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S2220106 & Question Answers

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2015 年大范围预测文档

14

navigation and communications 15

radiation

16

antennae 17 smoke

18

C

19

D

20

B

21 E

22

A

23

FALSE

24

TRUE

25 TRUE

26

NOT GIVEN

smoke 18 C 19 D 20 B 21 E 22 A 23 FALSE 24 TRUE 25

S2200112

Checkboxes & Related Question Types

Passage Backgrounds

True / False / NGList of Headings S2. 短信和电视节目 2(科技类)

True / False / NG List of Headings S2. 短信和电视节目 2(科技类)

List of Headings

S2. 短信和电视节目 2(科技类)

SummaryParagraph Matching

Summary Paragraph Matching

Paragraph Matching

MatchingMultiple Choices

Matching Multiple Choices

Multiple Choices

Questions 28-32

The reading passage has seven paragraphs, A-G

Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-E from the list below.

Write the correct number, i-ix, in boxes 28-32 on your answer sheet.

List of Headings

i an existed critical system into operating in a new way

ii Overview of a fast growing business

iii profitable games are gaining more concerns

iv Netherlands takes the leading role

v a new perspective towards sharing the business opportunities

vi opportunities for all round prevalent applications

vii revenue gains and bonus share

viii the simpler technology prevails over complex ones

ix set-top box provider changed their mind

28. Paragraph A

29. Paragraph B

30. Paragraph C

31. Paragraph D

32. Paragraph E

changed their mind 28. Paragraph A 29. Paragraph B 30. Paragraph C 31. Paragraph D 32.

Texting! the television 2

A THERE was a time when any self-respecting television show, particularly one aimed at

a young audience, had to have an e-mail address. But on Europe's TV screens, such

addresses are increasingly being pushed aside in favour of telephone numbers to which

viewers can send text messages from their mobile phones. And no wonder: according to research about to be published by Gartner, a consultancy, text messaging has recently overtaken Internet use in Europe (see chart). One of the fastest-growing uses of text messaging, moreover, is interacting with television. Gartner's figures show that 20% of teenagers in France, 11% in Britain and 9% in Germany have sent messages in response

to

TV shows.

B

This has much to do with the boom in "reality TV" shows, such as "Big Brother", in

which viewers' votes decide the outcome. Most reality shows now allow text-message voting, and in some cases, such as the most recent series of "Big Brother" in Norway, the majority of votes are cast in this way. But there is more to TV-texting than voting. News shows encourage viewers to send in comments; games shows allow viewers to compete; music shows take requests by text message; and broadcasters operate on-screen chatrooms. People tend to have their mobiles with them on the sofa, so "it's a very natural form of interaction," says Adam Daum of Gartner.

C It can also be very lucrative, since mobile operators charge premium rates for messages to particular numbers. The most recent British series of "Big Brother", for example, generated 5.4m text-message votes and £1.35m ($2.1m) in revenue. According to a report from Van Dusseldorp & Partners, a consultancy based in Amsterdam, the German edition of MTV's "Videoclash", which invites viewers to vote for one of two rival videos, generates up to 40,000 messages an hour, each costing euro0.30 ($0.29). A text

to vote for one of two rival videos, generates up to 40,000 messages an hour, each

contest alongside the Belgian quiz show "1 Against 100" attracted 110,000 players in a month, each of whom paid euro0.50 per question in an eight-round contest. In Spain, a cryptic-crossword clue is displayed before the evening news broadcast; viewers are invited to text in their answers at a cost of euro1, for a chance to win a euro300 prize. On a typical day, 6,000 people take part. TV-related text messaging now accounts for an appreciable share of mobile operators' data revenues. In July, a British operator, mmO2, reported better-than-expected financial results, thanks to the flood of messages caused by "Big Brother". Operators typically take 40-50% of the revenue from each message, with the rest divided between the broadcaster, the programme maker and the firm providing the message-processing system. Text-message revenues are already a vital element of the business model for many shows. Inevitably, there is grumbling that the operators take too much of the pie. Endemol, the Netherlands-based production company behind "Big Brother" and many other reality TV shows has started building its own database of mobile-phone users. The next step will be to establish direct billing relationships with them, and bypass the operators.

D Why has the union of television and text message suddenly proved so successful? One important factor is the availability of special four-, five- or six-digit numbers, called "shortcodes". Each operator controls its own shortcodes, and only relatively recently have operators realised that it makes sense to co-operate and offer shortcodes that work across all networks. The availability of such common shortcodes was a breakthrough, says Lars Becker of Flytxt, a mobile-marketing firm, since shortcodes are far easier to remember when flashed up on the screen.

E The operators' decision to co-operate in order to expand the market is part of a broader trend, observes Katrina Bond of Analysys, a consultancy. Faced with a choice between protecting their margins and allowing a new medium to emerge, operators have always chosen the first. WAP, a technology for reading cut-down web pages on mobile phones,

to emerge, operators have always chosen the first. WAP, a technology for reading cut-down web pages

failed because operators were reluctant to share revenue with content providers. Having learnt their lesson, operators are changing their tune. In France, one operator, Orange, has even gone so far as to publish a rate card for text-message revenue-sharing, a degree of transparency that would once have been unthinkable.

F At a recent conference organised by Van Dusseldorp & Partners, Han Weegink of CMG, a firm that provides text-message infrastructure, noted that all this is subtly changing the nature of television. Rather than presenting content to viewers, an increasing number of programmes involve content that reacts to the viewer's input.That was always the promise of interactive TV, of course. Interactive TV was supposed to revolve around fancy set-top boxes that plug directly into the television. But that approach has a number of drawbacks, says Mr Daum. It is expensive to develop and test software for multiple and incompatible types of set-top box, and the market penetration, at 40% or less, is lower than that for mobile phones, which are now owned by around 85% of Europeans. Also, mobile-phone applications can be quickly developed and set up. "You can get to market faster, and with fewer grasping intermediaries," says Mr Daum. Providers of set-top box technology are adding text-messaging capabilities to their products.

G The success of TV-related texting is a reminder of how easily an elaborate technology can be unexpectedly overtaken by a simpler, lower-tech approach. It does not mean that the traditional approach to interactive TV is doomed: indeed, it demonstrates that there is strong demand for interactive services. People, it seems, really do want to do more than just stare at the screen. If nothing else, couch potatoes like to exercise their thumbs.

really do want to do more than just stare at the screen. If nothing else, couch

Questions 33-35

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

Write the correct letter in boxes 33-35 on your answer sheet.

33 In Europe, a consultancy suggested that young audiences spend more money on

A thumbing text message

B writing E-mail

C watching TV program

D talking through Mobile phones

34 what happened when some TV show invited audience to participate

A get attractive bonus

B shows are more popular in Norway than in other countries

C change to invite them to the reality show

D their participation could change the result

35 Interactive TV change their mind of concentrating set-top box but switched to

A increase their share in the market

B change a modified set-top box

C build a embedded message platform

D march into European market

share in the market B change a modified set-top box C build a embedded message platform

Questions 36-40

Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-E) with opinions or deeds

below.

Write the appropriate letters A-F in boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet.

A Lars Becker Flytxt

B Katrina Bond of Analysys

C Endemol

D CMG

E mmO2

F Gartner

36 offer mobile phone message technology

37 earned considerable amount of money through a famous program

38 shortcodes are convenient to remember when turn up

39 build their own mobile phone operating applications

40 It is easy for people to send messages in an interactive TV

39 build their own mobile phone operating applications 40 It is easy for people to send

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2015 年大范围预测文档

28

ii

29 vi

30 vii

31

i

32

V

33

A

34

D

35

C

36

D

37

E

38

A

39

C

40

F

30 vii 31 i 32 V 33 A 34 D 35 C 36 D 37 E

S2230106

Checkboxes & Related Question Types

True / False / NGList of Headings

True / False / NG List of Headings

List of Headings

SummaryParagraph Matching

Summary Paragraph Matching

Paragraph Matching

MatchingMultiple Choices

Matching Multiple Choices

Multiple Choices

Passage Backgrounds

S2. 俄勒区冈州农业(经济类)

New Agriculture in Oregon, US
New Agriculture in Oregon, US

A Onion growers in eastern Oregon are adopting a system that saves water and keeps topsoil in place, while producing the highest quality "super colossal" onions. Pear growers in southern Oregon have reduced their use of some of the most toxic pesticides by up to two-thirds, and are still producing top-quality pears. Range managers throughout the state have controlled the poisonous weed tansy ragwort with insect predators and saved the Oregon livestock industry up to $4.8 million a year.

B These are some of the results Oregon growers have achieved in collaboration with Oregon State University (OSU) researchers as they test new farming methods including integrated pest management (IPM). Nationwide, however, IPM has not delivered results comparable to those in Oregon. A recent U.S General Accounting Office (GAO) report indicates that while integrated pest management can result in dramatically reduced pesticide use, the federal government has been lacking in effectively promoting that goal and implementing IPM. Farmers also blame the government for not making the new options of pest management attractive. "Wholesale change in the way that farmers control the pests on their farms is an expensive business," Tony Brown, of the National Farmers Association says. "If the farmers are given tax breaks to offset the expenditure, then they would willingly accept

Association says. "If the farmers are given tax breaks to offset the expenditure, then they would

the new practices." The report goes on to note that even though the use of the riskiest pesticides has declined nationwide, they still make up more than 40 percent of all pesticides used today; and national pesticide use has risen by 40 million kilograms since 1992. "Our food supply remains the safest and highest quality on Earth but we continue to overdose our farmland with powerful and toxic pesticides and to under-use the safe and effective alternatives," charged Patrick Leahy, who commissioned the report. Green action groups disagree about the safety issue. "There is no way that habitual consumption of foodstuffs grown using toxic chemicals of the nature found on today's farms can be healthy for consumers," noted by Bill Bowler, spokesman for Green Action, one of many lobbyists interested in this issue.

C The GAO report singles out Oregon's apple and pear producers who have used the new IPM techniques with

growing success. Although Oregon is clearly ahead of the nation, scientists at OSU are taking the Government Accounting Office criticisms seriously. "We must continue to develop effective alternative practices that will reduce environmental hazards and produce high quality products," said Paul Jepson, a professor of entomology at OSU and new director of OSU's Integrated Plant Protection Centre (IPPC). The IPPC brings together scientists from OSU's Agricultural Experiment Station, OSU Extension service, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and

Oregon farmers to help develop agricultural systems that will save water and soil, and reduce pesticides. In response to the GAO report, the Centre is putting even more emphasis on integrating research and farming practices to improve Oregon agriculture environmentally and economically.

D "The GAO report criticizes agencies for not clearly communicating the goals of IPM," said Jepson. "Our

challenge is to greatly improve the communication to and from growers, to learn what works and what doesn't. The work coming from OSU researchers must be adopted in the field and not simply languish in scientific journals."

E In Oregon, growers and scientists are working together to instigate new practices. For example, a few years

ago scientists at OSU's Malheur Experiment Station began testing a new drip irrigation system to replace old ditches that wasted water and washed soil and fertilizer into streams. The new system cut water and fertilizer use by half, kept topsoil in place and protected water quality.

into streams. The new system cut water and fertilizer use by half, kept topsoil in place

F In addition, the new system produced crops of very large onions, rated "super colossal" and highly valued by the restaurant industry and food processors. Art Pimms, one of the researchers at Malheur comments: "Growers are finding that when they adopt more environmentally benign practices, they can have excellent results. The new practices benefit the environment and give the growers their success."

G OSU researchers in Malheur next tested straw mulch and found that it successfully held soil in place and kept the ground moist with less irrigation. In addition, and unexpectedly, the scientists found that the mulched soil created a home for beneficial beetles and spiders that prey on onion thrips - a notorious pest in commercial onion fields - a discovery that could reduce the need for pesticides." I would never have believed that we could replace the artificial pest controls that we had before and still keep our good results," commented Steve Black, a commercial onion farmer in Oregon, "but instead we have actually surpassed expectations."

H OSU researchers throughout the state have been working to reduce dependence on broad spectrum chemical sprays that are toxic to many kind of organisms, including humans. "Consumers are rightly putting more and more pressure on the industry to change its reliance on chemical pesticides, but they still want a picture-perfect product," said Rick Hilton, entomologist at OSU's Southern Oregon Research and Extension Centre, where researchers help pear growers reduce the need for highly toxic pesticides. Picture-perfect pears are an important product in Oregon and traditionally they have required lots of chemicals. In recent years, the industry has faced stiff competition from overseas producers, so any new methods that growers adopt must make sense economically as well as environmentally. Hilton is testing a growth regulator that interferes with the molting of codling moth larvae. Another study used pheromone dispensers to disrupt codling moth mating. These and other methods of integrated pest management have allowed pear growers to reduce their use of organophosphates by two-thirds and reduce all other synthetic pesticides by even more and still produce top-quality pears. These and other studies around the state are part of the effort of the IPPC to find alternative farming practices that benefit both the economy and the environment.

part of the effort of the IPPC to find alternative farming practices that benefit both the

Questions 1-8

Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-G) with opinions or deeds below.

Write the appropriate letters A-G in boxes 1-8 on your answer sheet.

A Tony Brown

B Patrick Leahy

C Bill Bowler

D Paul Jepson

E Art Pimms

F Steve Black

G Rick Hilton

1 There is a double-advantage to the new techniques.

2 The work on developing these alternative techniques is not finished.

3 Eating food that has had chemicals used in its production is dangerous to our health.

4 Changing current farming methods into a new one is not a cheap process.

5 Results have exceeded the anticipated goal.

6 The research done should be translated into practical projects.

7 The U.S. produces the best food in the world nowadays.

8 Expectations of end users of agricultural products affect the products.

produces the best food in the world nowadays. 8 Expectations of end users of agricultural products

Questions 9-13

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage? Write your answers in boxes

9-13 on your answer sheet

YES

if the statement is true

NO

if the statement is false

NOT GIVEN

if the information is not given in the passage

9 Integrated Pest Management has generally been regarded as a success across the US.

10 Oregon farmers of apples and pears have been promoted as successful examples of Integrated Pest

Management.

11 The IPPC uses scientists from different organizations globally.

12 Straw mulch experiments produced unplanned benefits.

13 The apple industry is now facing a lot of competition from abroad.

mulch experiments produced unplanned benefits. 13 The apple industry is now facing a lot of competition

贵学预测服务阅读文章对应答案

S2230106 & Question Answers

APPLYING FOR THE IELTS TESTS ON

2015 年大范围预测文档

1

E

2

D

3

C

4

A

5

F

6

D

7

B

8

G

9

NO

10 YES

11 NO

12 YES

13

NOT GIVEN

3 C 4 A 5 F 6 D 7 B 8 G 9 NO 10 YES