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Engineering Frac ture M ec h a n ic s Voi. 22, N o. 5. p p. 8 3 9 -854. 1985 0013-7944/85 $3.00 + .

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CALCULATION OF INELASTIC NOTCH-TIP STRAIN-


STRESS HISTORIES UNDER CYCLIC LOADING
G. G L IN K A t
D e p a rtm e n t o f M e ch an ical E n g in e e rin g . U n iv e rsity C ollege L o n d o n . T o rrin g to n P lace,
L o n d o n , W C 1E 7 JE E ngland

A b s tra c t— A n a p p lic a tio n o f th è e q u iv a le n t stra in en erg y d e n s ity m eth o d fo r ca lc u la tio n o f


e la s tic -p la s tic n o tc h -tip s tra in s u n d e r cy clic loading is p re se n te d . It is shovvn th at th è
th e o re tic a l n o tc h -tip stra in c a lc u la tio n s ca n be im p ro v e d if th è stre s s re d istrib u tio n d u e to thè
p la s tic y ield ing a ro u n d th è n o tc h -tip is ta k e n in to a c c o u n t. T h e e n erg y d e n s ity m e th o d , c o rre c te d
fo r p la stic y ielding g a v e g o o d re su lts alm o st up to th è g en erai p lastic y ielding. i.e. 5 = c r„ . It
w as also fo u n d th at a u n iv e rsa l fu n ctio n fo r th è e la s tic stre s s d istrib u tio n a h e a d o f a n o tc h tip
c a n b e d e riv e d fo r b o th te n s io n an d b en d in g lo ad s. S e v e ra l d ifferen t n o tc h e s and m aterials w ere
a n a ly z e d . T h e e q u iv a le n t stra in en e rg y d e n s ity c o n c e p t ca n easily be u sed fo r a sim u latio n o f
th è n o tc h -tip cy clic s tr e s s - s tr a in h isto ry if th è stre s s c o n c e n tra tio n fa c to r K ,. th è cy clic s t r e s s -
stra in c u rv e a — e an d nom inai s tre s s/lo a d h isto ry a re k n o w n . G o o d n o tc h -tip stra in p re d ic tio n s
w ere a c h ie v e d fo r b o th th è m o n o to n ie an d cy clic load.

NOTATION
Cp stra in e n erg y d e n s ity c o rre c tio n f a c to r for p la stic yielding.
E m o d u lu s o f e la s tic ity
e, n o m in ai n o tc h -tip stra in
F E M fin ite ele m e n t m eth o d
K s tre s s in te n sity fa c to r
K, s tr e s s c o n c e n tra tio n fa c to r
k stre n g th co effic ie n t
k' cy clic stre n g th c o effic ie n t
L d is ta n c e fro m th è n o tc h tip to th è n e u tra l ax is in b en d in g
M b e n d in g m o m en t
n stra in h a rd e n in g e x p o n e n t
r i cy c lic stra in h a rd e n in g e x p o n e n t
P lo ad (fo rce)
r rad iai p o la r c o o rd in a te
rp th è first a p p ro x im a tio n o f thè p lastic zo n e size
A rp in c re m e n t o f thè p la stic z o n e d u e to th è s tre s s re d istrib u tio n c a u s e d by p lastic yielding
S n o m in ai s tre s s
S , n o m in ai n o tc h -tip s tre s s
A 5 , n o m in ai s tre s s ran g e in thè n o tc h tip
Wc. n o tc h -tip stra in e n e rg y d e n s ity c o rre c te d fo r p lastic yielding
We n o tc h -tip stra in e n e rg y d e n s ity d u e to th è e la stic s tre s s a ,e
Wp n o tc h -tip stra in e n erg y d e n s ity d u e to th è e la s tic -p la s tic s tre s s ct,p
Ws n o tc h -tip stra in e n erg y d e n s ity d u e to th è nom inai stre s s S ,
x 0 = L lp n o n d im e n sio n a l d ista n c e fro m th è n o tc h tip to thè n e u tra l ax is in bending
t stra in
t ee e la s tic p a rt o f th è to tal strain
t pp p la stic p a rt o f th è to tal strain
t re e la s tic stra in a t th è n o tc h tip
e,„ e la s tic -p la s tic stra in a t th è n o tch tip
e,p e la s tic -p la s tic stra in a t thè n o tc h tip in p iane stra in
P max m ax im u m e la s tic - p la s tic stra in a t th è n o tc h tip
tip min m in im u m e la s tic -p la s tic strain at th è n o tc h tip
€jv n o tc h tip stra in c a lc u la te d from N e u b e r ’s rule
Ae,p e la s tic -p la s tic n o tc h -tip stra in range
|j. g e n e ra liz e d P o isso n co effic ie n t
v P o is s o n ’s co effic ie n t
p n o tc h -tip ra d iu s
a stre s s
a x , (jv, a - e la s tic s tre s s c o m p o n e n ts
<Typ e la s tic -p la s tic s tre s s c o m p o n e n t oy ah e a d o f th è c ra c k tip
o r(rp) s tre s s <j\, at th è e la s tic -p la s tic b o u n d a ry
oy, y ield stre n g th

tO n leav e fro m W a rsa w T e c h n ic a l U n iv e rsity , W arsa w , P o lan d .

839
840 G. G L1N K A

a ,e e la s tic s tr e s s at thè n o tc h tip


<j,„ e la s tic - p la s tic stre s s a t th è n o tc h tip
a ,p e la s tic - p la s tic stre s s a t th è n o tch tip in p ian e stra in
&tp max m ax im u m e la s tic -p la s tic stre s s a t th è n o tc h tip
cTip min m in im u m e la s tic -p la s tic s tre s s a t th è n o tc h tip
ctn n o tc h -tip stre s s c a lc u la te d from N e u b e r 's rule
\a ,p e la s tic - p la s tic n o tc h -tip s tre s s range

1. INTRODUCTION

T he lo c a l inelastic stress and strains ne a r n o tc h e s are very im po rtant for fatigue life analysis
o f n o tc h e d c o m p o n e n ts [l], H o w e v e r , ac c u ra te calculations o f these strains are difficult and
lengthy. T h e re fo re several a p prox im a te methods[2] are presently used. T he m ost frequently
used is N e u b e r ’s[3] rule, w hich w as generalized lately by Seeger and Heuler[4], T o p p e r et al.
have e x te n d e d N e u b e r ’s rule to cyclic loading situations[5], and its suitability in fatigue pre-
dictions w as thè subject o f several stu d ie s[l, 6, 7], H o w e v e r, it w as found[6, 7, 8] th a t N e u b e r ’s
rule often o v e re stim a te s thè notch-tip inelastic strains and stresses. In o rd e r to c o m p e n s a te for
this effect, thè low er value o f thè fatigue notch fa c to r K s was suggested instead o f thè theoretical
stre ss c o n c e n tra tio n K,. Such a substitution m ade it possible to im prove thè fatigue life pre-
diction som e tim e s, but it did not im prove thè ac c u ra cy o f thè calculated notch strains. T he
elastic stress c o n c e n tra tio n at a notch tip de p en ds on thè geom etry o f thè n o tc h e d b o d y , and
it is thè sam e fo r m onotonie and cyclic loadings. The overestim ation o f thè inelastic strains
an d s tre sse s at thè notch tip w as not c au sed by thè d e c rea se o f stress c o n c e n tra tio n due to a
cyclic loading, which w as indirectly assum e d by using fatigue notch fa c to r K f , but it w as
probably due to thè ap p ro xim ate nature of N e u b e r ’s rule. T he re fo re, thè m e th o d based on
equivalent strain energy density c o n c e p t has been proposed[9]. It w as shown[10] that thè
m e th o d m ade it possible to calculate thè inelastic notch-tip strains u n d e r static loadings in
several n o tc h e s and m aterials. A pplication o f thè im proved equivalent strain energy density
m e th o d for n o tc h e s u nde r cyclic loading histories is pre se n te d below.

2. THE HYPOTHESIS OF EQUIVALENT STRAIN ENERGY DENSITY


AT A NOTCH TIP
It has b e e n show n by H u tc h in so n [l 1] that, in thè case o f a material c h a ra c teriz e d by thè
bilinear s t r e s s - s t r a in beh aviou r, thè strain energy density distribution in thè plastic zo n e ahead
o f a c rac k tip w as thè sam e as tha t calculated on thè basis o f thè linear elastic s tr e s s - s tr a in
analysis. M olski and Glinka[9] have a ssu m e d that it was also true fo r notches and materials
exhibiting nonlinear s tr e s s - s t r a in behaviour. It m eans that in thè p re se n c e o f localised plastic
yielding a h ea d o f a notch tip thè energy density at thè notch tip can be calculated on thè basis
o f thè theoretical elastic stre ss distribution. S u bseq uently thè energy d e nsity can be translated
into th è e la stic -p la stic strains and stresses which actually exist at th è notch tip (Fig. 1). It is
also n e c e s sa ry to kn ow thè non linear s tr e s s - s tr a in curv e o f thè a naly zed material.
In thè case o f thè elastic material b eh a v io u r thè locai stresses at thè notch tip can be
calculated as

(T y ( T ,e S , K , ,

for piane s tre s s, (1)


c rv = crz = 0

and
(T y ( J ,e S [J C r ^

■ (J.x = 0 , for piane strain. (2)


CTZ = VUle

It is a p p a re n t th a t in thè piane stress co nditions a uniaxial stress state exists a t thè notch tip,
and therefo re uniaxial s tr e s s - s tr a in relations can be used.

t-re = (JielE for elastic b ehaviou r, (3)

e,„ = a lpl E + (u,plk ) Vn for e la stic -p la stic behaviour. (4)


In e la stic n o tc h -tip s tr a in - s tr e s s h islo rie s 841

Fig. 1. S tre ss d is trib u tio n in n o tc h e d sp e c im e n s a n d thè stra in en e rg y d e n s ity c o n c e p t. (a)


N o tc h e d sp e c im e n u n d e r te n sio n loading. (b) N o tc h e d sp e cim en u n d e r b en d in g loading. (c)
G ra p h ic a l in te rp re ta tio n o f thè e q u iv a le n t en erg y d e n s ity c o n c e p t.

T h u s, thè strain energy d e nsity at thè notch tip[9] can be calculated as

W e = f cr-de = ]- cr,e ele = ^ . (5)


Jo 2 2E

Substituting thè stress u , e by relation (1) we have

W e = ( S ,K ,) 2I2E. (6)

A lso, thè energy d e nsity due to thè nominai stress S, can be written in thè form o f eqn (7):

= SV2E. (7)

Finally, thè relation b etw een thè strain energy density at thè notch tip and thè strain energy
density due to thè nominai stress can be w ritten

W„ = Ws-K j. (8)

It w as a s su m e d that relation (8) is also valid w hen localized plastic yielding o cc u rs a h ead of
thè notch tip.

= WsK j. (9)
842 G. G L IN K A

H o w e v e r, in thè latest c ase thè energy density at thè notch tip m ust be calculated on th è basis
o f th è n onlinear s tr e s s - s tr a in curve re p re se n te d often by thè R a m b e r g - O s g o o d relation (4).

l/n
( 10)
n + 1

T h u s , eqn (9) c a n be w ritten as

u tp si
( 11)
2É + 1 Vk 2E

It w as also shown[10, 12] that thè validity o f eqn (9) could be e x te n d e d if thè s tr e s s - s tr a in
nonlinearity occu rring u n d e r nominai stress S, w ere taken into acco un t. It m eans tha t thè small
nonlinearity ju s t below thè yield limit crvi should be included into calculations.

1In

( 12)

This leads to fu rth e r generalization o f e qn (9).

\/n \/n
^ tp ^ ip
0". si S,
K j. (13)
2È n + 1 k 2E

Finally, one has to solve a set o f tw o equ atio ns for calculating thè inelastic stress an d strain
at thè notch tip.

l/n
<P
= Ws Kj , ■-tp (14)

lt should be pointed out that, with thè aid o f a c o m p u te r, any s tr e s s - s tr a in relation can be
hand led , and thè m eth od does not need to be limited to thè R a m b e r g - O s g o o d (4) relation only.
It w as shown[10] that thè linear piecew ise representatio n of thè s tr e s s - s tr a in curve can be used
for numerical calculations.
An analogous analysis can be p resen ted for thè piane strain conditions, w here again thè
stre ss c o m p o n e n t cr3, c o n trib u te s only to thè strain energy density at a no tch tip. H o w e v e r , due
to thè biaxial stress state at thè notch tip, thè uniaxial s tr e s s - s tr a i n cu rve can n o t be used.
T h e re fo re, D ow ling et a / . [13] suggested that thè cr-e relation, c o rre c ted for thè biaxial stress
state, should be used. By applying H o o k e ’s law and von M is e s ’s criterion for thè elastic and
plastic term s o f thè s tr e s s - s tr a in relation (4), respectively, Dowling et a l.[13] have deriv ed thè
following relationships for thè translation o f thè uniaxial s tr e s s - s tr a in cu rve u,p-zw into thè
biaxial “ pla ne -strain” relation ofp-efp.

= e,p ( 1 - (x2) /V ( l - |x - M-2), (15)

= ct,p /V (1 — M- — M-2), (16)

w here

v + E e ppl2(T,p
1 Et-pplu/p

T h u s, u n d e r piane strain conditions thè same set o f equations (14) can be used, e x c e p t that all
calculations must be based on thè “ plan e -stra in” s tr e s s - s tr a in cu rve cr?p-e?p .
H o w e v e r, it was found[10] that u n d e r a high nominai stress S, and a high stress concen-
tration facto r K ,, thè en ergy-b ased m ethod u nd erestim ated slightly thè notch-tip inelastic
In e la stic n o tc h -tip s tr a in - s tr e s s h isto rie s 843

stresses and strains. This o c c u rre d b ec a u se o f thè locai stress redistribution c a u se d by thè
plastic yielding a ro u n d thè notch tip.

Plastic zone adjustment


B ecause o f plastic yielding thè reai stresses in thè plastic zone are lower than th ose derived
on thè basis o f thè lin e a r-e la s tic analysis. In o rd e r to satisfy thè equilibrium con dition s o f thè
n otched b o d y , a stre ss redistribution occurs in thè n eighbourhood o f thè notch tip, (Fig. 2)
resulting in an increase o f thè plastic zone size. Such increases o f thè plastic zone size can be
interpreted analogously with Irwin[14], as an increase o f thè hypothetical elastic stresses. In
thè case o f sharp notc he s o r cracks such an in crease of thè plastic zone size ca u se s a proportional
increm ent o f thè energy d ensity ahead o f thè notch tip.

Substituting thè right side o f equ ation (14) by thè relation (17) a new set o f tw o e quations,
n ecessary for calculating thè notch-tip strains and stresses, can be derived.

Wc = WSK Ì C P, (18)

elp = c r,p /£ + ((j,plky,n, (19)

where

Cp = 1 + A l'ph'p (18a)

Solving thè ab ov e set o f equ atio ns requires an estim ation of thè plastic zone size ahead o f thè
notch. T h e re fo re thè elastic stress field a h ead o f thè notch tip m ust also be determ in ed.

Fig. 2. P la stic yielding an d thè e la stic stre s s re d istrib u tio n a h e a d o f a n o tc h tip.


844 G . G L IN K A

Universality o f thè stress fìeld in thè vicinity o f a notch tip


It w as show n by C reag er and Paris[15] that thè stress field in thè d o s e n eigh bo urho od o f
thè notch tip can be given in generai form in term s o f stress intensity facto r K.

K
CT.v = (20)
( 2 tt r)
K
CTv = 1 + ( 21 )
(2-it r) 2r
cr- = 0 for piane stress,
cr- = v( cta + <Ty) for piane s tr a i n .

It should be noted that thè origin o f polar c oo rd in ates used by C re ag e r and Paris is at a distance
o f p/2 behind thè no tch tip.
F o r r = p/2 thè stress at thè notch tip crle and thè stress con ce n tratio n K, can be calculated.

v , e = 2 A 7 \ / ( it p ) , (2 2 )

K, = (Tre/S , = 2A 7S,V(ttp); (23)


hence,

K = K ,S ,\/{ ~ p ) l2 . (24)

Substituting relation (24) for thè stress intensity factor K in e q ua tion s (20) and (21), we get

, 1/2 1 / \ 3/2
K ,S, P\ 1 /P
(25)
CTr “ 2V 2
1/2
K ,S ,
(26)
CTv " 2V 2 ♦ K f

H o w e v e r, it was stated by C re a g e r and Paris[ 15] that relations (20) and (21) ha v e been d erived
for d e e p no tc h es only. B ec a u se of thè a pp ro xim a te n atu re o f these e q uation s, thè stre ss c o n ­
c e n tra tio n facto r K, given by relation (23) is low er than thè a c c u ra te one. T he re fo re, thè ac-
cu ra c y o f eqns (25) and (26) will be im proved if thè ac c u ra te value o f stress c o n c e n tra tio n fa cto r
K ,, d eterm in ed in depen dently o f relation (23), is used.
In a n otched body u n d e r bending load thè nomial stress 5 varies linearly throu gho ut thè
section (S, ^ 5)

S = S, 1 _ ± ( £ _ -i l (27)
-to VP 2) .
w h ere x 0 = L I p. T h e re fo re thè variable nominai stress (27) should be included in eqns (25) and
(26).

'/2 1

)
K ,S ,
(28)
2V 2 x0
1/2
K ,S , l
CTV 1 - — (- (29)
2V 2 n + 2 \ r xo VP

It w a s found that if one uses thè a c c u ra te value of thè stress c o n c e n tra tio n fac to r K ,, a
good stress estim ation can also be obtained n ear relatively blunt notches. T h e c o m parison with
thè exp erim ental d a ta r e p o rte d by Theocaris[16] and T heocaris and Marketos[17] is sho w n in
Fig. 3. It is a p p a re n t that in thè case o f sym m etrical sem icircular no tc h es, relation (26) gives
In e la stic n o tc h -lip s tr a in - s tr e s s h isto rie s

D D

r
h ■ é
J \
d
[ - f i
X

F ig. 3. C a lc u la te d an d e x p e rim e n ta l elastic stre s s d istrib u tio n n e a r n o tc h e s. (a) S p ecim en w ith


tw o sy m m e tric a l se m ic irc u la r n o tc h e s . (b) S p ecim en w ith a c e n tra i c irc u la r hole. (c) S p e c im e n
w ith tw o sy m m e tric a l U -n o tc h e s.

good results o v e r thè entire net section. F o r sym m etrical blunt U -notches, eqn (26) can be used
o v e r thè d istance 3p from thè c ra c k tip with a ccuracy o f - 7 % . In thè case of thè circular notch
in thè finite-width piate, sh ow n in Fig. 3b, relation (26) was valid o ver alm ost thè entire net
section F o r very blunt no tc h e s, such as thè circular notch in an infinite piate o r th è sem icircular
notch in a semifinite piate, relation (26) gives a stress estim ation with 10% a c c u ra cy o v e r thè
distance 1.5p fro m thè no tch tip. .u u r
Similarly, good notch-tip stress estim ations can be o btained for bending on thè basis ot
eq n (29) In the^case o f a bluntly no tc h e d co m pact tension specim en, sho w n in Fig. 4, a good
agreem ent b e tw e e n eqn (29) and finite elem ent calculations was achteved o v e r thè entire part
of thè tensile stress field.
E q u a tio n s (25) and (26) or (28) and (29) re p re se n t som e um versal features of thè elastic
stress fields ne a r n otch es. It c an also be concluded that thè stress field ahead o f a notch tip
can be satisfactorily defined by thè stress con ce n tratio n factor K, and thè notch tip radius p.
A similar co nclu sio n w as also d ra w n by Schijve[18].
B e c a u se thè e quivalent energy density c o n cep t is based on thè a ssum ptio n ot a localtzed
plasticity, relations (25) and (26) o r relations (28) and (29) are satisfactory for thè a p p ro xim ate
estim ation o f thè n otch-tip plastic zone size rp .
846
G . G L IN K A

Fig. 4. T h e a p p ro x im a te an d th è F E M -c a lc u la te d e la stic s tre s s d istrib u tio n in a b lu n tly n o tc h e d


c o m p a c t te n s io n sp e c im e n , (a) S p ecim en sh a p e an d d im e n sio n s. (b) E la stic stre ss d istrib u tio n s.

Estimation o f thè notch-tip plastic zone size


The first a p p ro xim ation of thè plastic zone size rp ahead of a notch tip can be derived from
thè H e n c k y - M i s e s - H u b e r criterion on thè basis o f thè elastic stress distribution discussed
above. U n d e r a piane stress state thè plastic yielding criterion ta k e s thè form

tTys = V(a>- - <XV<TV + of,). (30)

Including e q n s (25) and (26) into eqn (30) gives

_ KS, 2 (p
CTv'v 2V 2 4 l/v (31)

An analogous relation can also be derived for a bending load by using eqns (28) and (29).

K 'S , 1/2
1 / r.
\ P m K
I l R£ Y (32)
2V2 ■vo V P 4 \r

Analytical calculation o f thè plastic zone size rp from eqn (31) o r eqn (32) is ra th e r difficult,
but it can easily be d o ne num erically with thè aid o f a com pu ter.
W hen thè value o f rp is k n o w n thè force F, re p re se n te d by thè area F , (Fig. 2) can be
calculated by integrating eqns (26) o r (29) for tension or bending, respectively:
a. for tension

F, - o y dr - <Jy (rp) i r p - i p)
)pi 2
1/2
K ,S ,
2 I— v y (rp)-(rp - è p), (33)
2V 2
w here
In e la stic n o tc h -tip s tr a in - s tr e s s h isto rie s 847

b. for bending,
r rP
Fi = crv d/- - o\.(/>)■(/> - 2 p)
J/ p/2
3/2 1/ 2 '
A-,5 , 2V 2 2a' o + 1
-E- \ + 2
2V 2 3.vo 3.v0 2*0

(34)

w here
1/2
K ,S ,
o-yOv) = - I + r I -
2V 2 -to

D ue to thè plastic yielding at thè notch tip, thè force F i can n o t be carried th ro ug h by thè
material in thè plastic zo n e rp . But in o rd e r to satisfy thè equilibrium conditions o f th è n otch ed
bo d y , thè force F 1 has to be carried th rough by thè material b ey ond thè plastic zo n e rp . As a
result, stre ss redistribution o c c u rs, increasing thè plastic zone rp by an increm ent A rp (Fig. 2).
If thè plastic zone is small in co m parison to thè surrounding elastic stress field, thè r e ­
distribution is not significant, and it can be interpreted as a shift o f thè elastic field o v e r thè
distance A rp aw ay from thè notch tip. T herefore thè force Fi is mainly carried throu gh thè
material o v e r thè distance A rp , an d th erefore thè force F 2 (Fig. 2), re p re se n te d by thè a re a F 2,
m ust be equal to F , . T h u s , thè plastic zone increm ent A rp can be calculateed from eqn (36).

Fi = F 2 = (Ty (rp)-Arp . (35)

H ence

A rp = F\!uy{rp). (36)

Substituting a p prop ria te e x p re ssio n s for F , and rry(rp) we have:


a. for tension,

[2(rp/p)1/2 - (plrp) ' /2]


A rp = p (37)
[(P!rP)m + i (P/rp)3/2]

b. for bending,
3 /2 1/2
"2V 2 2a'0 + 1 ( p
3x0 3a 0 21 p 2j:0
A rp = p - 3 /2 '
(38)
\_

+ H r *0

Finally, thè c orrectio n factor for thè energy density Cp at thè notch tip (18a) can be w ritten as
follows:
a. fo r tension.

f [2(/-p/p)l/2 - (p/>>)1/2]
Cp = 1 (39)
[[(p /'p )172 + Ì(P lrPf 12}

b. for bending,
848 G . G L IN K A

B e c a u se thè correctio n fa c to r Cp d e p e n d s on thè ratio (plrp), it is satisfactory to solve eqn (31)


o r e q n (32) with re sp e c t to thè ratio p/rp only. T h en thè value of plrp can be used for calculating
Cp from eq n (39) or eqn (40).
It should be noted that thè plastic zone size rp and thè increm ent à r p w ere deriv ed a ssum ing
Constant stre ss a y(rp) th rou gh ou t thè plastic zone. In fact, thè stress ctv in thè plastic zone
varies du e to thè strain h ardening an d thè multiaxiality o f thè stress state. T herefo re thè c o r ­
rection fa c to r Cp m ay slightly o v e re stim a te thè effect o f stress redistribution.
K n o w in g thè value o f Cp , we can solve thè set o f e q ns (18) and (19) for an y s tr e s s - s tr a in
curve. T he num erical p ro c e d u re describ ed in referen ce [10] was used below.

3. COM PARISON OF CALCULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL DATA


Monotonie loading
Several different no tc h e s and m aterials w ere analy zed . F o r c o m pariso n thè generalized
N e u b e r rule[4, 10] w as also used for calculation o f thè inelastic notch-tip stress and strain. T he
m e th o d was based on thè following set o f equations:

(41)

T he results are p re se n te d in term s o f plots o f K ,S , values against thè calculated and m e a sure d
strains in thè notch tip. T he results show n in Fig. 5 w ere obtained from sym m etrical sem icircular
no tc h e s in a fiat piate m ade o f high-strength Steel U SST1. The stress c o nc e ntra tio n fa c to r
d e te rm in ed from referen ce [20] w as K, = 1.53. T he material s tr e s s - s tr a in c u rv e , used for
c alculations, is also sh ow n in Fig. 5. It can be concluded that thè co rrection for plasticity Cp
did not effect significantly thè a c c u ra cy o f notch-tip strain calculations, and both versions of
thè e qu iv a le n t energy d e nsity can be used. T he N e u b e r rule resulted in overestim atio n o f thè
notch strains, as w as similarly re p o rte d in references [6, 7], T h e experim ental results sh ow n
in Fig. 5 w ere reported by Theocaris[16],
G o o d results based on thè energy m ethod (Fig. 6) w ere also obtained for sym m etrical edge
notches[19] having flank angle 120°. T he theoretical stress c o nc e n tra tion fa c to r determ ined

1500

6-e

e x p e rim e n ta l [16]

0
0.005 0.01 0.015
v- t p
Fig. 5. C a lc u la te d an d e x p e rim e n ta l n o tc h stra in s in a sp e cim en w ith tw o sy m m e tric a l se m i­
c irc u la r ed g e n o tc h e s (Fig. 3a, U S S T I ste el[!6 ]).
In e la stic n o tc h -tip s tr a in - s tr e s s h isto rie s 849

F ig. 6. C a lc u la te d an d e x p e rim e n ta l n o tc h stra in s in a sp e c im e n w ith tw o sy m m etrical V -n o tc h e s


(U S S T I S teel[]9]).

from N e u b e r ’s diagrams[20] w as K, = 2.51. Specim ens w ere m ade o f high-strength Steel, with
s tr e s s - s tr a in cu rve sho w n in Fig. 6. It is w orth noting that in this case thè co rre ctio n for
plasticity Cp a p parently im p rov es thè ac c u ra cy o f calculations, especially for high nominai
stress S. T h e N e u b e r rule o v e rp re d ic ted again thè notch-tip strains. It is also so m e w h a t sur-
prising tha t thè energy c o n c e p t gives good notch-tip strain prediction up to thè generai yielding,
i.e. for S, =£ a ys.
T he inelastic strains in thè tip of a centrai elliptical notch in a finite-width piate m ad e of
aluminium alloy 2024 T351 w ere m e a su re d by L eis et a l.[21], T he com pariso n is sho w n in Fig.
7. It should be noted tha t thè elliptical notch induced relatively high stress c o n c e n tra tio n K,
= 4.6, resulting in high inelastic strains. Again, b e tte r results w ere obtained w hen thè plastic
co rrection Cp w as em p lo yed. G ood results w ere obtained within thè whole stre ss range 0 =£ S,
« (Tys (Fig. 7).

Constant amplitude cyclic loading


N otc h-tip strains, du e to a Constant am plitude cyclic loading, m e asu re d in thè k eyhole
SA E c o m p a c t tension specim en m ade o f high-strength steel RQC-100 w ere re p o rte d by Dow ling
et a/.[13]. T he calculations w ere ba se d on thè stabilized cyclic s tr e s s - s tr a in cu rv e in thè form

à(Jlr
(42)
2E 2 k'

B ecause thè cyclic s tr e s s - s tr a in curv e correlates stress and strain ranges Acr/2 vs Ae/2, re-
spectively, thè nominai stress range A S, was also used for thè energy density calculation. T he
sam e num erical procedure[10] as in thè c ase o f m o notonie loading was applied. T h e e x p e ri­
mental an d calculated d a ta are sho w n in Fig. 8 in thè form o f plots o f thè elastic notch-tip stress
am plitude K , k S , l 2 vs thè inelastic notch-tip strain am plitude Ae,p/2.
H o w e v e r, it w as suggested by D ow ling et a/.[13] that, due to thè relatively large thick ness,
a piane strain state would prevail in thè notch tip. T herefo re thè “ plan e -stra in” s tr e s s - s tr a in
curve Act^,/2 v s Ae,p/2 was used in calculations. T he uniaxial “ p ia n e -stre ss ” A a ,p/2-vs-Ae,p/
850 G . G L IN K A

1500
o
o.

in

1000

500

F ig. 7. C a lc u la te d an d e x p e rim e n ta l n o tch stra in s in a sp e c im e n w ith a c e n tra i elliptical n o tc h ,


(Al 2024 T 3 5 1[21 ]).

2 cu rve was translated into thè biaxial “ pla ne -stra in ” Aofp/2-vs-Ae?p/2 relation by using e xpres-
sions (15) and (16). T h e “ p ia n e -stre ss ” results calculated on thè basis o f thè uniaxial s t r e s s -
strain cu rve are also sh ow n in Fig. 8. It is a p p a re n t that thè “ pla ne -stra in ” calculations, c o r ­
rected for plasticity, w ere in thè b est a g re e m e n t with thè e xperim ental data. C alculations based
on thè uniaxial s tr e s s - s tr a in cu rv e resulted in overestim ation o f thè cyclic notch-tip strains.
It is w orth noting th at, due to thè nominai stress gradient u nde r bending load, thè m ethod
can also be applied for a nominai notch-tip stress slightly higher than thè yield strength, i.e.
S, > (jys. This is b e c a u se thè nominai stress S, > a ys in bending m ay c a u se only localized
plasticity, w h e re a s u n d e r tension loading such stress cau se s plastic yielding o f thè whole section.
T h e re fo re, thè stress e nergy de nsity W.v due to thè nominai stress 5, in bending should be
calculated from relation (7) also for nominai notch-tip stress S, > a ys.

Variable amplitude cyclic loading


N otch -tip strain history due to a variable am plitude cyclic loading was m onitored by M oo n
et al.[6] at thè tip o f a centrai notch in a fiat specim en m ade o f aluminium alloy DTD-5014.
T he spe c im e n and thè s tr e s s - s tr a in relations for thè loading and unloading reversals, respec-
tively, are show n in Fig. 9a. T he nominai stress history and co rre sp o n d in g calculated and
m e a sure d notch-tip strain histories are sh ow n in Fig. 9b. The c o rrection for plasticity Cp was
used in calculations, a ssum ing a ys = 411 M P a and crvs = 660 M Pa for thè loading and unloading
reversals, respectively. C alculations based on thè N e u b e r rule are also show n in Fig. 9b. T he
notch-tip strains w ere calculated s u bseq uen tly for each reversai following thè applied load
history. T he m ax im u m stress a,p max and m axim um strain e,p max w e re calculated first by using
thè “ load in g” part © o f thè s tr e s s - s t r a i n cu rve, then thè notch-tip stress range Act,p and strain
range Ae,p w ere calcu lated for thè imm ediately following unloading reversai by using thè “ u n ­
loading” part © o f thè s tr e s s - s tr a in curve. The corresp on ding minim um stress < j ,p min and
minim um strain e,„ min w ere calculated as

( 43 )
In e la stic n o tc h -tip s tr a in - s tr e s s h isto ries

Fig. 8. C a lc u la te d an d e x p e rim e n ta l n o tc h stra in s in a k ey h o le S A E c o m p a c t te n sio n sp e c im e n


u n d e r C onstant a m p litu d e cy clic loading. (S teel RQ C -100[13]): (a) piane stra in — eq n (14); (b)
p ian e s tra in — eq n (18); (c) p ian e s tra in — e q n (41); (d) p ian e s tr e s s — e q n (18); (e) p ian e stra in
Au* — A e* c u rv e ; (f) p ian e stre s s A a — A e c u rv e .

b)
©

d / D =1/2
? /d =1/4.44
Kt= 2.96

F ig. 9a. S p e c im e n w ith a c e n tra i n o tc h an d th è s tr e s s - s tr a in re latio n fo r th è allum inium alloy


D T D -5 0 I4 [6 ]. (a) S p e cim en g e o m e try an d d im en sio n s. (b) S tr e s s - s tr a in b e h a v io u r; © — loading
r e v e rs a ls , ©■— u n lo ad in g re v e rsa ls .
852 G . G L IN K A

c)

d)

Fig. 9b. A p p lied nom inai s tre s s h isto ry S , an d c o rre sp o n d in g c a lc u la te d an d e x p e rim e n ta l n otch-
tip stra in h isto rie s (D T D -50I4[6]). (c) N o m in ai stre s s h isto ry S , in th è n o tc h tip . (d) C a lc u la te d
an d m e a su re d n o tc h -tip stra in h isto rie s.

T he calculated m axim um and minim um strain values m ade it possible to determ ine thè w hole
n otch-tip strain history show n in Fig. 9b.
T h e ag re e m e n t b e tw e e n thè m e a su red and calculated strain histories w as good throughout
thè entire load history. H o w e v e r, it should be noted that in thè case o f cyclic loading thè s t r e s s -
strain relation changes from reversai to reversal. T h e re fo re, a material model simulating thè
s tr e s s - s t r a in b eha v io u r u n d e r cyclic loading has to be applied to g e th e r with thè equivalent
energy con c e p t. T he simple proc e d ure described abo ve w as possible be c a u se o f thè simple
ascen ding load pattern. In thè case o f a m ore irregular load history, a special cyclic counting
p ro c e d u re and material s tr e s s - s t r a in m od e I[l, 23] has to be em ployed.
G o od results w ere also obtained for bluntly n otched c om p act tension sp ecim ens show n in
Fig. 4. T h e inelastic notch-tip strains w ere determ ined by Karlsson[22], using thè finite elem ent
m eth od . T he reversal-by-rev ersal p ro c e d u re w as applied for thè strain history calculation using
thè s t r e s s - s t r a in curves show n in Fig. 10. T he “ unloading” part o f th è s tr e s s - s tr a in cu rv e ©
w as o b ta in e d by e x p an sio n [l] o f thè basic cyclic s tr e s s - s tr a in curve © by a fa c to r o f 2. T h e
nominai stre ss history S, and thè correspo nding calculated notch-tip strain history are also
sho w n in Fig. IO. R egardless o f thè ad v a n c e d plasticity ahead o f thè notch tip, th è calculated
strain history w as very d o s e to that determ ined by thè finite elem ent m ethod.
N e u b e r ’s rule o v e rp re d ic ted thè notch-tip strains also u n d e r cyclic loads.
In e la stic n o tc h -tip s tr a in - s tr e s s h isto rie s 853

a ) b)

F ig. 10. F E M -c a lc u la te d [2 2 ] an d th è en erg y b ased n o tch -tip stra in h isto rie s in a b lu n tly n o tc h e d
c o m p a c t te n s io n sp e c im e n sh o w n in Fig. 4. (a) C yclic s tr e s s - s tr a in b e h a v io u r; loading
r e v e rs a ls , ® — u n lo ad in g re v e rs a ls . (b) A pplied nom inai n o tc h -tip s tre s s 5 , h isto ry . (c) C a lc u ­
la te d n o tc h -tip stra in h isto rie s.

4. CON CLU SIO N S


It w as found that thè energy density m ethod gave good results for low and high stress
c o n c e n tra tio n factors. T he m etho d can be used within thè nominai stress range 0 ^ 5 , ^ crys.
H o w e v e r, u n d e r thè high nominai stress S ,, appro ach in g thè yield strength c r^, c o rre c tio n for
thè plastic stress redistribution should be applied. The correctio n for plasticity Cp is especially
im portant for n o tc h e s with high stress co nc e n tra tio n factors K , > 2 and for high nominai stresses
0.8 v ys « 5, =£ (Tys. T he e quivalent energy density m eth od can be used for both m o n oton ie and
cyclic loadings. H o w e v e r, in thè case o f cyclic loading, a material model for s tr e s s - s tr a i n
b eh a v io u r u n d e r cyclic loading m ust be e m p lo yed to geth er with thè equivalent energy m ethod.
T h e m ethod can be applied to both tensile and bending loads. It is also w orth noting that u n d e r
bending loads thè m e th o d gave good notch-tip strain estim ation for nominai notch-tip stresses
above thè yield strength, i.e. fo r S, > a ys. It w as possible b ec a u se under bending load thè
theoretical nominai notch-tip stre ss S, > crys does not necessarily cau se generai yielding o f thè
whole section. T h e re fo re, by assum ing K , = 1 thè locai ela stic -p la s tic strains an d stre sse s in
a sm ooth specim en u nd e r bending can also be calculated.
It w a s sh ow n that thè elastic stress field in thè neig hb ourhoo d of thè notch tip can be
satisfactorily ch a ra c teriz e d in a generai form by thè notch tip radius p, thè stress c o n c en tra tio n
facto r K, and thè g rad ien t o f thè nominai stress S.
In m ost cases thè disa gre e m e nt b etw een thè m e a sure d and calculated strains w as below
10% , regardless o f thè material s tr e s s - s tr a in c u rv e, stress con ce n tratio n fa c to r and notch
geom etry.
T h e e quivalent strain energy density m eth od is suitable for numerical calculations an d all
kinds o f s t r e s s - s t r a in relations. H o w e v e r, this m ethod w as verified for tensile and b ending
loads only. It has not yet been verified for torsional loading.

R EFE R E N C E S

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m o tiv e E n g in e e rs , S A E W a rre n d a le , P a. (1979).
854 G. G L IN K A

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(R eceived 4 D ecem her 1984)