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StructureStructureStructureStructureStructure ofofofofof ananananan Independent-wheel-systemIndependent-wheel-systemIndependent-wheel-systemIndependent-wheel-systemIndependent-wheel-system BogieBogieBogieBogieBogie withwithwithwithwith aaaaa DDMDDMDDMDDMDDM andandandandand itsitsitsitsits PerformancePerformancePerformancePerformancePerformance atatatatat HighHighHighHighHigh SpeedSpeedSpeedSpeedSpeed

NoriakiNoriakiNoriakiNoriakiNoriaki TOKUDATOKUDATOKUDATOKUDATOKUDA Senior Researcher,

MakotoMakotoMakotoMakotoMakoto ISHIGEISHIGEISHIGEISHIGEISHIGE Senior Researcher,

Running Gear Laboratory, Vehicle Structure Technology Division

We have developed a new-concept bogie for gauge-changeable trains that is applicable to both standard gauge 1,435-mm line and meter gauge 1,067-mm line. The bogie must therefore feature good running stability at high speeds on standard gauge lines as well as high running performance on the curves of meter gauge line. It adopts a direct-drive motor system to enable the motor to be mounted directly to the wheels, an independent wheel system and a wheel-set steering system. The independent wheel system provides the bogie with good running stability at high speeds with a short wheelbase. We tested the model on our rolling stock test machine, and confirmed that no stability problems oc- curred at speeds of up to 500 km/h. We also conducted high-speed performance testing at the Transportation Technology Center Inc. in Pueblo, Colorado, USA, and on the Sanyo Shinkansen line in Japan at speeds of over 200 km/h.

KeywordsKeywordsKeywords:KeywordsKeywords independent wheel system, high-speed performance, direct-drive motor system, gauge-changeable bogie, steering system

1.1.1.1.1. IntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroduction

In Japan, standard gauge lines are used for Shinkansen tracks, while other lines adopt the meter gauge type. This means that, for trains operating on both Shinkansen and meter gauge lines, a gauge-changeable bogie applicable to both types is needed. We began development of the type A bogie, which adopts a direct-drive motor system to enable the motor to be mounted directly to the wheels, an independent wheel system and a wheel-set steering system [1]. The purpose of developing the type A model was to provide a simple bogie construction for a gauge-change system. After de- veloping this bogie, we also developed the type B bogie,

which adopts the cardan drive system. The purpose of developing the type B bogie was to enable comparison of the performance between independent and non-indepen- dent wheel systems. This paper discusses the high-speed performance of the type A bogie and its construction.

2.2.2.2.2. ConstructionConstructionConstructionConstructionConstruction ofofofofof thethethethethe bogiebogiebogiebogiebogie

The type A bogie is characterized by an independent wheel system and wheel sliding on the axle in the axial direction. In the interests of simplifying its construction, we selected a direct-drive motor system to enable the

Guide pin Outer rotor of motor Locking block Outer sleeve Coil of motor Roller bearing
Guide pin
Outer rotor of motor
Locking block
Outer sleeve
Coil of motor
Roller bearing
Axle
Axle box
Guide beam

Fig.Fig.Fig.Fig.Fig. 11111

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ConstructionConstructionConstructionConstructionConstruction ofofofofof TTTTTypeypeypeypeype AAAAA bogiebogiebogiebogiebogie

Taper roller bearing

199199199199199

Steering beam
Steering beam
Steering beam Steering link Fig.Fig.Fig.Fig.Fig. 22222 TTTTT ypeypeypeypeype AAAAA bogiebogiebogiebogiebogie motor to be

Steering link

Fig.Fig.Fig.Fig.Fig. 22222

TTTTTypeypeypeypeype AAAAA bogiebogiebogiebogiebogie

motor to be mounted directly to the wheels (Fig. 1). The independent wheel system provides the bogie with good running stability at high speeds with a short wheelbase (2,200 mm). However, the lack of a self-steering function on this system may result in large lateral forces, and the wheel flange may wear when negotiating small-radius curves on meter gauge line (1,067 mm). To address this problem, the bogie is designed with a forced-steering sys- tem that steers the wheelset with links according to the relative angle of yaw between the car body and the bogie (Fig. 2).

3.3.3.3.3. High-speedHigh-speedHigh-speedHigh-speedHigh-speed performanceperformanceperformanceperformanceperformance

3.13.13.13.13.1 TTTTTestestestestest ononononon aaaaa rollingrollingrollingrollingrolling testtesttesttesttest machinemachinemachinemachinemachine

We tested the first prototype bogie, the RT-X5, on our rolling stock test machine. The bogie’s wheelbase is 2,100 mm, and the spring stiffness of the axle box is almost the same as that of a commercial Shinkansen bogie (Table 1). No stability problems causing hunting were found at 450 km/h, but the temperature of the bearing at 450 km/h was over its allowable limit. This is because its dN value exceeds 500,000 at 450 km/h, and the bearing size was designed for an axle load of 12.5 t. For comparison, we then connected the wheels on both sides with a sleeve and tested it. The speed limit for hunting was 150 km/h. At high speed, small amounts of high-frequency vibra-

tion were observed as a result of the small clearance be- tween the axle box and the axle box beam (Table 2). We tested the next prototype bogie, the RT-X7, on our rolling stock test machine. For this model, the bearing was miniaturized, and an oil seal was attached to the bearing to improve lubrication performance. There was no clearance between the axle box and the axle box beam, and the wheelbase and spring stiffness of the axle box were the same as those of the RT-X5. No stability prob- lems causing hunting were found at a speed of 500 km/h (Table 3). Based on the test results of the RT-X5 and RT-X7 bo- gies, we designed RT-X9 and RT-X10 bogies for running with a test train on a commercial line. The basic construc- tion of the wheelset in the RT-X9 and RT-X10 bogies is the same, but for negotiating small-radius curves on meter gauge line (1,067 mm), their forced-steering systems were different. The difference between the RT-X9 and RT-X10 bogies is in the layout of the link between the Z-shape link and the car body. The RT-X9 bogie has links directly connect- ing the car body with the Z-shape link, while the RT-X10 has a steering beam in the same way as a bogie with a bolster, and links connect the steering beam with the Z- shape link. For the steering system, the longitudinal spring stiffnesses of the axle boxes in the RT-X9 and RT-X10 bogies were made lower than those of the RT-X5 and RT- X7. We tested both bogies on our rolling stock test ma-

200200200200200

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TTTTTableableableableable 11111

BogieBogieBogieBogieBogie specificationsspecificationsspecificationsspecificationsspecifications

     

Wheel

Axle

       

Bogie

Gauge

Wheel

base

load

Bearing

Spring

Steering

Axle

mm

mm

t

kg/mm/box

RT-X5

       

φ320×220

     

Proto

12.0

(dN=430,000)

φ

165

1,435

Outer race

Kx=770

 

type

or

Inde

2,100

rolling

Ky=330

 

pendent

     

RT-X7

Proto

1,067

10.5

Kz=100

type

φ290×190

             

RT-X9

(dN=370,000)

Bolster

φ

160

Outer race

Kx=200

less

 

2,200

12.5

rolling

kY=640

   
         

Kz=90

Steering

RT-X10

Beam

TTTTTableableableableable 22222

ResultsResultsResultsResultsResults ofofofofof testtesttesttesttest ononononon rollingrollingrollingrollingrolling testtesttesttesttest machinemachinemachinemachinemachine

 

Test condition

Test result km/h

 
 

Gauge

 

Hunting limit

Maximum

Bogie

mm

Wheel set

km/h

km/h

         

High bearing temp

1,435

Independent

No hunting

450

Small amount of high frequency vibration

       

Hunting

RT-X5

Fixed

150

Small amount of high frequency vibration

       

Wheel close to rail

1,067

Independent

No hunting

350

Small amount of high frequency vibration

       

Hunting

Fixed

185

Small amount of high frequency vibration

TTTTTableableableableable 33333

ResultsResultsResultsResultsResults ofofofofof testtesttesttesttest ononononon rollingrollingrollingrollingrolling testtesttesttesttest machinemachinemachinemachinemachine

Bogie

Max test speed

Bogie hunting

 

RT-X7

500 km/h

―――

 

RT-X9

250

350 km/h

―――

Rolling vibration without yaw damper

RT-X10

250

350 km/h

―――

 

chine. No stability problems causing hunting were found at a speed of 350 km/h. This test was limited to 350 km/h in line with the allowable limit of the motor’s rotation speed. We judged that running stability can be maintained at speeds of over 350 km/h, and testing without a steering link confirmed that there were no stability problems caus- ing hunting. When we tested the RT-X9 bogie without one yaw damper, rolling vibration was observed, but was not

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seen with the RT-X10. It can therefore be concluded that this vibration came from the coupled vibration of the bogie’s yawing movement and the rolling movement of the car body.

3.23.23.23.23.2 RunningRunningRunningRunningRunning testtesttesttesttest

We conducted high-speed performance and endurance testing at the Transportation Technology Center Inc. in Pueblo, Colorado, USA. The maximum speed for the test of the RT-X9 and RT-X10 bogies was 243 km/h (Fig. 3). In testing without one yaw damper, rolling vibration was observed on the RT-X9 bogie. We then conducted high-speed performance testing on the Sanyo Shinkansen line in Japan at over 200 km/h, and confirmed stability at high speeds. The results of running tests on the RT-X9 and RT-X10 bogies confirmed that the independent-wheel-type bogie with a steering system offers good stability at high speed, and that the RT-X10 bogie with a steering beam is more stable than the RT-X9 model.

201201201201201

300 243km/h 250 200 150 100 50 0 SPEED km
300
243km/h
250
200
150
100
50
0
SPEED km

R71 R66 R61 R56 R51 R46 R41 R36 R31 R26 R21 R16 R11 R6 LOCATION ID

Fig.Fig.Fig.Fig.Fig. 33333

RunningRunningRunningRunningRunning testtesttesttesttest atatatatat maximummaximummaximummaximummaximum speedspeedspeedspeedspeed

R73

4.4.4.4.4. ImprovementImprovementImprovementImprovementImprovement ofofofofof thethethethethe bearingbearingbearingbearingbearing systemsystemsystemsystemsystem

We improved the lubricating performance for bear- ings, which are the most important mechanical parts of high-speed bogies. The dN value (diameter x number of rotations) indicates the high-speed performance of bear- ings, and the value for commercial Shinkansen models is almost 220,000. However, for the type A bogie, the inner diameter of the bearing is over 200 mm because the di- ameter of the axle and sleeve is large, giving it a dN value of almost 340,000. Table 4 shows the relevant specifica- tions. Additionally, the wheel rotates with the motor, so the outer race of the bearing also rotates. Grease in the bearing is therefore pushed out by centrifugal force, and lubricating performance decreases.

TTTTTableableableableable 44444

BearingBearingBearingBearingBearing specificationsspecificationsspecificationsspecificationsspecifications

 

Shinkansen

Proto Type

Type A bogie

dN Value

22.1 × 10 4*

43.0 × 10 4*

36.8 × 10 4*

 

Oil or

   

Lubrication

grease

Grease

Grease

Characteristics

Inner race

Outer race

Outer race

rotation

rotation

rotation

 

* 300 km/h

Figure 4 shows the bearing temperature in the bench test. At 270 km/h, it reached the limit value of 120in one hour. The mechanical performance of the bearing thus had no problems at speeds over 300 km/h, but as its tem- perature is limited by the dN value, the speed limit of the bearing for commercial use is 240 - 270 km/h. To improve the lubricating performance, we tried an open-type bearing followed by a sealed-type bearing, and then developed a new type of bearing with an internal grease pocket (Fig. 5) that has a lubrication life five times longer than that of the open-type bearing. We then tried a structure lubricated with oil (Fig. 6). The lubricating condition of the bearing’s roller is favor- able, with oil pressed to the outer race by centrifugal force. As the temperature of the seal becomes high, we devel- oped a system to reduce pressure in the oil pan.

5.5.5.5.5. ConclusionsConclusionsConclusionsConclusionsConclusions

We tested two types of bogie with an independent wheel system and a steering system for a gauge-changeable train with an axle load of 12.5 t. The results obtained are outlined here:

202202202202202

outlined here: 2 0 2 2 0 2 2 0 2 2 0 2 2 0

Fig.Fig.Fig.Fig.Fig. 44444

ResultsResultsResultsResultsResults ofofofofof bearingbearingbearingbearingbearing rotatingrotatingrotatingrotatingrotating testtesttesttesttest

testtesttesttesttest Seal Grease pocket 130,000 km 330,000 km 1,200,000 km
Seal Grease pocket 130,000 km 330,000 km 1,200,000 km Open type Sealed type Grease supply
Seal
Grease pocket
130,000 km
330,000 km
1,200,000 km
Open type
Sealed type
Grease supply type

Fig.Fig.Fig.Fig.Fig. 55555

ModificationModificationModificationModificationModification ofofofofof bearingbearingbearingbearingbearing lubricationlubricationlubricationlubricationlubrication lifelifelifelifelife

Oil lubrication bearing
Oil lubrication bearing

Fig.Fig.Fig.Fig.Fig. 66666

ConstructionConstructionConstructionConstructionConstruction ofofofofof oiloiloiloiloil lubricationlubricationlubricationlubricationlubrication bearingbearingbearingbearingbearing

High-speed running stability with the independent- wheel-system bogie was maintained at over 350 km/h. In testing of the RT-X9 bogie without one yaw damper, rolling vibration on the car body was observed, but was not seen on the RT-X10 bogie. In line with specifications such as the axle load, the commercial speed of the developed bogie type is lim- ited to 240 - 270 km/h since high-speed performance is restricted by the bearing temperature. For use of this type of bogie at speeds of over 300 km/h, the dN value of the bearing should be smaller.

6.6.6.6.6. ReferencesReferencesReferencesReferencesReferences

[1] Noriaki TOKUDA : Development of Gauge Change

Bogies. Quartely Report of RTRI, Vol. 44, No. 3, Mar.

2003.

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