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Welcome to 3.

091

Lecture 15

October 14, 2009

Introduction to Crystallography

Images by Inductiveload at Wikipedia.

The Big Picture

electronic structure  bonding  state of aggregation

Bohr atom primary: gas


Bohr-Sommerfeld  ionic liquid
quantum numbers  covalent solid
Aufbau principle  metallic 
multielectron atoms  van der Waals 3.091 
Periodic Table patterns

octet stability secondary:


 dipole-dipole
 London dispersion
 hydrogen
solid: that which is dimensionally stable, i.e., has a volume of its own

classifications of solids:
 bonding type
 atomic arrangement
classifications of solids:
 bonding type
 atomic arrangement
white

Sn Tetragonal
a = b = c, � = � = � =90o

1.40 7.03 a b

1.62 290.4
c

16.31 301.25


3.67/7.7 0.228 �

11.50 C 0.668
o

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Photo by Will Wysong on Flickr.

Figure 12.4
Figure 12.4
4 Lattice Types

Bravais Simple Volume Base Face


Parameters
Lattice (P) Centered (I) Centered (C) Centered (F)

a1 = a2 = a3
Triclinic �12 = �23 = �31

a1 = a2 = a3
Monoclinic �23 = �31 = 900
�12 = 900

a1 = a2 = a3
Orthorhombic �12 = �23 = �31 = 900
7 Crystal Classes

a1 = a2 = a3
Tetragonal �12 = �23 = �31 = 900

a1 = a2 = a3
Trigonal �12 = �23 = �31 < 1200

a1 = a2 = a3
Cubic �12 = �23 = �31 = 900

a1 = a2 = a3 a3
Hexagonal �12 = 1200 a2
�23= �31= 900
a1

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare.


Courtesy of National Academy of Sciences, U. S. A. Used with permission.
Source: Caspar, Donald L. D., and Eric Fontano. "Five-fold Symmetry in
Crystalline Quasicrystal Lattices." PNAS 93 (December 1996): 14271-14278.
Copyright © 1996 National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A.
Figure 12.5

Averill, B., and P. Eldredge. Chemistry: Principles, Patterns, and Applications. Flat World Knowledge, 2011. ISBN: 9781453331224.
Figure 12.5c

Averill, B., and P. Eldredge. Chemistry: Principles, Patterns,and


Applications. Flat WorldKnowledge, 2011. ISBN: 9781453331224.
Figure 12.10

Image by Eloy at Wikipedia.

© Pearson. All rights reserved. This content is excluded from our Creative Commons license. For more information, see http://ocw.mit.edu/fairuse.
Source: Fig. 10.24 in McMurry, John, and Robert C. Fay. Chemistry. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice-Hall, 2004. ISBN: 0131402218.
© Pearson. All rights reserved. This content is excluded from our Creative Commons license. For more information, see http://ocw.mit.edu/fairuse.
Source: Fig. 10.24 in McMurry, John, and Robert C. Fay. Chemistry. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice-Hall, 2004. ISBN: 0131402218.
© Pearson. All rights reserved. This content is excluded from our Creative Commons license. For more information, see http://ocw.mit.edu/fairuse.
Source: Fig. 10.24 in McMurry, John, and Robert C. Fay. Chemistry. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice-Hall, 2004. ISBN: 0131402218.
© Pearson. All rights reserved. This content is excluded from our Creative Commons license. For more information, see http://ocw.mit.edu/fairuse.
Source: Fig. 10.24 in McMurry, John, and Robert C. Fay. Chemistry. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice-Hall, 2004. ISBN: 0131402218.
All M. C. Escher works © 2010 The M. C. Escher Company – The Netherlands. All rights reserved. www.mcescher.com.

All M. C. Escher works © 2010 The M. C. Escher Company – The Netherlands. All rights reserved. www.mcescher.com.

All M. C. Escher works © 2010 The M. C. Escher Company – The Netherlands. All rights reserved. www.mcescher.com.

Figure 12.5a

Averill, B., and P. Eldredge. Chemistry: Principles, Patterns,and


Applications. Flat World Knowledge, 2011. ISBN: 9781453331224.
All M. C. Escher works © 2010 The M. C. Escher Company – The Netherlands. All rights reserved. www.mcescher.com.

All M. C. Escher works © 2010 The M. C. Escher Company – The Netherlands. All rights reserved. www.mcescher.com

All M. C. Escher works © 2010 The M. C. Escher Company – The Netherlands. All rights reserved. www.mcescher.com

a = f(r) 2r 4r/√3 2√2r


or 4r = √4 a √3 a √2 a

packing density 0.5 0.68 0.74


3 1
8 x = 1

1 2 8
1
2 6 x = 3

1 2
4
3
= 4 lattice

FCC points/unit
cell

Averill, B., and P. Eldredge. Chemistry: Principles, Patterns, and Applications. Flat World Knowledge, 2011. ISBN: 9781453331224.
a = 407 pm

4r

Image by MIT OpenCourseWare. Adapted from Fig. 5 in Aquaro, Donato. "Thermal Mechanical Analysis of a Solid Breeding Blanket."

Fusion Engineering and Design 69 (2003): 511-518. Courtesy of Elsevier, Inc., http://www.sciencedirect.com. Used with permission.

Houses at L’Estaque

Georges Braque

1908

Courtesy of Rod Nave/HyperPhysics. Used with permission.

Courtesy of Rod Nave/HyperPhysics. Used with permission.

Colored Golds:

FCC with zest

pure Au
yellow

Cu(low)
yellow

Cu(high)
pink
Ni white
Al purple

In blue
Cr green
MIT OpenCourseWare
http://ocw.mit.edu

3.091SC Introduction to Solid State Chemistry


Fall 2009

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