Sei sulla pagina 1di 18

S o n j a

F e l b e r

PIPELINE

ENGINEERING

ISBN 978-3-9501528-2-1

Sonja

Felber

PIPELINE

ENGINEERING

Sonja Felber PIPELINE ENGINEERING

Ao.Univ.Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr.techn. Sonja Felber Vienna University of Technology Institute for Building Construction and Technology (E 206) Karlsplatz 13 A-1040 Vienna, Austria

PIPELINE ENGINEERING

First Edition 2009

ISBN 978-3-9501528-2-1

Editor and Distribution:

Oesterreichische Gesellschaft fuer Schweisstechnik (OEGS) Arsenal Objekt 207 A-1030 Wien 1 - (2009) ISBN 978-3-9501528-2-1

This work is protected under copyright. Single photocopies of single subchapters may be made for personal use as allowed by national copyright laws. Permission of the Publisher and payment of a fee is required for all other photocopying, including multiple or systematic copying, copying for advertising or promotional purpose, resale, and all forms of do- cument delivery. Special rates are available for educational institutions that wish to make photocopies for non-profit educational classroom use. Permission may be sought directly from OEGS. In the USA, users may clear permission and make payments through the Copyright Clearance Centre. Other countries may have a local rights agency for payments. Tables of contents may be reproduced for internal circulation, but permission of OEGS is required for ex- ternal resale or distribution of such material. Permission of the Publisher is required for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations. Permission of the Publisher is required to store or use electronically any material contained in this work, including any chapter or part of a chapter. Except as outlined above, no part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission of the Publisher. Address permission requests to OEGS. No responsibility is assumed by the Publisher and Author for any injury and/or damage to persons or pro- perty as a matter of products liability, negligence or otherwise, or from any use or operation of any me- thods, products, instructions or ideas contained in the work, because of rapid advances in science.

Copyright © OEGS 2009. All rights reserved. Printed in Austria

Cover: Concept & design, Sonja Felber

PIPELINE ENGINEERING

KEYWORDS

Pipeline engineering, ferritic-pearlitic and bainitic steels (pipeline-steels), duplex- steels, pipeline failures, natural gas pipelines, crack-arrestors, pipeline corrosion, cor- rosion protection of pipelines, pipelines in Austria, in Europe, world wide, pipeline welding, heat treatment of pipelines, fracture mechanical investigations, CTOD tests, crack-arrest tests, tensile tests, impact tests, hardness tests, heat-input, alloying ele- ments of thermomechanically treated steels and duplex-steels, metallography, fracto- graphy, pipeline design, operation of pipelines, radiographic testing, ultrasonic tes- ting, visual testing, quality management in pipeline engineering, pigging, analysis of failures in pipeline engineering.

SCHLAGWOERTER

Pipelinebau, ferritisch-perlitische und bainitische Staehle (Pipeline-Staehle), Duplex- Staehle, Schadenfaelle an Pipelines, Erdgasleitungen, Rissarrestoren, Korrosion an Pipelines, Korrosionsschutz von Pipelines, Pipelines in Oesterreich, in Europa, welt- weit, Schweissen von Pipelines, Waermebehandlungen an Pipelines, bruchmechani- sche Untersuchungen, CTOD-Untersuchungen, Rissauffang-Untersuchungen, Zug- versuche, Kerbschlagbiegeversuche, Haertepruefungen, Streckenenergie, Legie- rungselemente von thermomechanisch behandelten Staehlen und Duplex-Staehlen, Metallographie, Fraktographie, Projektierung von Pipelines, Betrieb von Pipelines, radiographische Untersuchungen, Ultraschallpruefung, visuelle Kontrolle, Qualitaets- management im Pipelinebau, Molchungen, Fehlerauswertungen beim Bau von Pipe- lines.

PIPELINE ENGINEERING

ABSTRACT

Pipelines offer an economically and ecologically reliable, good solution for the trans- port of liquids and gases worldwide. Even in a small country like Austria they are an almost indispensable means of transport, especially for natural gas.

THEORETICAL PART:

This work addresses the most important questions industrial engineers and scientists are confronted with, when working in the fields of project planning, construction, and operation of pipelines. Starting from a description of the situation in Austria and a comparison with world- wide solutions, the following fields are examined: Damage caused by cracks and cor- rosion, as well as countermeasures; materials used in pipeline construction (ferritic- pearlitic, bainitic, and duplex-steels) and their processing properties (especially con- cerning welding technology); aspects of materials testing and quality management.

EXPERIMENTAL PART:

Based on numerous welding-technological and fracture-mechanical examinations, the influencing parameters and limits, essential for a problem-free construction and reliable operation of pipelines, are discussed and limits established.

MATHEMATICAL PART:

This part offers mathematical approaches for the predetermination of welding-tech- nological and fracture-mechanical parameters, to be considered during the construc- tion and the subsequent testing of pipelines.

PIPELINE ENGINEERING

KURZREFERAT

Rohrleitungen stellen weltweit eine oekonomisch und oekologisch zuverlaessige und gute Loesung zum Transport fluessiger und gasfoermiger Stoffe dar. Auch in einem kleinen Land wie Oesterreich sind sie kaum zu ersetzende Transportmittel, vor allem fuer Erdgas.

THEORETISCHER TEIL:

Diese Arbeit ist eine Zusammenstellung der wichtigsten Details, mit denen Ingenieu- re im industriellen Einsatz und Wissenschafter konfrontiert werden, wenn sie im Be- reich Projektierung, Bau und Betrieb von Rohrleitungen arbeiten. Ausgehend von einer Beschreibung der Situation in Oesterreich und einer Gegen- ueberstellung zu weltweiten Loesungen, sollen die Bereiche: Schadensfaelle durch Risse und Korrosion und Gegenmassnahmen, verwendete Werkstoffe (ferritisch-per- litische, bainitische und Duplex-Staehle) und ihre Verarbeitungseigenschaften (be- sonders schweisstechnische), prueftechnische Aspekte und Qualitaetssicherung be- handelt werden.

EXPERIMENTELLER TEIL:

Anhand von zahlreichen schweisstechnischen und bruchmechanischen Untersu- chungen werden die Einflussgroessen fuer eine problemlose Fertigung und einen zuverlaessigen Betrieb von Pipelines bestimmt und ihre Grenzen festgelegt.

RECHNERISCHER TEIL:

Weiters werden rechnerische Ansaetze fuer die Vorherbestimmung der schweiss- technischen und bruchmechanischen Parameter, die sich bei der Fertigung und einer anschliessenden Pruefung ergeben, geliefert.

PIPELINE ENGINEERING

PREFACE

The first German edition of this book has been written as a habilitation at Vienna University of Technology. The author is thankfull for suggestions to this book. The individual introductions to the various subjects are intended also to open this book to interested experts with different knowledge and background, and not just only to scientifically qualified readers. Hopefully the variaty of information by the dissemination of this book will be supplied to an interested and attentive circle of readers, to lead to a better understanding of the problems possibly occurring with ferritic-pearlitic steels, bainitic steels, or duplex- steels, especially with regard to the properties of the used materials, their process- sing (especially welding technology), the following testing (e.g. destructive and non- destructive testing, fracture mechanical, metallographical, and fractographical me- thods), the quality management, the ecology, and the economy.

Ao.Univ.Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Dr.techn. Sonja Felber

PIPELINE ENGINEERING

0 CONTENT

 

page

1

Introduction

1.1

1.1

Development and Use of Pipeline-Steels

1.5

1.1.1

Development of Pipeline-Steels

1.5

1.1.2

Use of Pipeline-Steels

1.11

1.1.2.1

Natural Gas and Oil Pipelines in Austria

1.12

1.1.2.2

Natural Gas and Oil Pipelines in Europe

1.19

1.1.2.3

Natural Gas and Oil Pipelines in America

1.26

1.1.2.4

Natural Gas and Oil Pipelines in Australia and New Zealand

1.31

1.1.2.5

Natural Gas and Oil Pipelines Worldwide

1.33

1.2

Development and Use of Duplex-Steels

1.36

1.2.1

Development of Duplex-Steels

1.36

1.2.2

Use of Duplex-Steels

1.38

1.3

Failures, Causes, and Avoidance

1.40

1.3.1

Failures of Pipelines

1.40

1.3.2

Crack-Arrestors for Pipelines

1.53

Crack-Arrestors Causing the Crack to Run Into a Pipe

1.53

Section of Reduced Hoop Stress Crack-Arrestors Using Application of a Pre-Stressed

1.54

Bandage to Certain Sections of the Pipeline Crack-Arrestors Using Inserting Pipe Sections with High

1.54

Fracture Toughness Crack-Arrestors Causing the Crack to Run Into a Row of

1.55

Slots Crack-Arrestors Preventing the Flap Opening

1.55

Crack-Arrestors Preventing the Flap Opening by Means of Large Masses Along the Pipe Length, Which Must be Accelerated

1.57

1.3.3

Corrosion of Pipelines

1.59

1.3.4

Corrosion Protection Against External Corrosion

1.60

1.3.4.1

Coating of Pipes

1.60

Temporary Coating

1.61

Plant-Applied Coating

1.62

PIPELINE ENGINEERING

 

Coating in the Field

1.64

Coatings for Extreme Service Requirements

1.65

1.3.4.2

Cathodic Corrosion Protection (CCS)

1.67

1.3.5

Corrosion Protection Against Internal Corrosion

1.71

1.3.6

Standards, Rules, and Regulations

1.75

1.3.7

Determination and Evaluation of a Defect Analysis

1.84

2

Materials for Pipelines

2.1

2.1

Pipeline-Steels

2.3

2.1.1

Chemical Composition

2.3

2.1.1.1

Standards and Designations

2.3

2.1.1.2

Alloying Elements

2.9

2.1.1.3

Effect of Alloying Elements

2.11

Carbon

2.18

Silicon

2.19

Manganese

2.20

Phosphorus

2.20

Sulphur

2.20

Vanadium, Niobium, Titanium

2.22

Vanadium

2.23

Niobium

2.24

Titanium

2.24

Aluminium

2.25

Nitrogen

2.25

Copper, Nickel, Chromium

2.25

Molybdenum

2.25

Zirconium

2.26

Boron

2.26

2.1.2

Physical Properties

2.27

2.1.2.1

Phase Diagrams, Transformation Behavior

2.27

2.1.2.2

Precipitation Behavior

2.34

Carbides, Nitrides

2.37

V-Nitride

2.37

(Si, Mn)N 2

2.37

Al-Nitride

2.38

Mn-Sulfide

2.38

Ti-Carbosulfide

2.38

2.1.2.3

Corrosion Behavior

2.38

PIPELINE ENGINEERING

2.1.3

Mechanical Properties

2.38

2.1.4

Manufacture

2.52

2.1.4.1

Casting

2.52

2.1.4.2

Forming

2.54

Thermomechanical Rolling

2.55

2.1.4.3

Pipe Manufacture

2.66

Production of Longitudinal Welded Pipes (U-O-Process)

2.68

Production of Spiral Welded Pipes

2.70

2.1.5

Manufacturing Properties

2.72

2.1.6

Standards and Technical Terms of Delivery

2.72

2.1.7

Tested Pipeline-Steels

2.80

2.1.7.1

Pipeline-Steel X70

2.80

Longitudinal Welded Pipes Made of X70

2.82

Spiral Welded Pipes Made of X70

2.82

2.1.7.2

Pipeline-Steel X80

2.83

2.1.7.3

Joined Spiral Pipes Made of X70 and X80

2.87

2.1.7.4

Comparison of Pipeline-Steels X70 and X80

2.87

2.1.7.5

Pipeline-Steel X100

2.89

2.1.7.6

Pipeline-Steel X120

2.90

2.2

Duplex-Steels

2.91

2.2.1

Chemical Composition

2.91

2.2.1.1

Standards and Designations

2.91

2.2.1.2

Alloying Elements

2.98

2.2.1.3

Effect of Alloying Elements

2.104

Carbon

2.106

Silicon

2.107

Manganese

2.109

Phosphorus

2.109

Sulphur

2.110

Nitrogen

2.111

Chromium

2.114

Copper

2.115

Molybdenum

2.116

Nickel

2.117

PIPELINE ENGINEERING

 

Tungsten

2.119

2.2.2

Physical Properties

2.119

2.2.2.1

Phase Diagrams, Transformation Behavior

2.120

2.2.2.2

Precipitation Behavior

2.124

α´(Alpha´)- or δ´(Delta´)- and G-Phase

2.128

γ 2 -Phase

2.130

σ(Sigma)-Phase

2.130

χ(Chi)- and η(Eta)-Phase

2.133

χ(Chi)-Phase

2.135

η(Eta)-, R- or Laves-Phase

2.136

Nitrides

2.136

π(Pi)-Phase

2.138

ε(Epsilon)-Phase

2.139

τ(Tau)-Phase

2.139

Carbides

2.140

2.2.2.3

Corrosion Behavior

2.142

2.2.3

Mechanical Properties

2.146

2.2.4

Manufacture

2.148

2.2.4.1

Casting

2.149

2.2.4.2

Forming

2.150

2.2.4.3

Pipe Manufacture

2.154

2.2.5

Manufacturing Properties

2.155

2.2.6

Standards and Technical Terms of Delivery

2.155

2.2.7

Tested Duplex-Steels

2.157

2.2.7.1

Duplex-Steel 1.4462 (Rolled)

2.158

2.2.7.2

Duplex-Steel 1.4462 (Forged)

2.159

2.3

Comparison of Pipeline-Steels and Duplex-Steels

2.160

3

Weldability and Heat Treatment

3.1

3.1

Weldability and Heat Treatment of Pipelines Made of Pipeline- Steels

3.3

Weldability

3.3

Heat Treatment

3.3

3.1.1

Welding Ability

3.4

Carbon Equivalent (C eq ) and Hardness

3.4

PIPELINE ENGINEERING

 

Hydrogen Induced Cracking and Hardness

3.9

Alloying Elements in the Weld Metal

3.15

3.1.2

Welding Possibility

3.15

3.1.2.1

Manual Metal Arc Welding (MMAW, 111) of Circumferential Welds

3.16

Welding in Vertical Down Position With Cellulosic Electro-

3.17

des (111-C-PG) Welding in Vertical Down Position With Basic Electrodes

3.22

(111-B-PG)

Combined Welding With Cellulosic and Basic Electrodes

3.26

Welding in Vertical Up Position With Cellulosic Electrodes

3.28

(111-C-PF)

Welding in Vertical Up Position With Basic Electrodes

3.29

(111-B-PF)

Comparison of the Manual Metal Arc Welding Processes

3.31

3.1.2.2

Gas Metal Arc Welding of Circumferential Welds

3.37

Fully Mechanized Gas Metal Arc Welding Using Solid

3.38

Wire (135) MAG-Welding With Solid Wire in Vertical Down Position

3.43

MAG Orbital Welding in Vertical Down Position Using

3.45

Root Pass Protection MAG Orbital Welding in Vertical Down Position Without

3.46

Root Pass Protection The CRC-Evans-Process

3.46

The CAPS-Process

3.52

Fully Mechanized Gas Metal Arc Welding in Vertical Up Position Using Filler Wire (136)

3.58

3.1.2.3

Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) Welding of Circumferential Welds

3.60

(141)

TIG Cold Wire Technology

3.60

TIG Hot Wire Technology

3.61

3.1.2.4

Submerged Arc Welding of Circumferential Welds (12)

3.62

Submerged Arc Welding of Pipes to Obtain Double Length

3.62

3.1.2.5

General Comparison of the Common Welding Processes

3.63

3.1.2.6

Hyperbaric Welding

3.75

3.1.2.7

New Developments of Pipeline Welding Processes

3.76

Stir Friction Welding of Circumferential Welds

3.76

Electron Beam Welding of Circumferential Welds

3.79

Reduced Pressure Electron Beam Welding

3.82

PIPELINE ENGINEERING

 

Laser Welding of Circumferential Welds

3.83

Laser Hybrid Welding of Circumferential Welds

3.85

3.1.3

Welding Safety

3.89

3.1.4

Standards, Rules, and Regulations

3.91

3.1.5

Heat Treatment

3.120

3.2

Weldability and Heat Treatment of Pipelines Made of Duplex- Steels

3.134

3.2.1

Welding Ability

3.134

Chromium and Nickel Equivalent (Cr eq and Ni eq )

3.137

Coarse Grain Zone in the Heat Affected Zone

3.139

Ferrite Content in the Weld Metal and in the Heat Affected

3.141

Zone Hydrogen Induced Cracks

3.142

Hot Cracks

3.143

3.2.2

Welding Possibility

3.145

3.2.2.1

Manual Metal Arc Welding of Circumferential Welds

3.145

3.2.2.2

Gas Metal Arc Welding of Circumferential Welds

3.148

Tungsten Inert Gas Welding

3.148

Gas Metal Arc Welding Using Solid Wire

3.153

Metal Inert Gas Welding

3.154

Metal Activ Gas Welding

3.155

Filler Wires

3.157

3.2.2.3

Submerged Arc Welding of Circumferential Welds

3.160

3.2.2.4

General Comparison of the Welding Processes

3.164

3.2.2.5

New Developments of Pipeline Welding Processes

3.170

3.2.3

Welding Safety

3.170

3.2.4

Standards, Rules, and Regulations

3.172

3.2.5

Heat Treatment

3.175

3.3

Comparison of the Weldability and Heat Treatment Procedures for the Construction of Pipelines

3.182

4

Welding and Mechanical Technological Tests

4.1

Welding Technological Tests

4.3

Tensile Tests

4.5

Hardness Testing

4.6

Impact Testing

4.7

PIPELINE ENGINEERING

 

Standards, Rules, and Regulations

4.11

4.1

Welding Technological and Mechanical Technological Testing of Pipeline-Steels

4.23

4.1.1

Welding Technological and Mechanical Technological Testing of the Pipeline-Steel X70

4.23

Testing of Longitudinal Welded Pipes Made of X70

4.23

Testing of Spiral Welded Pipes Made of X70

4.31

4.1.2

Welding Technological and Mechanical Technological Testing of the Pipeline-Steel X80

4.33

4.1.3

Welding Technological and Mechanical Technological Testing of the Pipeline-Steel X100

4.35

4.1.4

Welding Technological and Mechanical Technological Testing of the Pipeline-Steel X120

4.36

4.1.5

Summary of the Welding Technological and Mechanical Technological Tests of the Pipeline-Steels and Comparison With the Values of References

4.36

4.2

Welding Technological and Mechanical Technological Testing of Duplex-Steels

4.38

4.2.1

Welding Technological and Mechanical Technological Testing of the Duplex-Steel 1.4462 (Rolled)

4.38

4.2.2

Welding Technological and Mechanical Technological Testing of the Duplex-Steel 1.4462 (Forged)

4.39

Plate Made of 1.4462 Forged (Manual Metal Arc Welding)

4.41

Plate Made of 1.4462 Forged (Submerged Arc Welding)

4.42

Pipe Made of 1.4462 Forged

4.42

4.2.3

Summary of the Welding Technological and Mechanical Technological Tests of Duplex-Steels and Comparison With Values of References

4.43

4.3

Summary of the Results and Comparison With References

4.44

4.3.1

Results of the Tests of Pipeline-Steels

4.44

4.3.2

Results of the Tests of Duplex-Steels

4.45

4.3.3

Comparison of the Results of the Tests

4.46

5

Fracture Mechanical Testing

5.1

Introduction

5.3

CTOD-Tests

5.9

Crack-Arrest Testing

5.11

PIPELINE ENGINEERING

 

Manufacturing of the Specimens

5.12

Performing of the Tests

5.20

Evaluation of the CTOD-Tests

5.26

Evaluation of the Crack-Arrest Tests

5.29

Standards, Rules, and Regulations

5.30

5.1

Results of the Fracture Mechanical Tests on Pipeline-Steels

5.33

5.1.1

Fracture Mechanical Testing of the Pipeline-Steel X70

5.33

5.1.1.1

CTOD-Tests on the Pipeline-Steel X70

5.33

5.1.1.2

Crack-Arrest Tests on the Pipeline-Steel X70

5.34

Three-Point-Bend-Specimens 5.35

Compact-Crack-Arrest-Specimens 5.36

Full-Thickness Compact-Crack-Arrest-Specimens

5.36

Base Material - Different Types of Specimens

5.37

Weld Metal - Different Types of Specimens

5.38

Heat Affected Zone - Different Types of Specimens

5.39

Temperature Range for Crack-Arrest

5.40

5.1.2

Fracture Mechanical Tests on the Pipeline-Steel X80

5.41

5.1.3

Summary of the Fracture Mechanical Results of Pipeline-Steels and Comparison With Values in References

5.41

5.2

Results of the Fracture Mechanical Tests on Duplex-Steels

5.45

5.2.1

Fracture Mechanical Tests on the Duplex-Steel 1.4462 (Rolled)

5.45

5.2.1.1

CTOD-Tests on the Duplex-Steel 1.4462 (Rolled)

5.45

5.2.1.2

Crack-Arrest Test on the Duplex-Steel 1.4462 (Rolled)

5.46

5.2.2

Fracture Mechanical Tests on the Duplex-Steel 1.4462 (Forged) 5.46

5.2.2.1

CTOD-Tests on the Duplex-Steel 1.4462 (Forged)

5.46

5.2.2.2

Crack-Arrest Tests on the Duplex-Steel 1.4462 (Forged)

5.47

5.2.3

Summary of the Fracture Mechanical Results of Duplex-Steels and Comparison With Values in References

5.47

5.3

Fracture Mechanical Safety and Fatigue Life Prediction

5.48

5.3.1

Description of the Defects

5.48

5.3.2

Determination of the Stresses

5.50

5.3.3

Determination of K Icomponent

5.51

5.3.4

Characteristic Data of the Material

5.52

PIPELINE ENGINEERING

5.3.5

Determination of the Critical Defect Size

5.52

5.3.6

Assessment

5.53

5.3.7

Failure Assessment Using the CTOD-Design-Curve

5.53

5.3.8

The R6-Method (Two-Criteria-Method, Failure Assessment Diagram)

5.56

5.3.9

Batelle-Concept

5.57

5.4

Example: Fracture Mechanical Safety and Life-Time Estima- tions for a Natural Gas Pipeline Pipe Made of X70

5.63

Fracture Mechanical Model

5.64

6

Material Physical Examinations

6.1

Introduction

6.3

Light Microscope

6.5

Microhardness Testing

6.6

Quantitative Micro Structural Analysis

6.7

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

6.11

Electron Probe Microanalysis

6.12

Taking and Preparation of the Specimens

6.14

Standards, Rules, and Regulations

6.15

6.1

Material Physical Examinations of Pipeline-Steels

6.16

Nitric Acid Etching Fluid

6.16

Light Microscopic Examinations

6.17

Microhardness Testing

6.19

Quantitative Micro Structural Analysis

6.20

Scanning Electron Microscopic Examinations

6.23

Electron Probe Microanalysis

6.25

6.2

Material Physical Examinations of Duplex-Steels

6.26

Etching Fluid According to Lichtenegger and Bloech

6.27

Etching Fluid 8 According to the Handbook of the Metallo-

6.28

graphic Etching Processes Light Microscopic Examinations

6.29

Microhardness Testing

6.31

Quantitative Micro Structural Analysis

6.32

Scanning Electron Microscopic Examinations

6.36

Electron Probe Microanalysis

6.41

6.3

Summary of the Results and Comparison With References

6.47

7

Design, Construction, and Service of Pipelines

7.1

7.1

Onshore Pipelines

7.3

PIPELINE ENGINEERING

7.1.1

Design

7.3

7.1.2

Construction

7.13

Civil Engineering for the Building of a Trench

7.13

Building of the Pipeline

7.14

Welding and Hauling Technology

7.16

Field Experiences With X80

7.23

Manual Metal Arc Welding

7.23

Mechanized Welding

7.25

Testing of Welded Joints

7.26

Coating

7.31

Hauling of the Pipeline

7.32

Civil Engineering for the Hauling of a Pipeline

7.38

Testing of the Pipeline After Filling the Trench

7.40

Civil Engineering, Measuring, and Marking

7.45

7.1.3

Service

7.46

7.1.4

Quality Management

7.58

7.1.5

Standards, Rules, and Regulations

7.61

7.1.6

Economical Considerations

7.107

7.1.7

Safety, Conservation, and Ecological Aspects

7.115

7.2

Offshore Pipelines

7.123

7.2.1

Design

7.123

7.2.2

Construction

7.125

7.2.3

Service

7.132

7.2.4

Quality Management

7.134

7.2.5

Standards, Rules, and Regulations

7.134

7.2.6

Economical Considerations

7.134

7.2.7

Safety, Conservation, and Ecological Aspects

7.136

8

Quality Records

8.1

8.1

Quality Records in General

8.3

QUALITY-MANAGEMENT-RECORD FOR THE CON-

8.5

STRUCTION OF THE PIPELINE EXPLANATIONS TO THE ABBREVATIONS AND TERMS

8.7

USED CONTENT

8.8

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE NATURAL GAS PIPE- LINE

8.9

PIPELINE ENGINEERING

 

TECHNICAL DATA

8.9

ORGANISATIONAL DATA

8.10

(COUNTRY 1) SIDE

8.11

ORGANISATION

8.11

WELDING TECHNOLOGY

8.12

TESTING TECHNOLOGY

8.13

CONSTRUCTION LOT 1 - INSPECTION OF THE WEL-

8.14

DING WORK CONSTRUCTION LOT 2 - INSPECTION OF THE WEL-

8.18

DING WORK COMPARISON OF THE TWO CONSTRUCTION LOTS

8.20

FURTHER INTERESTING PARAMETERS

8.21

SUPPLEMENTS

8.24

8.2

Comparison of Different Pipeline Projects

8.25

R

REFERENCES (Catalogue of References)

R.1

A

APPENDIX (Coloured Pictures, Diagrams, and Maps)

A.1

S

SUPPLEMENTS (Tables, Diagrams, and Maps)

S.1

I

INDEX (Acknowledgements, Abbreviations, Units, Symbols in Formulas, and Designations of Specimens, and Index)

I.1

D

DVD (Pipeline Engineering Book)

D.1