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# CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

Temperature and Heat are two things that can not be dipisahka in our daily lives.Many
of the activities associated with two things like the simplest things are the differences of air
temperature during the day and at night, drop in temperature when added to hot tea with ice
cubes, and so forth
Heat is a form of energy that can be transformed from one form to forms other. Based
on the Law of Conservation of Energy electrical energy can be transformed into heat energy
and heat energy or vice versa can be turned into electrical energy

## 1.2 Problem Formulation

Based on the background of this paper, the authors make a formulation of the problem,
namely:
 What is the meaning of temperature, heat and heat capacity
 How the contents of the first and second Laws of Thermodynamics
 What is the process isokhorik, isobars, isothermic and adiabatic
 How principles of heat engines and engine coolant
 What is the application of the concepts of temperature and heat in electrical
engineering

## 1.3 boundary problem

Law of Thermodynamics I and Law of Thermodynamics II

1.4 Objective

This paper is intended to be more deeply about the meaning of temperature, heat and
heat capacity. Knowing the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics and so as on the
formulation of the problem. Not only that, the preparation of this paper is not only to readers,
but also so that could also be a matter of information / instructional materials for others
(students)
CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION

## 2.1 Temperature, heat and heat capacity

Temperature is defined as a measure of the degree of heat or cold an object or system.
Termometrik properties are the properties of objects that are easy to change due to changes in
temperature, for example:

 Length of metal
 Liquid volume

Heat is defined as the heat energy possessed by a substance. In general, to detect the
presence of heat possessed by an object by measuring the temperature of the object. If the
temperature is high, the heat contained by the object is very large, and vice versa if the
temperature is low, the heat contained slightly

From the experimental results are often conducted heat required size of an object
(substance) depends on three factors

 mass of matter
 type of substance (specific heat)
 temperature changes

## So that can be formulated mathematically:

Q = m.c. (t2 - t1)
where:
Q is the heat required (J)
m is the mass of the object (kg)
c is the specific heat (J / KGC)

## (t2-t1) is the change in temperature (C)

Heat can be divided into 2 types :

##  Heat used to raise the temperature

 Heat is used to change the form of (latent heat), the equations used in the two kinds of
latent heat Q = Q = mU and mL With U is the heat of vapor (J / kg) and L is the heat
of melting (J / kg)

In the heat of discussion there are two concepts that are nearly the same but different
is the heat capacity (H) and specific heat (c)

Heat capacity is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature by 1 degree
Celsius objects

H = Q/(t2-t1)

Specific heat is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a substance
by 1 degree Celsius. The tools used to determine the specific heat is calorimeter

c = Q/m.(t2-t1)

When the two equations are then connected to form a new equation
H = m.c

Analysis of the graph changes the form of the ice is heated until it becomes steam. In
this graph it can be seen all the heat equation is used
Description:
In Q1 of heat and ice gets used to raise the temperature of the ice, after the temperature
up to 0 C heat received is used to merge (Q2), after all into the water then there is an increase
in water temperature (Q3), after the temperature reaches a temperature of 100 C, the heat
received used to change into vapor (Q4), then turns into steam after all it will return back
temperature rise (Q5)

The heat capacity (C) = the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of the entire
body by one degree. Thus, objects that have mass m and specific heat c has a heat capacity
of:
C = mc
Description:
C = heat capacity
m = mass of object (kg)
c = specific heat (J / Kg.K)

## Unit body heat capacity (C)

To lower unit heat capacity (C), we just oprek equation of heat capacity (C) above:
International System unit for heat capacity object = J / K (J = Joule, K = Kelvin)

Note:
First, the Celsius scale and the Kelvin scale has the same interval. Therefore in addition to
using Co, we can also use K. On this subject already explained on the subject gurumuda
thermometer and temperature scale (the last part).

## 2.1 law of thermodynamics

This law is related to the conservation of energy. This law states the waterwheel
change (ΔU) of a closed thermodynamic system is equal to the total of the amount of heat
energy supplied to the system and work done on the system. The first law of thermodynamics
(the First Law of Thermodynamic) is the amount of heat (Q) received and the work done on a
gas can be used to increase the energy (ΔU).
The first law of thermodynamics formula:

∆U = Q – W
with the provisions of:

Q is positive if heat gain system and negative if heat loss. Enterprises (W) positive if
the effort is made by the system, and negative if the business is done on the system. So the
first law of thermodynamics is the principle of conservation of energy is applied to heat,
effort and energy in

B. Law of Thermodynamics II

##  Heat never flows spontaneously from a low temperature object to a high-temperature

object.
 There is no one who bekerjadalam a heat engine cycle merely absorbs heat from a
reservoir and turn into a business

## The second law can be expressed in entropy as follows:

the total entropy; the universe does not change when a reversible process occurs (ΔS
universe> 0). Entropy change ΔS of a system is equal to the heat flow into (is positive) or out
of (negative sign) sitem, when the system changes from one state to another divided by the
absolute temperature.
Q

ΔS = reversible

##  Isokhorik process, isobaric, isothermic, and Adiabatic

A. Process Isokhorik
Isokhorik process is the process of changing the state of the system at fixed volume. The
formula:

𝑝1 𝑝2
=
𝑡2 𝑡2
The work done on the environment is :

W = PΔV = P.0 =0

Description:
P: pressure(Pa)
T: temperature(K)
ΔV: volume change (m3)

B. Process isothermic

The formula:

W = nRT

Description:

W: busines (j)

n: Mol

## R: provision of an ideal gas (8:31 J / mol K)

T: temperature(K)

V: volume (m3)

C. isobaric process

Isobaric process is a process that changes the state of the gas pressure is fixed, while the
temperature, and volume change.

Formula :

𝑣1 𝑣2
=
𝑡1 𝑡2
Performed outside of business environment are:

W = Pc ΔV = Pc (V2 –V1)

Description: Pc : preasure

Is the process of changing the system without heat into or out of the system

Formula : P1V1Y=P2V2Y

Description :

𝑐𝑣
Y: constants laplace Y=
𝑐𝑝

##  Heat Engines and Engine Cooling

A. Heat engines

Heat removal heat engine heat Q1 from the reservoir, doing business W1 and throw heat Q2
to the cold reservoir. Heat engine efficiency is the ratio between the value of the work done
against the total heat absorbed.

Formula :

𝑤1 𝑄2
η= = 1-
𝑄1 𝑄1

## For an ideal heat engine (Carnot engine)

𝑄2 𝑇2
=
𝑄1 𝑇1
𝑇2
So : η = 1-
𝑇1

B. Engine Cooling

Engine Cooling move heat from the cold reservoir Q2, W receives electrical business, and
dispose of the reservoir to heat Q1 panas.Jadi refrigeration process in the opposite direction
to the heat engine dala. Performasi coefficient Cp of a cooling machine is the ratio between
the value of the transferred heat from the cold reservoir to acceptable electrical business
systems.

𝑄2 𝑄2
Cp = =
𝑊 𝑄2 −𝑄1

## Law of Thermodynamics I in principle is the law of conservation energi.Hukum second

law of thermodynamics can discuss whether or not changes one form of energy into another.
So, basically did all the machine or even all of the system are subject to the laws of
thermodynamics

Example:

Your motorcycle engine. In law I say Q = W + deltaU. This means that at a given heating
system for Q then the system will be used to conduct business and to increase energy. Q heat
of combustion of gasoline used to propel the W business mekakukan your motor (motor
moves has kinetic energy Ek = W) and the machines were originally cool your bike gets hot
(meaning an increase in energy).
CHAPTER III
CLOSING

3.1 Conclusion
From the above discussion it can be concluded that:

##  Temperature is defined as the degree heat coldness of an object

 Heat is a transfer of thermal energy due to temperature or the business of an object
 calories not including the Unit-nternational, Unit-nternational of heat is joule
 The exchange of energy between the system and the environment in addition to the
work in the form of heat is called

For those readers are advised that this paper can serve as a medium of learning in order to
improve understanding of the heat and temperature And for other writers hoped that this
paper can be cultivated in order to refine further papers that have been made previously
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