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TIGRAY AGRICULTURAL MARKETING PROMOTION AGENCY

/TAMPA/

MARKET RESEARCH, INFRASTRUCTURE AND TECHNOLOJY SUB-


PROCESS

MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS MARKETING STUDY IN TIGRAY

APRIL, 2012

1
MEKELLE

TABLE OF CNTENTS
Title Page

TABLE OF CNTENTS.........................................................................2

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.....................................................................5

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS................................................6

LIST OF TABLES...............................................................................7

LIST OF FIGURES & CHARTS..........................................................8

LIST OF CHARTS..............................................................................8

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY....................................................................8

CHAPTER 1

1. INTRODUCTION............................................................................9
1.1 Background...............................................................................................................................................9

1.2 Objectives of the study...........................................................................................................................11

1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.............................................12


1.4 Significance of the study..........................................................................................................12

1.5 Scope and limitations of the study.....................................................................................13

1.6 Organization of the study.........................................................................................................13

CHAPTER 2

2. LITREATURE REVIEW................................................................14
2.1 Economic importance of animals and their products and by-products............................................14

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2.2 Development of dairy industry..............................................................................................................15

2.3. Importance of dairying.........................................................................................................................16

2.4. Characteristics of the dairy enterprises:-............................................................................................17

2.5 Dairy industry development in Ethiopia..............................................................................................17

2.6 Overview of dairy production system in Ethiopia...............................................................................18

2.7 Dairy marketing system in Ethiopia.....................................................................................................20


2.7.1 What is marketing..............................................................................................................................20
2.7.2 Types of dairy markets in Ethiopia....................................................................................................20

2.8 Dairy marketing channels and outlets..................................................................................................21

CHAPTER 3

3. MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY.......21


3.1 Selection of study areas...........................................................................................................22

3.2 Selection of respondents.........................................................................................................22

3.3 Type, sources and methods of data collection............................................................23

3.4 Data analysis...................................................................................................................................24

CHAPTER 4

4. DISCUSSIONS AND RESULTS............................................24


4.1 Description of the study areas...............................................................................................................24
4.1.1 Location.....................................................................................................................................24
4.1.2 Topography........................................................................................................................................25
4.1.3 Climate..............................................................................................................................................25

4.2 Livestock resources of the region..........................................................................................................25

4.3 Background and characteristics of respondents........................................................26

4.4 Livestock development strategies &Current livestock development efforts


........................................................................................................................................................................27
4.4.1 Livestock development strategies......................................................................................................27
4.4.2 Current livestock development efforts & their achievements...........................................................27
4.5.1 Dairy production in and around Mekelle city....................................................................................30

4.6 Cattle husbandry and management practices.....................................................................................31

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4.6.1 Feeds and feeding systems.............................................................................................31
4.6.2 Water resources and watering practices................................................................32
4.6.3 Housing systems...................................................................................................................33
4.6.4 Breeding practices..............................................................................................................34
4.6.5 Waste management.............................................................................................................35

4.7. Milking, handling, processing and marketing practice in the study areas..36
4.7.1 Milking practices..................................................................................................................36
4.7.2 Milk handling and processing equipments.............................................................37
4.7.3 Milk and milk products utilization patterns...........................................................38
4.7.4 Milk processing and types of milk products produced....................................39

4.8 Milk and milk Products marketing.......................................................................................42


4.8.1 Marketable dairy products and their price determinants..............................43

Sources: study woredas...........................................................................................................................44


4.8.2 Market channels of dairy commodities.............................................................................................44

4.9 Stakeholders in dairy production and marketing...............................................................................46

4.10 The dairy value chain...........................................................................................................................46

4.11 Opportunities & Constraints of dairy production & marketing.........................50


4.11.1 Opportunities of dairy production & marketing................................................50
4.11.2 Constraints of dairy production & marketing....................................................51

CHAPTER 5

5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS...................53

5.1 CONCLUSIONS.....................................................................53
5.2 Recommendations.......................................................................................................................54

REFERENCES...............................................................................56

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Acknowledgement

Successful accomplishment of this study would have been very difficult without generous
time devotion in data information provision during the field work and table work in data
compilation.

Hence;
First, we would like to offer lots of thanks to all experts in the study areas who provided
all necessary and useful information and data during the field work.

We are also deeply grateful to regional cooperative and agricultural input experts for their
provision of valuable market study data and dairy input information.

In addition, we would like to express my sincere appreciation and gratitude to the


mekelle urban agricultural development office and kelamino dairy center for giving dairy
and dairy products marketing data and information.

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ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

CSA – Central Statistics Agency


GDP – Gross Domestic Product
NPK – Nitrogen phosphorus Potassium
IBD – International Dairy Federation
UNRRA – United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration
UNICEF – United Nations International Children Education Fund
SDDP – Small Dairy Development Program
AI – Artificial Insemination
NGO – Non Governmental Organization
TLDP – Tigray Livestock Development Program
FMD – Foot and Mouth Disease
DM – Dry Matter
BoARD – Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development
ILCA – International Livestock Center for Africa
IPMS – Improving Productivity and Market Success of Ethiopian Farmers
ILRI – International Livestock Research Institute
Dr –Doctor
EEA – European Economic Association
SNV – The Netherlands Development Organization

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LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 Number of interviewed farmers in the study areas
Table 2 number of interviewed service giving institutions and traders
Table 3 livestock population of the study areas
Table 4 Number of improved dairy cows distributed in the region / 2002 – 2004 e.c/
Table 5 Number of improved dairy cows distributed in the study areas
Table 6 Number of cows inseminated and calves born / 2002 – 2004 /
Table 7 Milk and milk products market price in the study areas

LIST OF FIGURES & CHARTS


Figure 1Green and dried feed resources in the study areas
Figure 2 Concentrate feeds used in the study areas
Figure3 Hosing type being used in the study areas
Figure 4 Known dairy breeds in the world
Figure 5 Dairy solid wastes / manure / management in the study areas
Figure 6 Milk processing and utilization patterns in the study areas
Figure 7 Milk and Milk products marketing channels in the region

LIST OF CHARTS

Chart 1 Number of cross breed and local breeds / Begait / distributed


Chart2 AI Service achievements in the region
Chart 3 Milk and milk products market price trend in the study areas

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Executive summary
Despite the huge livestock resources /including milk /, prevailing favorable climatic conditions and
encouraging development policy and strategy livestock development is low disclosed by in ability of the
producers in particular and for the region in general be fully benefited from the resource.

Dairy production or milk production is an important part of the livestock production system in the region
from which dairy cows are sole producers of milk and milk products. But, the traditional small holder milk
production system makes up the largest part of dairy in the region which is characterized by low input,
feeding and overall management practices.

Thus, many efforts have been made to improve the traditional mode of dairy cow production in turn
increase the volume and quality of milk produce in turn increase income of the producers from the resource
from which improving the dairy skills of dairy herders, introduction of improved and modern dairy
production technologies, equipments are some of the efforts that can be mentioned.

Milk and milk products are the two most important dairy cow products marketed in the region in particular
and in the country in general. Thus, study was initiated with the objectives of identification of major
problems thereby suggest possible means of strengthening of dairy cow products marketing in the region.
Dairy producers, retailers, wholesalers, market intermediaries, institutions and social service giving
organizations and consumers are found to be major actors involved in the production, processing,
distribution and marketing of milk and milk products. Data collected from producers; traders and other
institutions and individuals are analyzed using excel and presented in tables and charts.

However, significant amount of milk and milk products produced are not properly reached to the market
and get the required market value which makes the producers not benefited from their produces. Post
harvest losses are associated with poor handling, contamination as the result of poor personal, material and
environmental hygiene. Moreover, adulteration, low level of technology used to produce, handle and
process milk to acceptable standard factors for the low quality of the products.

The demand for milk in the local and foreign markets is increasing from time to time. Therefore, to satisfy
the growing demand for the product milk and milk products production and marketing development
intervention aimed at strengthening and expansion of processing organizations, improving of producers’
and traders’ access to different production and marketing services / Infrastructures, up to date market
information/ , training and supply of different production, handling, processing and marketing inputs and
practicing of keen quality control of the products..

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Chapter 1

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
Crop-livestock mixed farming is the most characteristic feature of the regional
agricultural practices and the livestock sub-sector play a great role around which the
whole farm operates.

Livestock are assets that can be realized at most time and add security to the agricultural
system as a whole. They contribute to food production availability for the people and they
generate employment opportunity, serve as source of power and fuel for most of the
population living in the rural as well as in the urban areas engaged in the sector.

From the different types of livestock kept by the farmers, a number of products (milk,
meat, egg, milk) and by-products (hide and skins, manure, etc) are produced. Animal
products and by-products are important sources of disposable income particularly for the
small scale farmers to purchase agricultural inputs such as seed, fertilizer, pesticides and
replaceable draught and, breed able animals, etc) and other house hold materials.

Milk is one of the most important and highly nutritious animal products. It is a universal
food, which is most versatile and naturally balanced fluid available for consumption
helping young animals and human beings to grow into healthy and strong adults.

Ethiopia is endowed with a huge size of livestock resources and animal genetic diversity
and it is attributed due to its geographical location and suitability for livestock
production. As to livestock and livestock characteristic report of the agricultural sample
survey made by central statistics Agency of 2009/10 the country has 50,884,005 cattle,
25,979,919 sheep, 1,960,706 goats, 1,995,306 horses, 5,715,129 donkeys, 365,684 mules,
807, 581 camels, 42,053,283 poultry and4,598,226 beehives. Of this huge livestock
resources Tigray has a share of6% cattle,4% Sheep, 11% goats,6% equines 4%camels ,
10% poultry and 4% beehives.

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Livestock alone contributes 30 to 40% of the Agricultural GDP 16 to 20% of the overall
GDP (ESAP, 2003). Per capita consumption for livestock products is estimated at 4.6 kg
for beef, 2.8 kg for mutton (sheep and goats), 2.85 kg for chicken and 14-15 litters of
milk (ESAP, 2003). This is far below the average per capita consumption for the Sub-
Saharan Africa, estimated at 9 kg for beef and 23 litters for milk for the year 1993
(ESAP,2003).

According to the Simret agro-processing industry project proposal, the per-capita milk
consumption in Ethiopia is 20 kg/year and that of Tigray is estimated at 17 kg/year,
which is considerably lower than the average for sub-Saharan African and developed
countries, which is 200 kg/year.

In Ethiopia, dairy production is mainly of subsistent type largely based on indigenous


breeds of cattle. Milk production from this system is low to support the demand for the
continuously increasing human population, particularly in urban centers. But, nowadays
market oriented dairy production systems using improved dairy cattle breeds, production,
processing and marketing of milk and milk products are increasing from time to time in
the country.

Despite the diversified use of the product; the type and methods of handling, processing,
marketing and utilization farmers' use is more of traditional and no effort has been made
to improve it and this is resulted in low quality in turn low market value of milk and milk
products.
This study is, therefore, made to assess the existing situation of milk and milk products
potential, handling, processing, utilization and marketing and identify major problems
seen so that to overcome the prevailing constraints with this regard.

1.2 Objectives of the study

Farmers produce milk and milk products using the traditional animal production methods
and use the products mainly for home consumption and for sale if they produce more.

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Despite the diversified use of the product; the type and methods of handling, processing,
marketing and utilization farmers' use is more of traditional and no effort has been made
to improve it and this is resulted in low quality in turn low market value of milk and milk
products.

Therefore, the general objective of this study is to enable the producers be fully benefited
from their produces and consumers get sufficient and quality milk and milk products as to
their demand, improve the currently milk and milk products handling, processing and
marketing practices.

Moreover, the specific objectives of this study are the following objectives:
1. To assess the existing milk and milk products potential of the study areas in
particular and the region in general.
2. To assess the existing situation of milk and milk products handling, processing,
marketing and utilization pattern in the selected study areas.
3. To identify the major constraints of milk and milk products handling,
processing, marketing and utilization patterns.
4. To propose possible solutions that can enhance marketing of milk and milk
products ensuring the benefit ability of the producers and satisfaction of
consumers in terms of quality and volume of supplied milk and milk products.

1.3 Statement of the problem


The increase in population together with the relative increment of income and fast
urbanization of the rural areas of the region is significantly increasing the demand for
agricultural products (in this case milk and milk products). Milk and Milk products are
among the highly demanded agricultural products to be directly consumed directly or in
the form different value added products. However, the current milk and milk products
produced dominantly by the small-scale dairy cannot satisfy the fast growing of market
demand both in terms of quality and quantity of the products.

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Thus, this study is made to identify and solve the prevailing production and marketing
problem thereby realizing the expected benefits from the huge milk and milk
products resources

1.4 Significance of the study

In order to improve, strengthen and expand production and marketing of milk and milk
products in turn enable the producers be fully benefited from their resources and
consumers get better quality milk and milk products at a reasonable price considerable
efforts and resources have been committed during the past years.

However, still there are different problems that makes the producers not be able fully
benefited from their produces and consumers get satisfied of their milk and milk products
demands that makes this study to be undertaken.

Therefore, the study has disclosed or dugout valuable information on milk and milk
products production and marketing that would assist stakeholders, beneficiaries and
policy makers in designing appropriate policies, strategies and programs for intervention.
Governmental and non-governmental organizations that are engaged in the development
and improvement of milk and milk products marketing would be benefited from the
result of this study. Finally, producers, traders, intermediaries, consumers, other
stakeholders and researchers will be well informed of the findings of the study and use
them as inputs for their further activities.

1.5 Scope and limitations of the study

Eight potential woredas from the five zones of the region were selected to undertake this
study. However, due to time constraints and culture or feeding habit of the community not
all milk types from different animals is are addressed by the study.

Moreover, the study was focused on very few numbers of interviewees or respondents
involved in the milk and milk products marketing chain and channels. The study has also

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such limitations as lack of information on the market arrivals of milk and milk products
from inside as well as outside the region,

Last but least, interviewed producers and traders do not keep records on prices and
volume of sale or purchase and so have provided information based on their
recall/memory.

1.6 Organization of the study

The study report is organized into five chapters. In chapter one introduction which
includes background, objectives of the study, statement of the problems, significance
of the study and scope and limitations of the study are briefly discussed. In chapter
two of the report related literatures are reviewed. Chapter three the study
methodology employed and material used is presented. Results and discussion part
of the study is presented in chapter four. Finally, chapter five summarizes findings of
the study and remarkable conclusions are forwarded in this chapter.

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Chapter 2
2. LITREATURE REVIEW

2.1 Economic importance of animals and their products and by-products

Animals especially the ruminants are life enhancing and supporting agricultural resources
feeding people directly by producing different consumable animal products and by-
products by converting indigestible organic matter like fibrous grasses into valuable and
high quality foods / animal products / including milk and milk products. In general,
animals play a great role in supporting economic development which briefly indicated as
follows:
Animals contribute to food security and availability of different consumable animal
products mainly milk, meat, egg, milk, etc. which are parts of healthy diet providing all
the necessary nutrients like energy, proteins, vitamins and minerals.
Livestock products offer opportunity for processing of food thus increasing employment
cash can be generated income from direct sales of livestock products regularly from milk,
egg, meat and milk and by-products like hide and skins, etc.
Animal production and animal products and by-products processing are labor-intensive
activities providing job opportunity for the farm people both in urban and rural areas.
The integration of livestock and crop allows an efficient recycle of nutrients to make
farming activities more sustainable and environmentally sound and friendly. Manure as
animal by-product can be used directly as a natural fertilizer containing major soil
nutrients (NPK) and other trace elements necessary for plant growth by maintaining the
structure and water holding and retention capacity of soil. Moreover, animal dung is used
as source of fuel for cooking and heating in many developing countries and reduces
demand for wood and fossil fuels.
Cattle, buffalo, equines and camels are used for great variety of draught purpose
(cultivation, transport, etc.) avoid the introduction of foreign exchange in the import of
expensive implements such as tractors, spare -parts, fuel, etc. Animal draught power is a
renewable source of energy that is produced on the farm level made to the benefit of
national economy.

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2.2 Development of dairy industry
The establishment of dairy industry in any country depends on the availability of suitable
market for milk and milk products; availability of facilities and skilled manpower to
collect handle, process and distribute milk and milk products and a continuing supply of
milk of satisfactory quality
The dairy industry has changed dramatically since 1850 and many developments have
been achieved. Among the many factors which played important role in the development
of dairy industry are discussed below:

 Introduction of the factory system

 Inventions and development of improved milk processing equipments

 Introduction of improved milk and milk products transportation facilities

 Rapid growth of urban population serving as the major market outlet for milk and
milk products

 The development of bacteriology for controlling diseases and harmful bacteria

 Research and scientific investigation

2.3. Importance of dairying


Since the domestication of cattle, the cow has continued to be the servant of human being
in providing of milk and her importance, as a source of food has not been diminished by
the many years, which have passed away.
Hence, dairying has the following advantages
 Cows are efficient consumers of roughage and make effective use of large quantities
fibrous grasses and other plant materials of which might otherwise be wasted
 Dairy provides a stock which could be used for further expansion of dairying or for
other farming activities such as fattening
 Income is distributed throughout the year
 Dairying production improves the family diet and reduces food costs
 Dairying aids in maintaining soil fertility
 It is a good sources of fuel from the large amount of dung produced by the dairy
animals

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 It provides job opportunity which large number of people can be employed

On the other hand, dairying has some shortcomings out of which the most important ones
are mentioned below:
 It has a high labor requirement being full time job that needs intensive
management care
 Considerable capital is required to establish and run its operation properly and
sustainable
 It is very sensitive for health hazards which animals can be infected with different
diseases such as Brucellosis, tuberculosis, etc.
 Substitutes for dairy products are materially affecting the dairy enterprises

2.4. Characteristics of the dairy enterprises:-

As one of the different animal production system, dairy has its own distinguishing
characteristics.

 The dairy barn and milk house must be kept clean.

 The dairymen should keep milk production records

 Specific features of the dairy industry

 Milk is the sole raw material naturally balanced and is highly perishable and is
subject to adulteration if it is not properly managed and handled

 Milk is produced every day and is a regular source of income to the numerous
small producers improving the socio-economic position of dairy farmers.

 Milk is very valuable but at the same times an extremely expensive raw material
and is not easily accessible.

2.5 Dairy industry development in Ethiopia

According to Ahmed et al. (2003), in the first half of the 20th century, dairying in
Ethiopia was mostly traditional. Modern dairying started in the early 1950s when
Ethiopia received the first batch of dairy cattle from United Nations Relief and
Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA). With the introduction of these cattle in the

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country, commercial liquid milk production started on large farms in Addis Ababa and
Asmara (Ketema 2000).

In 1960, UNICEF established a public sector pilot processing plant at Shola on the
outskirt of Addis Ababa in order to enhance growth of the dairy sector. The plant started
by processing milk produced by large farms. The plant significantly expanded in a short
period and started collecting milk from smallholder producers in addition to large farms.
This led to further expansion of large dairy farms.

During the second half of the 1960s, dairy production in the Addis Ababa area began to
develop rapidly as a result of the expansion in large private dairy farms and the
participation of smallholder producers with indigenous cattle facilitated by establishment
of milk collection centers (Ahmed et al. 2003). Subsequently, different dairy development
projects were launched in different parts of the country. The distribution of exotic dairy
cattle, particularly the Holstein Friesian, in different parts of the country, especially
around the major urban areas, also contributed to the further development of dairying in
Ethiopia.

2.6 Overview of dairy production system in Ethiopia


Dairying is practiced almost all over Ethiopia involving a vast number of small or
medium or large-sized, subsistence or market-oriented farms. Based on climate, land
holdings and integration with crop production as criterion, dairy production systems in
Ethiopia are recognized as:
 The rural dairy system which is part of the subsistence farming system and
includes pastoralists, agro-pastoralists, and mixed crop–livestock producers;
 The peri-urban; and urban dairy systems (Azage and Alemu 1998; Ketema 2000;
Tsehay 2001; Yoseph et al. 2003; Zegeye 2003; Dereje et al. 2005).

The first system (pastoralism, agro-pastoralism and highland mixed smallholder


production system) contributes to 98%, while the peri-urban and urban dairy farms
produce only 2% of the total milk production of the country (Ketema 2000).

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The rural system is non-market oriented and most of the milk produced in this system is
retained for home consumption. The level of milk surplus is determined by the demand
for milk by the household and its neighbors, the potential to produce milk in terms of
herd size and production season, and access to a nearby market. The surplus is mainly
processed using traditional technologies and the processed milk products such as butter,
ghee, local chees /ayib/ and sour milk are usually marketed through the informal market
after the households satisfy their needs (Tsehay 2001).

Pastoralists raise about 30% of the indigenous livestock population which serve as the
major milk production system for an estimated 10% of the country’s human population
living in the lowland areas. Milk production in this system is characterized by low yield
and seasonal availability (Zegeye 2003).

The highland smallholder milk production of Ethiopia where dairying is nearly always
part of the subsistence, smallholder mixed crop and livestock farming. Local animals
raised in this system generally have low performance with average age at first calving of
53 months, average calving intervals of 25 months and average lactation yield of 524
liters (Zegeye 2003).

The peri-urban milk system includes smallholder and commercial dairy farmers in the
proximity of Addis Ababa and other regional towns. This sector owns most of the
country’s improved dairy stock (Tsehay 2001). The main source of feed is both home
produced or purchased hay and other industrial- by-products and the primary objective is
to get additional cash income from milk and milk products sale.

Peri-urban milk production is developed in areas where the population density is high and
agricultural land is shrinking due to urbanization around big cities like Addis Ababa,
mekelle, awassa, Bahidar, etc.

Urban dairy farming is a system involving highly specialized, state or businessmen


owned farms, which are mainly concentrated in major cities of the country. Currently,

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number of smallholder and commercial dairy farms are emerging mainly in the urban and
peri-urban areas of the capital (Felleke and Geda 2001; Azage 2003) and most regional
towns and districts (Ike 2002; Nigussie 2006). Smallholder rural dairy farms are also
increasing in number in areas where there is market access.

According to Azage and Alemu (1998), the urban milk system in Addis Ababa consists of
5167 small, medium and large dairy farms producing 34.65 million litres of milk
annually. Of the total urban milk production, 73% is sold, 10% is left for household
consumption, 9.4% goes to calves and 7.6% is processed into butter and ayib (cheese). In
terms of marketing, 71% of the producers sell milk directly to consumers (Tsehay 2001).

Dairy processing in Ethiopia is generally based on fermented milk (ergo in Ethiopia),


without any defined starter culture, with natural starter culture. Raw milk is either kept at
ambient temperature or kept in a warm place to ferment prior to processing (Mogessie
2002). Smallholder producers both in the rural and urban areas rarely practice modern
milk and milk handling activities and use organoleptic quality testing methods.

2.7 Dairy marketing system in Ethiopia

2.7.1 What is marketing

Literally, markets for agricultural products would normally refer to market places (open
spaces where commodities are traded). Conceptually, marketing is the performance of all
business activities involved in the flow of goods and services from the producer to the
consumer (Debrah and Berhanu 1991).

2.7.2 Types of dairy markets in Ethiopia


2.7.2.1 Formal V/S Informal marketing

The term ‘informal’ is often used to describe marketing systems in which governments do
not intervene substantially in marketing. The term ‘formal’ is thus used to describe
government (official) marketing systems. Informal market involves direct delivery of
fresh milk by producers to consumers in the immediate neighborhood or to any interested
individuals in nearby towns (Debrah and Berhanu 1991).

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The only organized and formal milk marketing and distribution system comes from the
two milk-processing plants which are both located in the capital Addis Ababa (Zegeye
2003). Farmers’ milk marketing groups and dairy cooperatives play a key role for milk
marketing outlets, which as a result encourages farmers to produce more (Zegeye 2003).

According to Tsehay (1998), a milk-marketing group can be defined as a group of


smallholder farmers who individually produce at least one liter of saleable milk and are
willing to form a group with the objective of collectively processing and marketing of
milk and milk products.
Dairy cooperatives are supposed to help to trigger a series of positive developments in the
sub sector; hence strengthening the existing group marketing activities and formation of
new cooperatives in different parts of the country is indispensable (Berhane & Workneh
2003).

To facilitate milk and milk products marketing by smallholders with crossbred cows,
SDDP catalyzed the formation of producer ‘milk groups’ (also called ‘milk units’ or
‘mini-dairies’) to process milk into different milk products such as butter, local cottage-
type cheese (ayib), and yoghurt-like sour milk (ergo).

2.8 Dairy marketing channels and outlets


Terms like marketing outlets, marketing channels, and marketing chains are important to
describe dairy marketing systems. Marketing outlet is the final market place to deliver the
dairy product, where it may pass through different channels. A network (combination) of
market channels gives rise to the market chain.
A study in Addis Ababa milk-shed revealed that dairy producers sold milk through
different principal market channels (Debrah 1990; Mbogoh 1990), which included:
1. Producer–consumer channel:
2. Producer–catering institution–consumer channel:
3. Producer–government institution–consumer channel:

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CHAPTER 3

3. Material and methodology of the study

The role of milk as a source of food and cash income, however, depends on the
management practices undertaken by producer that determine its quantity and quality.
Thus, the methodology and materials used to find out these practices by this study are
briefly discussed below.

3.1 Selection of study areas


Milk is produced everywhere animals are reared. However, this study was conducted in
selected woredas, namely Alamata, Raya Azebo, Kafta Humera, Welkait, Tsegede,
Tahitay adiabo, and Asgede Tsembela selected peasant association or tabias and mekelle
town.
The selection criteria used to select the above mentioned study areas were:
 Potential livestock resources of the areas
 Livestock and livestock products / in this case milk and milk products / marketing
situation of the areas
 Livestock and livestock products marketing accessibility of the areas
 closeness to the nearby market areas and
 Availability of better milk production improvement extension services.

3.2 Selection of respondents


Active participation has the advantage in building a trust between the interviewer
(surveyor) and the participants or respondents that allows for the communication to take
place smoothly.

In selecting the respondents it is more important to have good respondents who are
capable of providing insightful information. Hence, in collaboration with the concerned
experts of the study areas, the respondents interviewed were selected based on the
following criteria:
 representative ness of the respondents to the study areas

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 Willingness of the respondents to be interviewed and ability of the respondents
to express themselves verbally in a one-to- one and group interviewing
 Proportional representative ness of both sexes / male and female farmers /
 Ownership of dairy animals / Respondents should have their own dairy animals/
 Knowledge and Experiences of respondents on milk and milk products
production, handling, processing and utilization practices.
Table 1 Name of study areas, number of respondents
No Name of Woreda Number of tabias number of respondents
Planned interviewed
male female total
1 Alamata Kuluigizea lmelem 10 2 12
Tumuga 21 2 23
Sub-total 31 4 35
2 R/Azebo Machare 23 0 23
Ketema 3 4 7
Sub-total 26 4 30
3 K/ Humera Maikadera 13 2 15
Adebay 10 5 15
Sub-total 23 7 30
4 Welkait Adiremetse 0 0 0
5 Tsegede Dansha 0 0 0
6 T/ Adiabo Bademe 5 2 7
Aditsetser 3 2 5
Adiaser 7 2 9
Sub-total 15 6 21
7 A/Tsembela Ti saedakern 8 4 12
K/Gaba 8 3 11
Hitsatse 9 1 10
Endadabaguna 9 0 9
Sub-total 34 8 42
8 Tselemti Medehanialem 11 2 13
Mayayni 12 0 12
Sub-total 23 2 25
Grand total 152 31 183
Table 2 Name & number of interviewed service giving institutions & respondents
N Study area Dairy farms Butter traders Snacks Restaurants and milk collection total
o hotels centers
male female male female Male femal Male female male female male female
e
1 Alamata 3 0 0 5 2 0 2 0 1 1 8 6
2 R/Azebo 2 0 0 7 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 7
3 K/ 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 1 3 1
Humera
4 Welkait 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
5 Tsegede 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
6 T/ Adiabo 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 2
7 A/Tsembe 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1
la
8 Tselemti 3 1 0 3 2 0 0 0 0 0 5 4
9 mekelle 4 1 2 1 4 1 5 0 2 0 17 3
total 15 3 2 18 14 1 7 0 3 2 41 24

22
3.3 Type, sources and methods of data collection
The data collected on the existing milk & milk products handling, processing, marketing
and utilization practices are quantitative and qualitative which are categorized into
primary and secondary data.

The primary data were collected from farmers, traders, private dairy farm owners, and
consumers using semi-structured questionnaire and individual and group interviewing
were made with the selected respondents. The total number of farmer households
interviewed was 183 comprising 152 male and 31 female households from all the eight
woredas. Moreover, a total of 17 dairy farm owners, 20 butter traders 15 snacks 7
restaurants and hotels and 5 milk collection centers were interviewed as indicated in the
table above. Moreover, to get supportive information secondary data were gathered from
the respective study areas by making discussion with concerned experts, referring of
relevant documents and books and browsing different websites and internet documents.

In order to counter check the primary and secondary information collected from the
respondents physical observation of dairy farms, production and overall management
situation of distributed cross breed and AI served local cows was undertaken and farmers'
selling practices of different milk products in different open markets was undertaken.

Finally, relevant pictures were also collected on the introduced crossbreed heifers, feed
resources and their management and utilization situation and different local milk and
milk products handling, and processing materials are collected.

3.4 Data analysis


The data collected are both quantitative and qualitative and are analyzed using excel and
Survey results are reported using graph, chart, and tables.

23
CHAPTER 4

4. Discussions and results

4.1 Description of the study areas

4.1.1 Location
As it is mentioned earlier, the study is under taken in eight woredas and one big town
namely, Alamata, Raya Azebo, Kafta Humera, Welkait, Tsegede, Tahitay adiabo, and
Asgede Tsembela woredas and mekelle.

Alamata and Raya Azebo are found in the southern zone; Tahitay Adiabo, Asgede
Tsembela and Tselemti woredas are found in the North eastern zone; and Kafta Humera,
Welkait, and Tsegede found in the western zone of the region. Almost all woredas except
Tahitay Adabo, Asgede Tsembela woredas, and mekelle are boarder woredas which
bound the region with Afar / Raya Azebo and Alamata / and Amhara region / alamata,
Tselemti, Tsgede, and Wolkaite woredas/. Moreover, Almata, Raya Azebo, Kafta Humera,
Welkait and Tsgede woredas are inside the development corridors of the region.

4.1.2 Topography
Traditionally, three agro-ecological zones are recognized in the region namely, Kolla (hot
lowlands with less than 1600 m.a.s), Hawsi degua (mid highlands or warm high lands
1600-2300 m.a.s) and Degua (cold highlands with over 2300 m.a.s). And the study
woredas are within the three agro-ecological zones. Hence, four of the study woredas,
namely Alamata, Raya Azebo, Tahitay Adiabo and Kafta humera woredas are by major
located in the lowland agro-ecological zone. The remaining four woredas, namely Asgede
tsembela, Tselemti, Wolkaite and Tsgede woredas and mekelle are with the highland and
mid-highland agro-ecological zone

4.1.3 Climate
In general, the region's rainfall is characterized by a scattered, irregular and highly
uneven distribution and the average annual rainfall of the region varies from1300 mm to
1200mm. And according to the respective woreda's agricultural development offices, the
average annual rainfall study areas ranges from 450-980mm / CSA,2005/.

24
4.2 Livestock resources of the region
The region’s livestock population is estimated to be 3,539,395 cattle, 1,121,537, sheep,
2,874,520 goat, 5,003,126 poultry, 585,999 equines, 35,946 camel, and 219,036 bee
colonies / CSA, 2011/12/. The livestock population by zonal administration is indicated
in the table below.
Table 3 Livestock population by zone
No Zone Livestock population in number
Cattle Sheep Goat Camel equines poultry H/bee colony
1 North western 1,103,332 61,411 1,053,529 10,273 122,168 1,423,880 38,325
2 Central 712,635 281,314 897,857 - 149,524 1,327,042 77,525
3 eastern 357,888 455.170 185,837 - 94,222 664,857 42,411
4 Southern 714,845 276,943 369,894 16,981 161,524 913,916 43,706
5 Western 650,697 46,698 367,402 6,685 52,361 673,433 17,068
Source, CSA, 2012

4.3 Background and characteristics of respondents


Out of the total interviewed dairy cattle producers 183.83% were male and the rest 31%
were female household members of different age and educational status. Most of the
respondents were household heads while the rest were other family members (mainly
wives). Most of the respondents ranged in age between 35 years more than 50 years.

Concerning to the occupation of the respondent, of the total interviewed are farmers who
are fully engaged in agricultural activities and the remaining especially those from
Mekelle, have another economic activities out of which dairy production is one of the
many economic activities.

Results of the interviewees indicate that cattle purchasing, selling and breeding activities
were mainly operated by adult males. Of the interviewed producers, males are involved
in other agricultural activities. Cattle herding, if grazing is allowed especially in the
mixed crop–livestock production, is found to be operated by either male family or hired
children. Routine dairy activities like feeding, milking and nursing of sick animals are
operated by family members and hired laborers.

With respect to control over of dairy products, females in all of the studied areas had
control over milk and its by-products. Moreover, females are involved in churning

25
activities and marketing of dairy products, while in the urban areas the milking,
processing and marketing activity are controlled by male.

4.4 Livestock development strategies &Current livestock development


efforts

4.4.1 Livestock development strategies

The regional agricultural and natural resources development bureau has carried out a
regional livestock development action program study (TLDP) in 1996 and formulated
regional livestock development strategies.

Of the many stated in TLDP, some of the most important regional livestock development
strategies are:
 Improve the management, production and utilization of locally available and
introduced feed resources
 Pursing prevention centered veterinary services to minimize drastically the
occurrence of different animal disease
 Improve livestock breeds with the introduction of appropriate technologies giving
more emphasis to the conservation, improvement of local breeds
 Promote the production of exportable livestock and livestock products so that
increase foreign exchange earnings
Hence, the regional bureau of agriculture and natural resources development bureau is
under taking different livestock development efforts, which are discussed below.

4.4.2 Current livestock development efforts & their achievements


The livelihood of the majority of the population is based on subsistence crop-livestock
mixed agriculture and livestock are parts of this mixed farming system producing power,
food, energy and fertilizer and generate cash income and employment for the population.

Shortage of feed in terms of both quantity and quality is the major livestock development
constraint in the region causing livestock productivity to be very low. The main reasons
for the occurrence of this crucial livestock feed development problem are
 Recurrent draught due to shortage of rainfall,

26
 Excess livestock population, which resulted in over grazing of the existing
grazing areas;
 Small land holding size due to population increment and improper utilization of
the farm bound feed resources.
 In availability of agro processing plant that can produce different consumable by-
products that can used as source of feed
Natural grazing, crop residue and browsing as well as hay collected during winter season
are the most commonly used farm bound feed resources in the study areas. Cactus and
sisal species and such crop by - products as “Hatella" mixed with cereal bran are also
good sources of feed to animal mainly during draught period .In addition to the farm
bound feed resources, limited types of improved forage species are being introduced into
the farmers through the ongoing extension program.

The regional bureau of agriculture and natural resources in collaboration with interested
local and international NGOs have tried to distribute improved local and crossbreed dairy
cows and heifers besides to the AI service given to farmers and private dairy farm owners
through the ongoing extension service program. For the last three years /2002 – 2004 e.c /
a total of 41,879 female animals have been served by A.I service and a total of
18,387calves have been obtained in the last three years. Moreover, a total of more than
8,530 local and crossbred dairy cows and heifers have been distributed to interested
farmers who are involved in the dairy improvement extension service program as
indicated in the table below.

Table 4 Number of improved breeds distributed to farmers of Tigray region

year Number distributed


Begait Holstein Frisian total
2002 2,299 414 2,713
2003 2,575 805 3,380

27
2004 1,542 595 2,137
Total 1,814 6,716 8,530
Chart 1

According to CSA, 2012 report, in Tigray there are 10,952 exotic cattle and 39, 257
hybrids or cross bred cattle population
Table 5 Number of improved dairy cattle breeds distributed in the study areas /2002– 2004 /
Study woreda Number distributed
Begait Holstein-Friesian
2002 2003 2004 2002 2003 2004
Alamata DNA 18 0 DNA 0 0
Raya Azebo DNA 12 0 DNA 4 3
Tahitay Adiabo DNA 702 187 DNA 11 1
Asgede tesembela DNA 350 42 DNA 23 3
Tselemti DNA 32 10 DNA 3 3
Kafta Humera DNA 0 91 DNA 0 0
Welkait DNA 0 0 DNA 0 0
Tsegede DNA 40 386 DNA 0 0
Total DNA 1154 716 DNA 41 10

Animal health service delivery is also another crucial issue which is getting due
consideration so that to improve the livestock productivity. The most prominent types of
animal diseases that are significantly affecting the dairy animals causing to reduce their
milk production capacity in the region in general are mastitis, brucellosis, tuberculosis,

28
Milk fever, meteorites. Moreover, such diseases as FMD, Anthrax, black leg, cvpp and
tick borne diseases are commonly attacking the dairy animals.

Marketing is an important aspect of any livestock being a final step in the stockman's
operation, which determine the loss or profit on the labor, time, and capital investment of
the producer. There is no formal (i.e. well developed and organized) milk and milk
products marketing system in the region in general and in the study areas in particular.

Hence, people use their home produced or purchased milk for different purposes as for:
 Home consumption in fresh or fermented form
 Processing into different milk products such as cheese, yogurt, butter, ghee, etc
 Selling in liquid or processed form so that produced cash income
 Feeding calves

However, people are traditionally and habitually sell and purchase dairy products as fresh
or processed form. Raw milk mainly cow milk and its products (butter, butter milk, ghee
and yogurt) is being sold in open markets and rounding home to home. The main sources
of the marketable dairy products and by-products in the study areas are the small-scale
producers; cooperatives and private dairy farm owners situated in the semi urban areas. In
general, in the region there are 113 dairy cooperatives / farmers’ milk collection center
and 15 of them are found in the study areas. But, out of the 113 dairy cooperatives only
35 are functional

4.5.1 Dairy production in and around Mekelle city


As to the information obtained from the Mekelle Urban agricultural development office, the
present livestock population is estimated to be 36,000 cattle, 2000 sheep; 240 goats and
significant number of poultry as indicated in the table below.

Moreover, there are 592 dairy farms with 6,144 dairy cattle; and 415 fattening farms with 4,800
fattening animals and significant number of poultry respectively.

Kelamino is one of the biggest dairy farms in the town which supply raw milk to 500- 600
residents of the town. It has four distribution centers and customers who have supplied about

29
1970 liters of milk in the past four years / 2001 – 2004 e.c / with an average price of 8-11 birr per
liter as indicated in the table below.

No Year Amount of milk distributed Average price per liter

1 2002 470 8

2 2002 500 8

3 2003 550 9

4 2004 450 11

5 2005 650 12

4.6 Cattle husbandry and management practices

4.6.1 Feeds and feeding systems


Animal feeds and feeding are the major inputs in any dairy activity. Common feed
resources in the studied areas varied between production systems. In the mixed crop–
livestock system of both cereal crop residues and grazing are the major feed resources.

Based on livestock and livestock characteristics (private peasant holdings) survey made
by the Central Statistics Agency / CSA, 2009.10 / the major livestock feed resources for
the region are hay, straw, Stover, agro-processing products, forages.

Feed resources commonly used by dairy producers include grazing land, hay and
purchased succulent grass, cereal crop residues, maize Stover, improved forages, mixed/
balanced homemade concentrate feeds, plant weeds, and non-conventional feeds like
Hattella (brewery by-product from locally produced beer). Maize Stover is the most
commonly used roughage feed resource in all the production systems of the study areas
on the other hand, urban dairy producers use purchased feeds from different sources.

30
Figure 1 Dried hay as a source of feed especially during the dry season

Figure 2 Improved feeds /concentrates /

4.6.2 Water resources and watering practices

Water is an essential requirement for the proper functioning of animals. Some of its main
actions relate to digestion and absorption of food; transport of nutrients throughout the
body and metabolic wastes to the excretory organs (being a component of all body
fluids); control of body temperature (conductive and evaporative cooling) and milk
secretion (being a component of the milk).

31
Water is used for all cleaning purposes in a milk processing plant. Hence, an adequate
supply of water of satisfactory bacteriological and chemical quality is therefore required.
Water of good bacteriological quality is important to protect public health and to avoid
contamination and possible deterioration in the quality of milk and milk products and
Animals obtain their water requirements from three main sources, namely water in the
food; water consumed voluntarily and water formed in metabolic activities of the body.

The main sources of water identified in the study areas are rivers, pipe water, dams and
wells, spring water and bore holes. The majority of the households in the mixed crop–
livestock system obtained water from rivers, while some especially in urban areas, pipe
water, and boreholes water are the main sources. As a rule of thumb, lactating cows
require 4 to 6 liters of water per kg DM consumed.

4.6.3 Housing systems


Similar to feed and water, shelter is also basic and essential for livestock production
which need to be given due attention. What is important in designing housing for your
dairy animals is that the housing should be comfort, safety, economical, convenience.

Therefore, the important aspects that must be taken into account in designing housing for
dairy animals are:

 Optimum comfort for the animal so that it will produce most. This involves
protection from rain and extremes of heat and cold and strong winds; adequate
ventilation.
 Low construction and maintenance costs in that use cheap materials available
locally
 Preventing injury in that the standing should not be slippery and there should be
the right amount of space for your animal to get up and lie down easily
 .
 Should be convenient for such operational activities as feeding, milking and
maintenance of hygienic environment

32
In the study areas majority of the dairy animal owners keep the milk animals together
with other animals in a very simple and less cost sheds. But in the urban areas, dairy
farms, dairy owners have relatively butter sheds for their animals and keep them
separately from other animals.

Figure 3 housing system of dairy cows

4.6.4 Breeding practices


The profitability of urban dairying as well as future prospects to improve urban dairying
largely depends on the productivity of the animals. As a result, if urban and peri-urban
dairying production is to flourish, access to improved genetic material through improved
AI or breeding service is critical. In Tigray Begait and harmo cattle breeds are relative
better milk producing local cattle breeds. Hence a total of more than 1,814 begait and
6716 Holstein Frisian milk cow are so far distributed to a total of 8,530 farmers through
the livestock development extension program.

33
Figure 4 different milk animals breeds
In Tigray in general and in the study areas in particular, a total of 41,879 cow are
inseminated and 15,526 are synchronized and a total of 18,387 / 8,955 male and 9, 432
female cross breed dairy calves are born during the year 2002 - 2004 Ethiopian calendar /
BoARD, AI center / as indicated in the table below.
Table 6 Artificial Insemination service achievements of the region

Year Number of cows Number of calves born


inseminated Male Female total
2002 13,557 3,070 3,184 6,254
2003 14,518 3,101 3,239 6,340
2004 13,804 2,784 3,009 5,793

34
Chart 2 AI service achievements

4.6.5 Waste management


Waste disposal is one of the major problems of dairy producers in the study areas. Almost
all the interviewed dairy cattle producers in the study areas used animal dung primarily as
source of fuel and natural fertilizer. Manure from dairy animals played a vital role for the
improvement of agricultural productivity.
Waste disposal is among the burning issues in the rapidly growing towns in that urban
dairy producers are seen usually pleading for availability of efficient and less costly
mechanisms of manure disposal and the issue should receive the attention of concerned
authorities.

Collected manure from urban dairy farms can be made available to the surrounding rural
communities for use as organic fertilizer and thereby reduce expenses of farmers spent on
purchase of inorganic fertilizers. As a third option, the manure can be used as a source of
energy through biogas production, if the facility can be installed within reach of urban
farmers. Thus, concerned bodies should facilitate better use of this useful product.
Manure and urines must be properly cleaned from the dairy farm to ensure good and
hygienic working conditions.

35
Figure 5 dairy solid waste management /manure /

4.7. Milking, handling, processing and marketing practice in the study


areas

4.7.1 Milking practices

Out of the interviewed dairy cattle producers, all households milked their cows twice a
day and time of milking is normally in the early morning and late evening. Rural farmers
did not bother about the regularity of milking time. Urban producers, however, milk their
cows early and at a specific time so that milk is delivered to urban consumers as early as
possible.

In the study areas milking is predominantly handled by household wives and/or adult
females and adult males respectively. But, there are few exceptions for cross breed and
exotic and Begait dairy cattle whereby milking is entirely performed by males because of
their aggressive behavior.

Unless suckled by their calves, the lactating cows do not let down their milk and first the
calf is allowed to suckle until her/his dam let the milk down. The farmer detects this
situation as the calf continuous to suckle one teat and then the milkier tied the hind legs
of the milking cow and continued milking. In all the study areas in particular and the
region/ country in general hand milking is the only method of milking method being
practiced by all the rural and urban dairy owners.

4.7.2 Milk handling and processing equipment


Proper milk handling practice is a prerequisite prior to consumption, marketing and/or
further processing purposes. Milk is an ideal medium for the survival and multiplication
of pathogenic and spoilage microbes. Utensils that are used in milking, fermenting,
churning, or consumption of milk must be properly cleaned.

The most important factors that can make milk go off and unsuitable for Consumption
and further processing are the presence of too many micro-organisms, contamination of
the milk by sick animals, unusual flavor and smell due to the absorption and contact of

36
the milk with dirty equipment, disinfectants, pesticides, etc. The main sources of
contamination in milk are, therefore, the cow itself, the milk utensils, the milkier and the
milking area or cowshed. Therefore, washing of milkier hands, cow’s udder and the
milking, milk handling and processing equipment before milk is collected from the
animal is very essential. With regard to type and quality of milking utensils, there is no
significant difference between the study areas. Surveyed dairy farmers were observed
using different milk utensils for collecting, storing and processing milk, namely gourd,
clay pot utensils and aluminium milk utensils. In urban farms dairy farms use plastic
utensils and aluminium utensils.

Habitually farmers in the study areas in particular and the region in general smoke their
milk equipments using locally available plant woods such as Rosa abyssinica (Qega),
Shlen and woyera Ocimum suave (Dama Kessie), utame, Ramborambo with the objective
of imparting special taste and odour to the product, and to disinfect the vessels, thus
reducing the numbers of micro-organisms and thereby extending the shelf life of the
product.

Milkier have the first direct contact with milking animal and the milk Therefore, the
cleanliness of the milkier should not be overlooked in that the dirty hands and clothing
can add many bacteria in to the milk. During our discussion with the respondents, they
mentioned that almost all farmers wash their hands before they start milking of their cows
but no due consideration is given to type and how to cloth while milking their animals.

Maintenance of Clean cows requires clean barn and barn lots. Therefore, it is very
essential to wash the udder of the milking animals before milking. However, it is less
considered by most farmers in that not all farmers are practicing of washing the udder of
their cows before milking is started. They do not have separated milking are, rather milk
their animals in open and dirty barns will the milk animals are stand with other animals.

37
4.7.3 Milk and milk products utilization patterns
In most all parts of the region with much focus to the study areas, large amount of butter
produced by farmers is sold for generating cash income and support the whole family.
Only few and very rich farmers, frequently consume butter with wot (Tsebhi).

The use of butter as cosmetics for hair growing is a second utilization pattern of butter.
The utility of butter as cosmetics however varies from area to area and among sex
groups. In the southern zone of the region using of butter for hairdressing is significant
and women are the most commonly sex category use butter as compared to those of
men. At the time of plenty both the men women, children apply butter on their hair as
well as on their clothes; especially the youth and young ladies darken their clothes.

The main reasons why farmers especially the female ones use butter as hair dressing and
darkening of clothes are many out of which the very common ones are to condition the
hair, to soften their skin, for clarity of eyes & face and to prevent disease, such as eye
and skin disease
At present, however, the trend of using butter for dressing hair and darkening of clothes
is decreasing in that people prefer to sell the butter than using it as cosmetics because the
need of cash for fulfilling of other house hold necessities such as purchasing of spices,
salt, coffee, shoes and to buy, clothes, shoes, etc. for the farm family members.

Of the total interviewed 183 farmers and 20 consumers they utilization patterns of milk
and milk products are 65% for direct consumption, 22% for cosmetics and 13% for sale
as indicated in the table and charts presented below.

Utilization patterns of milk and milk products


respondents
utilization patterns number %
direct consumption as food 132 65.03
For sale 27 13.3
For cosmetics 44 21.67
Total 203 100

38
4.7.4 Milk processing and types of milk products produced
4.7.4.1 The need for processing
Milk provides an excellent medium for the growth of bacteria which may spoil the milk
in turn render it unsafe for human consumption for further processing. Hence, the needs
for processing of milk are: -
 To produce milk products of good quality from milk of good hygienic quality
 To increase its shelf life either as liquid product or solid products such as butter,
cheese, glee, etc. The self-life of animal products is greatly influenced by temperature
during production, storage, manufacturing, transportation and the marketing.
 Milk products are more stable than fresh milk because they are more acidic and
contain less moisture that retard the growth of micro- organisms
 Provide quality and sufficient wholesome food for consumer.
4.7.1.2 Milk processing techniques practiced in the study areas-
Milk may be processed either fresh or soured and the choice of processing fresh or sour
milk, however, depends on the quantity of milk available, consumers' taste preference,
and the availability of milk processing facilities and equipment.

As it is observed in the field and mentioned by the respondents during our discussions,
farmers practice sour milk processing which means naturally fermented milk. Processing
of fresh milk, however, is appropriate for large quantity of milk and particularly when
there is adequate cooling facility. Hence, in the rural area where there is no cooling
facility and less amount of milk produced, sour milk processing is widely practiced by
farmers and small-scale dairy farm owners.

The processes used to prepare sour milk are similar in all parts of the study areas.
Traditionally milk is fermented in a cool place without the use of the starter culture.
However, few Farmers use buttermilk as a culture to shorten the souring time.

The equipment used for milk processing by farmers in the study areas are simple and
locally available made from clay, gourds and may be woven from fibers and grass.
Besides, at present especially farmers whose residence is very close to towns use plastic

39
jogs and buckets to process their milk. Common practices to all farmers in the eight study
areas, the vessels used for fermenting and churning the soured milk are smoked
beforehand for two major beneficial effects namely,
 Flavoring the product
 Regulate fermentation by retarding growth of undesirable bacteria.
4.7.1.3 Types of milk products produced by Farmers
The major dairy products being produced are yoghurt (rego), butter ( Lesdi), ghee
(Sehum), cheese (Ajibo), buttermilk (Awso), and whey (mancheba).
The typical processing scheme and utilization pattern for the different dairy products in
the study areas is depicted in the Figure below.

40
Figure 6 processing scheme and utilization pattern
FRESH MILK

CONSUMED AT
HOME SOLD

CONSUMED AT
HOME YOGHURT /REUO/

Consumed at
home

Cheese/ Ajibo/

BUTTER / LESDI/
BUTTER MILK
Whey / mancheba/

Consumed at SOLD CHANGED TO FED TO


CONSUME CONSUME
home / as GHEE / SEHUM/ CALVES
D AT HOME D AT HOME
cosmetics/
CONSUMED AT
HOME SOLD SOLD

41
42
4.8 Milk and milk Products marketing

Marketing may be defined as "the performance of all business activities involved in the flow of
goods and services from the producer to the consumer". This implies that there are several
categories of key players in the marketing chain each with its own vested interests. Consumers
want to get what they need at the lowest price possible. Producers on the other hand are
interested in getting the highest possible return for their milk and milk products. Between them,
there are market intermediaries or middlemen who perform various marketing functions such as
transportation or retailing. Their interest is to make the highest profit possible from their
particular business operation.

Short period ago milk and milk products were not sold in many parts of the region for many
reasons from which the most important ones are cultural taboos, lack of nearby market for the
produces, in sufficient supply of raw milk due to feed shortage, disease and poor genetics
potential of local breeds; the increasing need for milk products mainly butter, cheese and ghee by
urban consumers and poor hygienic handling of milk and milk products resulted in decreasing of
market demand.
Because of growth human population and urbanization, the demand for milk and milk products
is increasing from time to time. Hence, at present most farmers especially those who live very
close to towns are refusing to accept the cultural taboos and are practicing selling of raw milk
and milk products as contractual agreement with customers or by sitting with their milk and
milk products waiting for buyers in open market and roaming from house to house.

The main problem here is due to the absence of market infrastructures and facilities only
morning milk is sold to the nearby market as fresh form. The evening milk, however, is
converted into yogurt (RGUO) which is partly consumed, partly processed and some sold at
market. The market out lets for milk in the study areas are restaurants, snacks, hotels, household
consumers
The source of milk supply in the urban areas of the study woredas is the private dairy farms and
individuals, who have cross breed dairy cows. The Private dairy farms in the study areas are
suffering from serious shortage of feed, inadequate knowledge of improved dairy products

43
handling and processing and some dairy diseases and external parasites, etc resulted in low milk
production of their dairy cows. Besides, municipalities in their towns are not helping them in
giving of land so that to expand their dairy farms in turn supply of milk as to the consumers'
demand becomes difficult.

4.8.1 Marketable dairy products and their price determinants


4.8.1.1 Marketable dairy products

Data obtained from the study areas showed that marketable dairy products in the study areas
include whole milk, traditionally processed butter, ergo (fermented whole milk), and sour
buttermilk. Marketable dairy products of a certain locality are dependant on many factors,
amongst of these the production system, the purchasing ability of consumers, taste preference of
the consumer, etc.
Whole milk product sold by the farmers followed by the butter raw milk to the consumers. Butter
produced in the rural areas is channeled to the urban consumers through informal market.
Farmers mostly women take the product weekly to market places mainly during the market day
and sell it. The main buyers of butter in the study areas are urban dwellers, farmers themselves
and Small scale traders who collect butter and sell it again at big markets which are for producers
to go and sell their products at a better price
Factors affecting the prices of milk and dairy products included season, fasting and non-fasting
days, and access to urban sites; to some extent the quality and sources of dairy products also
influenced their price. The 250 fasting days celebrated every year practiced by the Ethiopian
Orthodox Church followers in refrain or restricted from eating animal origin foods which in turn
significantly affecting the market price dairy products / lower price /.

4.8.1.2 Pricing of Milk and Milk Products

Demand for milk and milk products is increasing from time to time for such reasons as
increasing of population, relative improvement of income and fast urbanization of rural areas.
But on the contrary, the fast growing demand for milk and milk products can be satisfied as per
the demand. The main reasons could be lack of highly producing dairy animals, shortage of
improve feeds, etc could be the major ones.

44
To be marketable, a dairy product must have competitively priced which implies that the costs
involved in raw material procurement, processing, packaging, storage, marketing and distribution
must be kept as low as possible.

Table 6 Milk and milk products price in the study areas / 2002 -2004 E.C/
2002 2003 2004
study area raw milk butter ghee raw milk butter ghee raw milk butter ghee
Alamata 6.5 70 110 8 95 145 9.5 120 175
Raya Azebo 5 60 90 7.5 90 115 8 135 170
Kafta Humera 7 75 80 8.5 105 155 12 120 180
Welkait 5 50 75 6 90 125 7.5 107 145
Tsegede 6.5 60 65 7.25 75 95 8.5 95 125
Tahitay Adiabo 6.5 70 70 7.25 94.5 105 9.5 125 135
Asgede tsemebela 7 75 80 7.5 85 110 8.75 110 155
Tselemti 6 60 70 7.25 77.5 130 8.5 98.5 145
average 6.1875 65 80 7.40625 89 122.5 9.03125 113.8125 153.75

Sources: study woredas

Chart 3 Milk and Milk products price trend in the study areas

4.8.2 Market channels of dairy commodities


Marketing channels of each marketable milk and milk products in the studied areas is indicated
below. Butter was the most marketable dairy derivative having the longest market channel and
more intermediates between producers and consumers, while whole milk, sour buttermilk and
yoghurt have few intermediates and reached consumers with the shortest channel.
The dairy farmer has three market-outlets apart from his own consumption. These are

45
 The milk producers can sell surplus milk to neighbors in the informal marketing channel
which involves direct-delivery of raw, fresh milk to consumers in the immediate
neighborhood and sale to itinerant traders and nearby institutions. The informal
marketing channels are of low cost and use short-cut marketing routes between the
producer and consumers and are thus believed to be more efficient than the formal
marketing systems,
 The milk producers can sell to dealers who collect milk from farmers and transport it to
nearby urban centers for direct sale to consumers, service providers (café, hotels and
restaurants).
 The milk producers can also sell to milk group or co-operative milk collection centers
which the producers may or may not be members to the cooperatives.
Market channels for milk and milk products are depicted below.

General
Producer →Consumer
Producer → Retailers →Consumer
Producer →Cooperatives →Consumer
Producer →Cooperatives →Retailers→ Consumer
Market channels for butter, whole milk and sour butter milk
1. Butter
Producer →Consumer
Producer →Cooperatives →Consumer
Producer →Rural assembler → Consumer
Producer →Rural assembler → Retailers → Consumer
2. Whole milk
Producer → Consumer
Producer →Cooperatives →Consumer
Producer →Cooperatives→ Trader →Consumer
5. Sour buttermilk
Producer →Consumer

Figure marketing channels of milk and milk products

46
4.9 Stakeholders in dairy production and marketing
The woreda offices of agriculture and rural development, dairy cooperatives, different
governmental and non-governmental organizations, dairy traders, higher institutions, research
institutions, private input suppliers, dairy producers, and dairy farms are the major and actively
involved in the dairy development activities in the region.

The major service being given by the above mentioned stakeholders are veterinary services,
extension services, AI services, and capacity buildings such as training are the major ones. Dairy
cooperatives also contribute a lot especially with regard to linking producers to market and by
providing input supply. With this regard, the role of dairy cooperatives some of the study areas /
Alamata, Raya azebo, and Mekelle appeared to be quite active.

Traders of different types with different capital sizes are also contributing a lot in facilitating
dairy marketing in the area. Locally produced whole milk, traditionally processed dairy products
such as butter, ergo, and ghee are some of the dairy products traders are involved with. Dairy
producers, particularly the urban and peri-urban farmers, are the predominant milk producers
providing dairy products to the rapidly growing urban population in the area.

Private input suppliers are the other stakeholders to the sector as they supply different inputs
such as feeds, animal drugs, and other small-scale processing utensils. The contribution of
concentrate feed suppliers and milling factories (wheat flour factories) as the major feed resource
especially for urban producers is increasing from time to time.

4.10 The dairy value chain


The value chain describes the functional relation of sequential activities which are required to
bring a product from conception, through the different phases of production, processing, and
delivery to final consumers.
There are three main sets of reasons why value chain analysis is important and they are:
 With the growing division of labor and the global dispersion of the production of
components, systemic competitiveness has become increasingly important
 Efficiency in production is only a necessary condition for successfully penetrating
markets

47
 Understanding of dynamic factors within the whole value chain brings sustained income
growth

Thus, milk production begins with production and supply of different production inputs which
includes natural and agro-processing feed products. Moreover, to enable the animal produce
good quality and sufficient milk providing sufficient and sustainable health service with more
focus on prevention is quite important using different treatment and vaccination drugs and
equipment is indispensable. Keeping dairy animals in safe clean and comfortable shelter is
equally important input to enable milk animals perform their natural activities normally and
make its owner successful and profitable.

Milk after being produced and let down from the secretory organ of the animal should be
properly handled kept in clean containers and be processed and reach at consumption area timely
and safely. Thus, different handling and processing equipment are essential to have and use
properly
Milk is naturally balanced animal product which creates favorable condition for microorganisms
multiply rapidly and makes it out of use if it is not properly handled and used timely.
Milk is processed traditionally using different local materials to produce different milk products
which can be consumed immediately or further processed other products. Processing milk will
add value and improve its shelf life. Moreover, there are some private dairy farms which practice
modern processing of milk in to different products.
Packing is an essential element of dairy value chain and it is done to keep the milk and milk
product clean and quality until it reaches at the hand of the final consumers enabling them get
satisfaction of their demand in turn pay fair price for the producers. The packing materials used
by producers are more of traditional like battle, plastic cups, etc.
Timely delivery of milk and milk products to final consumers either at the farm gate, market area
or roaming home to home either directly by the processor, producer or agents using vehicles,
motor bicycles, bicycles is a must in dairy business.
Milk and milk products are available to consumers at different retail outlet or shops and social
service giving organizations such as hotels, restaurants, snacks, kiosks’, etc. Consumers consume
milk and milk products to obtained essential nutrients promoting good health and wellbeing
throughout all stages of their life.

The study revealed that in Tigray the dairy value chain encompasses the direct actors, support
providers and facilitators

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1. The direct actors are those actors who have direct involvement in production, collection,
transportation, processing and packaging, storage and distribution, retailing, and food
services of milk and milk products. These actors include Raw milk producers, Input
providers, Milk collectors, Distributors and retailers, and service providers (café, hotels and
restaurants).
2. Support providers include governmental and non-governmental organizations which provide
technical, material and financial supports especially or the producers to strengthen the sector
and other direct supporters Some of the support providers in diary value chain are BoARD
/Bureau of Agriculture and rural Development/, local and international organizations / REST,
TDA, Land O’ lakes, USAI-LMD, etc., National, Regional and international Agricultural
Research institutions such as TARI, IPMS- ILRI, etc., Universities and Colleges/ Mekelle
University, etc/ and Financial institutions such as Banks, Dedebit micro-Finance,;
Besides to these direct supporters, there are organizations or institutions which provide
conducive dairy environment for the development dairy in the region provision of license and
other facilitations. These include, trade and investment offices, TAMPA,Cooperative Agency,
Environmental protection Land use and administration agency, TVET-SME and
Municipalities

49
Value chain elements Major Activities Major actors

Purchase and Consume milk and different milk Rural & Urban residents of
CONSUMER products different age groups

Make dairy products available to ultimate Supermarkets,restaurants,


DISTRIBUTING & RETAILING consumers at different retail outlets hotels, snacks, households
timely and safely etc.

Convert milk in to different long shelf ,


PROCESSING durable and value added products either Village milk collection
using traditional and modern method of coops, small scale private
processing farms,etc

COLLECTION & Collecting milk produced by different


producers at different locations, transport Traders, agents
TRANSPORTING
carefully and timely and supply either to
consumers or to processors

PRODUCTION Manage milk animals properly, milk Rural Smallholder farmers, private farms,
them timely, handling the produced urban farms, cooperatives, colleges, etc.

milk safely and cleanly

Provide all the necessary inputs / feed, Private, governmental & NG


INPUT SUPPLY veterinary service, improved breeds, organizations
equipment etc. /
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4.11 Opportunities & Constraints of dairy production & marketing

4.11.1 Opportunities of dairy production & marketing

Although there are many problems or constraints that may hinder the development of the
dairy sector, majority of dairy producers of both the mixed crop–livestock and urban
production systems dairy producers are willing to continue, expand and/or involve in
dairying in the future and the major opportunities for dairy milk and milk products
production and marketing are the following..
1. Because of the rapid urbanization, substantial population growth and change in
the living standard by urban societies in the area, the demand for good quality and
quantity of dairy products are increasing.
2. The current livestock especially dairy development efforts being under taken by
the government and other non- governmental international and local organizations
are creating good and promising grounds for increasing of milk production. Such
activities as Introduction of improved forage species, improvement of
management and utilization of farm bound animal feeds; improvement of water
supply and veterinary services and improvement of local breeds through AI and
bull services are bringing a potential increase in the supply of dairy products.
3. The region is endowed good milk producing local breeds like Begait, Ardao
which can be upgraded through Artificial Insemination and natural mating service.
4. Small-and medium scale private and cooperative dairy farms are flourishing
especially in the urban per-urban areas that can create favorable ground for the
development improved dairy production, processing and marketing in the region
which in turn improves the supply of sufficient and quality dairy products at
reasonable price.
5. The fast expansion of governmental and non-governmental organizations rustled
in the increment of employees and construction of such different private service
giving organizations as hotels, restaurants, snacks, and recreation parks are
creating promising market for different dairy products.
4.11.2 Constraints of dairy production & marketing
It is possible to mention many livestock development problems in general and dairy
development in particular. However, Interviewed farmers, traders, private dairy farm
owners other concerned experts working at different administrative levels and agricultural
development related organizations in the study areas are identified the following
challenges and constraints of milk and milk products production, handling, processing
and marketing.
4.11.2.1 Concerning production
Of the many problems of milk and milk production, the following are the major ones as
to the interviewed farmers in the study areas in order of their importance
 Shortage of quantity and quality feed as the result of recurrent draught, improper
management and utilization of farm bound feed resources
 Producers in the mixed crop–livestock and the urban system highly stressed the
problem of seasonal variation in availability and the high price of feeds. With
regard to roughage feeds of animals, maize Stover collected during October to
November, sometimes succulent grass brought from the surrounding areas urban
for sell. The urban dairy producers purchase concentrates from agricultural agro-
processor such as flour mills and oil seed processors in neighboring regions and
western zone of the region. But, prices of concentrate feeds increasing from time
to time which dairy producers could not afford
 Low livestock products yield
 Low carrying capacity of the existing grazing areas
 poor genetic potential of local breeds
 The majority of dairy farmers in the study areas are constrained on unavailability
of improved and highly productive dairy animals. The respondents indicated
problems related to long calving interval, abortion, and late age at first mating,
respectively. Moreover, farmers especially in the remote but potential areas are
dissatisfied with the unavailability of improved breed improvement activities
such as the AI service
 Damage of different livestock diseases and external and internal parasites causing
large number of animals to die that resulted in decreasing of animal products

53
 Poor access to farm land that hindered dairy development in the area. Most urban
producers keep their cattle within their own residence compound, which is not
accepted or recommended. Even if dairy producers are interested to expand their
farm, the land size cannot allow most of them to do so.
 Waste disposal is considered as one of the most important problems by urban
producer’s large towns like mekelle, Adigrate, Shire endaselasse, Axum, maichew,
Alamata. Because of the rapid urbanization, the problem of land shortage was
aggravated by the absence of appropriate place to dispose animal dung town. Most
producers pay extra money for laborers to dispose the manure.
 Lack of knowledge of improved methods of milk and milk products handling and
processing techniques
 In availability of improved milk and milk products handling equipment
 Poor extension service with regard to milk and milk products handling and
processing
4.11.2.2 Concerning Marketing
 Deprived of linkage among producers and processors and producers and consumers
 Lack of different dairy production inputs
 Insufficiency of quality based payment system
 Lack of dairy packaging, handling and processing materials / milk utensils and dairy
machineries
 Lack of guidelines for milk and milk products quality parameters and legislations to
undertake strict quality control over the production , processing and marketing of milk and
milk products
 Lack of linkage among dairy value chain actors towards sustainable development of the
sector
 Seasonality in demand for milk and milk products due to long lasting fasting periods
especially that prohibit Orthodox Church followers from consuming livestock products
including milk and milk products.
 Adulteration of milk and milk products was considered as a problem especially in butter
marketing.

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Chapter 5

5. Conclusions and recommendations

5.1 Conclusions

This is the last chapter of the document which consists of the conclusions and
recommendation drawn from the study and recommendations suggested to enable
concerned decision making bodies to make dairy products production, handling,
processing and marketing activities strengthening interventions in the region.
From the Tigray region, the eight woredas, namely Alamata, Raya Azebo, Tselemti,
Asgede tsembela, Kafta Humera, Welkait and Tsegede were selected purposely for their
good livestock potential.
The favorable climate, better breeds, supportive agricultural policy and huge livestock
population creates good opportunity to utilize the resources. Hence, there is a need to
focus interventions more coherently aimed at addressing both technological gaps and
marketing problems.
There is low genetic makeup of the indigenous cattle for milk production which is
resulted in low volume and poor quality milk and milk production resulted mainly from
overall poor managements of dairy animals.
There is inadequate and unstable supply of milk and milk products to urban consumers
due to inefficient delivery system and inadequate market outlet for milk and milk
products from rural areas.
Urban producers have permanent buyers through informal marketing channel; however,
rural dairy producers do not have reliable market for milk. Even then, highly potential
areas like the southern / Raya valley / and the western developments corridors are not
well exploited and linked with strong market-chains between potential consumers in the
major towns. As market is the driving force to the development of this sector, responsible
stakeholders should not only work towards dairy production and productivity of cattle but
also towards dairy marketing options.
Animal products mainly milk consumption in the urban and sub urban areas are
increasing at a fast rate due to a significant increase in the human population; fast

55
urbanization and relative improvement of income of the community. This in turn requires
the improvement of the quantity and quality of the animal products so that to satisfy the
fast growing demand.
In Tigray as a whole and in the study areas in particular, there is no strong and formal
milk and milk products market rather, it is informal one. Milk and milk products are sold
in open market place mainly in contractual base especially to the neighbor consumers.

5.2 Recommendations

To secure a continuous supply of sufficient quantity and quality dairy products to the fast
growing demand at a reasonable price to the rural milk producers and strong milk market
with the direct involvement of both public and private dairy sectors short term and long
term solution should be find out

 Together with the perishable nature of milk post-harvest losses is thus high due to either
mishandling, uneconomical use; or due to the use of low level of technology in preservation
and conversion of milk to other dairy products. Generally milk losses during milking, milk
transferring and transportation at premises; adulteration of milk ; use of poor containers liable
for pathogenic bacteria to foster and poor hygiene that causes continuous deterioration of the
milk quality from the milk let down up to the time it reaches the consumer need to be given due
attention.

Thus, to minimize and avoid the post-harvest losses of milk and milky products
 Provide continuous awareness creation training on
o basic milk handling conditions,
o Proper cleanliness and safe guarding the milk and milk products utensils from
contaminants
o Using of proper storage and preservation technologies at house hold level
o Using of proper and fast means of transportation should be given to enable
producers and other milk handlers deliver fresh milk and milk products or the
ultimate consumers
 In dairy products marketing, it is essential to be well aware of the nutritional and public
health significance of the marketable products. Therefore, In order to maintain the quality and

56
make dairy products more marketable there is a need for undertaking strong quality control
system through the introduction of regulatory measures and quality testing kits.

 Livestock development in general and dairy sector in particular is hampered by shortage of


feed. Therefore, to improve feed availability in turn to increase milk production
 Strengthening production of better quality and sufficient amount of animal feeds.
 Use of alternative sources of feed from silage making and conserved residue,
 Encourage establishment of feed processing plants by motivating and supporting
capable interested private investors
 Improve conservation and utilization of local feed resources
 Health is one the crucial issues need to address in livestock production in general and
dairy production in particular. Therefore,
 Make arrangements for effective veterinary services to private and
cooperative dairy farms.
 Provide undertake adequate disease prevention and control services on
economic important milk borne diseases such as TB and mastitis,
 Quality and safety of milk and dairy products are central to production enhancement and
for safe guarding public health. Hence to minimize quality losses the following
recommendations are forwarded:
 Encourage the establishment of well-equipped collection centres in strategic
areas and coverage by organizing producers
 Establishment of standard quality control laboratory,
 Encourage the establishment of medium and large scale dairy farms in
potential dairy development peri-urban areas by interested and capable
private investors and cooperatives and provision of services to private dairy
farms to improve their productivity
 Strengthening credit institutions to provide easy access to credit for individual and group
farmers.

 Seasonality of demand for dairy products cultural and religious influences are challenges
hampering dairy development in the region. Therefore, to avoid this problem
 Provide awareness creation training on
 Introduce of handling, processing, transporting technologies which could extend the
shelf-life of dairy products
 Strengthening the market linkage among producers and processors and develop
contract agreement between producers and processors on the whole milk marketing.

57
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