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# FAULT ANALYSIS

OF POWER SYSTEMS
RCPallugna, REE, M.Eng’g
“Yesterday’s engineers spent a major portion of their
time substituting values into formulas and
obtaining numerical results. But all the formula
manipulations and number crunching are left to
computers. Tomorrow’s engineers will need to
have a clear understanding and a firm grasp of the
basic principles so that they can understand the
most complex problems, formulate them and
interpret results”
Yunus Cengel
Famous author of ME books
YESTERDAY:
Memorize MATH SKILLS NUMERICAL Solve BASIC
EQUATIONS manipulation RESULT PROBLEMS
TODAY:
Understand Understand, Formulate, Interpret
COMPUTER VERY COMPLEX PROBLEMS
BASIC
SKILLS (QUICKLY !)
PRINCIPLES
OBJECTIVES
• Have a review of the Fault analysis algorithm
• Be able to formulate the BIM from the
impedance network of a power system using
BAM inversion
• Do a 3-phase, SLG, LL, & DLG fault analysis of a
given system using Zbus Fault analysis method
• Do a simulated fault analysis using
POWERWORLD software
• Conduct a Laboratory activity of power system
fault
APPROACH
• Take a more holistic view rather than go into
the details immediately
• See the relationship between Fault Analysis
and Power System Study as a whole
• An overview review of the theory, illustrated
by a sample problem and a simulation
3 Major Concepts needed for Fault Analysis

Bus
Impedance Symmetrical Sequence
Matrix Components Networks
Building

Fault Analysis
Zbus Method of Fault Analysis
Power Flow
Analysis

Single Line
Diagram

Impedance
Network
[012 networks]

Network
[012 networks]
Matrix [Y012]

Bus Impedance
Matrix [Z012]

Bus Impedance
Matrix Method of
Fault Analysis
3PhaseFault Analysis Symmetrical components of fault
Phase Voltages

## Symmetrical components of fault

Currents in line i to j
Symmetrical components of fault
Currents:

## Fault phase current : Phase Fault current in line i to j :

SLG Fault Analysis Symmetrical components of fault
Phase Voltages

## Symmetrical components of fault

Currents in line i to j

Currents:

## Fault phase current : Phase Fault current in line i to j :

L-L Fault Analysis Symmetrical components of fault
Phase Voltages

## Symmetrical components of fault

Currents in line i to j

Currents:

## Fault phase current : Phase Fault current in line i to j :

Fault phase current :
DLG Fault Analysis
Symmetrical components of fault
Phase Voltages

## Symmetrical components of fault

Symmetrical components of fault Currents in line i to j
Currents:

## Phase Fault current in line i to j :

Positive sequence Network and Admittance Matrix
Negative Sequence Network and Admittance Matrix
Zero sequence Network and Admittance Matrix
Impedance Network
Invert the BAM into BIM using Matrix Algebra,
Calculator, or Computer (Matlab)
BAM BIM
Symmetrical components of fault
3PhaseFault Analysis Currents in line i to j

Currents:

## Phase Fault current in line i to j :

Fault phase current :

Phase Voltages

## Fault phase Voltages :

Symmetrical components of fault
SLG Fault Analysis Phase Voltages

Currents:

## Fault phase current :

Symmetrical components of fault The Line fault Currents in line i to j
Currents in line i to j
Symmetrical components of fault
L-L Fault Analysis Phase Voltages

Currents:

## Fault phase current :

Symmetrical components of fault Phase Fault current in line i to j :
Currents in line i to j
Symmetrical components of fault Phase
DLG Fault Analysis Voltages

Currents:

## Symmetrical components of fault

Currents in line i to j
Symmetrical components of fault Phase Fault current in line i to j :
Currents in line i to j
Software Based Fault Analysis
Comparison of Results
• 3 phase fault
Comparison of Results
• Single-line-to ground fault

?
Comparison of Results
• Line-to-line fault

• Double line-to-ground
assignment
• Solve problems 9.1 to 9.5 (Saadat)
• Use Thevenin’s Method and the BIM method
• Prepare a PPT report