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International Journal of Modern Research in Engineering & Management (IJMREM) ||Volume|| 1||Issue|| 10 ||Pages|| 08-13 || November 2018|| ISSN: 2581-4540

The Geotechnical Properties of Jamshoro Soil (Shale) With Cement

1, Gul Zaman, 2, Dr. Zaheer Ahmed Almani, 3, Dr. Aneel Kumar Hindu

1, Student M.E. (Geotech & Highway engineering) Civil Engg., Mehran UET Jamshoro 2, Professor, Civil Engg. Mehran UET, Jamshoro 3 Professor, Civil Engg., Mehran UET, Jamshoro

--------------------------------------------------ABSTRACT--------------------------------------------------------

The geology of Jamshoro soil is nearly consist of multilayers in alternative form. The alternative layer of Jamshoro soil occur in the form of lime stone and shale or vice versa. The basic aim of this research is to improve the geotechnical properties of Jamshoro soil (shale) by using the cement as the stabilized material. This paper reports the effect of cement on the geotechnical characteristic of the cohesive soil and swelling potential of the Jamshoro soil. The soil sample used for testing purpose are thoroughly mixed to obtain the homogeneity. After that thoroughly mixed was dried in the oven. Oven dried sample was mixed with cement at different proportion that was 5% ,10%, 15% and 20% by the soil weight. Water content used in the mixture to form the specimens at optimum moisture contents of the soil. The compacted this prepared soil specimen was done by followed the procedure of standard proctor test. Compacted specimens were cured for the period of 1, 7, 14 and 28 days. After the completion of curing duration of specimen direct shear test was done. On the base of experimental result, it was concluded that the cement showed an appreciable improvement of the cohesion with the curing period.

INDEX TERMS: : Shale, Jamshoro, Optimum moisture content, cohesion, Direct shear

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Date of Accepted: 13 November 2018

Date of Submission: Date, 09 November 2018

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---------- I. INTRODUCTION Pakistan is the sixth most populous country

I.

INTRODUCTION

Pakistan is the sixth most populous country in the word. And Pakistan is the second most populous country in the Muslims countries. Pakistan is in the continent of Asia. Located on the longitude of 73.04 and latitude of 33.72. Pakistan has four province which are Baluchistan, Khyber Pashtun Khan, Punjab and Sindh. The capital of Sindh is Karachi which is most populated city of the Pakistan. The city of Jamshoro is approximately 150 km in the north-east of Karachi. Large deposit of expansive soil present in the Jamshoro city. If the multistory building is constructed by directly using expansive soil the chance of failure is high and if the expansive soil is replaced by the other soil it cost may be significantly high. Thus, to make it economic to improve the geotechnical properties of the expansive soil. The geotechnical properties of the expansive soil are improved by applying the soil stabilized techniques. [1] The different types of material were used for the improvement of geotechnical properties of the expansive soil such as lime, cement, fly ash, plastic and bagasse fibers. In any case the impact of the chemical on the geotechnical properties of the Jamshoro soil is not well examined. The aim of this research is that to examine the effect of cement content on swelling potential, internal frictional angle and cohesion of the Jamshoro soil [2- 8]. Shale is fine grained soil sedimentary rock and very sensitive, when it meets water it became swell. Swelling and shrinkage behavior of the shale take place near the ground surface. [9]

A) study the Geology of Jamshoro soil: First, Geographical consider that Jamshoro city lies on the sediments.

Jamshoro city lies between the latitude of 25.4244 N and longitude of 68.2811 E on the geological map. The sediments of this arrangement are basically shale, limestone and very less common sandstone. Shale and limestone are arranged in alternative series. Within the field shale appear in beds. Which are regularly separated by the bed

of other sedimentary rocks such as sandstone and limestone. [10]

Experimental Investigation: The soil sample used for the study were obtained from the Mehran University of engineering and technology Jamshoro by digging a pit at the depth of about 1.5 feet from the ground surface and extended right down to approximately 6 feet. The soil collected from the pit transported to the soil mechanics laboratory of Mehran University of engineering and technology Jamshoro where it was air dried. The direct shear tests for the Jamshoro soil were determined by following ASTM D 6528. The direct shear tests of the treated and untreated soil were performed at optimum moisture content.

Laboratory Tests: The sample collected from the site was sieved from # 40 sieve. Plastic, liquid and shrinkage limit test was determined by followed the ASTM D 4138-00 (ASTM 2000), BS 1377 (Das, 2005) and ASTMD

test was determined by followed the ASTM D 4138-00 (ASTM 2000), BS 1377 (Das, 2005) and
test was determined by followed the ASTM D 4138-00 (ASTM 2000), BS 1377 (Das, 2005) and

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The Geotechnical Properties of Jamshoro Soil…

427-04 (ASTM 2004) respectively. The procedure of ASTM D 854-02 (ASTM 2002 a) was followed for the determination of specific gravity test in this research paper.

II. RESULT DISCUSSION

The geotechnical index properties of expansive soil before the addition of admixture such as cement, is summarized in Table I. The particle size distribution of the untreated soil sample is as shown in Figure I. The procedure for the particle size distribution was performed by following the ASTM D 422-63. For the design and analysis of any structure built on the soil it is necessary to know the geotechnical of the soil sample. For the geotechnical construction works index properties of the soil are necessary.

Table I. Properties of soil

S.No.

PROPERTY

value

1

Percentage Passing BS Sieve No 200%

94

2

Liquid Limit, %

58

3

Plastic Limit, %

34

4

Plasticity Index, %

24

5

Linear Shrinkage, %

23

6

AASHTO Classification

A 7 5

7

Optimum Moisture Content, %

16

8

Free Swell, %

40

9

Specific gravity

2.44

10

Color

dark yellow brown

11

Maximum dry density

1.49

Particle Size Distribution Curve

101 100 99 98 97 96 95 94 93 100 10 1 0.1 0.01 passing
101
100
99
98
97
96
95
94
93
100
10
1
0.1
0.01
passing %Percentage

Particle Size (mm)

Figure I. Particle size distribution

Take the 200 gm of sample of soil for liquid limit, plastic limit and shrinkage limit test separately. The soil sample used for the liquid limit, plastic limit and shrinkage limit test was passed through the # 40sieve. Liquid limit test is done by penetration.

limit test was passed through the # 40sieve. Liquid limit test is done by penetration. www.ijmrem.com
limit test was passed through the # 40sieve. Liquid limit test is done by penetration. www.ijmrem.com

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Liquid limit test by Fall cone method 80.00 70.00 wL=58% 60.00 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00
Liquid limit test by Fall cone method
80.00
70.00
wL=58%
60.00
50.00
40.00
30.00
20.00
10.00
0.00
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
WATER CONTENTS %

PENETRATION

Figure II. Liquid limit test

In this research maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC) were determined by standard proctor test. The direct shear test specimens were prepared on this optimum moisture content (OMC) which was obtained standard proctor test. Figures and Tables The effect of cement on maximum shear stress of the expansive soil for different curing period is shown in figs below. Different specimen for the direct shear test was performed with various proportion of the cement such as 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. With the increase of the proportion of the cement and the curing period of the specimen the shear strength of the specimen was increased. If the shear strength of the expansive soil is increase it indicate that the cohesion of the particles with each other is increase. In this research it was noted that with the cement and the curing period the cohesion of the soil particles is increase, this is due to the bonding property of the cement. Cement bind the soil particles into a large aggregate such that the soil particle behaved as a coarse-grained.

DIRECT SHEAR TEST

250 200 1 days curring 150 100 50 0 0 20 40 60 80 100
250
200
1 days curring
150
100
50
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
Shear stress (kpa)

Normal stress (kpa)

0%

5%

10%

15%

20%

Figure III. Direct Shear test After 1 day

.

Normal stress (kpa) 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% Figure III. Direct Shear test After 1 day
Normal stress (kpa) 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% Figure III. Direct Shear test After 1 day

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DIRECT SHEAR TEST

 
 

400

350

   

300

Shear stress (kpa)

250

7 days curring

0%

5%7 days curring 0%

7 days curring 0% 5%

200

 
 

10% 

150

150 15%

15%

 

20%

 

100

50

0

 

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

 

Normal stress (kpa)

 
 

Figure IV. Direct Shear test After 7 day

 
 

DIRECT SHEAR TEST

 
 

350

300

14 days curring
14 days curring
14 days curring
14 days curring
14 days curring
14 days curring
14 days curring
 

250

Shear stress (kpa)

0%

200

5%

10%

150

15%

 

20%

 

100

50

0

 

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

 

Normal stress (kpa)

 

Figure V. Direct Shear Test After 14 day

180 200   Normal stress (kpa)   Figure V. Direct Shear Test After 14 day www.ijmrem.com
180 200   Normal stress (kpa)   Figure V. Direct Shear Test After 14 day www.ijmrem.com

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DIRECT SHEAR TEST

350 300 250 0% 5% 200 10% 150 15% 100 20% 50 0 0 20
350
300
250
0%
5%
200
10%
150
15%
100
20%
50
0
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
Shear stress (kpa)

Normal stress (kpa)

Figure VI. Direct Shear Test After 28 day

VI. CONCLUSION

From the above results of this paper, the following conclusion can be drawn:

The results which was obtained from this paper have shown that the addition of cement to the shale improve the geotechnical properties; such as the swelling and direct shear stress. On the bases of the results it was conclude that with the increase of cement, shear strength of the soil increase and it was also concluded that with the increase of curing period shear strength increase.it is due to the formation of bond between the soil particles in the presence of cement into larger particle. There is impressive increment in the cohesion of the sample which containing the cement with the increase of curing period. Finally, it was concluded that with the increase of cement and curing period, geotechnical properties of expansive soil improved.

VII. ACKNOWLEDGEMNTS

Authors are thankful to Mehran University of Engineering & Technology Jamshoro for providing necessary resources for carrying this research work.

REFERENCES

[1].

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[2].

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[12].

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) (2002 a). Standard Test Methods for Specific

[13].

Gravity of Soil Solids by Water Pycnometer, ASTM D 854-02, Philadelphia American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) (2002 b). Standard Test Methods for Particle Size

[14].

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Methods for Shrinkage Factors of Soil by the Mercury Method, ASTM D 427-04, Philadelphia. www.ijmrem.com IJMREM
Methods for Shrinkage Factors of Soil by the Mercury Method, ASTM D 427-04, Philadelphia. www.ijmrem.com IJMREM

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