
for functions.
2 Slate roof
maps showing facilities and trails.
3 The Conservatory is based
around the original stables and
coachhouse. Now a function centre,
Front entrance
Major towns have maps, with
sights picked out and described.
the whole area has been flooded with
light by the addition of a glass roof. The story of Sir Henry Ayers
4 Local bluestone was used in
Sir Henry Ayers (1821–97) was born in
constructing the house, as with
Hampshire, England, the son of a dock
many 19th-century Adelaide houses.
worker. He married in 1840 and, a month
The north façade faces onto North
later, emigrated with his bride to South
Terrace, one of the city’s main streets
Australia. After working briefly as a clerk,
(see pp348–9).
Ayers made his fortune in the state’s
5 Veranda’s original chequered new copper mines. Entering politics in
tile flooring 1857, he was appointed South Australia’s
6 The family drawing room Ballroom Premier seven times between 1863 Statesman and businessman,
along with the adjacent family dining This intricately decorated cornice dates and 1873, and was President of the
Sir Henry Ayers
room, had test strips removed from from the 1870s. It is likely that it was Legislative Council, 1881–93. Among
its walls and ceiling to uncover some painted by Charles Gow, an employee many causes, he supported exploration of the interior (Ayers Rock,

Story boxes explore


stunning original decoration. These of the Scottish firm of Lyon and Cottier, now Uluru, was named after him), but is chiefly remembered for
rooms have now been fully restored. who is believed to have undertaken his prominent role in the development of South Australia.
extensive work at the house.

specific subjects further.


For hotels and restaurants in this area see pp482–97 and pp504–35
introducing
australia

Discovering Australia 10–17


Putting Australia on the Map 18–19
A Portrait of Australia 20–43
Australia Through the Year 44–49
The History of Australia 50–63
10  InTRoduCIng AuSTRAlIA

Discovering AustrAliA
The following tours have been designed combined by anyone travelling between the
to take in as many of Australia’s highlights two. Extra suggestions are provided for those
as possible. In a country as large as Australia, who wish to extend their visit, or take in other
some long-distance travel is inevitable and nearby sights. The city tours are followed by
driving times may be longer than readers are 14 days on the East Coast, five days in the Red
used to. However, the itineraries endeavour Centre and ten days on the West Coast. These
to keep travel distances realistic. To begin with tours can be combined with trips to southern
there are three two-day city tours, covering and northern Australia. Pick, combine and
Sydney, Melbourne and Perth. The itineraries follow your favourite tours, or simply dip in
for Sydney and Melbourne can easily be and out and be inspired.

10 Days on the
West Coast – East Coast

Perth to Exmouth West Coast


Alice
Springs

Explore the boutiques and Red Centre
Perth inset
restaurants of colourful Sydney
Northbridge in Perth.

Wonder at the mysterious
landscape of the Pinnacles Exmouth
Cape Range Locator Map
in Nambung National Park. National Park

Discover all about the local
shipwrecks at Geraldton’s Ningaloo Reef
Marine Park
WA Museum. Coral Bay

Peer into Hamelin Pool
Point
and learn about million- Quobba
year-old stromatolites. Blowholes
G asc o y n e
Carnarvon

Snorkel on Ningaloo Reef
in the Cape Range
National Park. Monkey Mia
Denham

Swim with whale sharks off Shark Bay
the coast of Exmouth.
hi s o n
rc
u
M

Kalbarri Kalbarri
National Park
0 kilometres 300

0 miles 300 Geraldton


WESTERN
AUSTRALIA

Nambung
National Park

Perth

Mandurah

Bunbury
Katanning
Busselton

The Pinnacles
This extraordinary landscape of limestone
pillars can be found in Nambung National
Park, on the western coast of Australia.

View of Sydney, New South Wales by Thomas Baines (1820–1875)


Discovering AustrAliA  11

5 Days in the
Lake Bennett Ma
Lake Lewis
Ha
Red Centre
cDon rts R
n ell R a n g e s ange
NORTHERN •
Find yourself a long way
TERRITORY Alice Springs
from anywhere in Alice
Lake Springs and visit the
Neale Fin
Lake
ke excellent galleries in town.
P alm
Amadeus er
Kata-Tjuta

Enjoy a spectacular sunset at
ˉ
(The Olgas)
Uluru (Ayers Rock)
Uluru-Kata Tjuta National
Uluru-Kata Tjuta ˉ Park. Try to capture Uluru’s
ˉ
National ˉ
Park
famous colour changes with
0 miles 200 SOUTH your camera.
0 kilometres 200 AUSTRALIA

Walk around the base of
Uluru, marvelling at the
colours and textures of
the great rock.
Key •
Embark on the Valley of
East Coast Tour the Winds walk at Kata-
Red Centre Tour
Tjuta and stroll among
the giant boulders.
West Coast Tour

Cairns

0 kilometres 200
Atherton
Tableland
0 miles 200

Townsville

Eungella
National Park
Mackay

QUEENSLAND

Mount Etna
National Park Rockhampton

Byron Bay Lighthouse This iconic structure Bundaberg


was erected on the easternmost point of
Hervey Bay Fraser Island
the Australian mainland in 1901.

Noosa
14 Days on the East Coast – Australia Zoo
Sydney to Cairns
Brisbane

Tour the Sydney Opera •
Wander around laid-back
House or admire it from Brisbane and picnic in
aboard a ferry from the Botanic Garden. Byron Bay
Circular Quay. •
Look for platypuses in NEW SOUTH
WALES Grafton

Visit one of Sydney’s Eungella National Park.
beaches and embark •
Visit Townsville’s Third Headland Beach Coffs Harbour
on a clifftop walk. aquarium and tour Nambucca Heads

Lounge on the nearby Magnetic Island. Crowdy Bay Port Macquarie
beautiful beaches of •
Set off from Cairns to
National Park
the East Coast, such dive on the spectacular
as Byron Bay and Great Barrier Reef. Newcastle
Port Macquarie.
Sydney
12  introducing AustrAliA

If relaxing in leafy surroundings


2 Days in Sydney is more appealing, flop on the
grass in Hyde Park (p97) after
This vibrant, beautiful city checking out the Anzac
boasts museums, galleries Memorial, or walk down to
and world-class restaurants, Darling Harbour (pp100–101).
as well as iconic landmarks Relax with a cup of tea in the
and tempting beaches. tranquillity of the Chinese
Garden (pp102–3), then visit

Arriving Sydney Airport,
the excellent interactive
located about 10 km
Powerhouse Museum
(6 miles) south of the city,
(pp106–7). For dinner, choose
is the main gateway. To
somewhere in Chinatown
reach the centre you can
(p103) or, if you feel like treating
take a bus, train or taxi.
Dome of the Queen Victoria Building yourself, admire the view from

Moving on The drive from the restaurant in Sydney Tower
Sydney to Melbourne Afternoon Tour the Sydney (p95). If you find you’ve still
takes just under 9 hours; Opera House (pp88–9) or visit got energy to burn, head over
the flight time is 1 hour and the Museum of Contemporary to Darlinghurst (pp120–29)
35 minutes. If you have a lot Art (p82), where you can enjoy to check out Sydney’s small
of time on your hands, you a breathtaking view from the bar scene, before walking
could also catch a train. café. If you are feeling active, down the infamous King’s
To reach Canberra from walk over the Sydney Harbour Cross strip.
Sydney will take about Bridge (pp84–5) or challenge
3 hours by car, just under yourself to the Bridge Climb. To extend your trip…
an hour by plane, and just Explore The Rocks (pp80–81) Spend a day lounging
over 4 hours by train. and stay in the area for dinner. on world-famous Bondi
Beach (p131); alternatively,
Day 2 walk from Bondi to
Day 1 Morning Take a ferry from Coogee (p149) along the
Morning A couple of days Circular Quay to one of the many clifftop. If beach life doesn’t
in this city give you enough harbour bays, coves and beach appeal, head to the Blue
time to take in the main sights. areas around Sydney (pp148–9). Mountains (pp170–73)
On your first morning, visit Consider a trip to Manly (p130), for a couple of days, or
the Art Gallery of New South where you can swim in the sea, spend a day tasting wines
Wales (pp114–17); don’t miss relax in a café or learn to surf. Then, in the splendid Hunter
the Aboriginal and Torres Strait either take the ferry back or walk Valley (pp178–9). There is
Islander art on display. Next, to Spit Bridge before jumping on also the option of driving
wander down through the Royal a bus to Sydney Town Hall (p97). from Sydney to the capital
Botanic Gardens (pp110–11), city of Canberra (pp194–
a peaceful oasis containing a Afternoon If you’re a keen 209), in the Australian
vast variety of plants and trees. shopper, head to George Capital Territory.
Continue past the Sydney Street and visit the Queen
Opera House, to Circular Quay Victoria Building (p94), as
(pp78–89). There are several well as the Westfield Sydney
lunch spots here, especially in (p93) shopping centre, home
2 Days in Melbourne
The Rocks and beyond the to big department stores such
Overseas Passenger Terminal. as David Jones and Myer. Considered the most
European of Australia’s
cities, Melbourne offers
many gardens and parks
to relax in, fascinating
cultural events and some
excellent tourist sights.

Arriving Melbourne has
two airports: Tullamarine
and Avalon. Tullamarine
is the main hub. To reach
the city from Tullamarine,
take the SkyBus or a taxi;
the airport bus meets all
flights from Avalon.
The iconic Sydney Opera House and Circular Quay
discovering AustrAliA  13

(p389). Those travelling with Museum – Perth. Spend the


children may prefer to head to evening in lively Northbridge
the Melbourne Museum (p399) (p308), where there is a range
with its wonderful Forest Gallery of restaurants and bars.
and dinosaur skeletons. In the
evening, tuck into an Italian Day 2
meal on Lygon Street (p399). Morning Explore the port
city of Fremantle (pp314–15).
To extend your trip… Wander the streets admiring
Arrange a day trip south the 19th-century architecture
of Melbourne to see the and stopping in any shops or
penguins at Phillip Island galleries that catch your eye.
(p446) or to the Yarra Valley Don’t miss Fremantle’s oldest
Statue of Charles La Trobe in Melbourne‘s (p447) to taste Victoria’s building, the Round House
State Library of Victoria famous wines. If you have (p314). Alternatively, jump
more time, consider driving on a ferry to Rottnest Island
Day 1 the Great Ocean Road (pp312–13), where you can
Morning Join a walking (pp432–3) to Adelaide hire a bike, look for quokkas,
tour of Melbourne’s laneways (pp344–53) or jumping on a see the sights and take
and arcades (pp392–3), and ferry to explore Tasmania advantage of the beautiful
discover cafés, boutiques and (pp456–75). white-sand beaches.
colourful street art. There is
usually the option to include Afternoon If you’ve spent the
lunch in the tour; if not, just morning on Rottnest Island,
stop somewhere along the
2 Days in Perth be sure to spend at least some
way that takes your fancy. time in Fremantle, admiring the
This relaxed city is almost city’s historic buildings before
Afternoon Visit the Ian Potter as close to Southeast Asia finding somewhere to enjoy
Centre: National Gallery of as it is to Sydney. Those in an evening meal. Take in a
Victoria (closed Mon; p407, search of culture, beaches, tour of Fremantle Prison
which has an excellent interesting day trips and (p315) and visit the Shipwreck
collection of Australian art, a laid-back atmosphere Galleries of the Western
or spend some time at the won’t be disappointed. Australian Museum (p314).
nearby Immigration Museum •
Arriving Perth Airport
(p392), where you can learn To extend your trip…
has an international and
more about the varied Visit Perth’s Sunset Coast
a domestic terminal. The
communities that make up (pp310–11), where you can
Connect shuttle bus will
modern Melbourne. It may enjoy places like Cottesloe
drop you off at your
well be raining by now, so jump Beach, with its relaxed
accommodation in Perth
on the free City Circle Tram atmosphere and attractive
or Fremantle; alternatively,
(p416) as it travels around the beaches. Or head out to the
you can take a taxi or a
Central Business District. In the Swan Valley wineries (p310).
bus to the city centre.
evening, explore the suburb of
Fitzroy (p400) and stop for
dinner in Gertrude Street.
Day 1
Day 2 Morning Wander through
Morning Head to the Queen Central Perth (pp306–9),
Victoria Market (closed Mon exploring its arcades and malls,
& Wed; p390), and sample some then head down to the Swan
of the delicious foods on offer. River to see the Swan Bells
If the weather’s nice, buy some (p309). From here, make your
picnic provisions and make way to Kings Park (p310), where
your way to the Royal Botanic you can take a guided walk,
Gardens (pp402–3) for lunch. enjoy the view and have lunch.

Afternoon Stop in at the Old Afternoon Double back


Melbourne Gaol (pp398–9), through the city to the Perth
where Ned Kelly was hanged Cultural Centre (p308), where
and where his death mask can you’ll find the Art Gallery of
still be seen, and learn more Western Australia (closed
about the justice handed out Tue), the Perth Institute of
here. Ned Kelly’s armour is kept Contemporary Art (PICA; closed The Bell Tower: Home of the Swan Bells,
at the State Library of Victoria Mon) and the Western Australian by the Swan River in Perth
14  IntroducIng AustrAlIA

14 Days on the stop for a walk along the river


East Coast – or, in season (Oct), to admire
Sydney to Cairns the jacaranda trees in bloom.
Byron Bay (p183), the

Airports Arrive at Sydney easternmost point on the
Airport and depart from Australian mainland, draws
Cairns Airport. backpackers, holidaymakers

Transport A car is essential and people on weekend
for this trip, although it is trips to the beach. Spend
possible to take buses up an afternoon admiring the
the coast and amend and views, relaxing on the golden
extend the itinerary as sand, swimming in the sea
necessary. and trying your hand at a
range of watersports.

Booking ahead If planning
a tour to Fraser Island and/
Days 8 and 9: Brisbane
or the Whitsunday Islands,
Cross into Queensland and
consider arranging this
The pedestrian Goodwill Bridge in Brisbane, pass through a series of small
in advance.
leading to the Queensland Cultural Precinct surf communities until you
reach Surfers Paradise Beach
(p183), a popular holiday (p243). If you enjoy pulsating
Days 1 and 2: Sydney destination with some nightlife, then consider
See the city itinerary on attractive beaches. En route, extending your stay here. When
pages 12–13. you could leave the main road you reach Brisbane (pp222–37),
to visit Crowdy Bay National be sure to visit the City Botanic
Day 3: Newcastle Park (p182), where fishing is Gardens (pp228–9) and the
Leave the busy streets of a popular activity. Queensland Cultural Precinct
Sydney behind and head (pp232–3), where you’ll find the
north, to the quieter, more Day 5: Coffs Harbour Queensland Museum & Science
down-to-earth city of The journey north to Coffs Centre, the Queensland Art
Newcastle (p177). Once there, Harbour (p182) will take you Gallery (QAG) and the Gallery
visit the excellent Newcastle past a number of lovely sandy of Modern Art (GOMA).
Region Art Gallery (closed beaches, including Nambucca A popular trip outside the city
Mon) to see its remarkable Heads (p183) and the surf spot centre is to the Lone Pine Koala
collection of Australian art, then of Third Headland Beach Sanctuary (p234), where you
make your way to the restored (p182). Coffs Harbour itself is can enjoy a cuddle with one
Fort Scratchley (closed Tue), one of the most popular tourist of these irresistible critters.
where you can learn about destinations in New South
what took place in this town Wales and has lots of activities Day 10: Hervey Bay
during World War II. available, including horseriding, The Sunshine Coast stretches
diving and surfing. north of Brisbane as far as
Day 4: Port Macquarie Noosa (p243). On your way
From Newcastle, continue Days 6 and 7: Byron Bay there, you may want to stop
north along the Pacific Travel through quaint Grafton at Australia Zoo (p242), made
Highway to Port Macquarie (p182) on your way north and famous by the late Steve Irwin.

Whale-watching boat returning to Hervey Bay Marina, Queensland


For practical information on travelling around Australia see pp556–63
discovering AustrAliA  15

The golden sands and clear waters of idyllic Magnetic Island

Most people come to Hervey famous rum, before you reach To extend your trip…
Bay (p245) to travel on to Fraser Rockhampton (p248), a pleasant If you’re an experienced
Island, but if time is limited, note town with a number of heritage scuba diver, head to nearby
that it’s possible to see whales buildings from the 19th century. Ayr (p250), the jumping-off
from here too (Aug–Oct). Take This is a good place to break point for the SS Yongala
the passenger ferry to Fraser your journey north. Visit the wreck dive.
Island (p246), the world’s largest Aboriginal Dreamtime Cultural
sand island, for a quick visit. Centre (closed Sat & Sun), then
stop by the spire marking the Day 14: North via the
To extend your trip… fact that the Tropic of Capricorn Atherton Tableland to Cairns
Organize a day trip to runs through the town. If you Continue to drive up the
Fraser Island from Hervey have time to spare, visit the coast until you reach the town
Bay, either joining an caves at Mount Etna National of Innisfail, then make your
organized tour or hiring a Park (p248), 25 km (15 miles) way inland to the Atherton
4WD. Alternatively, travel north of town. This is where the Tableland (p259). Stop in this
further up the coast and endangered ghost bat nests. incredibly fertile farming area
embark on a boat trip to enjoy the temperate climate
around the Whitsunday Day 12: Mackay and and the beautiful scenery and
Islands (p250). Eungella National Park to buy locally grown fruit and
The next stretch of highway is vegetables from numerous
mostly uninteresting until you roadside stalls. Drop back
Day 11: Rockhampton reach the town of Mackay down to the coast into Cairns
This section of the journey will (p250), where you can admire a (p258), where you can visit the
take you through the attractive number of Art Deco buildings Flecker Botanic Gardens, and
town of Bundaberg (p245), and enjoy a little beach time. consider taking part in some
home of Australia’s most From Mackay, travel west to of the many activities on
Eungella National Park (p250) offer. There are a number of
and engage in some platypus restaurants here, or buy some
spotting (dusk and dawn are street food at the night market.
the best times for this activity).
To extend your trip…
Day 13: Townsville and Stay in Cairns for a few
Magnetic Island extra days and explore
Townsville (p251) is the Great Barrier Reef
Queensland’s second-largest (pp216–21). If snorkelling
city, and there’s an excellent and diving are not for
aquarium here, Reef HQ you, take the Kuranda
(p251), as well as a number Scenic Railway north to
of museums. Most people, Kuranda (p258). There is
however, choose to press on also the option to head
to Magnetic Island (p251) north to visit Port Douglas
and stay there. Enjoy the (p257), Daintree National
beaches and good walking Park (p257) and Cape
opportunities, or organize Tribulation (p257).
Mount Hypipamee crater, Atherton Tableland a tour of the island by 4WD.
16  IntroducIng AustrAlIA

5 Days in the Day 3: Uluru (Ayers Rock)


Red Centre Make your way to Uluru (p292)
and consider following one

Airports Alice Springs of the walking trails, such as
Airport is 15 km (9 miles) out the Base Walk, which should
of town. The Alice Wanderer take about 3 to 4 hours. Don’t
Airport Transfers Shuttle forget to visit the Uluru-Kata
meets flights, or you can Tjuta Cultural Centre (p293)
take a taxi to your hotel. while you’re here to learn

Transport A car is essential more about the park and the
for this trip. It can be picked area’s history.
up and dropped off in
Alice Springs. Day 4: Kata Tjuta (The Olgas)
Consider visiting Uluru again,

Booking ahead When
then travel on to Kata Tjuta
visiting Uluru, be sure to
(pp292–3), formerly known as
book your accommodation
The Olgas. There are a couple
at Yulara well in advance.
of walking trails here, the shorter
Walpa Gorge Walk and the Valley Entrance to Alice Springs Desert Park,
of the Winds Walk, which takes in the Northern Territory
Day 1: Alice Springs about 3 hours. If you can, stay
This circular tour begins and to see the sunset.
ends in Alice Springs (pp286–7). 10 Days on the
There are several art galleries Day 5: Alice Springs West Coast –
to visit here, as well as a number This is another long day of Perth to Exmouth
of sights to suit most interests. driving, so stop at one of the
Those keen to find out more roadhouses along the way, then •
Airports Arrive and depart
about the local fauna should relax and wash the red dust off from Perth Airport.
head to the Alice Springs you in Alice Springs (see Day 1). •
Transport A one-way
Desert Park; history buffs can hire car is essential for
pay a visit to the Telegraph To extend your trip… this trip, and a domestic
Station Historical Reserve and Drive to Kings Canyon flight required from
the Royal Flying Doctor Service (p289) and embark on the Exmouth to Perth
Visitor Centre (pm only Sun). 6-km (4-mile) Rim Walk. The •
Booking ahead If you
scenery is breathtaking, but want to stay at Monkey Mia,
Day 2: Uluru-Kata Tjuta be sure to walk early in the book your accommodation
National Park morning or in the afternoon well in advance.
The drive from Alice Springs to rather than in the heat of
Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park the day. It is also possible
(pp290–93) is a long one. Most to arrange a one-way car
people take the Stuart and rental from Alice Springs, Days 1 and 2: Perth
Lassiter highways, but there are and drive either south, See the city itinerary on p13.
also some 4WD routes. En route, towards Adelaide (pp348–
don’t confuse Mount Conner for 53), or north, to Darwin To extend your trip…
your first glance of Uluru. Check (pp274–7) and Kakadu Head south for a few days to
into your accommodation, then National Park (pp280–81). visit the wineries in Margaret
drive out to see Uluru at sunset. River (pp318–19), climb the
Gloucester Tree (p319) and
explore the Timber Towns,
such as Pemberton (p319)
and Manjimup (p319).

Day 3: Nambung
National Park
The Pinnacles, a landscape of
limestone columns that formed
underground and were revealed
by the winds, is the main
attraction in Nambung National
Park (p328). Drive along the
3-km (2-mile) Pinnacles Drive,
taking the time to get out of
The distinctive shape of Uluru (Ayers Rock), in Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park your car and wander around.
For practical information on travelling around Australia see pp556–63
Discovering AustrAliA  17

Erupting geyser at the Blowholes, north of Carnarvon

Day 4: Kalbarri via Geraldton material. You can either choose the reef from close to the
On your journey north, stop to base yourself in Denham shore. It’s also possible to fish,
in Geraldton (pp328–9) to visit (p330) or, if you’re not an early dive and whale-watch here
the WA Museum – Geraldton, riser, press on to Monkey Mia. in season.
which features an excellent
gallery dedicated to the area’s Day 7: Carnarvon and To extend your trip…
shipwrecks. From here, continue the Blowholes There are a number of
on to Kalbarri. Get up early to witness the station stays in this area, so
8am dolphin-feeding session consider spending a couple
Day 5: Kalbarri National Park at the small beach of Monkey of nights experiencing life
Kalbarri National Park (p329) Mia (p331), then head back the in the Outback.
can be explored either on way you came to rejoin the
foot or by bicycle. In addition highway and drive to Carnarvon
to beautiful beaches, it offers (p329), where you can take a tour Days 9 and 10: Exmouth
a series of vertiginous cliffs, of one of the fruit plantations. and the Cape Range
gorges and lookouts. It’s also In the afternoon, drive the 70 km National Park
possible to join a canoe tour (43 miles) to see the Blowholes There is not much to see in
down the Murchison River. (p329). If you’re camping and Exmouth (p332) itself, so head
don’t mind roughing it a little, instead to one of the nearby
Day 6: Monkey Mia Point Quobba is a lovely spot beaches or go straight to the
Leave the Northwest Coastal to spend the night. Cape Range National Park
Highway and head for Denham. (p332), where you can do some
Stop at Shark Bay World Day 8: Ningaloo Reef walking or take advantage of
Heritage and Marine Park Marine Park the superb snorkelling. If you
(pp330–31) to admire the A great spot to experience enjoy camping, consider staying
ancient stromatolites of Ningaloo Reef Marine Park overnight in the park, but be
Hamelin Pool and visit nearby (p332) is the small seaside town aware that facilities are limited.
Shell Beach to see how shells of Coral Bay, since its still waters At present only a handful of
were once used as building allow snorkellers to enjoy pitches can be booked in
advance; the rest are allocated
on a first-come-first-served
basis at the entrance gate to
the park. Spend the morning
in the park, then make your
way to the airport for the
flight back to Perth.

To extend your trip…


In season (Mar–May),
arrange to go swimming
or snorkelling with whale
sharks (p332). You could
also consider carrying on
north to Broome (p334)
or Darwin (pp274–7), or
driving west to visit Karijini
National Park (p333).
Cliffs in Kalbarri National Park, Western Australia
18  InTrOduCIng AuSTrAlIA

Putting Australia on the Map


Australia lies in the southern hemisphere and
Bathurst
covers 7,692,024 sq km (2,969,907 sq miles) of land. Island
A continent, it is bordered by the Pacific Ocean to Darwin
the east and the Indian Ocean to the west. More than
80 per cent of its 23 million people reside along the Tim o r
Sea
coastline with its more hospitable climate. The Katherine
capital, Canberra, is in the Australian Capital

n
a
Territory (ACT), but the most populous city Wyndham

ce
is Sydney. Tasmania, an island state,

Victoria
O
lies 240 km (150 miles) off the

Ord
southern tip of the Derby

country, across the Broome


Fitzr
Bass Strait. n
a oy
di
In
Port Hedland
Karratha

Newman
Lake Mackay
Lake Disappointment

Carnarvon
Uluru
_
(Ayers Rock)
Shark Bay
(Monkey Mia) W E S T E R N
A U S T R A L I A

Geraldton

Kalgoorlie-Boulder

Perth
Fremantle

Great
Esperance Australian Bight
Augusta

Cape
Leeuwin Albany

NORTH
KOREA JAPAN
CHINA
AN

SOUTH
KOREA
IST

PACIFIC
Key BHUTAN
PAK

INDIA MYANMAR TAIWAN


OCEAN
Highway
THAILAND PHILIPPINES MARSHALL
Major road CAMBODIA ISLANDS
MALAYSIA MICRONESIA
Railway MALDIVES
PAPUA
State border NEW
INDONESIA GUINEA
SOLOMON
INDIAN ISLANDS
OCEAN VANUATU
FIJI
NEW
AU S T R A L I A CALEDONIA

Southeast Asia NEW


ZEALAND
and the Pacific Rim
For additional map symbols see back flap
PUTTING AUSTRALIA ON THE MAP  19

t ra i t
A rafu ra Sea r es S
To r Cape York

Arnhem Land
G ulf
Of
Groote Ca rpenta r ia
Eylandt
Cooktown
0 kilometres 250
Mornington
Island 0 miles 250

Cairns

Gr Pa
Townsville e ci
Fli

at
nd

Tennant Creek rs Proserpine

Ba
e

ic
rr
NORTHERN

ier
Mount Isa
TERRITORY Mackay

Re
ef
Q U E E N S L A N D

Oc
ea
Longreach Rockhampton
Alice

n
Springs
a

Hervey Bay
tin

Blackall
Fraser
an

Island
am

Di
Charleville Maroochydore

Brisbane
Toowoomba
Lake Coolangatta
Coober Eyre
Pedy
Moree
SOUTH Bourke
AUSTRALIA Coffs Harbour
ng
Lake rl i
Lake
Torrens Broken DaN E W
Hill
Gairdner
Ceduna
S O U T H
Whyalla
W A L E S Dubbo
Maitland Newcastle

Murray Sydney
Port Lincoln Mildura
Wollongong
Adelaide Wagga Wagga
Canberra
AUSTRALIAN
Kangaroo CAPITAL
Island VICTORIA TERRITORY
Melbourne

Geelong
Sea

King Bass S t r ait


Flinders
Island Island
an

Devonport
Ta s m

Launceston

T A S M A N I A
Hobart
introducing australia  21

A PORTRAIT
OF AUSTRALIA
australia is the world’s oldest continent, inhabited for more than 60,000
years by aborigines. it was settled by the British during their maritime
heyday, in 1788, and since then has transformed from a colonial outpost
into a nation with a population of more than 23 million people. For visitors,
its ancient, worn landscape contrasts with the vitality and youthful
energy of its inhabitants.

Covering an area as large as the United Australian trees shed their bark rather
States of America or the entire European than their leaves, the native flowers
continent, Australia’s landscape is highly have no smell and, with the exception
diverse, encompassing the dry Outback, of the wattle, bloom only briefly.
the high plateaus of the Great Dividing Australia has a unique collection of
Range, the lush woods of Tasmania, fauna. Most are marsupials, such as the
the rainforests and coral reefs of the emblematic kangaroo and koala. The
tropical north and almost 36,000 km platypus and echidna are among the
(22,300 miles) of mainland coastline. few living representatives in the world
The Great Dividing Range forms a spine of mammals that both lay eggs and
down eastern Australia, from Queensland suckle their young. The dingo, brought
to Victoria, separating the fertile coastal to Australia by the Aborigines, is
strip from the dry and dusty interior. considered the country’s native dog.
Dominating the vegetation is the Australia’s antiquity is nowhere more
eucalypt, known as the “gum tree”, evident than in the vast inland area
of which there are some 500 varieties. known as the Outback.

Sydney Opera House, jutting into Sydney Harbour

The spectacular Twelve Apostles rock formation in Port Campbell National Park, Western Victoria
22  introducing australia

Ancient, eroded landscape of the Olgas, part of Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park in the Northern Territory

Once a huge inland sea, its later aridity unfamiliar diseases. During the 1850s, many
preserved the remains of the creatures Aborigines were confined to purpose-
that once inhabited the area. Some fossils built reserves in a misguided attempt to
found in Western Australia are 350 overcome widespread poverty.
million years old – the oldest forms Since the 1950s there have
of life known on earth. been serious efforts to redress
this lack of understanding.
The Aborigines Conditions are improving,
The indigenous inhabitants but even today, in almost
of Australia, the Aborigines every aspect of life, including
and Torres Strait Islanders, today health care, education and
constitute 3 per cent of the housing, Aborigines are worse
national population. Their rights Aboriginal Australian off than other Australians. In 1992,
and social status are gradually a milestone occurred when the
being improved. High Court overturned the doctrine of
The early days of European colonialism terra nullius – that Australia belonged to
proved disastrous for the Aborigines. no one at the time of British settlement.
Thousands were killed in hostilities or by The Native Title Act followed, which,
in essence, states that where
Aborigines could establish
unbroken occupancy of an area,
they could then claim that land
as their own.
Almost all Australians support this
reconciliation and are increasingly
aware of the rich heritage of the
Aborigines. The Aboriginal belief in
the Dreamtime (see pp34–5) may
never be completely assimilated
The kangaroo, a famous icon of Australia into the Australian consciousness,
a portrait of australia  23

but an understanding of ancestral beings


is an invaluable guide to traditional
lifestyles. Aboriginal painting is now
respected as one of the world’s most
ancient art forms and modern Aboriginal
art began to be taken seriously in the
1970s. Aboriginal writers have also come
to the forefront of Australian literature.
Younger Aborigines are beginning to
capitalize on this new awareness to
promote equal rights and, with Aboriginal
cultural centres being set up throughout
the country, it is unlikely that Australia
will dismiss its native heritage again.

Society
Given Australia’s size and the fact that
early settlements were far apart, Australian
society is remarkably homogeneous.
Its citizens are fundamentally prosperous
and the way of life in the major cities and A maker of fortified wine takes a sample from a barrel of port in the
towns is much the same however many Barossa Valley, South Australia
miles divide them. It takes a keen ear to
identify regional accents. conservative. For many years, Australia was
However, there is some difference in said to have “ridden on the sheep’s back”,
lifestyle between city dwellers and the a reference to wool being the country’s
country people. Almost 90 per cent of the main money-earner. However, the wool
population lives in the fast-paced cities industry is no longer dominant. Much of
along the coast and has little more than a Australia’s relatively sound economy is
passing familiarity with the Outback. The now achieved from coal, iron ore and
major cities preserve pockets of colonial wheat, and as the largest diamond
heritage, but the overall impression is producer in the world. Newer industries
modern, with new buildings reflecting such as tourism and wine making are also
the country’s youth. In contrast, the rural increasingly important. Australians are
communities tend to be slow-moving and generally friendly and relaxed, with a
self-deprecating sense of
humour. On the whole,
Australia has a society
without hierarchies, an
attitude generally held
to stem from its convict
beginnings. Yet, contrary to
widespread belief, very few
Australians have true convict
origins. Within only one
generation of the arrival
of the First Fleet in 1788,
Australia had become a
Isolated Outback church in Silverton, New South Wales nation of immigrants.
24  introducing australia

Originally hailing almost entirely from


the British Isles, today one in three
Australians comes from elsewhere.
Australia’s liberal postwar immigration
policies led to an influx of survivors from
war-torn Europe, most notably Greeks,
Italians, Poles and Germans.
The emphasis shifted towards the end
of the twentieth century and today the
majority of new immigrants hail from
Southeast Asia. Although some racism Indonesian satay stall at Parap Market in Darwin in the
does exist, this blend of nations has, on Northern Territory
the whole, been a successful experiment
and Australia is justifiably proud to have monarch as its titular head of state.
one of the most harmonious multicultural At present, the national representative
communities in the world. of the monarch is the Governor-General,
but the nation is involved in an ongoing
Politics debate about its future as a republic. There
Since 1901, Australia has been a federation, is opposition from those who argue that
with its central government based the system currently in place has led to
in the purpose-built national capital, one of the most stable societies in the
Canberra. Each state also has its own world, while others believe that swearing
government. The nation inherited the allegiance to a British monarch has little
central parliamentary system from meaning for the current population, many
England, and there is a two-party system of whom are immigrants from other parts
consisting of the left (Labor) and the right of the world. A referendum in November
(a coalition of Liberal and National Parties). 1999 saw the monarchy retained with
The prime minister is the head of federal some 55 per cent of the votes.
government, while the heads of state The nation’s character has always been
governments are premiers. Australia is a shaped by its sparsely populated island
self-governing member of the British location, far distant from its European roots
Commonwealth and retains the British and geographically closer to Southeast Asia.

The Parliamentary area next to Lake Burley Griffin in Canberra


a portrait of australia  25

Today there is a growing realization that


the country must look to the Pacific region
for its future. Closer ties with Asia, such as
business transactions with Indonesia,
China and Japan, are being developed.

Art and Culture


Blessed with a sunny climate and
surrounded by the sea, outdoor leisure is
high on the list of priorities for Australians
– going to the beach is almost a national
pastime. Australians are also mad about
sport: football, cricket, rugby, tennis and
golf are high on
the national
agenda.
Yet despite
this reputation,
Australians actually
devote more of Australian Rules football match in Melbourne
their time and
money to artistic their high standards. Every state also has
pursuits than they its own thriving theatre company and
Film poster of the do to sporting ones, symphony orchestra. Major art galleries
Academy-Award winning Shine and as a result the abound throughout the country, from the
national cultural many excellent state galleries exhibiting
scene is very vibrant. It is no accident that international works to a multitude of small
the Sydney Opera House is one of the private galleries exhibiting local and con-
country’s most recognizable symbols. temporary Australian and Aboriginal art.
The nation is probably best known for its The Australian film industry has also
opera singers, among whom have been come into its own since the 1970s. The
two of the all-time greats, Dame Nellie best-known Australian film is possibly
Melba and Dame Joan Sutherland. Opera Crocodile Dundee (1985), but productions
Australia and the Australian Ballet, both such as Shine (1996), Moulin Rouge! (2001)
based in Sydney, are acknowledged for and Happy Feet (2006) compete on equal
terms with films from around the world
and have won international film awards.
This is not to say that Australia’s cultural
pursuits are entirely high-brow. Low-budget
television soap operas such as Neighbours
have become high-earning exports. Rock
bands such as AC/DC also have an
international following.
In almost all aspects, it seems, Australia
lives up to its nickname of “the lucky country”
and it is hard to meet an Australian who is
not thoroughly convinced that this young
and vast nation is now the best country
Young boogie boarder on earth.
26  intRoDucinG AustRAliA

Australia’s Landscape
Geological stability has been largely responsible for creating
the landscape of the earth’s oldest, flattest and driest
inhabited continent. Eighty million years ago, Australia’s last
major bout of geological activity pushed up the Great Dividing
Range, but since then the continent has slept. Mountains have
been eroded down, making it difficult for rain clouds to
develop. Deserts have formed in once lush areas and today
more than 70 per cent of the continent is arid. However, with
some of the oldest rocks on earth, its landscapes are anything Australia’s drift towards the
but uniform, and include rainforests, tropical beaches, glacial equator has brought a northern
monsoon climate, as in Kakadu
landforms, striking coastlines and flood plains. National Park (see pp280–81).

Cradle Mountain (see p471) in


southwest Tasmania was created
by geological upheaval, glaciation
and erosion. Here jagged mountain
ranges, ravines and glacial lakes have
formed a landscape that is quite
unique in Australia.

Kata Tjuta (The Olgas)


Geological remnants of an immense
bed of sedimentary rock now almost
covered by sand from erosion, Kata
Tjuta’s weathered domes may once
have been a single dome many times
the size of Uluru (see pp290–93).

There are three main geological


regions in Australia: the coastal plain
including the Great Dividing Range;
the Central Lowlands; and the Western
Plateau. The Great Dividing Range is a
relatively new feature in geological
Central terms. It contains Australia’s highest
Lowlands
Western mountains, deep rivers, spectacular
Plateau gorges and volcanic landforms. The
Central Lowlands subsided when the
Great continental margins on either side
Dividing rose up – a result of rifting caused by
Range
continental drift. The Western Plateau
contains many of Australia’s large
deserts and is composed of some
of the most ancient rocks in the world.
a portrait of australia  27

The Australian Continent


The Australian continent finally broke away
from its last adjoining landmass, Antarctica,
40 million years ago and embarked on a long
period of geographical isolation. During this
time Australia’s unique flora and fauna evolved
and flourished (see pp28–9). Aboriginal people
lived undisturbed on this continent for at least
40,000 years, developing the land to their own
needs, until the arrival of Europeans in 1770
(see pp50–55).
The area to the east of Queensland was flooded at
the end of the last Ice Age, creating ideal conditions
for a coral reef. The Great Barrier Reef (see pp216– 21)
now forms one of the world’s most stunning sights.

PANGAeA

AustrAliA

Two hundred million years ago, the area of land


that is now continental Australia was attached to the
lower half of the earth’s single landmass, Pangaea.

lAurAsiA

GONDWANAlAND
AustrAliA

Between 200 and 65 million years ago, Pangaea


separated to form two supercontinents, Gondwanaland
in the south and Laurasia in the north.

AustrAliA

ANtArCtiCA

Fifty million years ago, Gondwanaland had broken


up into the various southern continents with only
Antarctica and Australia still attached.

AustrAliA

The Nullarbor Plain (see p371) was created by the


upthrust of an ancient sea floor. Today, sheer cliffs
Today, the drifting of the continents continues and
drop away from this desert landscape dotted with Australia is moving northwards towards the equator
sinkholes and plunge into the sea below, creating at the rate of 8 cm (3 in) a year.
one of Australia’s most startling coastlines.
28  introducinG AuStrALiA

Flora and Fauna


Forty million years of isolation from other major
land masses have given Australia a collection of flora and
fauna that is unique in the world. Low rainfall and poor soil
has meant meagre food sources, and animals and plants
have evolved some curious adaptations to help them cope.
Surprisingly, these adverse conditions have also produced
incredible biodiversity. Australia has more than 20,000
species of plants, and its rainforests are among the richest The platypus lives in an aquatic
in the world in the number of species they support. Even environment like a fish, suckles its
its desert centre has 2,000 plant species and the world’s young like a mammal, lays eggs
and has the bill of a duck!
greatest concentration of reptile species.

The lush rainforest is a Epiphytes, ferns and At least 30 species of


haven for many endemic vines abound around spinifex cover many of
species of flora and fauna. this rainforest creek. Australia’s desert plains.

Rainforests Arid Regions


The east coast rainforests are among the most The vast reaches of Australia’s arid and semiarid
ancient ecosystems on earth. At least 18,000 regions teem with life. Desert plants and
plant species exist here. Some trees are more animals have developed unique and specific
than 2,500 years old, and many are direct behavioural and physical features to maximize
descendants of species from Gondwana (see p27). their survival chances in such harsh conditions.

The golden bowerbird The boab (baobab) tree


of the rainforest builds sheds its leaves in the dry
spectacular bowers out of season to survive.
sticks as a platform for its
mating displays. Some
bowers reach well over
2 m (6.5 ft) in height.

Spinifex grass, found


across the desert, stores
water and needs frequent
The Wollemi pine was exposure to fire to thrive.
discovered in 1994 and
caused a sensation. It The thorny
belongs to a genus devil feeds only
thought to have become on ants and can
extinct between 65 and consume more than
200 million years ago. 3,000 in one meal.
a portrait of australia  29

Mammals
Australian mammals are distinctive because the population
is dominated by two groups that are rare or non-existent
elsewhere. Monotremes, such as the
platypus, are found only in Australia and
New Guinea, and marsupials, represented by
180 species here, are scarce in other parts of
the world. In contrast, placental mammals, Red kangaroos are the most
highly successful on other continents, have common of many species of this
been represented in Australia only by bats marsupial found in Australia.
and rodents, and more recently by dingos.
Mass extinctions of larger placentals The dingo was introduced
occurred 20,000 years ago. into Australia by migrating
humans c. 5,000 years ago.

Eucalypt trees Moist fern groundcover This coral garden is home to


provide food for shelters a variety of small many molluscs, crustaceans
possums and koalas. mammals and insects. and brightly coloured fish.

Open Woodland Sealife


The woodlands of the eastern seaboard, the Australia’s oceans are poor in nutrients but rich
southeast and southwest are known as the in the diversity of life they support. Complex
Australian bush. Eucalypt trees predominate in ecosystems create beautiful underwater
the hardy vegetation that has developed to scenery, while the shores and islands are home
survive fire, drought and poor-quality soil. to nesting seabirds and giant sea mammals.

Koalas feed only on Seagrass beds have high-


nutrient-poor eucalypt saline conditions which
leaves, and have evolved attract many sea creatures.
low-energy lives to cope, Shark Bay shelters the
such as sleeping for highest number of sea
20 hours a day. mammals in the world
(see pp330–31).

Kookaburras are very


efficient breeders: one of
the young birds is kept on
in the nest to look after the
next batch of hatchlings, The Australian sealion is one of two seal species
leaving both parents unique to Australia. Its extended breeding cycle
free to gather food. helps it contend with a poor food supply.
30  INTRODUCING AUSTRALIA

World Heritage Areas of Australia


UNESCO’s World Heritage Convention was adopted in 1972
to protect areas of universal cultural and natural significance.
Nineteen groups of sites in Australia are inscribed on the
World Heritage List and include unusual landforms, ancient
forests and areas of staggering biodiversity, as well as 12
historic convict sites and the Sydney Opera House. Several of
the sites (including Kakadu National Park, Willandra Lakes, Fossil sites in Riversleigh (see p261)
and Naracoorte chart Australia’s
the Tasmanian wilderness and Uluru-Kata Tjuta National important evolutionary stages.
Park) are also listed for their Aboriginal cultural heritage.

Purnululu
National Park (see p335)

Kakadu National Park is a


landscape of wetlands and tropical
splendour. Art sites document the
interaction between Aborigines Northern
and the land (see pp280–81). Territory

The Ningaloo Coast


(see p332)

Western
Australia
South Australia

Australian Fossil Mammal Site at


Naracoorte (see p359)

Shark Bay is home to a vast colony of sea


mammals. The bay’s stromatolites (algae-
covered rocks) are the oldest form of life
known on earth (see pp330–31).

Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park contains


two major Aboriginal sites (see pp290–93).
The world’s largest monolith is an
extraordinary geological phenomenon
in the flat desert plains.
A PORTRAIT OF AUSTRALIA  31

The Wet Tropics of


Key
Queensland contain
World Heritage Area a near-complete
World Heritage Marine Area record of plant
evolution on the
Australian continent.
Some 50 per cent of
all bird species and
The Great Barrier Reef
30 per cent of
(see pp216–17)
marsupial species
found in the country
are sheltered here.

The Willandra
Lakes are the site
Fraser Island of archaeological
(see p246) finds dating back
40,000 years.
The area is also
remarkable for its
semi-arid landscape
and ghostly
lunettes (see p185).

Queensland

Gondwana Rainforests
of Australia (see p179)
Lord Howe Island, a crescent-shaped
New South The Greater Blue Mountains island, and its nearby rocky outcrops
Wales and ACT Area (see pp168–85) represent a chain of volcanic structures.
Home to the rare woodhen, banyan trees
and kentia pines, Lord Howe’s isolation
Sydney Opera House (see pp88–9) provides key information about the
Victoria evolution of these species.
Royal Exhibition Building (see p399) and
Carlton Gardens, Melbourne (see p378)

The Tasmanian wilderness,


Australia’s largest conservation
zone, satisfies all four natural
criteria for World Heritage listing.
Its rocks represent every
Tasmania geological period, including
the Ice Age, the wide range of
plants are unique to the area,
and it is home to some of the
0 kilometres 500
oldest trees and the longest
0 miles 500 caves in the world (see pp458–9).
32  introducing australia

The Australian Outback


the outback is the heart of australia and one of the most
ancient landscapes in the world. it is extremely dry – rain
may not fall for several years. dramatic red rocks, ochre
plains and purple mountains are framed by brilliant blue
skies. development is sparse: “towns” are often no more
than a few buildings and facilities are basic. there may
be hundreds of miles between one petrol station and Locator Map
another. the outback isn’t easy to explore, but it can be a The Australian Outback
rewarding experience. Make sure you are well equipped
(see p562), or take an organized tour.

Camels were brought to Australia


in the 1870s from the Middle East,
as a means of desert transport.
The Outback is now home to the
only wild camels in the world.
Camel safaris for tourists are
available in many places.

Outback Life
Saltbush, which gets its name from its The enduring image of Australia’s Outback
ability to withstand saline conditions, is red dust, solitary one-storey shacks and
is a typical form of vegetation.
desert views as far as the eye can see.
Although small areas of the Outback have
seen towns spring up over the past 100
years, and many interstate roads are now
suitable for most vehicles, this image
remains true to life across vast stretches
of the interior landscape. Most of the
Outback remains pioneering country
far removed from the modern nation.

Camping in the bush is one of the highlights


of any trip into Australia’s Outback, whether
independently or with an organized tour. You
will need a camping permit, a swag (canvas-
covered bed roll), a mosquito net and a good
camping stove to eat and sleep in relative
comfort under the stars.
a portrait of australia  33

The film industry has long


been a fan of the Outback’s
vast open spaces and
dramatic colours. Films such
as the 1994 comedy The
Adventures of Priscilla, Queen
of the Desert made
spectacular use of the
Red Centre’s sparse and
dusty landscape.

Australian “hotels” in Outback


areas often operate only as
public houses, re-named hotels
to counteract Australia’s once
strict licensing laws.

Pioneers and Explorers


Many European explorers, such as
Edward Eyre and John Stuart,
ventured into the Outback
during the 19th century.
The most infamous
expedition was Robert
O’Hara Burke’s from
Victoria to the Gulf of
Carpentaria (see p57).
Ironically, it was the
rescue missions due
to his inexperience
which brought about
the pioneers’ most
significant investigations Robert O’Hara Burke
of Australia’s interior. 1820–61

A solitary building set against vast areas of


open desert landscape can be an evocative
landmark in the Outback.

The Birdsville Races in Queensland are the biggest


and best of the many horse races held in the
Outback, where locals gather to bet and socialize.

Opal mining in towns such as Coober Pedy (see p372)


is one source of the Outback’s wealth. Tourists need
a miner’s permit, available from state tourist offices,
to hunt for gems.
34  INTRODUCING AUSTRALIA

Aboriginal Culture
Far from being one homogeneous race, at the time of
European settlement in the 18th century, the estimated
750,000 Aborigines in Australia had at least 300 different
languages and a wide variety of lifestyles, depending on
where they lived. The tribes of northern coastal areas, such
as the Tiwis, had most contact with outsiders, especially
from Indonesia, and their culture was quite different from the
more isolated Pitjantjatjaras of Central Australia’s deserts or
the Kooris from the southeast. However, there were features
common to Aboriginal life and these have passed down the Men’s Dreaming by Clifford Possum
centuries to present-day traditions. Tjapaltjarri

religious ceremonies,
The Dreamtime
arrange marriages
and settle inter­clan The Dreamtime (or Dreaming)
disputes. Trade was is the English term for the
an impor tant part of Aboriginal system of laws and
social life. Shell, ochre beliefs. Its basis is a rich
and wood were mythology about the earth’s
some of the goods creation. “Creation ancestors”
exchanged along such as giant serpents are
trade routes that believed to have risen up from
criss­crossed the the earth’s core and roamed
Aboriginal artifacts and tools, decorated in traditional entire country. the world, creating valleys,
ornate patterns The nomadic way rivers and mountains. Other
of life largely ended progenitors caused the rain
when English settlers claimed and sun, and created the
Traditional Aboriginal
vast tracts of land, but other people and wildlife. Sites
Lifestyles
aspects of traditional life where ancestral beings are
For tens of thousands of years, have survived. In Aboriginal thought to have emerged from
the Aborigines were a race of communities, senior members the earth are sacred and are
hunters leading a nomadic are still held in great respect, still used as the locations for
existence. They made light­ and are responsible for ceremonies and rituals today.
weight, versatile tools such as maintaining laws and meting The belief in the Dreamtime
the boomerang, and built out punishments to those who is, in essence, a religious
temporary mud dwellings. break them or divulge secrets ideology for all Aborigines,
The extent of their wanderings of ancient rituals. Such rituals whatever their tribe, and forms
differed from region to region. are part of the Aboriginal belief the basis of Aboriginal life.
People who lived in areas with system called “Dreamtime”. Every Aborgine is believed to
a plentiful supply of food and
water were relatively more The Boomerang
static than those in areas
where such essentials Contrary to popular belief, not all boomerangs will return
were scarce. to the thrower. Originally, “boomerang” simply meant
Through living in small “throwing stick”. They were used for hunting, fighting,
groups in a vast land, Aboriginal making fire, stoking the coals when cook ing and in
society came to be broken up traditional games. A hunter did not normally require a
into numerous clans separated throwing stick to return since its purpose was to injure
its target sufficiently to enable capture. Over time,
by different languages and
intricate shapes were developed that allowed sticks
customs. Even people with a to swirl in a large arc and return to the thrower.
common language would live The returning boomerang is limited to games,
apart in extended family killing birds and directing animals into traps.
groups, consisting of a Light and thin, with a deep curvature, its
husband, wife, aunts, uncles ends are twisted in opposite directions.
and all their children to share The lower surface is flat and
the responsibilities of daily life. the upper surface convex.
Groups would come together Aboriginal boomerang
from time to time to conduct
A PORTRAIT OF AUSTRALIA  35

have two souls – one mortal


and one immortal, linked with
their ancestral spirit (or totem).
Each family clan is descended
from the same ancestral being.
These spirits provide
protection: any misfortune is
due to disgruntled forebears.
As a consequence, some clan
members have a responsibility
for maintaining sacred sites.
Anyone failing in these duties
is severely punished.
Each Dreamtime story relates Aborigines painted with white paint to ward off evil spirits
to a particular landscape; as
one landscape connects with inhabitance, the government
Aboriginal Issues
another, these stories form a has also agreed that white law
“track”. These “tracks” are called Although few Aborigines now can exist alongside black law,
Songlines and criss-cross the maintain a traditional nomadic which allows for justice against
Australian continent. Aborigines lifestyle, the ceremonies, creation Aboriginal offenders to be
are able to connect with other stories and art that make up meted out according to tribal
tribes along these lines. their culture remain strong. law. In many cases, this law is
The right to own land has harsh and savage, but it allows
long been an issue for present- for Aborigines to live by their
Aboriginal Song
day Aborigines; they believe own belief system.
and Dance
that they are responsible for The revival of Aboriginal
Aboriginal songs tell stories caring for the land art was at the forefront
of Dreamtime ancestors entrusted to them of seeing Aboriginal
and are intrinsically linked at birth. The culture in a more
to the worship of spirits – Land Rights positive light
the words of songs are often Act of 1976 has by Australians.
incomprehensible due to the done much to Aboriginal
secrecy of many ancestral improve these artists such
stories. Simple instruments rights. The as Emily Kame
accompany the songs, including Act established Decorating bark with Kngwarreye combine
the didgeridoo, a 1-m- (3-ft-) Aboriginal Land natural ochre stains traditional materials
long wind instrument with a Councils which such as bark and
deep sound. negotiate between the ochre with acrylics and canvas,
Aborigines also use dance as government and Aborigines while telling Dreaming stories
a means of communicating to claim land for its traditional in a modern idiom.
with their ancestors. Aboriginal owners (see pp62–3). Where Many Aborigines have
dance is experiencing a cultural Aboriginal rights have been now moved away from their
renaissance, with new companies established, that land cannot traditional lifestyle and live
performing both traditional be altered in any way. within the major cities, but they
and new works. In areas of large Aboriginal remain distinctly Aboriginal
and generally choose to live
within Aboriginal communities.
Within designated Aboriginal
lands (see pp266–7), many still
follow bush medical practices
and perform traditional rituals.
It cannot be denied
that Aborigines are still
disadvantaged in comparison
with the rest of Australians,
particularly in terms of housing,
health, employment and
education. But the growing
awareness of their culture and
traditions is gradually leading
to a more harmonious
Aborigines performing a traditional dance at sunset coexistence.
36  introducing australia

Aboriginal Art
as traditionally nomadic people with little interest in
decorating their temporary dwellings, aborigines often
expressed their creativity on landscape features such as
rocks and caves (see pp51–2). Many art sites are thousands
of years old, although they have often been re-painted Bark painting, such as this image
over time to preserve the image. rock art reflects daily of a fish, has disappeared from
aboriginal life as well as religious beliefs. some ancient southern areas, but still flourishes in
sites contain representations of now extinct animals; Arnhem Land and on Melville and
Bathurst islands.
others depict human figures with blue eyes, strange
weapons and horses – evidently the arrival of Europeans.
aboriginal art is also seen in everyday objects – utensils
Cave rock was a popular
and accessories such as belts and headbands. “canvas” for traditional
Aboriginal art, particularly
when tribes took cover
during the rainy season.

The outline style of rock engraving was developed most


fully in the Sydney-Hawkesbury area, due to vast areas of
soft Hawkesbury sandstone. More than 4,000 figures have
been recorded, often gigantic in size – one whale
engraving is more than 20 m (65 ft) long. Groups of
engravings can cover more than 1 ha (2.5 acres).

Figures showing the human


anatomy are often depicted in basic
but exaggerated, stylized forms.


Darwin

Major Aboriginal Art Sites


Brisbane • Arnhem Land, Northern Territory
Central Desert
Sydney Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park
• Perth •
Laura, Queensland
Adelaide
• Melville and Bathurst islands
Melbourne Sydney-Hawkesbury area

Hobart

a portrait of australia  37

Quinkans are stick-like figures


found in far north Queensland’s
Laura region. They represent
spirits that are thought to
emerge suddenly from rock
crevices and startle people, to
remind them that misbehaviour
will bring swift retribution.

Burial poles are an


example of how important
decoration is to Aborigines,
even to commemmorate
death. These brightly coloured
Tutini burial poles belong to
the Tiwi people of Melville
and Bathurst islands (see p278).

The crocodile image


personifies the force
of nature, as well as
symbolizing the
relationship between
humans and the
natural environment.
Both are common Bush Plum Dreaming (1991)
themes within by Clifford Possum Tjapaltjarri is
Aboriginal art. a modern example of ancient
Aboriginal techniques used by
the Papunya tribe.

“X-ray art”, such


as this figure at
Nourlangie Rock in
Kakadu National Park
(see pp280–81), shows
the internal and
external anatomy
of living subjects,
including a range
of animals.
Arnhem Land Rock Art
Arnhem Land is the 90,000-sq km
(34,750-sq mile) Aboriginal territory which
stretches from east of Darwin to the Gulf of
Carpentaria (see pp266–7). Magnificent
rock art “galleries” in this region date from
16,000 BC (see p51) – some of the oldest
Aboriginal art in the country.

Totemic art at Uluru (see pp290–93) is


thought to portray the beings in
Aboriginal culture who are believed
to have created the rock.
38  introducinG australia

Australian Artists and Writers


the first Europeans to paint australia were those who
arrived on the Endeavour (see pp54–5), but it was not until
the prosperity generated by the 1850s gold rushes that art
gained any public recognition. there had been colonial
artists, of whom conrad Martens (1801–78) was the best
known, but in a country where survival was the most
immediate problem, art was not a high priority. the first
writings were also journals of early settlers; it was 100 years
before australia could claim the beginnings of a literary
Sir Russell Drysdale
tradition, when rolf Boldrewood (1826–1915) wrote
Robbery Under Arms (1888), a heroic tale of the bush. wrong reasons. Possibly the
most popularly recognized
Australian artist is Ken Done.
Nolan (1917–92), best known Often dismissed for blatant
Artists
for his “Ned Kelly” series of the commercialism, his brilliantly
The so-called “Heidelberg 1940s based on the country’s coloured work has achieved
School”, named after an area most notorious bushranger sales of which most artists
around Melbourne, was the (see p398), also produced only dream.
first distinctive Australian landscape paintings which The most significant
school of painting at the end propelled Australian art on collection of Australian art can
of the 19th century. Its main- to the international scene be seen at Canberra’s National
stays included Tom Roberts for the first time. Gallery (see pp206–7).
(1856–1931), Charles Conder The best known of
(1868–1909), Frederick the talented Boyd
McCubbin (1855–1917) and family, Arthur
Arthur Streeton (1867–1943). Boyd (1920–99),
The group drew strongly on is another great
the plein air methods of the on the Australian
French Impressionists to art scene; his
capture the distinctive light “Half-Caste Bride”
and openness of the Australian series catapulted
landscape. Then, in the early him into the art
1900s, Hans Heysen captured world in 1960.
the national imagination with Probably the Toberua (1994) by Ken Done
his delicately coloured gum greatest interpreter
trees and his view of the of Australia’s Outback is Sir
The Antipodeans
Australian landscape. Sir Sidney Russell Drysdale (1912–81),
whose paintings depict the Formed in Melbourne in 1959,
harshness of this landscape. the Antipodeans consisted
Brett Whiteley (1939–92) is of seven of Australia’s best-
a more recent talent whose known modern artists, all
sensual work reflects his view born in the 1920s: Charles
of the world. Blackman, Arthur Boyd, David
Winner of the Archibald Prize Boyd, John Brack, Robert
for portraiture, William Dobell Dickerson, John Perceval
(1899–1970) is often regarded and Clifton Pugh. The aim of
as the figurehead of the the group was to support
Sydney Modernist movement. figurative painting rather than
He achieved some level of abstraction. The group denied
notoriety when, in 1944, two that they were creating a
fellow artists mounted a legal national style and the name
challenge to the granting of Antipodeans was adopted to
the Archibald for his portrait of avoid too narrow a focus on
Joshua Smith, claiming it was Australia, as the group aimed
“not a portrait but a caricature”. for international recognition at
The action was unsuccessful, exhibitions in London. Ironically,
Kelly in Spring (1956), one of Sir Sidney but all Dobell’s further work it later came to apply to
Nolan’s “Ned Kelly” series generated publicity for the Australian art in general.
a portrait of australia  39

Australia’s most Henry Lawson similarly wrote


celebrated novelist is some enduring bush verse,
Patrick White (1912–90), but his poetry also had a
who won the Nobel more political edge. His first
Prize in 1973 with published poem in the
The Eye of the Storm. Bulletin literary magazine in
White had made his 1887 was the rallying “Song
mark in 1957 with of the Republic”. One of
Voss, the story of the Australia’s leading poets,
explorer Ludwig Les Murray (1938–), is known
Leichhardt. Two-time as the “bush bard” for his
Booker Prize-winner writing on bush life.
Peter Carey (born in Poets such as Judith Wright
1943) celebrated (1915–2000) and Oodgeroo
Australia’s most Noonuccal (1920–93), have
famous bushranger in powerfully expressed the
The True History of the anguish of Aboriginal people.
Portrait of Miles Franklin by Marie McNiven Kelly Gang (2000).
Campaigner for
women’s suffrage, Louisa
Writers
Lawson (1848–1920), is
Much of Australian fiction is credited with Australia’s first
concerned with the difficulties feminist journal, Dawn, written
Europeans experienced in a between 1888 and 1905. At the
harsh land, or the relationship same time, another feminist,
between white settlers and Miles Franklin (1879–1954),
Aborigines. The themes can defied traditional women’s
be traced back to an early roles of the time by pursuing
Australian novelist, Henry an independent life in Australia,
Handel Richardson, the England and the USA. Her life
pseudonym of Ethel was documented in several
Richardson (1870–1946). autobiographies, beginning
Her trilogy, The Fortunes of with My Brilliant Career (1901).
Richard Mahoney (1929), was For descriptions of pre- and
published to great acclaim, postwar Sydney life in the slums,
including a nomination for the the novels of Ruth Park (born in Henry Lawson
Nobel Prize for Literature. 1922), such as Harp in the South
Contemporary novelist David (1948) and Fence around the
Playwrights
Malouf (born in 1934) Cuckoo (1992), are unbeatable.
continues to explore these Novelist Thomas Keneally (born Australia’s most prolific
issues in Remembering Babylon in 1935) won the 1982 Booker contemporary playwright is
(1993), winner of the Prix Prize with Schindler’s Ark. David Williamson, born in 1942.
Baudelaire, and Conversations Aboriginal writer Sally A satirist exploring middle-class
at Curlow Creek (1996). Morgan (born in 1951) has life and values, Williamson has
put indigenous Australian been an international success
writing on the map with her and several of his plays, such
1988 autobiography My Place. as Dead White Males (1995),
have been performed both
in London and New York.
Ray Lawler gained renown
Poets
in 1955 with Summer of the
Australia’s early poets were Seventeenth Doll, which
mostly bush balladeers, challenged the deep-rooted
articulating life in the Australian concept of male
Australian bush. “The Man friendship. The play has been
from Snowy River” and “Clancy adapted as an opera, with
of the Overflow” by A B “Banjo” music by Australian
Paterson (1864–1941) are composer Richard Meale.
classics and have been Other notable contem-
immortalised in song and porary playwrights are Nick
Film poster of Schindler’s List, based on film. Writing from the late Enright, Stephen Sewell and
Schindler’s Ark 1800s until his death in 1922, Louis Nowra.
40  IntroducIng australIa

The Wines of Australia


grapes and wine have been produced in australia virtually
since European settlement in 1788 (see pp54–5). the first
vineyards were planted in sydney in 1791 and over the next
40 years vines were planted in the Hunter Valley (1827), the
Barossa at Jacobs creek (1847), the Yarra Valley (1930), and
adelaide (1937). John and Elizabeth Macarthur became
australia’s first commercial wine producers with a small Locator Map
Major wine-producing
vintage in 1827 from their sydney farm (see p131). In the
regions of Australia
1960s, with the introduction of international grape varieties,
such as chardonnay, small oak-barrel maturation and
modern wine-making technology, the wine industry
really developed. since the 1990s australia has earned 0 kilometres 500
an excellent reputation for high-quality wines and
0 miles 500
there are about 1,465 wineries operating today.

Leeuwin Estate winery in Margaret


River, Western Australia (see pp318–
19) is one of the nation’s largest
producers of top-quality table
wines, including Chardonnay
and Cabernet Sauvignon.

@
£
Perth
c
b
m v
/ z x
,
!
l
. n
Adelaide
k
j h
The Father of Australian Wine
James Busby is often regarded as the father
of the Australian wine industry. Scottish-
born, he arrived in Sydney in 1824. During
the voyage to Australia he wrote the
country’s first wine book, detailing his
experiences of French vineyards. He
established a property at Kirkton in the
Hunter Valley, New South Wales, and
returned to Europe in 1831, collecting
570 vine cuttings from France and Spain.
James Busby These were cultivated at Kirkton and at Mount Hurtle winery produces
the Sydney and Adelaide Botanic Gardens. distinctive white table wines.
In 1833, having founded Australia’s first wine-producing region, It is located in one of South
he emigrated to New Zealand. Australia’s main wine regions,
McLaren Vale (see pp342–3).
A poRtRAit of AustRAliA  41

Wine Regions of Australia


Since signing a trade agreement with the European (Western Victoria). Within these zones are 61
Union, Australia has had to implement a new wine regions, such as the Barossa (see pp360–61),
classification system for its wine-producing regions. with the main ones listed below. Some of the
The whole of Australia has 28 wine zones, which up-and-coming areas in Australia are Mudgee
can be whole state (Tasmania) or parts of states and Orange (NSW), and Geelong (VIC).

1 South Burnett y Swan Hill z McLaren Vale


2 Granite Belt u Rutherglen Glenrowan x Adelaide Hills
3 Hastings River King Valley c Eden Valley
4 Hunter Valley i Yarra Valley v Barossa
5 Mudgee o Mornington Peninsula b Clare Valley
6 Orange p Geelong n Kangaroo Island
7 Cowra a Tasmania m Esperance
8 Lachlan Valley s Sunbury , Great Southern
9 Canberra d Macedonl . Pemberton
0 Gundagai f Pyrenees / Manjimup
q Hilltops g Grampians ! Margaret River
w Sydney h Coonawarra @ Swan District
e Shoalhaven j Mount Benson £ Perth Hills
r Riverina k Padthaway
t Murray Darling l Langhorne Creek

2 Brisbane
er
Riv
ing
Darl

5 3

c r 8 4 Balmoral House is part of the


6
t 7 Rosemount Estate in the Upper
w
Hunter Valley (see pp166–7).
y 0 q
Sydney The house gives its name to the
M
u rr 9
ay River e winery’s excellent Balmoral Shiraz.
u Canberra
k g
h d
fs i Visiting a Winery
Melbourne Wine tourism is increasingly popular
p o
in Australia and information and maps
are readily available at information
bureaux. Most wineries are open daily
(but you should ring ahead to avoid
disappointment) and if they charge for
a tastings it will be refunded against a
purchase from the “cellar door”. Winery
Hobart restaurants are also popular and some
have barbeques and entertainment for
children while others have a wine-food
Pipers Brook in Tasmania paired menu. With strict drink-drive laws
was established in 1973 and it may be better to take a guided tour –
is home to the acclaimed these can be by bus or limousine.
Kreglinger Wine Estates.
42  introducing australia

Surfing and Beach Culture


australia is the quintessential home of beach culture, with the
nation’s beaches ranging from sweeping crescents with rolling
waves to tiny, secluded coves. almost all australians live within
a two-hour drive of the coast, and during the hot summers it is
almost second nature to make for the water to cool off. the clichéd
image of the sun-bronzed australian is no longer the reality it once
was thanks to increased sun protection awareness, but popular
beaches are still packed with tanned bodies basking on golden
sands or frolicking in deep blue waves. Fines levied for inappropriate
behaviour mean that the atmosphere is calm and safe at all
Baked-brown bodies
times. surfing has always been a national sport, with regular
and sun-bleached hair
carnivals and competitions held on the coastline. there are also were once the epitome
opportunities for beginners to try their hand at this daring sport. of beach culture.

Surf carnivals attract hundreds of spectators,


who thrill to races, “iron man” competitions,
dummy rescues and spectacular lifeboat displays.

Surfer in Action
Riding the waves is a serious
business. Wetsuit-clad “surfies” study
the surfing reports in the media and
think nothing of travelling vast
distances to reach a beach where
the best waves are running.

Crouching down into the wave’s


crest increases stability on the board.

Where to Surf
The best surfing to be found in Australia is on the New
South Wales coast (see pp182–3), the southern Queensland
coast, especially the aptly named Surfer’s Paradise and the
Sunshine Coast (pp242–3) and the southern coastline of
Western Australia (pp316–17). Tasmania also has some fine
surfing beaches on its northwestern tip (pp470–71).
Despite superb north Queensland beaches, the Great
Barrier Reef stops the waves well before they reach the
mainland. In summer, deadly marine stingers (box jellyfish)
here make surf swimming impossible in many areas,
unless there is a stinger-proof enclosure.
A portrAit of AustrAliA  43

Beach Activities
Australian beaches are not only the preserve
of surfers. Winter temperatures are mild in
most coastal areas, so many beach activities
are enjoyed all year. Weekends see thousands
of pleasure boats, from small runabouts to
luxury yachts, competing in races or just out
for a picnic in some sheltered cove. The sails
of windsurfers
create swirls of
colour on gusty
Surf lifesaving is an integral part of the Australian days. Kite-flying
beach scene. Trained volunteer lifesavers, easily has become an
recognized by their red and yellow swimming art form, with
caps, ensure that swimmers stay within flag-defined the Festival of
safe areas and are ready to spring into action if the Winds a
someone is in trouble. September
highlight at
Sydney’s Bondi
Beach (see p44).
Beach volleyball,
once a knockabout
game, is now a
competitive sport.
Festival of the Winds

Takeaway snack food at the beach is an


Australian tradition, since many sunlovers spend
entire days by the ocean. Fish and chips, kebabs
and burgers are on sale at beach cafés.

Surfboards, once made out of wood, are now


built of light fibreglass, often in bright colours,
improving speed and visibility.

Safety
Beaches are safe provided you
follow a few guidelines:
• Always swim “between the flags”.
• Don’t swim alone.
• Note signs warning of strong
currents, blue bottles or stingers.
• If you get into difficulty, do not
wave but signal for help by
raising one arm straight in the air.
The Australian crawl revolutionized swimming throughout • Use factor 50+ sunscreen and
the world in the 1880s. For most Australians, swimming is an wear a shirt and hat.
everyday sport, learned at a very early age.
44  introducing australia

AUSTRALIA
THROUGH THE YEAR
the seasons in australia are the opposite of clearly divided into wet and dry seasons,
those in the northern hemisphere. in the the former between november and april.
southern half of the continent spring comes australia’s vast interior has a typical desert
in september, summer is from december to climate – baking hot days and cool nights.
February, autumn runs from March to May, the weather throughout australia is reliable
while winter begins in June. in contrast, the enough year-round to make outdoor events
tropical climate of the north coast is more popular all over the country.

of the Torres Strait Islanders


Spring are celebrated through dance,
With the warm weather, the song and art.
profusion of spring flowers brings Floriade (mid-Sep–mid-Oct),
gardens and national parks to Canberra. Magnificent flower
life. Food, art and music festivals festival in Commonwealth
abound in cities. Footballers Park (see p199).
finish their seasons, cricketers Tulip Time Festival (two
warm up for summer matches weeks from mid-Sep), Bowral.
and the horse-racing fraternity The Corbett Gardens are
gets ready to place its bets. carpeted with flowers
(see p190).
Carnival of Flowers (date Floriade, the spring flower festival
varies), Toowoomba. Popular in Canberra
floral festival including
spectacular garden and Melbourne International
flower displays (see p244). Arts Festival (two weeks, mid-
to late Oct), Dance, theatre,
October music and visual arts events.
Melbourne Fringe Festival Melbourne Marathon (date
(mid-Sep–early Oct, dates vary), varies). Fun run through the city.
The arts festival showcases Carlton Italian Festa (Sun, date
hundreds of events, such as live varies), Melbourne. Street
per formances, films, visual arts, carnival through the city’s
multi-media exhibits and Italian district (see p399).
comedy shows. Leura Garden Festival (second–
Australian Rugby League third weekends), Blue Mountains.
Grand Final (first Sun), Sydney. Village fair and garden shows
Australian Football League Grand Final National event. (see p174).
in September

September
Mudgee Wine Festival (date
varies). Includes bush dances
as well as wine (see p181).
Festival of the Winds (Sun,
date varies), Bondi Beach (see
p43). Multicultural kite-flying
festival; music, dance.
Royal Melbourne Show
(last two weeks). Agricultural
exhibitions, rides and displays.
Australian Football League
Grand Final (last Sat in Sep),
Melbourne (see p401).
Torres Strait Cultural
Festival (mid-Sep, even-
numbered years), Thursday
Island. The spiritual traditions Festival of the Winds, Australia’s annual kite-flying festival
australia through the year  45

Rose and Rodeo Festival


(last weekend), Warwick.
Australia’s oldest rodeo
attracts riders from all over
the world (see p244).
Jacaranda Festival (last week),
Grafton. Australia’s oldest flower
festival features a Grand Float
procession through the town
(see p182).
Maldon Folk Festival (late Oct/
early Nov, weekend before
Melbourne Cup). Folk music
concerts in this Victorian
country town.

Santa Claus celebrating Christmas on Bondi Beach, Sydney

December Australia Day Concert


Carols by Candlelight (24 Dec), (26 Jan), Sydney. This free
Melbourne. Top musicians outdoor concert is part of the
unite with locals to celebrate celebrations for the birth of the
Christmas. nation (see p60).
Christmas at Bondi Beach Chinese New Year (late Jan or
(25 Dec). Holiday-makers hold early Feb), Sydney and Melbourne.
parties on the famous beach Cricket Test Match, Sydney.
(see p131).
Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race
(26 Dec). Sydney Harbour teems
with yachts setting off for
Hobart (see p464–5).
The Melbourne Cup, Australia’s annual Boxing Day Test Match (26 Dec),
thoroughbred horse race Melbourne.
New Year’s Eve (31 Dec), Sydney
November Harbour. Street parties and
Sculpture by the Sea (date varies, firework displays.
around last week Oct/first week Nov),
Sydney. Great outdoor sculptures January
can be seen at Bondi beach. Hanging Rock Picnic Races
The High Country Festival (1 Jan & 26 Jan). Premier country
(late Oct–early Nov), Mansfield. horse racing event (see p441).
Horse races, parades, markets, Festival of Sydney (second
arts and cultural exhibitions. week–end Jan). City throngs
Melbourne Cup (first Tue). during this cultural festival.
Australia’s most popular Australian Open (last two Fireworks in Sydney for the Australia
horse race virtually brings weeks), Melbourne. Australia’s Day celebrations
the nation to a halt. popular Grand Slam tennis
tournament. February
Country Music Festival (last Perth Festival (three weeks
Summer two weeks), Tamworth. Australia’s from mid-Feb). Australia’s oldest
The beginning of the school main country music festival, arts festival.
holidays for Christmas marks culminating in the Golden Leeuwin Estate Winery Music
the start of the summer in Guitar Awards (see p181). Concert (mid-Feb–Mar), Margaret
Australia and the festivities Midsumma Festival (mid-Jan– River. Concert attracting stars
continue until Australia Day first week Feb), Melbourne. This (see p318).
on 26 January. Summer also annual Gay and Lesbian festival Adelaide Fringe (mid-Feb–
brings a feast for sport lovers, includes street parades. mid-Mar). Second-largest fringe
with tennis, surfing events Tunarama Festival (last festival in the world.
and a host of cricket matches. weekend), Port Lincoln. Tuna Adelaide Festival (late Feb–
Arts and music lovers make tossing competitions and mid-Mar). Multi-arts festival
the most of organized festivals. fireworks (see p370). held in even-numbered years.
46  INTRODUCING AUSTRALIA

Rip Curl Pro Surfing


Competition (Easter weekend),
Bells Beach. Pros and amateurs
take part in this premier
competition (see p433).
Easter Fair (Easter weekend),
Maldon. An Easter parade
and a colourful street carnival
takes over this quaint country
town (see p436).
Bright Autumn Festival (last
week Apr–early May), Bright.
Winery tours, art exhibitions
and street parades (see p451).
Australian Grand Prix, held in Melbourne in March Anzac Day (25 Apr). Australia’s
war dead and war veterans are
St Patrick’s Day Parade (17 Mar honoured in remembrance
Autumn or Sun before), Sydney. Pubs services throughout the
After the humidity of the serve green beer and a country.
summer, autumn brings flamboyant parade travels
fresh mornings and cooler from Hyde Park. May
days that are tailor-made for International Flower and Australian Celtic Festival (first
outdoor pursuits such as Garden Show (late Mar–early weekend), Glen Innes. Traditional
bushwalking, cycling and Apr), Melbourne. Spectacular Celtic events celebrate the
fishing, as well as outdoor floral event held in the town’s British heritage (see p180).
festivals. There are numerous beautiful Exhibition Message Sticks Festival (mid-
sporting and cultural events Gardens (see p399). May), Sydney. A celebration
to tempt the visitor. Many of Aboriginal and Torres Strait
of the country’s wineries April Islander arts and culture, held
open their doors during Melbourne International at the Sydney Opera House.
the harvest season and Comedy Festival (end Mar– Kernewek Lowender
hold gourmet food and early Apr). Comedy acts Cornish Festival (mid- to late
wine events. Anzac Day from around the world May), Little Cornwall. A biennial
(25 April) – the day in perform indoors and out. celebration of the area’s Cornish
1915 when Australian Royal Easter Show (week heritage which began with
and New Zealand forces preceding Good Fri) the copper discoveries of the
landed at Gallipoli – Yarra Valley Sydney. Agricultural 1860s (see p367).
has been observed wine shows, funfair rides, Vivid Sydney (late May–early Jun).
annually since 1916 and local arts and crafts Light installations and projections
is a national holiday on which displays and team games. on landmark buildings.
Australians commemorate
their war dead.

March
Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras
Festival (varies), Sydney.
Flamboyant street parades
and events.
Day on the Green (weekends
in Mar). Concerts at Rochford
Winery in the Yarra Valley attracts
international performers.
Begonia Festival (first two weeks),
Ballarat. Begonia displays in the
Botanical Gardens (see p439).
Moomba Festival (second
week), Melbourne. International
aquatic events on the Yarra
River (see pp404–5).
Australian Formula One Grand
Prix (mid-Mar), Melbourne. Top
Formula One drivers compete,
while the city celebrates with
street parties (see p407). Anzac Day ceremony along Canberra’s Anzac Parade
AUSTRALIA THROUGH THE YEAR  47

Public Holidays
New Year’s Day (1 Jan)
Australia Day (26 Jan, NSW;
1st Mon after 26 Jan, all
other states)
Good Friday (variable)
Easter Monday (variable)
Anzac Day (25 Apr)
Queen’s Birthday (second
Mon in Jun)
Christmas Day (25 Dec)
Racing in Alice Springs’ Camel Cup Boxing Day (26 Dec)

July
Winter Yulefest (throughout Jun, Jul, August
Winter in the east can be Aug), Blue Mountains. Hotels, Almond Blossom Festival
cool enough to require guesthouses and some (first week), Mount Lofty.
warm jackets, and it is often restaurants celebrate a mid- Includes almond cracking.
icy in Victoria and Tasmania. winter “traditional Christmas” City to Surf Race (second Sun),
Many festivals highlight with log fires and all the usual Sydney. A 14-km (9-mile) fun
the change of climate in yuletide trimmings. run from the city centre (usually
celebration of freezing Brass Monkey Festival Hyde Park) to Bondi Beach.
temperatures. Other events, (throughout Jul), Stanthorpe. Shinju Matsuri Festival
such as film festivals, are arts- Inland Queensland turns the (last weekend–first week Sep),
based and indoors. The warm freezing winter temperatures Broome. Pearl festival.
rather than sweltering climate into an opportunity for Melbourne Art Fair (mid-Aug).
of the Outback in winter offers celebration (see p244). Biennial modern art fair
the opportunity for pleasurable Alice Springs Show (first attracting both established
outdoor events. weekend). Agricultural and up-and-coming artists
and historical displays are from all over the world.
June combined with arts, crafts Works on display range from
Three-Day Equestrian Event and cookery demonstrations paintings to photographs,
(first weekend), Gawler. at this popular event. from sculptures to multimedia
Spectacular riding skills Cairns Show (mid-Jul). installations.
are displayed at Australia’s A cultural celebration of Mount Isa Rodeo (mid-Aug).
oldest equestrian event. historical and contemporary Largest rodeo (see p261).
Sydney Film Festival (two life in the Australian tropics Henley-on-Todd Regatta
weeks mid-Jun). The latest (see p258). (third Sat), Alice Springs.
blockbuster film releases are Melbourne International Races in bottomless boats
combined with retrospectives Film Festival (last week Jul– along the dry Todd River.
and showcases. mid-Aug). The largest and Open Garden Scheme
Laura Dance & Cultural most popular film festival. (Aug–May). The country’s
Festival (odd-numbered years), Camel Cup (mid-Jul), Alice most magnificent private
Cape York. Celebration of Springs. Camel racing on gardens open to the public
Aboriginal culture. the dry Todd River. (see p378).

Dragon Boat race, part of the Shinju Matsuri in Broome


48  introducing australia

The Climate of Australia NorTherN


QueeNslANd
this vast country experiences a variable climate.
°C
three-quarters of its land is desert or scrub and Average daily 32
30
29
maximum temperature 26
has low, unreliable rainfall. the huge, dry interior 23
21 20
16
is hot year-round during the day but can be very Average daily
cold at night. the southern half of australia, minimum temperature
including tasmania, has warm summers and 7 8 8 9
mild winters. Further north, seasonal variations Average daily hours hrs hrs hrs hrs
of sunshine
lessen and the top End has just two seasons: the 422 287 41 53
mm mm mm mm
dry, and the wet, with its monsoon rains and Average monthly month Jan Apr Jul Oct
occasional tropical cyclones. rainfall

NorTh of PerTh dArWiN Darwin


ANd The ToP eNd
34
°C 33 33 °C 33 34
32 31
28
26 25 24 25
19
22 22
14

NORTHERN
8 9 7 9 6 8 10 10
TERRITORY
hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs

160 30 0 1 386 97 0 51
mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm
month Jan Apr Jul Oct month Jan Apr Jul Oct

WESTERN
AUSTRALIA
SOUTH
AUSTRALIA
The red CeNTre

36
°C
31 Perth
27
21 19
14 A
12
4

10 10 9 10
hrs hrs hrs hrs
43 10 8 18
mm mm mm mm
month Jan Apr Jul Oct

PerTh ANd The Yorke ANd AdelAide ANd


The souThWesT eYre PeNiNsulAs The souTheAsT
°C °C °C
32 30
29
24 26 26 23
23
21 19
17 17 16 15
14 12 13 13 13 11
9 7 7

10 7 5 8 10 6 5 7 10 6 4 7
hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs
8 43 170 56 15 18 18 23 20 46 66 43
mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm

month Jan Apr Jul Oct month Jan Apr Jul Oct month Jan Apr Jul Oct
australia through the year  49

The blue MounTainS SouTh of Canberra and aCT


and beyond TownSVille
°C °C °C
31
29 28 28
26 24 24
23 23 21 22
18 19 20
16 15 15
13 13 11
9 7 6
1
6 5 6 7 7 8 9 9 9 7 5 8
hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs
95 138 110 67 277 84 15 33 48 41 46 56
mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm
month Jan Apr Jul Oct month Jan Apr Jul Oct month Jan Apr Jul Oct

briSbane Sydney

°C °C
Cairns 29 26 27 26
21 22 22
20 18
16 16 16
14 13
9 8

8 7 7 8 7 6 6 7
hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs
163 94 56 64 89 135 117 71
QUEENSLAND mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm
month Jan Apr Jul Oct month Jan Apr Jul Oct

Brisbane
The SouTh CoaST and
Snowy MounTainS eaSTern ViCToria
NEW °C
SOUTH WALES 24 °C
21 22
AND ACT 19 27
15 14 15 21
Adelaide Sydney 19
8
12 12
10 8
Canberra 4
7 5 6 6
VICTORIA hrs hrs hrs hrs 8 6 4 7
Melbourne hrs hrs hrs hrs
85 140 122 75
mm mm mm mm 40 52 45 59
month Jan Apr Jul Oct mm mm mm mm
month Jan Apr Jul Oct
TASMANIA
Hobart

TaSMania weSTern ViCToria Melbourne

°C °C °C

25 26
22 20
17 18 17 19
17
12 11 14 13
9 11 9 10 9 11 9
8 6
4 3

8 5 4 6 7 5 5 6 8 5 4 6
hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs hrs
48 48 53 58 38 50 77 70 48 58 48 66
mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm
month Jan Apr Jul Oct month Jan Apr Jul Oct month Jan Apr Jul Oct
introducing australia  51

THE HISTORY
OF AUSTRALIA
australia is a young nation in an ancient land. it is a nation of immigrants, past and
present, forced and free. the first European settlers occupied a harsh country; they
explored it, exploited its mineral wealth and farmed it. in so doing, they suffered at
the hands of nature, as well as enduring depressions and wars. out of all this,
however, has emerged a modern and cosmopolitan society.

The first rocks of the Australian landscape simple chopping implements, roughly
began to form some four-and-a-half billion formed by grinding stone. By 8,000 BC
years ago. Over time many older rocks were Aborigines had developed the
covered by more recent rocks, but in places sophisticated returning boomerang (see
such as the Pilbara region of Western p34) and possibly the world’s first barbed
Australia erosion has exposed a landscape spear. So-called flaked tools of varying
3,500 million years old (see pp334–5). About styles were in use 5,000 years later, finely
500 million years ago Australia, together made out of grained stones such as flint
with South America, South Africa, India and to create sharp cutting edges.
the Antarctic, formed a supercontinent Beneath the apparently simple way of life,
known as Gondwanaland. This landmass Aboriginal society was complex. It was
moved through a series of different climatic based on a network of mainly nomadic
zones; today’s desert interior was once a bands, comprising between 50 and 100
shallow sea (see pp26–7). people, bound by kin relationships, who
lived according to strictly applied laws and
The First Immigrants customs. These laws and beliefs, including
Australia was first settled by Aboriginal the spiritual significance of the land, were
people who arrived by sea from Asia more upheld through a tradition of song, dance
than 60,000 years ago. On landing, they and art (see pp34–7). With no centralized or
quickly adapted to the climatic and formal system of government, individual
geographical conditions. Nomadic hunters groups were led by prominent, generally
and gatherers, the Aborigines moved with older men, who were held in great respect.
the seasons and spread across the Across the continent there were more than
continent, reaching Tasmania 35,000 years 200 languages spoken and approximately
ago. They had few material possessions 800 dialects. In many respects, Aboriginal
beyond the tools and weapons required for life was also very advanced: excavations at
hunting and obtaining food. The early tools, Lake Mungo provide fascinating evidence
known today as core tools, were very of ancient burial rituals, including what is

43,000–38,000 BC Tools found


in a grave pit beside Nepean 35,000 BC
River are among the oldest Aborigines
firmly dated signs of human reach Diprotodon 13,000 End
occupation in Australia Tasmania 20,000 BC of Ice Age

60,000 BC 50,000 BC 40,000 BC 30,000 BC 20,000 BC 10,000 BC

170–60,000 BC 42,000 BC 25,000 BC 20,000 BC Humans live in the


Aborigines Aboriginal Woman is cremated Blue Mountains despite Ice
thought to have engravings at at Lake Mungo – Age. Remains of the largest
reached Australia Olary, South the world’s oldest marsupial, Diprotodon, date
Australia known cremation back to this period

Desmond, A New South Wales Chief (about 1825) by Augustus Earle


52  introducing australia

believed to be the world’s oldest works of the monk


cremation 25,000 years ago Beatus, showed the
(see p185). hypothetical land as
a populated region.
Theories of a Southern Land It was not until
In Europe, the existence of a the 15th century,
southern land was the subject when Europe entered a
of debate for centuries. As early golden age of exploration,
as the 5th century BC, with the Woodcut of an “antipodean man” (1493) that these theories were
European discovery of Australia tested. Under the
some 2,000 years away, the mathematician patronage of Prince Henry of Portugal
Pythagoras speculated on the presence of (1394–1460), known as Henry the Navigator,
southern lands necessary to counterbalance Portuguese sailors crossed the equator
those in the northern hemisphere. In about for the first time in 1470. In 1488 they sailed
AD 150, the ancient geographer Ptolemy around the southern tip of Africa, and
of Alexandria continued this speculation by 1502 they claimed to have located
by drawing a map showing a landmass a southern land while on a voyage to
enclosing the Atlantic and Indian oceans. explore South America. The Italian
Some scholars went so far as to suggest navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, described it
that it was inhabited by “antipodes”, a as Paradise, full of trees and colourful birds.
race of men whose feet faced backwards. The location of this land is not clear but
Religious scholar St Augustine (AD 354– it was definitely not Australia.
430) declared categorically that the In 1519 another Portuguese
southern hemisphere contained no land; expedition set off, under the command
the contrary view was heretical. But not of Ferdinand Magellan, and was the first to
all men of religion agreed: the 1086 Osma circumnavigate the world. No drawings of
Beatus, a series of maps illustrating the the lands explored survive, but subsequent
maps show Tierra del Fuego as
the tip of a landmass south of the
Americas. Between 1577 and 1580
the Englishman Sir Francis Drake
also circumnavigated the
world, but his maps indicate
no such land. Meanwhile, maps
prepared in Dieppe in France
between 1540 and 1566 show
a southern continent, Java la
Grande, lying southeast
First known map of Australia known as the Dauphin Chart, 1530–36 of Indonesia.

AD 150 Ptolemy
5,000 BC Dingo is the first 500 BC Pythagoras believes the southern 450 Macrobius, in his
domesticated animal to speculates on existence land encloses Dream of Scorpio,
reach Australia from of southern lands the Atlantic and envisages uninhabited
Southeast Asia Indian oceans southern land

5,000 BC 1,000 BC AD 1 1000


400 St Augustine declares 1086 Beatus, on his
south to be all ocean and Mappa mundi, shows
rejects idea of antipodeans a southern land
Copperplate print of inhabited by a monster
a dingo with one large foot
the history of australia  53

to be rich in gold, when he sailed


along the Cape York Peninsula in
1606. He found the coast inhospitable.
In 1616 Dirk Hartog, commanding the
Eendracht, was blown off course on his
way to the East Indies. He landed on an
island off Western Australia and nailed
a pewter plate to a pole (see p330).
Dutch navigator Abel Tasman
charted large parts of Australia and
New Zealand between 1642 and
Abel Tasman’s Dutch discovery ships 1644, including Tasmania which he
originally named Van Diemen’s Land in
The Dutch Discovery honour of the Governor-General of the
By the 17th century Portugal’s power in East Indies. It became Tasmania in 1855.
Southeast Asia was beginning to wane, and The Dutch continued to explore the
Holland, with its control of the Dutch East country for 150 years, but although
Indies (Indonesia), was the new power and their discoveries were of geographic
responsible for the European discovery interest they did not result in any
of Australia. economic benefit.
Willem Jansz, captain of the ship Duyfken,
was in search of New Guinea, a land thought The First Englishman
The first Englishman to land on Australian
The Forgotten Spaniard soil was the privateer William Dampier in
In 1606, the same year 1688. He published a book of his journey,
that Willem Jansz first New Voyage Round the World, in 1697.
set foot on Australian
soil, Luis Vaez de Torres,
Britain gave him command of the
a Spanish Admiral, led an Roebuck, in which
expedition in search of he explored the
“Terra Australia”. He sailed
through the strait which northwest Austra-
now bears his name lian coast in great
between Australia and Bronze relief of Luis Vaez
detail. His ship
New Guinea (see p256). de Torres
His discovery, however, sank on the return
was inexplicably ignored for 150 years. He sent voyage. The crew
news of his exploration to King Felipe III of Spain
from the Philippines but died shortly after.
survived but
Perhaps his early death meant that the news Dampier was court
was not disseminated and the significance of martialled for the
his maps not realized.
mistreatment of
his subordinates. Portrait of William Dampier

1577–80 Sir Francis Drake


circumnavigates the world 1688 William
but indicates no austral region Dampier lands
Dampier’s
Sir Francis Drake beneath South America on Australian soil
compass
1200 1400 1600
1300 Marco Polo describes
a southern land which 1616 Dirk Hartog sails from
is later added to the Amsterdam and lands on 1756 Final Dutch
imaginary Terra Australis the western shore of voyage of the Buis
Hartog’s
on Renaissance maps Australia, nailing a pewter to Australia
plate
plate to a pole
54  INTRODUCING AUSTRALIA

The Colonization of Australia


By the mid-18th century Britain had taken over as the
world’s main maritime power. In 1768 Captain James
Cook set off to find Australia in the Endeavour and in
1770 King George III formally claimed possession of the
east coast, named New South Wales. Overcrowding of
jails and the loss of American colonies in the War of
Independence led the British to establish a penal colony
in the new land. The First Fleet, consisting of two men- Captain James Cook (c.1800)
of-war and nine transport ships, arrived in Sydney Cove The English navigator charted eastern
on 26 January 1788. The initial settlement consisted of Australia for the first time between
750 convicts, approximately 210 marines and 40 women 1770 and 1771.
and children. Faced with great
hardship, they survived in tents,
eating local wildlife and rations
from Britain.

Boat building at the


Government dockyard

Aborigines depicted
observing the new
white settlement.

A View of Sydney Cove


Britain Takes Possession This idyllic image, drawn by Edward
In 1770 the Union Jack was raised Dayes and engraved by F Jukes in
on the east coast of Australia, and 1804, shows the Aboriginal peoples
Britain finally claimed possession living peacefully within the infant
of this new-found land. colony alongside the flourishing
maritime and agricultural
industries. In reality, by the end of
the 18th century they had been
entirely ostracized from the life and
prosperity of their native land. The
first settlement was founded at Port
Jackson, renamed Sydney Cove.
Sir Joseph Banks
Aboard the Endeavour with
Captain Cook, botanist Joseph
Banks was responsible for the
proposal of Botany Bay as the
first penal settlement.
THE HISTORY OF AUSTRALIA  55

First Fleet Ship


This painting by Francis Holman (c.1787) shows
three views of the Borrowdale, one of the fleet’s
three commercial store ships.

Scrimshaw
Engraving bone or
shell was a skilful
way to pass time
Buildings looked during long months
impressive but Convict housing spent at sea.
were poorly built.

Governor Phillip’s House, Sydney


This grand colonial mansion, flanked by
landscaped gardens, was home to Australia’s
first government.

Barracks housing
NSW Rum Corps

Prison Hulks
Old ships, unfit for naval service, were
used as floating prisons to house
convicts until the mid-19th century.

1768 Captain James Cook 1775 British over- 1788 Aborigine Bennelong is
sets out from England crowding of jails captured and held for five
Aborigine
for Tahiti on his ship, and prison hulks months, then taken to England
Bennelong
the Endeavour to meet King George III
1770 1780 1790
1797 John Macarthur
1770 Cook discovers 1779 Botanist Joseph introduces merino
the east coast of Banks recommends sheep from the Cape
Australia and takes Botany Bay for of Good Hope
possession for Britain penal settlement Merino
(see p131)
sheep
56  INTRODUCING AUSTRALIA

Exploring the Coastline William Wentworth and William Lawson


Once the survival of the first settlement was forged a successful route across the Blue
assured, both the government and the free Mountains (see pp172–3). In 1824 explorers
settlers began to look beyond its confines. Hamilton Hume and William Hovell
Faced with a vast, unknown continent and opened up the continent further when
fuelled by desires for knowledge and wealth, they travelled overland from New South
they set out to explore the land. The 19th Wales to Port Phillip Bay, the present site
century was a period of exploration, of Melbourne.
discovery and settlement. Between 1828 and
Between 1798 and 1799 1830 Charles Sturt, a
the English midshipman former secretary to
Matthew Flinders and the New South
surgeon George Bass Wales Governor,
charted much of the led two expeditions
Australian coastline along Australia’s
south of Sydney. They also inland river systems.
circumnavigated Tasmania, On his first journey he
known at that time as Van John Batman and local Aboriginal chiefs discovered the Darling
Diemen’s Land (see p53). River. His second
In 1801 Flinders was given command of expedition began in Sydney and followed
the sloop Investigator and explored the the Murray River to the sea in South Australia.
entire Australian coastline, becoming the This arduous task left Sturt, like many such
first man to successfully circumnavigate explorers before and after him, suffering
the whole continent. from ill health for the rest of his life.

Exploring the Interior New Colonies


Inland New South Wales was opened up for Individual colonies began to emerge across
settlement in 1813, when George Blaxland, the continent throughout the 19th century.
First settled in 1804, Tasmania became a
separate colony in 1825; in 1829 Western
Australia became a colony with the
establishment of Perth. Originally a colony
of free settlers, a labour shortage led to the
westward transportation of convicts.
In 1835 a farmer, John Batman, signed a
contract with local Aborigines to acquire
250,000 ha (600,000 acres) of land where
Sturt’s party shown being attacked by Aborigines on their journey Melbourne now stands (see p385). His
to the Murray River action resulted in a rush for land in the area.

1798–9 Matthew 1808 Major Johnston 1825 Van Diemen’s 1840–41 Sheep farmer
Flinders and George leads an insurrection Land (later Edward John Eyre is the first
Bass circumnavigate against rum being Tasmania) becomes European to cross the
Tasmania abolished as currency a separate colony Nullarbor Plain
E J Eyre
1800 1810 1820 1830 1840
1801–3 Flinders 1804 Hobart Town is 1833 Port Arthur opens as a
circumnavigates established penal establishment. It remains
Australia in use until 1877
1813 The first currency,
the “holey dollar” and 1829 Western Australia is annexed,
“dump”, is introduced Holey dollar and dump, made from using convicts for cheap labour
Spanish coins
the history of AUstrALiA  57

The Rum Rebellion


In 1808, the military, under the command of Major
George Johnston and John Macarthur (see p131),
staged an insurrection known as the Rum
Rebellion. At stake was the military’s control
of the profitable rum
trade. Governor William
Bligh (1754–1817), target
of a mutiny when captain
A typical colonial house in Hobart Town (now Hobart), Tasmania,
of the Bounty, was
during its early days in 1856 arrested after he tried
to stop rum being used
as currency. The military
The settlement was recognized in 1837, held power for 23 months
and the separate colony of Victoria was until government was
proclaimed in 1851, at the start of its gold restored by Governor
Lachlan Macquarie. William Bligh
rush (see pp58–9). Queensland became a
separate colony in 1859. South Australia
was established in 1836 as Australia’s only at Cooper Creek to the tidal mangroves of
convict-free colony. Based on a theory the Flinders River which they mistook for
formulated by a group of English reformers, the ocean, before heading back south. They
the colony was funded by land sales which returned to the base camp only hours after
paid for public works and the transportation the main party, who now believed them
of free labourers. It became a haven for dead, had left. Burke and Wills died at the
religious dissenters, a tradition that still base camp from starvation and fatigue.
continues today. The crossing from south to north was
finally completed by John McDouall Stuart
Crossing the Continent in 1862. He returned to Adelaide sick with
Edward John Eyre, a sheep farmer who scurvy and almost blind.
arrived from England in 1833, was the first
European to cross the Nullarbor Plain from
Adelaide to Western Australia in 1840.
In 1859 the South Australian government,
anxious to build an overland telegraph
from Adelaide to the north coast, offered a
reward to the first person to cross the
continent from south to north. An
expedition of 20 to 40 men and camels left
Melbourne in 1860 under the command of
police officer Robert O’Hara Burke and
surveyor William Wills. Burke, Wills and two
other men travelled from their base camp The return of Burke and Wills to Cooper Creek in 1860

1851 Gold discovered 1872 Overland telegraph from Adelaide


near Bathurst, New 1862 John Stuart to Darwin, via Alice Springs 1899 Australians fight
South Wales, and at is the first explorer to in the Boer War
Ballarat and Bendigo, cross from south to
1873 Uluru (Ayers Rock) first
Victoria (see pp58–9) north Australia
sighted by Europeans
1850 1860 1870 1880 1890
1854 Eureka 1868 Last 1880 Ned Kelly
Stockade (see p58) transportation hanged (see p455)
of convicts to
1853 Last convicts Australia arrive 1876 Last full-blooded
transported to Tasmania in Western Tasmanian Aborigine, Death mask
Australia Truganini, dies (see p473) of Ned Kelly
58  introducing australia

The 1850s Gold Rush


gold was discovered near Bathurst in new south Wales
and at Ballarat and Bendigo in Victoria in 1851. Established
towns were almost deserted as men from all over the
country, together with immigrants from Europe and china,
rushed to the gold fields. some became extremely wealthy,
while others returned empty-handed. By the 1880s,
australia was a prosperous country and cities were lined
with ornate architecture, some of which was constructed
Edward Hargraves
by the last waves of convict labour. despite gold found in In 1851 Hargraves made his
Western australia in the 1890s, however, the final decade name by discovering gold in
of the 19th century was a period of depression, when wool Bathurst, New South Wales.
prices fell, Victoria’s land boom collapsed and the nation
suffered a severe drought.

Panning dish

Lamp

Pick axe

Gold Mining Utensils


Mining for gold was initially an unskilled and
laborious process that required only a few basic
utensils. A panning dish to swill water, a pick axe
to loosen rock and a miner’s lamp were all that
were needed to commence the search.

Digging for Gold


Edwin Stocqueler’s painting Australian Gold
Diggings (1855) shows the varying methods
of gold mining and the hard work put in by
thousands of diggers in their quest for wealth.
As men and their families came from all over the
world to make their fortune, regions rich in
gold, in particular Victoria, thrived. Previous
Eureka Stockade wastelands were turned into tent settlements
In 1854 an insurrection took place just
and gradually grew into impressive new cities.
outside the town of Ballarat when miners
rebelled against costly licences and burned
them at a stockade (see p438).
the history of australia  59

Might versus Right (c.1861)


ST Gill’s painting depicts the riots on the
Lambing Flag gold fields in New South Wales
in 1861. Chinese immigrants, who came to
Australia in search of gold, were met with
violent racism by European settlers who felt
their wealth and position were in jeopardy.

Gold panning was


Tent villages covered the the most popular
Victoria landscape in the 1850s. extraction method.

Prosperity in Bendigo
The buildings of Williamson Street in
Bendigo (see p436) display the prosperity
that resulted from gold finds in Victoria.

Chinese
Miners’ Medal
Racism against
the Chinese
eventually
subsided. This
medal was given
by the Chinese
to the district
of Braidwood,
Victoria, in 1881.

Miners wore hats and


heavyweight trousers to
protect them from the sun.

The sluice was a trough which


trapped gold in its bars as water
was flushed through.

Gold Prospecting Camel Team


Just as the gold finds dried up
in Victoria, gold was discovered in
Western Australia in the 1890s.
Prospectors crossed the continent
to continue their search.
60  introducing australia

immigrants were tested in obscure


languages such as Gaelic. Between 1901
and 1910 there were nine different
governments led by five different prime
ministers. None of the three major political
groups, the Protectionists, the Free Traders
and the Labor Party, had sufficient support
to govern in its own right. By 1910, how­
ever, voters were offered a clear choice
between two parties, Labor and Liberal.
The Labor Party won a landslide victory and
since then the Australian government has
come solely from one of these two parties.
Souvenir handkerchief of the Australian Federation
World War I
Federal Beginnings When Britain entered
Australia entered the 20th century on an World War I in 1914,
optimistic note: the federation of its six Australia followed to
colonies formed the Australian nation on defend the “mother
1 January 1901. Within the federation, there land”. Most Australians
was one matter on which almost everyone supported the war, but
agreed: Australia would remain “European” they would not accept
with strong ties to Britain. One of the first conscription or compul­
acts of the new parliament was to legislate sory national service.
the White Australia Policy. The Immigration Australia paid a very Enlisting poster
Restriction Act required anyone wishing to high price for its allegiance,
emigrate to Australia to pass a dictation with 64 per cent of the 331,781 troops
test in a European language. Unwanted killed or wounded. Memorials to those who
fought and died are found throughout the
country, ranging from the simple to the
impressive such as the Australian War
Memorial in Canberra (see pp204–5). World
War I was a defining moment in Australia’s
history. Anzac Day, rather than Australia
Day, is felt by many to be the true national
day. It commemorates the landing of the
Australian and New Zealand Army Corps
at Gallipoli in Turkey on 25 April 1915, for
Labor government publicity poster their unsuccessful attempt to cross the

1901 The Commonwealth of


Australia comes into being. The 1919 Postwar immigration 1921 Edith Cowan
White Australia Policy becomes includes the Big Brother becomes the
law with the passage of the movement, which first woman MP in
Immigration Restriction Bill Australia’s welcomes adolescents the country
national flag
1900 1905 1910 1915 1920
1914–18 1920 Qantas is formed
1902 Women’s 1912 Walter Burley Griffin is
suffrage is Australia as a local airline
chosen to design Canberra takes part
granted in (see p195)
Australia in World
War I
Qantas logo
the history of australia  61

Dardanelles and link up with the


Russians. This was the first battle in
which Australian soldiers fought as a
national force and, although a failure,
they gained a reputation for bravery
and endurance. It is an event which
many believe determined the
Australian character and saw the
real birth of the Australian nation.

Between the Wars


During the 1920s, Australia,
boosted by the arrival of some Celebrating the opening of Sydney Harbour Bridge
300,000 immigrants, entered a
period of major development. In 1920 a third of the country was unemployed.
Qantas (Queensland and Northern Territory People slept in tents in city parks; swagmen
Aerial Service Ltd) was formed, which was (workers with their possessions on their
to become the national airline, and made backs) appeared as men left cities in search
its first international flight in 1934. Building of work in the country.
of the Sydney Harbour Bridge began in Prices began to increase again by 1933 and
1923 (see pp84–5). Australia’s population manufacturing revived. From 1934 to 1937
reached 6 million in 1925, but this new the economy improved and unemployment
optimism was not to last. fell. The following year, however, Australia
In 1929 Australia, along with much of the again faced the prospect of war.
world, went into economic decline. Wool
and wheat prices, the country’s major World War II
export earners, fell dramatically. By 1931, Though World War II was initially a European
war, Australians again fought in defence of
freedom and the “mother land”. However,
when Japan entered the war, Australians felt
for the first time that their national security
was at risk. In 1942 Darwin, Broome and
Townsville were bombed by the Japanese,
the first act of war on Australian soil. The
same year two Japanese midget
submarines entered Sydney Harbour.
Britain asked for more Australian troops
but for the first time they were refused: the
Swagmen during the Great Depression men were needed in the Pacific. This was a

1933 Western Australia


1923 1932 Sydney produces a referendum 1939–45 Australia takes
Vegemite first Harbour Bridge in favour of secession part in World War II
produced opens from Britain, but
1941 Australian War Memorial
parliament rejects it
Jar of Vegemite opens in Canberra
1925 1930 1935 1940 1945

1927 First federal 1929 The Great Depression 1948 Holden is


hits Australia, bringing First Australian car the first
parliament held
in Canberra in temporary great hardship car produced
Parliament House 1928 Royal Flying
that is entirely
Doctor service starts made in Australia
62  introducing australia

major shift in Australian foreign also Europeans. Almost two


policy away from Britain and million immigrants arrived
towards the USA. Australians in Australia in the 20 years
fought alongside the following World War II,
Americans in the Pacific and 800,000 of whom were not
nearly 250,000 US troops spent British. In 1956, the status
time in Australia during the of “permanent resident”
war. This led, in 1951, to the allowed non-Europeans to
signing of Australia’s first claim citizenship. In 1958,
defence treaty with a foreign the dictation entry test
country: the ANZUS treaty was abolished. Yet until
between Australia, New 1966 non-Europeans had
Zealand and the United States. to have 15 years’ residence
Again, war affected most before gaining citizenship,
Australian communities and Poster promoting travel and tourism as opposed to five years
towns. Nearly one million of in 1950s Australia for Europeans.
Australia’s seven million
population went to fight: 34,000 The Menzies Era
were killed and 180,000 wounded. From 1949 until 1966, Prime Minister Robert
Menzies “reigned”, winning eight con-
Postwar Immigration secutive elections. The increasing population
The proximity of the fighting in World
War II left Australia feeling vulnerable. Mabo and Beyond
The future defence of the country was In 1982, Edward Koiki
seen to be dependent upon a strong (Eddie) Mabo, a
economy and a larger population. Torres Strait Islander,
took action against
The postwar immigration programme the Queensland
welcomed not only British immigrants but government claiming
that his people had
ancestral land rights.
After a ten-year
battle, the High
Court ruled that Edward Koiki Mabo
Aborigines and Torres
Strait Islanders may hold native title to land
where there has been no loss of traditional
connection. This ended the concept of terra
nullius – that Australia belonged to no one when
Europeans arrived there – and acknowledged
that Aborigines held valid title to their land.
Subsequent legislation has provided a framework
British migrants arriving in Sydney in 1967 as part of the postwar for assessing such claims.
wave of immigration

1981 Preference given to


1955 Australian Neville 1971 Neville Bonner 1976 “Advance 1979 Severe immigrants with family
troops sent to Malaya Bonner becomes Australia’s Australia Fair” droughts in members already in
first Aboriginal MP becomes national the country Australia. Increase in
1958 Immigration
anthem last three years Asian immigration
dictation test abolished
1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985
1965 Australian troops sent to Vietnam 1973 Sydney Opera House 1986
1967 Referendum opens (see pp88–9) 1983 Bob Hawke
as part of their National Service elected as prime Proclamation
on Aborigines ends
1956 Melbourne minister of Australia
legal discrimination
hosts the Olympic 1966–72 Demonstrations Act breaks
Games against the Vietnam War Sydney Opera 1983 America’s legal ties
House Cup victory with Britain
the history of australia  63

Aborigines in all states, ending


state discriminations.
In 1972, the Labor Party,
under Edward Gough Whitlam,
was elected on a platform
of social reform. It abolished
conscription, introduced free
university education, lowered
the voting age from 21 to 18
and gave some land rights
to Aborigines. In 1974, an
immigration policy without
Anti-Vietnam demonstrations as US President Johnson arrives in Australia any racial discrimination
was adopted.
and international demand for Australian
raw materials during this time provided a The Changing Economy
high standard of living. Menzies understood In 1975, the Liberal leader Malcolm Fraser
his people’s desire for peace and prosperity, won the election. Subsequent governments,
and gave Australians conservatism and both Liberal under Fraser (1975–83) and
stability. He did, however, also involve them Labor under Bob Hawke and Paul Keating
in three more wars, in Korea (1950), Malaya (1983–96), were concerned with economic
(1955) and Vietnam (1965). Vietnam was the rather than social agendas. The boom of
first time Australia fought in a war in which the 1980s was followed by recession in the
Britain was not also engaged. 1990s. During this period Australia shifted
its focus from Europe towards Asia. The
Social Unrest and Change election of Kevin Rudd as prime minister
Opposition to conscription and the Vietnam in 2007 marked a return to government for
War increased in the late 1960s and led the Labor party after 11 years under Liberal
to major demonstrations. At the same leader John Howard. The new government’s
time there was concern for issues first act was a formal apology to
such as Aboriginal land rights indigenous Australians for the pain
and free education. In 1967, a of past mistreatment. Rudd was
constitutional referendum was toppled as leader of the Labor
passed by 90.8 per cent of the party in 2010 by Julia Gillard,
voters, ending the ban on the country’s first female prime
Aboriginal inclusion in the minister. In 2013 Australia voted
national census. It also gave for change, as Liberal Party leader
power to the federal Prime Minister Whitlam hands over Tony Abbott became prime
government to legislate for Aboriginal land rights in 1975 minister in a landslide victory.

1991 Paul 2010–11 2012 Fourth coronial


Keating Extensive flooding inquest into disappearance
1996 John 2007 Kevin Rudd elected
elected as in Queensland, of Azaria Chamberlain rules
Howard is prime minister with 75 per cent of a dingo took the baby from
prime elected as prime
minister 2006 Commonwealth Games the state declared an Uluru camp site in 1980
minister held in Melbourne a disaster zone
1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020
1992–3 High Court rules 2009 More than 170 2011 Cadel Evans is 2018 Gold
2000 Sydney
that Aborigines held valid killed and 1,800 the first Australian to Coast to host
hosts Olympic Commonwealth
claims to land Games homes destroyed in win the Tour de France
Victoria bushfires Games
1988 Bicentenary new federal 2010 Julia Gillard elected
Parliament House opened in Canberra Australia’s first female prime minister
SYDNEY

Introducing Sydney 66–77


The Rocks and Circular Quay 78–89
City Centre and
Darling Harbour 90–107
Botanic Gardens and
The Domain 108–119
Kings Cross, Darlinghurst
and Paddington 120–129
Further Afield 130–131
Practical Information 132–151
Sydney Street Finder 152–159
66  sydney

Central Sydney Sydney


Harbour

AY
Bridge

HW
HIG
This guide divides the centre of sydney into

LD
A
AD

RO
four distinct areas, and the majority of the RO

FIE
ST
AD
N
city’s main sights are contained in these Sydney

N
SO

RT

SO
BR
K
Opera

FO
IC
T HE ROCK S AND

K
H

HIC
districts. The Rocks and Circular Quay are House

ER
W
CI RCUL AR QU AY

LO
the oldest part of inner sydney. The City

D ST
A R G YL E Sydney

LAN
ST
Centre is the central business district, and to Cove

HICKSO

BER
OBSERVATORY

CUM

T
its west lies darling Harbour, which includes

STREE
PARK
Museum of

KENT
N
sydney’s well-known Chinatown. The Botanic Contemporary Art
CIRCULAR QUAY
CAHILL
Gardens and The domain form a green oasis TOLL EXPRESSW

UARIE
POINT AY
almost in the heart of the city. To the east are

STREE T
ST
STREET
GROSVENOR

ROAD
Circular

MACQ
GEORGE
PLACE
Quay
Kings Cross and darlinghurst, the hub of café

PITT
culture, and Paddington, an area that still GROSVENOR ST
BRIDGE STREET
Museum
retains its charming 19th-century character. of Sydney

ST

STREET
YORK
C L A R E

IP
STREET

ILL
KENT

STREET

PH

E
MACQUARI
STREET

ST
N C E
Wynyard

STREET
MARTIN

GEORGE
STREET
PLACE
THE
Australian National

PITT
Martin DOMAIN

ELIZABETH
H
Maritime Museum Wild Life Place

CASTLEREAG
KING STREET
Sydney
S T R E E

GEORGE
Pyrmont T
Sydney AR
SUSSEX

Bay S RO AD
Tower ME
JA
KE NT

St James

ST
Sea Life
PY

Sydney Aquarium STREET

STREET
MARKET
RM

ELIZABET
PITT STRE ET
STREET
STREET
ON

STR EE T

Cockle
T

Bay HYDE PHILLIP

COLLEGE
PARK
H

H
A

COOK
ST

Convention Town Hall PARK PARK


R R

RE

STREE
T
ET

WILL
I S

ST

IAM
ST
A
B AT H U R S
T STREET
PARK Australian
H

R
CI T Y CENTRE AND Museum
BO

DARLING DARLING H AR B OU R
UR

HARBOUR
STREET

LIVER Museum
STREE
S T

POOL
Exhibition        STREET
LIVERP
R E

O OOL S
X T
T

 E T
E T

FO
The Lord Nelson Brewery Hotel RE
AGH

PIER ST GO UL BU R
D
CROWN

RN ST RE ET
is a traditional pub in The Rocks
ST

ST
CASTLERE

Powerhouse
ET

ET

R
(see p482), which first opened its Museum EE
STRE

STRE

T
doors in 1834. Its own specially H AY
STRE
Paddy's
brewed beers are available on tap. Markets
ET
HA

Capitol Square
RGE
RR

AD
RO
IS

O
GEO

TIM
TT

UL
Central
PI

ED
ST

DY
RE

AV
RAILWAY E
ET

SQUARE
Central
T
EE
REG

Railway
T
EE
STR

STR

Station
EN

S
TS

ER
E

LM
TRE

LE

CHA
ET

0 metres 250

0 yards 250

Queen Victoria Building is a


Romanesque former produce
market, built in the 1890s.
Key
It forms part of a fine group
of Victorian buildings in the Major sight
City Centre (see p94). Now a Other buildings
shopping mall, it retains many
of its original features, including
its ornate roof statues.
The Sydney Harbour Bridge, the central business district and the Opera House
introducing sydney  67

Greater Sydney Palm


Beach

36
Fort 2
3
Denison
Mona

9
2
Hornsby 22 Vale
7 1
Penrith 14
Blacktown 3 29
44
Glenbrook Chatswood Manly
4 Parramatta
4
1
CENTRAL
R O AD

7 2
Burwood

55
SYDNEY
31
Bondi
Bankstown
S

Sydney
RIE

Farm Airport
Cove 5 Maroubra
UA
Q

9
C
A

ROYAL
M

BOTANIC 5 0 km 10
Sutherland
RS

GARDENS Campbelltown
M

Cronulla 0 miles 10
BOT A N IC
GA RDE N S A N D
T HE D O M A IN
Y
WA
AD
D
A

RO

The Art Gallery of


RO

RF

New South Wales


Y

HA
ER

Art Gallery of
W

(see pp114–15) is the


LL

CHALLIS
New South AVE
A

 G
PE

Wales CO W city’s premier art


ST RE ET
ET

NI CH OL
STRE

gallery, set amid the


T

SO N ST
STREE

Botanic Gardens
AY
M AC LE

HU GH ES
GR EE NK
NO and The Domain
ST AV E W E
STREET

GHAM

district. It houses an
ST

RIA

BAY RD
H

excellent collection
VICTO
CROWN

ET

B
BROU

A
ELI Z
KE ST

of early and
UTOR

D
FORBES

OA
TR
UE

EN contemporary
S
BOUR

UR

Kings
AV
DISTRIB

GH

Cross Australian, Aboriginal


IN

D
RL

W IL LI AM
WAR

and European art.


DA

STRE
ET
KIN G S C RK I NOG SSCS
RO,S S R
STREET

OAD
D A R LIN G H UCRR ASI GT AND
N

END
EASTER

S
PA D D IN G T O N T R E E T
PALMER

 
STREET

NUE
AD

AVE
AH
ER
RO

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ST RE ET OM
W
ST

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RS

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FO

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N

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BO U N D A
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M O A
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X
FO
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STAFFO
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STREE

ROAD

ST
RE
ET
SO UT H

PA
D Elizabeth Bay near Potts
YN

U D
N IN
D
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Point is a picturesque bay


S E LW

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O W TO
X O N
REN
NY
STR
F
O
R
O
D
ST
with fine views across
EET D
MOORE
PAR
K
RE
ET Sydney Harbour. It is
ST
situated in the heart
G

RO RE
O

LE
S

AD
R

ET
T

IN
D

of colonial Sydney, at
R

ST
O

ER
N

MOORE EET
T

PARK D ALLIANZ
M
OO
EN
STR
ET
the northern end
ST

RE ST QUE ST R E
RI

STADIUM R EE
of the Kings Cross,
R

T ES
VE R

JA M
E
E

Kippax PA OX
T

RK
GRE
Lake ROAD FO
RD Darlinghurst and
GO
RY
AVE
N
STR
EE T Paddington area (see
UE
pp124–5).
NE

SYDNEY
LA
AVENUE

CRICKET
AD

GROUND
AL

CENTENNIAL
RO
NI

PARK
EN

THE ENTERTAINMENT
NT

NG

QUARTER
CE

LA

For additional map symbols see back flap


68  SYDNEY

Sydney’s Best: Museums and Galleries


Sydney is well endowed with museums and galleries, and,
following the current appreciation of social history, much
emphasis is placed on the lifestyles of past and present
Sydneysiders. Small museums are also a feature of the
Sydney scene, with a number of historic houses recalling
the colonial days. Most of the major collections are housed
in architecturally significant buildings – the Classical façade
of the Art Gallery of NSW makes it a city landmark, while
the MCA or Museum of Contemporary Art
has given new life to a 1950s Art Deco-style The Museum of Sydney
includes The Edge of the
building at Circular Quay. Trees, an interactive
installation (see p96).

The Rocks and


Circular Quay

City Centre and


Darling Harbour
The Museum of Contemporary Art is Australia’s
only museum dedicated to exhibiting national and
international contemporary art (see p82).

The National
Maritime Museum
is the home port
for HMB Endeavour,
a replica of the
vessel that charted
Australia’s east coast
in 1770, with Captain
Cook in command
(see pp104–5).

The Powerhouse
0 metres
Museum, set in a former
500
power station, uses both
0 yards 500 traditional and interactive
displays to explore
Australian innovations in
science and technology
(see pp106–7).
INTRODUCING SYDNEY  69

The Art Gallery of New South Wales


includes colonial watercolours in its
Australian collection, which, to avoid
deterioration, are only shown for a few weeks
each year. Charles Meere’s Australian Beach
Pattern (1940) is one of them (see pp114–17).

Elizabeth Bay House is


elegantly furnished to
reflect the 1840s period,
when the Colonial
Secretary Alexander
Macleay lived in the house
that ultimately caused his
bankruptcy (see p124).
Botanic
Gardens and
The Domain

Kings Cross,
Darlinghurst and
The Hyde Park Barracks were originally
Paddington
built by convicts for their own
incarceration. They were later home to
poor female immigrants. Exhibits recall
the daily life of these occupants (see p118).

The Sydney Jewish


Museum documents the
history of the city’s Jewish
community. Exhibits
include reconstructed
The Australian Museum is where scenes, such as George
visitors can discover the Earth’s age, Street in 1848, a Jewish
find out about meteorites, volcanic business area (see p125).
activity, mining and more with its
stunning display of rocks and
minerals (see pp98–9).
70  SydnEy

Sydney’s Best: Architecture


For such a young city, Sydney possesses a great diversity of
architectural styles. They range from the simplicity of Francis
Greenway’s Georgian buildings (see p177) to Jørn Utzon’s
Expressionist Sydney Opera House (see pp88–9). Practical
colonial structures gave way to elaborate Victorian edifices
such as Sydney Town Hall. The same passion for detail is Colonial convict structures were
simple with shingled roofs, based on
seen in Paddington’s terraces. Later, Federation warehouses the English homes of the first settlers.
and bungalows introduced a uniquely Australian style. Cadman’s Cottage is an example of
this style (see p82).
Contemporary architecture
abounds in Sydney, including
Governor Phillip Tower. The
Museum of Sydney is at its
base (see p96).

The Rocks and


Circular Quay

Colonial Georgian buildings


include St James’ Church
(see p119). Francis Greenway’s
design was adapted to suit
the purposes of a church.

American Revivalism
took up the 1890s
vogue of arcades
connecting many City Centre
different streets. The and Darling
Queen Victoria Building Harbour
is a fine example (see p94).

Victorian architecture
abounds in the city.
Contemporary Expressionism’s main Sydney Town Hall
emphasis is roof design and the silhouette. includes a metal ceiling,
Innovations were made in sports stadiums installed for fear that
and museums, such as the Australian National the organ would vibrate
Maritime Museum (see p104–5). a plaster one loose
(see p97).

0 metres 500

0 yards 500 Interwar Architecture


encapsulates the spirit of Art
Deco, as seen in the Anzac
Memorial in Hyde Park (see p97).
introducing sydney  71

Modern Expressionism includes one of the


world’s greatest examples of 20th-century
architecture. The construction of Jørn
Utzon’s Sydney Opera House began in 1959.
Despite the architect’s resignation in 1966, it
was opened in 1973 (see pp88–9).

Australian Regency was popular during


the 1830s. The best-designed villas were
Early Colonial’s first the work of John Verge. The beautiful
buildings, such as Hyde Elizabeth Bay House is considered his
Park Barracks (see p118), masterpiece (see p124).
were mainly built for
Botanic Gardens the government.
and The Domain

Colonial Grecian and


Greek Revival were the
most popular styles
for public buildings
designed during the
1820–50 period. The
Darlinghurst Court
Kings Cross, House is a particularly
Darlinghurst and fine example (see p125).
Paddington

Victorian iron lace


incorporated filigree of cast-
iron in prefabricated patterns.
Paddington’s verandas are
fine examples of this 1880s
style (see pp126–7).

Colonial military buildings were


both functional and ornate. Victoria
Barracks, designed by engineers, is
a fine example of a Georgian military
compound (see p128).
72  SydnEy

Sydney’s Best: Parks and Reserves


Sydney is almost completely surrounded by national
parks and intact bushland. There are also a number
of national parks and reserves within Greater Sydney
itself. Here, the visitor can gain some idea of how the
landscape looked before the arrival of European settlers.
The city parks, too, are filled with plant and animal life.
The more formal plantings of both native and exotic
species are countered by the indigenous birds and
animals that have adapted and made the urban
environment their home. One of the highlights of a trip
to Sydney is the huge variety of birds to be seen, from
large birds of prey such as sea eagles and kites,
Garigal National Park is made
to the shyer species such as wrens and tiny finches.
up of rainforest and moist gullies,
which provide shelter for superb
lyrebirds and sugar gliders.

North Arm Walk is


covered in spring
with grevilleas and
flannel flowers
blooming profusely.

Lane Cove National Park is an open


eucalypt forest dotted with grass trees,
as well as fine stands of blue gums and
apple gums. The rosella, a type of parrot,
is common in the area.

Hyde Park is situated


on the edge of the
city centre (see p97).
The park provides a
peaceful respite from
the hectic streets. The
native iris is just one
of the plants found in
the lush gardens.
Bicentennial Park is situated at Homebush Bay. The sacred ibis,
The park features a mangrove habitat and attracts a water bird, is
many water birds, including pelicans. often seen.
introducing sydney  73

Middle Head and


Obelisk Bay are
dotted with gun
emplacements,
tunnels and bunkers
built in the 1870s to
protect Sydney from
invasion. The superb
fairy wren lives here,
and water dragons
can at times be seen
basking on rocks.
North Head is covered with coastal heathland,
with banksias, tea trees and casuarinas
dominating the cliff tops. On the leeward
side, moist forest surrounds tiny, secluded
harbour beaches.

Grotto Point’s paths,


winding through the bush to
the lighthouse, are lined with
bottlebrushes, grevilleas and
flannel flowers.

Bradleys Head is a
nesting place for the
ringtail possum. Noisy
flocks of rainbow
lorikeets are also often in
residence. The views
across the harbour to
Sydney are spectacular.

South Head contains


unique plant species
such as the sundew.

Nielsen Park is
inhabited by the
kookaburra, easily
identified by its call,
which sounds
like laughter.

The Domain features


palms and Moreton
Bay figs. The Australian
magpie, with its black
and white plumage,
is a frequent visitor
(see p113).

Moore Park is filled with


huge Moreton Bay figs
which provide an urban
habitat for the flying fox. Centennial Park contains
open expanses and groves of
paperbark and eucalypt trees,
bringing sulphur-crested
cockatoos en masse. The
brushtail possum is a shy
0 kilometres 4
creature that comes out at
0 miles 2 night (see p129).
74  Sydney

Garden Island to Farm Cove


Sydney’s vast harbour, also named Port Jackson after a
Secretary in the British Admiralty who promptly changed
his name, is a drowned river valley which was transformed
over millions of years. Its intricate coastal geography of
headlands and secluded bays can sometimes confound
even lifelong residents. This waterway was the lifeblood
of the early colony, with the maritime industry a vital
source of wealth and supply. The legacies of recessions The city skyline is a result of random
and booms can be viewed along the shoreline: development. The 1960s’ destruction
of architectural history was halted,
a representation of a nation where an estimated and towers now stand amid
70 per cent of the population cling to the Victorian buildings.
coastal cities, especially in the east.

Two harbour beacons, known


as “wedding cakes” because
of their three tiers, are solar
powered and equipped
with a fail-safe back-up
service. There are around
350 buoys and beacons
now in operation.

The barracks for Garden Island


the naval garrison marks a 1940s
date from 1888. construction project
with 12 ha (30 acres)
reclaimed from the
harbour.

Sailing on the harbour is a pastime not


exclusively reserved for the rich elite. Of the
several hundred thousand pleasure boats
registered, some are available for hire while
others take out groups of inexperienced sailors.
Mrs Macquaries Chair is a carved rock seat by Mrs
Macquaries Road (see p112). In the early days of the
0 metres 250
colony this was the site of a fruit and vegetable
0 yards 250 garden which was farmed until 1805.
introducing sydney  75

The Andrew (Boy) Charlton Pool is


a favourite bathing spot for inner-city
residents, and is named after the the rockS
and circular
16-year old who won an Olympic quay
gold medal in 1924. It was erected botanic
in 1963 on the Domain Baths’ site, gardenS and
the domain
which had a grandstand for 1,700.
city centre
and darling kingS croSS,
harbour darlinghurSt
Woolloomooloo Finger and paddington
Wharf was a disembarkation Locator Map
point when most travellers See Street Finder, map 2
arrived by sea.

Harry’s Café de Wheels, a snack van,


has been a Sydney culinary institution
for more than 50 years. Photographs
of celebrity customers are pinned
to the van, attesting to its fame.

The Royal Botanic Gardens


display both flowering and
non-flowering plants. Here
the first trees were planted
by the new European
colonists; some of these trees
survive today (see pp110–11).

Farm Cove has long


been a mooring place
for visiting naval vessels.
The land opposite, now the
Botanic Gardens, has been
continuously cultivated
for over 200 years.
76  sydney

Sydney Cove to Walsh Bay Conservatorium


of Music
It is estimated that over 70 km (43 miles) of harbour
foreshore have been lost as a result of the massive land
reclamation projects carried out since the 1840s. That
the 13 islands existing when the First Fleet arrived in
1788 have now been reduced to just eight is a startling
indication of rapid and profound geographical
transformation. Redevelopments around the Circular
Quay and Walsh Bay area from the 1980s have opened
up the waterfront for public use and enjoyment,
acknowledging it as the city’s greatest natural asset.
sydney’s environmental and architectural aspirations
recognize the need to integrate city and harbour.

1857 Man
O’War Steps

The Sydney Opera House was


designed to take advantage of
its spectacular setting. The roofs
Government House,
shine during the day and seem
a Gothic Revival building,
to glow at night. The building was home to the state’s
appears as a visionary landscape governors until 1996.
to the onlooker (see pp88–9).

Harbour cruises regularly depart from The Sydney Harbour


Circular Quay, taking visitors out and Bridge was also known as
about both during the day and in the the “Iron Lung” at the time
evening. They are an incomparable way of its construction. During
to see the city and its waterways. the Great Depression it
provided on-site work for
approximately 1,400, while
0 metres 250
others worked in specialist
0 yards 250 workshops (see pp84–5).
introducing sydney  77

The Rocks, settled by convicts and


troops in 1788, is one of Sydney’s
oldest neighbourhoods. Rich in the rockS
heritage, many of its old sandstone and circular
quay
buildings have been restored and
botanic
house speciality and craft shops. gardenS and
the domain
city
centre
and kingS croSS,
darling darlinghurSt
The Tank Stream, the harbour and Paddington
colony’s first water supply,
now runs underground and Locator Map
spills into the quay. See Street Finder, maps 1 & 2

Cahill
Expressway

Circular Quay, originally and more accurately


known as Semi-Circular Quay, was the last and
arguably greatest convict-built structure. Tank
Stream mudflats were filled in to shape the quay,
and sandstone from The Rocks formed the sea wall.

The Wharf Theatre resides on


a pier that took six years to build,
mostly due to the diversion of
labour and materials during
World War I. The theatre was
opened in 1984.

The wharves’ design


The wharves were
completed in 1922.
included a rat-proof sea
wall around the port.
This was an urgent
Imports and exports
response to the 1900
to and from the city bubonic plague
were stored in these outbreak, attributed to
wharves until 1977. rats on the wharves.
SYDNEY  79

THE ROCKS AND


CIRCULAR QUAY
Circular Quay, once known as Semi-Circular points for New Year’s Eve festivities. Circular
Quay, is often referred to as the “birthplace of Quay was the setting for huge crowds when,
Australia”. It was here, in January 1788, that the in 1993, Sydney was awarded the year 2000
First Fleet landed its human freight of convicts, Olympic Games. The Rocks area offers visitors
soldiers and officials, and the new British a taste of Sydney’s past, but it is a far cry from
colony of New South Wales was declared. the time, little more than 100 years ago, when
Sydney Cove became a rallying point when- most inhabitants lived in rat-infested slums,
ever a ship arrived bringing much-needed and gangs ruled its streets. Now scrubbed and
supplies from “home”. Crowds still gather polished, The Rocks forms part of the colourful
here whenever there is a national or civic promenade from the Sydney Harbour Bridge
celebration. The Quay and The Rocks are focal to the spectacular Sydney Opera House.

Sights at a Glance
Museums and Galleries Historic Streets and Buildings Churches
1 Susannah Place 3 Cadman’s Cottage 9 Garrison Church
2 Museum of Contemporary Art 6 Campbell’s Storehouses w St Philip’s Church
4 Sailors’ Home 7 Sydney Harbour Bridge pp84–5
5 The Rocks Discovery Museum 8 Hero of Waterloo
q National Trust Centre 0 Sydney Observatory
t Justice and Police Museum e Macquarie Place
r Customs House
Theatres and Concert Halls
y Writers’ Walk
u Sydney Opera House pp88–9

See also Street Finder,


DAWES map 1
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0 metres 250
J A MIS O N S T R
0 yards 250

Sydney’s world-famous Opera House reflected in the harbour For keys to symbols see back flap
80  SYDNEY

Street-by-Street: The Rocks


Named for the rugged cliffs that were once its dominant
feature, this area has played a vital role in Sydney’s development.
In 1788, the First Fleeters under Governor Phillip’s command
erected makeshift buildings here, with the convicts’ hard
labour used to establish more permanent structures in the
form of rough-hewn streets. The Argyle Cut, a road carved
through solid rock using just hammer and chisel, took
18 years to build, beginning in 1843. By 1900, The Rocks
was overrun with disease; the street now known as Suez
Canal was once Sewer’s Canal. Today, the area is still rich in 8 Hero of Waterloo
Lying beneath this historic
colonial history and colour. Hero of pub is a tunnel originally
Waterloo used for smuggling.
LOWER
WA

AR
TSO

GY
UE
EN
AV
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N R

ITY
IN
ST

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STRE
UPPER FORT AY
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BRA
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ST
ND
LA
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0. Sydney Observatory
The first European structure
on this prominent site was
a windmill. The present IR
FA
museum holds some of AY
the earliest astronomical PL
instruments brought
AR

to Australia. ET
RE
GY

ST
ON
LE

N GT
ST

R RI
HA
RE
ET

9 Garrison Church
Columns in this church are T
decorated with the insignia EE
R
of British troops stationed ST
here until 1870. Australia’s E
G
first prime minister was R
EO
educated next door. G

Argyle Cut

Suez Canal

2. Museum of
Contemporary Art
Australian and international
art is displayed in a Classical Walkway along
building. A café housed in a Circular Quay West
modern extension offers superb
foreshore
views of the harbour.
For hotels and restaurants in this area see pp482–3 and pp504–7
T H E R O C K S A N D C I R C U L A R Q UAY  81

5 The Rocks
Discovery Museum
Key episodes in The
Rocks’ history are
illustrated by this
museum’s collection
of maritime images The roCkS and boTaniC
gardenS
and other artifacts. CirCular quay
and The
domain

Locator Map
See Central Sydney map pp66–7

FOR T STREE T

AY
HIGHW
IELD
BR ADF

The Rocks Market is a hive


ET

of activity every weekend,


RE

offering an eclectic range


ST

of craft items and jewellery


LK utilizing Australian icons
WA
from gum leaves to koalas
N
SO

(see p137).
ET

CK
TRE

HI

ET
RE
ST
E S
RG
GEO

T
S
E
W
Y
U
A 3. Cadman’s Cottage
Q John Cadman, government coxswain,
resided in what was known as the
Coxswain’s Barracks with his family.
R
LA His wife Elizabeth was also a significant
U figure, believed to be the first woman
C
IR to vote in New South Wales, a right
C
she insisted on.

0 metres 100

0 yards 100
The Overseas
Passenger Terminal Key
is where some of Suggested route
the world’s luxury
cruise liners berth
during their stay
in Sydney.
82  sydney

works by Hockney, Warhol,


Lichtenstein and Christo was
transferred to this 1950s Art
Deco-style building at Circular
Quay West. As well as showing
its permanent collection, the
museum hosts exhibitions by
local and overseas artists. The
MCA Store sells distinctive gifts
by Australian designers.

3 Cadman’s
Cottage
110 George St, The Rocks.
Map 1 B2. @ 431, 432, 433, 434.
Closed to the public.

Built in 1816 as barracks for


the crews of the governor’s
boats, this sandstone cottage
is Sydney’s oldest surviving
dwelling. Visitors can walk
around the small, historic site,
Old-fashioned Australian goods at the corner shop, Susannah Place but cannot enter the building.
The cottage is named after
1 Susannah Place when the Builders Labourers’ John Cadman, a convict who
Federation imposed a “green was transported in 1798 for
58–64 Gloucester St, The Rocks.
ban” on The Rocks, temporarily horse-stealing. By 1813, he
Map 1 B2. Tel (02) 9241 1893.
@ Sydney Explorer, 431, 432, 433, halting all redevelopment work was coxswain of a timber
434.  Circular Quay, Wynyard. which was destructive to boat and later, coxswain of
Open 2–5pm daily. Closed Good Fri, cultural heritage. government craft. He was
25 Dec. & 8 ∑ sydneyliving granted a full pardon and
museums.com.au in 1827 he was made boat
2 Museum of superintendent and moved
This terrace of four brick and Contemporary Art to the four-room cottage
sandstone houses dating back Circular Quay West, The Rocks.
that now bears his name.
to 1844 has a rare history of Map 1 B2. Tel (02) 9245 2400. Cadman married Elizabeth
continuous domestic @ 431, 432, 433, 434, Sydney Mortimer in 1830, another
occupancy from the 1840s Explorer. Open 10am–5pm daily ex-convict who was sentenced
through to 1990. It is now a (to 9pm Thu). Closed 25 Dec. to seven years’ transportation
museum examining the 7 8 ∑ mca.com.au for the theft of one hairbrush.
living conditions of its former They lived in the cottage until
inhabitants. Rather than When Sydney art collector John 1845. Cadman’s Cottage was
re-creating a single period, the Power died in 1943, he left his built on the foreshore of
museum retains the renovations entire collection and a financial Sydney Harbour. Now, as
carried out by different tenants. bequest to the University of a result of successive land
Built for Edward and Mary Riley, Sydney. In 1991 the collection, reclamations, it is set well
who arrived from Ireland with which by then included back from the water’s edge.
their niece Susannah in 1838,
these houses have basement
kitchens and backyard
outhouses. Piped water and
sewerage were probably added
by the mid-1850s.
The terrace escaped the
wholesale demolitions that
occurred after the outbreak
of bubonic plague in 1900, as
well as later clearings of land
to make way for the Sydney
Harbour Bridge (see pp84–5) and
the Cahill Expressway. In the
1970s it was saved once again The Art Deco-style Museum of Contemporary Art, with the adjoining modern extension
For hotels and restaurants in this area see pp482–3 and pp504–7
t h e r o c k s a n d c i r c u l a r q uay  83

4 Sailors’ Home
106 George St, The Rocks. Map 1 B2.
@ Sydney Explorer, 339, 340, 431,
432, 433, 434.

Built in 1864 as lodgings


for visiting sailors, the first
and second floors here were
dormitories, but these were
later divided into 56 cubicles
or “cabins” which were
arranged around open Terrace restaurants at Campbell’s Storehouses on the waterfront
galleries and lit by four
enormous skylights. At the 6 Campbell’s outdoor eating establishments
time it was built, the Sailors’
Home was a welcome
Storehouses very popular with local business
people and tourists alike.
alternative to the many seedy 7–27 Circular Quay West, The Rocks.
inns and brothels in the area, Map 1 B2. @ Sydney Explorer, 431,
saving sailors from the perils 432, 433, 434. 7 7 Sydney
of “crimping”. “Crimps” would Harbour Bridge
tempt newly arrived men into Robert Campbell, a prominent See pp84–5.
bars providing much sought- Scottish merchant in the early
after entertainment. While days of Sydney, purchased
drunk, the sailors would be this land on Sydney Cove in
sold on to departing ships, 1799. In 1802 he began
waking miles out at sea and constructing a private wharf
returning home in debt. and storehouses in which to
Sailors used the home until house the tea, sugar, spirits and
1980. It is now home to the cloth he imported from India.
highly-regarded Sailors’ Thai Campbell was the only
restaurant and noodle bar. merchant operating in Australia
who managed to infiltrate the
monopoly held by the British
5 The Rocks East India Company. The first
Discovery Museum five sandstone bays were built
Kendall Lane, The Rocks. Map 1 B2.
between 1839 and 1844. A
Tel (02) 9240 8680. @ Sydney further seven bays were built
Explorer, 431, 432, 433, 434. between 1854 and 1861. The
 Circular Quay. Open 10am–5pm full row of storehouses were
daily. Closed Good Fri, 25 Dec. 7 finally completed in 1890,
∑ therocks.com.au including a brick upper storey.
Part of the old sea wall and 11 The historic Hero of Waterloo Inn, built in
This fascinating museum, in of the original stores are still the 19th century
a restored 1850s sandstone standing. The pulleys that were
coach house, is home to used to raise cargo from the 8 Hero of Waterloo
a unique collection of wharf can be seen near the top
81 Lower Fort St, The Rocks. Map 1 A2.
archaeological artifacts and of the preserved buildings. Tel (02) 9252 4553. @ 431, 432, 433,
images that detail the story The area fell into disrepair 434. Open 10am–11:30pm Mon–Wed,
of The Rocks from the pre- during the first half of the 10am–midnight Thu–Sat, 10am–10pm
European days to the present. 20th century. However, in Sun. Closed Good Fri, 25 Dec.
There are four permanent the 1970s the Sydney Cove 7 limited.
exhibitions which are highly Redevelopment Authority
interactive, making use of finalized plans and began This picturesque old inn is
touch screens and audio and renovating the site. Today the especially welcoming in the
visual technology. Some of bond stores contain a range of winter with its log fires.
the artifacts were found at fine restaurants catering to all Built in 1844, this was a
the archaeological site on tastes, from contemporary favourite drinking place for the
Cumberland Street. Australian to Chinese and nearby garrison’s soldiers. Some
The Rocks Discovery Italian. Their virtually sea captains were said to use
Museum has been developed unimpeded views across the hotel to recruit. Patrons who
in close consultation with Circular Quay towards the drank too much were pushed
local Aboriginal groups, so Sydney Opera House (see into the cellars via a trapdoor.
that their story of the area is pp88–9) and Sydney Harbour Tunnels then led to the wharves
properly told. Bridge (see pp84–5) make these and on to waiting ships.
84  Sydney

7 Sydney Harbour Bridge


Completed in 1932, the construction of the Sydney Harbour
Bridge was an economic feat, given the depressed times, as
well as an engineering triumph. Prior to this, the only links
between the city centre on the south side of the harbour
and the residential north side were by ferry or a circuitous
20-km (12-mile) road route which involved five bridge
crossings. The single-span arch bridge, colloquially known
as the “Coathanger”, took eight years to build, including the The 1932 Opening
railway line. The bridge was manufactured in sections on The ceremony was disrupted
the latter-day Luna Park site. Loans for the total cost of when zealous royalist Francis de
Groot rode forward and cut the
approximately 6.25 million old Australian pounds were ribbon, in honour, he claimed,
eventually paid off in 1988. of King and Empire.

The deck, 59 m (194 ft) The arch spans


above sea level, was built 503 m (1,650 ft) and
from the centre. supports the weight
of the bridge deck.
City Centre

Harbour Bridge
Pylon Lookout Building the foundations

Beginning the arch


Building the Bridge
Planted in solid sandstone, the foundations are
12 m (39 ft) deep. The arch was built in halves
with steel cable restraints initially supporting
Joining the arch
each side. Once the two halves met, work
began on the deck.

Anchoring tunnels Deck under construction


are 36 m (118 ft) long Support cables were
and dug into rock at slackened over a 12-day Temporary
each end. period, enabling the two attachment plate
halves to join.

The Bridge Design


The steel arch of the bridge supports
the deck, with hinges at either end
bearing the bridge’s full weight and
spreading the load to the foundations. The
hinges allow the structure to move as the
steel expands and contracts in response
to wind and extreme temperatures.

For hotels and restaurants in this area see pp482–3 and pp504–7
t h e r o c k s a n d c i r c u l a r q uay  85

Bridge Climb ViSiTOrS’ CheCkliST


Thousands of people
have enjoyed the Practical Information
spectacular bridge- 3 Cumberland Street. Map 1 B1.
top views after a 3.5- Bridge Climb: Tel (02) 82 74 7777.
hour guided tour up Open Varies by season; call ahead.
ladders, catwalks and Pylon Lookout: Tel (02) 9240 1100.
finally the upper arch Open 10am–5pm daily.
of the bridge. A 2.5- Closed 25, 30, 31 Dec. & =
hour “Express Climb” ∑ bridgeclimb.com
is also available.
Transport
@ All routes to The Rocks. g
Circular Quay.  Circular Quay.
Over 150,000 vehicles
cross the bridge each Bridge Workers
day, about 15 times as The bridge was built by
many as in 1932. 1,400 workers, 16 of
whom were killed in
accidents during
construction.

North Shore

Maintenance
Painting the bridge has
become a metaphor
for an endless task.
Approximately 30,000
litres (6,593 gal) of paint
are required for each The vertical hangers
coat, enough to cover support the slanting
an area equivalent to crossbeams which, in turn,
60 soccer pitches. carry the deck.

Father of the Bridge


Chief engineer Dr John Bradfield shakes
the hand of the driver of the first train to
cross the bridge. Over a 20-year period,
Bradfield supervised all aspects of the
bridge’s design and construction. At the
Paying the Toll opening ceremony, the highway linking
The initial toll of sixpence helped pay off the construction loan. the harbour’s south side and northern
The toll is now used for maintenance and to pay for the 1992 suburbs was named in his honour.
Sydney Harbour Tunnel.
86  sydney

A Flagpole on the Mudflats


The modest flagpole on Loftus Street, near
Customs House, flies a flag, the Union Jack, on the
spot where Australia’s first ceremonial flag-raising
took place. On 26 January 1788, Captain Arthur
Phillip hoisted the flag to declare the foundation
of the colony. A toast to the king was drunk and
a musket volley fired. On this date each year, the
country marks Australia Day with a national
holiday (see p45). In 1788, the flagpole was on
the edge of mudflats on Sydney Cove. Today,
due to land reclamations, it is set back from
the water’s edge.
The Founding of Australia by Algernon Talmage

9 Garrison Church displays and games, along with exhibitions throughout the year,
night sky viewings; it is essential designed to explore the richness
Cnr Argyle & Lower Fort sts, Millers
to book for these. and diversity in Australian art.
Point. Map 1 A2. Tel (02) 9247 1071.
@ 431, 433. Open 9am–6pm daily. The building began life in
7 ∑ thegarrisonchurch.org.au the 1850s as a time-ball tower.
At 1pm daily, the ball on top of w St Philip’s Church
Officially named the Holy Trinity the tower dropped to signal the
3 York St (enter from Jamison St).
Church, this was dubbed the correct time. At the same time,
Map 1 A3. Tel (02) 9247 1071.
Garrison Church because it a cannon was fired at Fort @ George St routes. Open 9am–5pm
was the colony’s first Denison. This custom Mon–Fri. Closed 26 Jan. 8 Phone
military church. continues today first. R 1pm Wed, 8am, 10am,
Henry Ginn (see p112). 6:15pm Sun, 4pm 1st & 3rd Sun of
designed the church During the 1880s month. ∑ yorkstreetanglican.com
and, in 1840, the Sydney Observatory
foundation stone became known The square tower of this Victorian
was laid. In 1855, around the world Gothic church dwarfed by
it was enlarged to when some of the modern edifices was a local
hold up to 600 first astronomical landmark when it was first built.
people. Regimental photographs of the The original 1793 church
plaques hanging southern sky were burned down and was replaced
along interior walls taken here. From in 1810. Construction of the
recall the church’s East window, 1890 to 1962 the current building, designed by
military associations. Garrison Church observatory mapped Edmund Blacket, began in 1848.
A museum contains some 750,000 stars as Work was disrupted in 1851,
Australian military and part of an international project when the stonemasons left for
historical items. that resulted in an atlas of the the gold fields, but by 1856 the
Other features to look out entire night sky. church was finally completed.
for are the brilliantly coloured A peal of bells was donated
east window and the carved in 1888 to mark Sydney’s cen-
red cedar pulpit. q National tenary, and they still announce
Trust Centre the services each Sunday.

0Sydney Observatory Hill, Watson Rd, The Rocks.


Map 1 A3. Tel (02) 9258 0123.
Observatory @ Sydney Explorer, 343, 431, 432,
Observatory Hill, Watson Rd, The 433, 434. Open 9am–5pm Tue–Fri.
Rocks. Map 1 A2. Tel (02) 9921 3485. Gallery: Open 11am–5pm Tue–Sun.
@ Sydney Explorer, 343, 431, stop 22. Closed pub hols. 7 = -
Open 10am–5pm daily. Night viewings ∑ nationaltrust.org.au
call to book. Closed 25 Dec. & 7
8 ∑ sydneyobservatory.com.au The buildings that form the
headquarters of the National
In 1982 this domed building, Trust of Australia, date from 1815,
which had been a centre for when Governor Macquarie
astronomical observation and chose the site for a military
research for almost 125 years, hospital. Today they house a café,
became the city’s astronomy a National Trust shop and the
museum. It has interactive S H Ervin Gallery, with changing Interior and pipe organ of St Philip’s Church
For hotels and restaurants in this area see pp482–3 and pp504–7
t h e r o c k s a n d c i r c u l a r q uay  87

e Macquarie Place Formalities of the late­Victorian


Map 1 B3. @ Circular Quay routes.
legal proceedings can be
easily imagined in the fully
Governor Macquarie created restored courtroom. Menacing
this park in 1810 on what was implements from knuckle­
once the vegetable garden of dusters to bludgeons are
the first Government House. The displayed as the macabre relics
sandstone obelisk, designed by of notorious crimes. Other
Francis Greenway (see p177), was interesting aspects of policing,
erected in 1818 to mark the criminality and the legal system
starting point for all roads in the are highlighted in special
colony. The gas lamps recall the changing exhibitions. The
fact that this was also the site of museum power fully evokes
the city’s first street lamp in 1826. the realities of Australian
Also in this area are the Montage of criminal “mug shots”, policing and justice.
remains of the bow anchor Justice and Police Museum
and cannon from HMS Sirius,
flagship of the First Fleet. The t Justice and y Writers’ Walk
statue of Thomas Mort, a suc­ Police Museum Circular Quay. Map 1 C2.
cessful 19th­century industri­ @ Circular Quay routes.
alist, is today a marshalling Cnr Albert & Phillip sts. Map 1 C3.
place for the city’s somewhat Tel (02) 9252 1144. @ Circular Quay This series of plaques is set
kamikaze bicycle couriers. routes. Open 10am–5pm Sat & Sun in the pavement at regular
(open daily in Jan). Closed Good Fri,
intervals between East and
25 Dec. 8 & 7 limited.
∑ sydneylivingmuseums.com.au
West Circular Quay. It gives the
r Customs House visitor the chance to ponder
The buildings housing this the observations of famous
31 Alfred St, Circular Quay.
museum originally comprised Australian writers, both past
Map 1 B3. Tel (02) 9242 8551.
@ Circular Quay routes. Open 8am– the Water Police Court, and present, on their home
midnight Mon–Fri, 10am–midnight designed by Edmund Blacket country, as well as the musings
Sat, 11am–5pm Sun. 7 - 0 in 1856, the Water Police of some noted literary visitors.
∑ sydneycustomshouse.com.au Station, designed by Alexander Each plaque is dedicated
Dawson in 1858, and the to a particular writer, consisting
Colonial architect James Barnet Police Court, designed by of a personal quotation and
designed this 1885 James Barnet in 1885. a brief biographical note.
sandstone Classical Here the rough­and­ Australian writers in the series
Revival building on tumble under world include the novelists Miles
the same site as a of quayside crime, Franklin and Peter Carey, poets
previous Customs from the petty to the Oodgeroo Noonuccal and
House. Its recalls the violent, was dealt Judith Wright (see pp38–9),
bygone days when swift and, at times, humorists Barry Humphries and
trading ships berthed harsh justice. The Clive James, and the influential
at Circular Quay. The museum exhibits feminist writer Germaine Greer.
Detail from
building stands near illustrate that Among the international writers
the mouth of Tank Customs House turbulent period, as included who have visited
Stream, the fledgling colony’s they re­create legal and Sydney are Mark Twain, Charles
freshwater supply. Among its criminal history. Darwin and Joseph Conrad.
many fine features are tall
veranda columns made out
of polished granite, a finely
sculpted coat of arms and an
elaborate clock face, added
in 1897, which features a pair
of tridents and dolphins.
A complete refurbishment
was completed in 2005.
Facilities include a City Library
with a reading room and
exhibition space, and an open
lounge area with an
international newspaper and
magazine salon, Internet access
and bar. On the roof, Café
Sydney offers great views. Strolling along a section of the Writers’ Walk at Circular Quay
88  sydney

u Sydney Opera House


no other building on earth looks like the sydney Opera
House. Popularly known as the “Opera House” long before
the building was complete, it is, in fact, a complex of theatres
and halls linked beneath its famous shells. Its birth was long
and complicated. Many of the construction problems had not
been faced before, resulting in an architectural adventure
which lasted 14 years. An appeal fund was set up, eventually
raising A$900,000, while the Opera House Lottery raised the
balance of the A$102 million final cost. Today it is the city’s
most popular tourist attraction, as well as one of the world’s
. Dame Joan Sutherland
busiest performing arts centres. Theatre
This 1,507-seat theatre, mainly used
Detail of The for opera and ballet, has staged
Possum Dreaming grand operas such as Verdi’s Aïda.
(1988)
The mural in the
Dame Joan Sutherland
Theatre foyer is by
Michael Tjakamarra
Nelson, an artist
from the central
Australian desert.

Opera House Walkway


Extensive public walkways around
the building offer the visitor
views from many different
vantage points.

KEY

1 The Dame Joan Sutherland


Theatre’s ceiling and walls are painted
black to focus attention on the stage. Northern Foyers
The Utzon Room and
2 The Monumental Steps and the large northern
forecourt are used for outdoor foyers of the Opera
performances. Theatre and Concert
3 The Playhouse, seating almost Hall have spectacular
400, is ideal for intimate productions, views over the harbour
while also able to present plays with and can be hired for
larger casts. conferences, lunches,
parties and weddings.
For hotels and restaurants in this area see pp482–3 and pp504–7
t h e r o c k s a n d c i r c u l a r q uay  89

. Concert Hall VisiToRs’ CHeCklisT


This is the largest
hall, with seating Practical Information
for 2,690. It is used Bennelong Point. Map 1 C2.
for symphony, Tel (02) 9250 7111.
choral, jazz, folk ∑ sydneyoperahouse.com
and pop concerts, Box office: (02) 9250 7777.
chamber music, open tours and performances.
opera, dance and Closed Good Fri, 25 Dec.
everything from 7 limited (02) 9250 7777.
body building to 8 9am–5pm, call (02) 9250 7250;
fashion parades. for disabled visitors: noon daily.
TTY for hearing impaired 133 677,
then ask for 9250 7111. 0 - =

Transport
@ Sydney Explorer, 111, 311,
380, 389, 392, 394, 396, 397, 399,
890. g  Circular Quay.

. The Roofs
Although apocryphal, the
theory that Jørn Utzon’s
arched roof design came to
him while peeling an orange is
enchanting. The highest point
is 67 m (221 ft) above sea level.

Detail of Utzon’s Tapestry (2004)


Jørn Utzon’s original design for this Gobelin-style
tapestry, which hangs floor to ceiling in the Utzon
Room, was inspired by the music of Carl Philipp
Emanuel Bach.
SyDnEy  91

CITY CENTRE AND


DARLING HARBOUR
George Street, Australia’s first thoroughfare, while the city’s commercial centre is an
was originally lined with mud and wattle area of department stores and arcades.
huts, but following the gold rush shops and The country’s industrial age began in
banks came to dominate the area. The city’s Darling Harbour in 1815 with the opening
first skyscraper, Culwulla Chambers, was of a steam mill, but later the area became
completed in 1913. Hyde Park, on the edge rundown. In the 1980s, it was the site of
of the city centre, was once a racecourse, a massive urban redevelopment project.
attracting gambling taverns to Elizabeth Today, Darling Harbour contains many
Street. Today it provides a peaceful oasis, fine museums and other attractions.

Sights at a Glance
Museums and Galleries Historic Streets and Buildings Entertainment
7 Museum of Sydney 1 Queen Victoria Building 2 State Theatre
0 Australian Museum pp98–9 3 Strand Arcade r Sea Life Sydney Aquarium,
t Australian National Maritime 4 Martin Place Wild Life Sydney Zoo and
Museum pp104–5 5 Sydney Tower p95 Madame Tussaud’s
i Powerhouse Museum pp106–7 6 Lands Department Building y King Street Wharf
Cathedrals and Synagogues w Sydney Town Hall
Markets
p Chinatown
8 St Mary’s Cathedral o Paddy’s Markets
q Great Synagogue
e St Andrew’s Cathedral
Parks and Gardens ST RE ET
E
BR ID G
STREET

9 Hyde Park
I P ST

u Chinese Garden
GEORG E

PITT

PH S T H
YO RK

IG
ILL
BL
KE NT

MACQUARIE
STREET

CASTLE REAGH

Wynyard
ELIZABE TH
STREET
ST RE ET

Martin
CL AR EN
ST RE ET

Place

CITY CENTRE
CE

STREET

PYRMONT
BAY PARK KI NG ST RE ET KIN G STR EET
YO RK
ST RE ET

STREET

ES RD
GE OR GE

Pyrmont AM
See also Street Finder
SU SS EX

Bay
J
ST

St. James maps 1, 3 and 4


ST

STREET
MARKET
COLLEGE
ST RE ET

ELIZAB ETH
DARLING

ST

PHILLIP
PITT

Cockle HYDE PARK


PY

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R

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UR

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RE

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ST

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STREET
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S T R EET
R GO ULB URN
PIE STR EET
ST RE ET

S T R EE T

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Markets ST RE ET
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ELIZABETH STREET

A
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IS

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STR

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ER
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Bird sculptures at the Harbourside Shopping Centre in Darling Harbour For keys to symbols see back flap
92  SYDNEY

Street-by-Street: City Centre


Although closely rivalled by Melbourne, Sydney is
the business and commercial capital of Australia.
Vibrant by day, at night the streets are far less busy
when office workers and shoppers have gone home.
The comparatively small city centre of this sprawling
metropolis seems to be almost jammed into a few
city blocks. Because Sydney grew in such a haphazard
fashion, with many of today’s streets following tracks
from the harbour originally made by bullocks, there was
no allowance for the expansion of the city into what has
become a major international centre. A colourful night 1. Queen Victoria Building
scene of cafés, restaurants and theatres is emerging, Taking up an entire city block, this
however, as more people return to the city centre to live. 1898 former produce market was
lovingly restored in 1986 and is
now a shopping mall.

T
e
e
r
2 State Theatre T T
S e
A gem from the golden age of movies, e
r
this 1929 cinema was once hailed as “the k T
r S
Empire’s greatest theatre”. It now hosts o
y
live concerts too.
M
a
r

e
k

g
e

r
T

o
e
g

To Sydney
Town Hall T
ee
r
ST
T
iT
p

0 metres 100

0 yards 100
h
g
ea
key
l er
The Queen Victoria Statue was Suggested route ST
p

a
a

found after a worldwide search C


r

h
k

in 1983 ended in a small Irish eT


B
village. It had lain forgotten and a
neglected since being removed iz
el
S
T

from the front of the Irish


r
e

Parliament in 1947.
e
T

Marble Bar was once a landmark bar in the


1893 Tattersalls hotel. It was re-erected in the
basement of the Sydney Hilton in 1973, and
again in 2005 when the hotel was rebuilt.
For hotels and restaurants in this area see pp482–3 and pp504–7
CITY CENTRE AND DARLING HARBOUR  93

3 Strand Arcade botaniC


City Centre
A reminder of the late 19th century garDenS
anD the
Victorian era when Sydney was famed Domain

as a city of elegant shopping arcades,