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EXPERIMENT

9

EXPERIMENTS USING SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES

Semiconductor Diodes

Structure

9.1 Introduction

Objectives

9.2 Basics of Semiconductors Revisited

9.3 A p-n Junction

Operation of a p-n Junction A Forward and Reverse Biased p-n Junction Identifying a Diode I-V Characteristics of a p-n Junction

9.4 Zener Diode

Working of a Zener Diode I-V Characteristics of a Zener Diode

9.5 Some Applications of Semiconductor Diodes

Rectification of ac Zener Diode as Voltage Regulator

of a Zener Diode 9.5 Some Applications of Semiconductor Diodes Rectification of ac Zener Diode as
of a Zener Diode 9.5 Some Applications of Semiconductor Diodes Rectification of ac Zener Diode as
of a Zener Diode 9.5 Some Applications of Semiconductor Diodes Rectification of ac Zener Diode as
of a Zener Diode 9.5 Some Applications of Semiconductor Diodes Rectification of ac Zener Diode as

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Experiments with

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99

11

IINNTTRROODDUUCCTTIIOONN

From your 10+2 physics course, you will recall that materials can be broadly classified into conductors, insulators and semiconductors on the basis of their resistivity. The resistivity of a conductor is of the order of 10 7 m and that of an insulator is of the order of 10 12 10 24 m. The resistivity of a semiconductor lies in-between the resistivities of a conductor and an insulator. Germanium (Ge) and Silicon (Si) are the most commonly used semiconductors. At absolute zero, the semiconductor also acts as a near perfect insulator. But with increase in temperature, the conductivity of the semiconductor increases. This change in conductivity with temperature is different for different semiconducting materials. The conductivity of a semiconductor can also be influenced by doping it with some impurity elements, called dopants like boron, phosphorus, arsenic etc. Depending on the type of carrier added by a dopant, the semiconductor is classified as p-type (hole carriers) or n-type (electron carriers). The p-type impurity is acceptor type, whereas the n-type impurity is donor type.

A p-n junction is usually formed by doping a part of a pure semiconductor with acceptor impurities and the remainder with donor impurities. Semiconductors have very useful properties (small size, light weight and efficient operation) and are being extensively used in electronic equipments. (These have completely replaced vacuum tubes used earlier in electronic circuits.) You may recall that microelectronic chips are the cores of computers and these are also made using semiconductor junctions. Now this limit has been extended to nano-electronic devices.

When the anode is connected to +ve terminal of battery and the cathode is connected to ve terminal of the battery, the device is said to be forward-biased and vice versa. A p-n junction is said to be forward biased when p-type region is connected to +ve terminal of the battery and n-type region is connected to ve terminal of the battery.

A p-n junction is also called a diode. There are various types of diodes. In this experiment, you will draw the I-V characteristic curves of a p-n junction and a zener diode. You will discover that the function of a device can be influenced and determined by external conditions. While a p-n junction works as rectifying diode, a zener diode acts as voltage regulator, depending on biasing conditions.

Objectives

After performing this experiment, you should be able to:

draw current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curves of a p-n junction and a zener diode in forward and reverse bias conditions;

determine the material of a diode from its I-V characteristic curves;

devise a zener voltage regulator circuit and determine the range of constancy; and

measure the effects of variation in input voltage and load on the output of a zener diode regulator.

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99 22

BBAASSIICCSS OOFF SSEEMMIICCOONNDDUUCCTTOORRSS RREEVVIISSIITTEEDD

Semiconductor Diodes

You have learnt about semiconductors in your school physics. You have also read about p-type and n-type semiconductors. However, for brevity, we recapitulate the important characteristics of semiconductors.

Semiconductors are of two types: intrinsic and extrinsic. A pure semiconductor is said to be an intrinsic semiconductor. But in practical applications, intrinsic semiconductors are of little use due to their high resistivity or low conductivity. In an electronic circuit, it is both necessary and desirable to tailor their conductivity by doping an impurity. Doped semiconductors are termed as extrinsic semiconductors. The most commonly used semiconducting materials are crystalline silicon and germanium. In recent years, compound semiconductors, amorphous semiconductors, and semiconducting polymers have also been developed. In this experiment, we will confine ourselves only to devices made of elemental semiconductors.

From the electronic configuration of Si (

that in all 14 electrons are bound to the nucleus and revolve around it. Of these, four electrons revolve in the outermost orbit. In an intrinsic silicon semiconductor, the Si atom attains stability by sharing one outermost electron each with four neighbouring Si atoms. (This is called covalent bonding.) The same holds true for germanium whose electronic configuration is 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6

3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4p 2 .

pentavalent (five electrons in the outermost orbit) atom like phosphorus, arsenic or antimony, four electrons form covalent bonds with the four neighbouring silicon atoms, but the fifth (valence) electron remains unbonded and is available for conduction, as shown in Fig. 9.1. Thus, when a silicon (or germanium) crystal is doped with a pentavalent element, it develops excess free electrons and is said to be an n-type semiconductor. Such impurities are known as donor impurities.

1s

2

2s

2

2p

6

3s

2

3p

2

),

you will recall

When silicon (or germanium) is doped with a

you will recall When silicon (or germanium) is doped with a Fig. 9.1: Covalent bonding in

Fig. 9.1: Covalent bonding in an n- type semiconductor

Doping is a process of adding small quantities of other elements, called impurity, in a pure semiconductor in order to modify its electrical conductivity.

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If silicon (or germanium) is doped with a trivalent (three electrons in the outermost shell) atom like boron, aluminium, gallium or indium, three valence electrons form covalent bonds with three silicon atoms and deficiency of one electron is created. This deficiency (of an electron) is referred to as a hole. It is shown in Fig. 9.2. Such a semiconductor is said to be a p-type semiconductor and the impurities are known as acceptor impurities.

and the impurities are known as acceptor impurities . Fig. 9.2: Covalent bonding in a p-

Fig. 9.2: Covalent bonding in a p-type semiconductor

Let us now discuss the formation of a p-n junction.

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AA pp--nn JJUUNNCCTTIIOONN

The most useful form of semiconductor devices is obtained when p- and n- type semiconductors form a junction. This is achieved by introducing donor impurities into one side and acceptor impurities into the other side of a single semiconducting crystal, as shown in Fig. 9.3. Let us now understand how charge carriers behave in such a situation.

understand how charge carriers behave in such a situation. Fig. 9.3: A p - n junction

Fig. 9.3: A p-n junction with depletion region

9.3.1 Operation of a p-n Junction

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You now know that there is greater concentration of electrons in the n-region of the crystal and of holes in the p-region. Because of this, electrons tend to diffuse to the p-region and holes to the n-region. You may think that this process will continue indefinitely. But it is not so. The movement of electrons and holes creates (leaves behind) positively and negatively charged ions near

the junction in n- and p-regions, respectively. Due to accumulation of charges

near the junction, an electric field is established. This gives rise to electrostatic potential, known as barrier potential. This barrier has polarities, as shown in Fig. 9.4. When there is no external electric field, this barrier prevents the movement of charge carriers across the junction and a narrow region near the junction is depleted in mobile charge carriers. It is about 0.5 µm thick and is called the depletion region or space-charge region.

and is called the depletion region or space-charge region . Fig. 9.4: Barrier potential due to

Fig. 9.4: Barrier potential due to depletion region

The barrier potential is characteristic of the semiconductor material. It is about 0.3 eV for Ge and about 0.7 eV for Si. The junction acts as a diode. It is symbolically represented as shown in Fig. 9.5. Here A corresponds to p-region and acts as an anode in a diode. Similarly, K indicates n-region and corresponds to a cathode in a diode.

9.3.2 A Forward and Reverse Biased p-n Junction

Semiconductor Diodes

and Reverse Biased p - n Junction Semiconductor Diodes Fig. 9.5: Symbol of a p-n junction

Fig. 9.5: Symbol of a p-n junction (diode)

When an external electric field is applied to a p-n junction, as shown in Fig. 9.6a, the p-end becomes positively biased and the n-end becomes negatively biased. The junction is then said to be forward biased. When the bias exceeds barrier potential, holes cross the junction from the p-region to the n-region. Similarly, electrons cross the junction in the reverse direction. This sets in a forward current in the diode. The current increases with voltage and is of the order of a few milliampere. Under the forward bias condition, the junction offers low resistance to flow of current. The value of junction resistance, called forward resistance, is in the range 10 to 30 .

forward resistance , is in the range 10 Ω to 30 Ω . Fig. 9.6: a)

Fig. 9.6: a) Forward biased; and b) reverse biased p-n junction

When the terminals of the battery are reversed, i.e. p- and n-ends are connected to negative and positive terminals of the battery respectively as

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To test a p-n junction using a multimeter, set the multimeter on resistance measurement mode. Connect the junction in forward bias with the multimeter probes and measure its resistance. Next, reverse the multimeter probes to measure the resistance of the junction in the other direction. You will observe a large difference between these values.

You will observe a large difference between these values. Fig.9.7: Identification of a diode (Printed with

Fig.9.7: Identification of a diode (Printed with permission from M/s Power Technology, New Zealand)

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shown in Fig. 9.6b, the junction is said to be reverse biased. In this case, holes in the p-region and electrons in the n-region move away from the junction. Does it mean that no current shall flow in the circuit? No, a small current flows because a few electron-hole pairs are generated due to thermal excitations. This small current caused by the minority carriers is called reverse saturation current or leakage current. In most commercially available diodes, the reverse current is almost constant and independent of the applied reverse bias. Its magnitude is of the order of a few nanoamperes to microamperes.

A p-n junction offers low resistance when forward biased, and high resistance

when reverse biased. You can easily test it using a multimeter. This property

of p-n junction is used for ac rectification.

9.3.3 Identifying a Diode

Semiconductor diodes are designated by two letters followed by a serial number. The first letter indicates the material: A is used for material with a band gap of 0.6 eV to 1.0 eV such as germanium. B is used for material with a band gap of 1.0 eV to 1.3 eV, such as silicon. The second letter indicates the main application: A signifies detection diode, B denotes a variable capacitance diode, E for tunnel diode, Y for rectifying diode and Z denotes zener diode. The serial numbers specify the diodes with particular values of power rating, peak reverse voltage, maximum current rating etc. For example, BY127 and BZ148 respectively denote a silicon rectifier diode and a silicon zener diode. You have to refer to manufacturer’s catalogue to know exact details.

To make visual identification of anode and cathode, the diode manufacturers employ one of the following ways (typically shown in Fig. 9.7):

the symbol is painted on the body of the diode;

red and blue marks are used on the body of the diode. Red mark denotes anode, whereas blue indicates the cathode;

a small ring is printed at one end of the body of the diode that corresponds to the cathode.

Always work within the specified range of diode ratings to avoid damages to the device.

You are now ready to perform the first part of the experiment, i.e., to draw the static characteristic curves of a p-n junction. You will need the following apparatus.

Apparatus

A general purpose p-n junction diode, a variable power supply with voltage range 0-10V, a voltmeter, a milliammeter (0-50mA), a resistance box, a microammeter (0-50µA), and a multimeter.

9.3.4 I-V Characteristics of a p-n Junction

Semiconductor Diodes

First check that the junction is working properly using a multimeter. Next make a circuit as shown in Fig. 9.8 for forward bias I-V characteristics. V s is a variable power supply. Keep the voltage control in the minimum position and switch on the power supply. Increase the voltage in steps of 0.1V and note the corresponding values of current, until an appreciable deflection is observed. You will note that current in the circuit is small as long as the applied voltage is less than the barrier potential. Once this potential is crossed, the current will increase rapidly with small increase in voltage. The forward voltage required to get the junction in conduction mode is called knee voltage. Beyond knee voltage, current increases rapidly. Record your readings in Observation Table 9.1. Note that in no case, you should exceed the maximum forward current rating of the diode in the forward bias condition.

current rating of the diode in the forward bias condition. Fig. 9.8: Circuit diagram for I

Fig. 9.8: Circuit diagram for I-V characteristics of a p-n junction in forward bias

Next decrease the voltage in same steps and note down the corresponding current values. Record these also in Observation Table 9.1. Are the values of current same in both cases? Calculate the mean value of current for each value of V.

Observation Table 9.1: Forward biased junction characteristics

S.No.

Forward voltage (V)

Forward current (mA)

Mean

Increasing

Decreasing

forward

voltage

voltage

current

(mA)

1.

0.0

     

2.

0.1

3.

0.2

4.

0.3

.

.

.

.

To study the reverse bias characteristics, the circuit is made as shown in Fig. 9.9. In this case, the connections of the p-n junction have been reversed. Also, the milliammeter is replaced by a microammeter since the reverse current is expected to be small.

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Experiments with Electrical and Electronic Circuits Fig. 9.9: Circuit diagram for I - V characteristics of

Fig. 9.9: Circuit diagram for I-V characteristics of a p-n junction in reverse bias

Vary the voltage (from minimum) in steps of one volt and record the corresponding current values in Observation Table 9.2. Here, you should not exceed the peak inverse voltage rating of the junction.

Observation Table 9.2: Reverse biased junction characteristics

   

Reverse current (µµµµA)

Mean

S.No.

Reverse voltage (V)

reverse

   
   

Increasing

Decreasing

current

voltage

voltage

(µµµµA)

1.

0.0

     

2.

1.0

3.

2.0

.

.

.

.

.

.

Draw the characteristic curves for both forward and reverse biased conditions by plotting voltage along x-axis and current along y-axis, as shown in Fig. 9.10. From this graph, you can calculate the forward and reverse resistances as well as knee voltage.

Extrapolate the linear part of the forward bias characteristic curve to meet the x-axis. The intercept on the x-axis gives the value of knee-voltage.

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intercept on the x -axis gives the value of knee-voltage. 38 Fig. 9.10: I -V characteristics

Fig. 9.10: I-V characteristics of a p-n junction diode

Calculations: From your plot of I-V characteristics, you can easily calculate forward resistance and reverse resistance using the following relations:

Semiconductor Diodes

 

R

f

and

 

R

r

Result:

=

=

V

f

I

f

V

r

I

r

.

Forward resistance =

.

Reverse resistance =

.

Knee-voltage =

A conventional solid state diode does not allow flow of significant current if reverse bias is below its reverse break down voltage. Once voltage across p-n junction exceeds reverse bias breakdown voltage, it is subject to high current flow due to Avalanche breakdown and can be permanently damaged.

You may now like to answer the following SAQ.

SSSSSSSSAAAAAAAAQQQQQQQQ 11111111 :::::::: DDDDDDDDiiiiiiiiooooooooddddddddeeeeeeee cccccccchhhhhhhhaaaaaaaarrrrrrrraaaaaaaacccccccctttttttteeeeeeeerrrrrrrriiiiiiiissssssssttttttttiiiiiiiiccccccccssssssss

a) You are given a resistor and a p-n junction. How would you identify these?

b) How will you determine whether a p-n junction is made of silicon or germanium? What was the material of the junction you characterised in this experiment?

Spend

4 min.

Let us now learn about a special kind of diode, called zener diode.

99 44

ZZEENNEERR DDIIOODDEE

Zener diode allows current to flow not only in the forward direction like a rectifying diode, but also in the reverse direction, when the voltage is more than the breakdown voltage. This voltage is also called zener voltage.

9.4.1 Working of a Zener Diode

The p- and n- regions in a zener diode are heavily doped. These result in a thin depletion layer, due to availability of a large number of carriers for recombination near the junction. However, the minority carriers present in the diode as a result of thermal excitations cannot cross the junction due to its barrier potential. When a reverse bias is applied, a large electric field is established across the junction. This field (i) accelerates the already available minority carriers, which, in turn, collide with the atoms of the semiconductor material and eject more electrons through energy transfer (avalanche effect), and (ii) breaks covalent bonds resulting in creation of additional electron-hole pairs in the junction region (zener effect). Both these processes give rise to large reverse current even for a small increase in reverse bias voltage. This process is termed as zener breakdown. However, since the (magnitude of)

p n
p
n

Fig. 9.11: Symbol of zener diode

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Experiments with

Electrical and

Electronic Circuits

reverse voltage is small, the junction is not damaged. In silicon diodes, zener effect dominates up to about 5.6V, and beyond this, avalanche effect prevails. The symbol of zener diode is shown in Fig. 9.11.

A typical I-V characteristic plot of a zener diode is shown in Fig. 9.12. The reverse breakdown voltage is indicated by V z .

The reverse breakdown voltage is indicated by V z . Fig. 9.12: I - V characteristics

Fig. 9.12: I-V characteristics of a zener diode

The zener breakdown voltage (V z ) is of great significance in the operation of zener diode as a voltage regulator. You will learn it in the later part of this experiment.

9.4.2 I-V Characteristics of a Zener Diode

You now know that zener diode can sustain a constant voltage across it in reverse breakdown condition. For this reason, it is always used as voltage reference in reverse bias. Since resistance in breakdown region is very small, the current through the diode has to be limited by varying the resistance in the circuit. The value of resistor is chosen in such a way that the product of zener breakdown voltage and reverse current through the zener, i.e. the power dissipated across the junction, is within the power handling capability of the diode. If this limit is exceeded, a large current may damage the diode.

We now list the apparatus with which you will work, in this part of the experiment.

Apparatus

Zener diode (with breakdown voltage in the range of 3 to 10V), variable voltage supply, voltmeter, milliameter and a resistor.

The circuit to study forward I-V characteristics of zener diode is shown in Fig.9.13a. In this circuit, the value of resistor R is determined by the power rating of the zener diode. The maximum current flowing through R should be less than the diode current rating I Z .

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Semiconductor Diodes

Semiconductor Diodes Fig. 9.13: Circuit diagram to determine I - V characteristics of zener diode in

Fig. 9.13: Circuit diagram to determine I-V characteristics of zener diode in a) forward bias; and b) reverse bias

Take a variable dc voltage supply V s in the range 0-15V. If zener breakdown voltage (V z ) is 10V and maximum current rating (I z ), is 100 mA, the value of R is given by

R =

V

max

V

z

(

15

10

)

V = 50 .

=

I

z 100 mA

First connect zener diode in forward bias (anode to positive end and cathode to negative end). Take observations using the procedure outlined for p-n junction diode rectifier and record the readings in Observation Table 9.3.

Observation Table 9.3: Forward bias characteristics of zener diode

   

Forward current (mA)

Mean

   

forward

S.

No.

Forward voltage (V)

With increasing

With decreasing

current

voltage

voltage

(mA)

1.

0.0

     

2.

0.1

3.

0.2

.

.

Now reverse the zener diode bias by connecting the cathode to the positive- end and the anode to the negative-end of supply. This configuration is shown in Fig. 9.13b. Note that here also, you have to use a milliammeter. Start the power supply from zero volt and increase voltage in steps of 1V. Note down the voltage across the zener diode and the corresponding current flowing through the circuit. Record your readings in Observation Table 9.4. Plot forward and reverse bias I-V characteristic curves of zener diode. Do your curves resemble the I-V characteristics shown in Fig. 9.12?

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Observation Table 9.4: Reverse bias I-V characteristic of a zener diode

   

Reverse current (mA)

Mean

   

reverse

S.

Reverse voltage (V)

When increasing

When decreasing voltage

current

No.

voltage

 

(mA)

1.

0.0

     

2.

1.0

3.

2.0

.

.

.

.

.

.

Result: Knee voltage

=

V

Forward resistance =

Breakdown voltage

=

V

Reverse resistance =

You may now like to answer the following SAQ.

Spend

4 min.

SSSSSSSSAAAAAAAAQQQQQQQQ 22222222 :::::::: ZZZZZZZZeeeeeeeennnnnnnneeeeeeeerrrrrrrr ddddddddiiiiiiiiooooooooddddddddeeeeeeee cccccccchhhhhhhhaaaaaaaarrrrrrrraaaaaaaacccccccctttttttteeeeeeeerrrrrrrriiiiiiiissssssssttttttttiiiiiiiiccccccccssssssss

Compare your results with those obtained in the previous part of the experiment and discuss the physics of differences.

99 55

SSOOMMEE AAPPPPLLIICCAATTIIOONNSS OOFF SSEEMMIICCOONNDDUUCCTTOORR DDIIOODDEESS

C C O O N N D D U U C C T T O O

Fig. 9.14: a) ac signal,

b) half-wave

rectification,

c) full- wave

rectification

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9.5.1 Rectification of ac

The general purpose p-n junction is used as a rectifier diode. From your school physics classes, you may recall that conversion of ac voltage into dc voltage is known as rectification. As you know, the ac voltage is sinusoidal (Fig. 9.14a). When we place a diode in a circuit, it allows unidirectional current in the circuit. As a result, negative half-cycle is eliminated and we obtain pulsating dc (Fig. 9.14b). That is, the original signal has been modified (rectified) to the extent that only one-half part of the input is being used here.

Obviously it is not only of little use but inefficient also. Therefore, in actual practice, we use two diodes in such a way that the negative half cycle is also made available in the circuit, as shown in Fig. 9.14c. Such an arrangement constitutes a full-wave rectifier circuit (Fig. 9.15).

Semiconductor Diodes Fig. 9.15: Full wave rectifier circuits: a) centre tapped and b) bridge rectifier
Semiconductor Diodes Fig. 9.15: Full wave rectifier circuits: a) centre tapped and b) bridge rectifier

Semiconductor Diodes

Fig. 9.15: Full wave rectifier circuits: a) centre tapped and b) bridge rectifier

In the circuit shown in Fig. 9.15a, diode D 1 conducts in the positive half cycle, whereas diode D 2 conducts in the negative half cycle. You must have observed that here we need a centre-tapped transformer, which is fairly costly. However, the same action can be achieved with a normal transformer in a bridge circuit, which consists of four diodes (Fig. 9.15b). Diodes D 1 and D 3 conduct in the positive half cycle, while D 2 and D 4 conduct in negative half cycle.

You will note that the circuit output exhibits fluctuations and can not be put to any practical use. To minimise fluctuations, we use a pi-filter (π-filter) which consists of an inductor and two capacitors.

While a capacitor filters out ac component, an inductor allows maintenance of dc level. For details you should refresh your knowledge by

reading your 12 physics book.

th

standard

To understand the rectification action, you should build the circuits shown in Fig. 9.15 and observe the input and output waveforms using a cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO).

9.5.2 Zener Diode as Voltage Regulator

While studying the I-V characteristics of zener diode, you must have noted that in reverse bias condition, the voltage across zener diode remains constant at V z , and, independent of input voltage value when input is more than V z . This characteristic of zener diode gives rise to a very interesting application in that it can be used as a constant voltage source. If we connect a load across the zener diode, a constant voltage becomes available across it. The circuit of zener regulated voltage supply is shown in Fig. 9.16. R L is the load across which the stabilised voltage is obtained. In this circuit, the excess voltage in dissipated across resistor R.

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Experiments with

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Experiments with Electrical and Electronic Circuits Fig. 9.16: Zener diode as a voltage regulator a) Line

Fig. 9.16: Zener diode as a voltage regulator

a) Line Regulation

9.16: Zener diode as a voltage regulator a) Line Regulation Fig. 9.17: Line regulation by a

Fig. 9.17: Line regulation by a zener diode

Line regulation is a measure of regulation against any change in input voltage. To study line regulation, the load is maintained at a fixed value (say 1k). The input voltage (V i ) to the regulator is varied in steps of about 20V with the help of multiple tappings in the secondary of the transformer. Note the corresponding output voltages (V o ) and record these in Observation Table 9.5. (You can also use a variable ac voltage supply in the form of a dimmerstat in the primary of the transformer to vary the input supply to the regulator.) Take at least 12 readings, starting from zero volt. Now draw a graph by plotting input ac voltage (V i ) along x-axis and the corresponding output voltage along y-axis. We expect you to obtain a curve similar to that shown in Fig. 9.17. The percentage change in the output voltage per unit change in the input ac voltage in the linear region of the graph gives line regulation.

Observations Table 9.5: Line regulation by a zener diode

Load resistance, R L = 1k

S.No.

Input voltage, V i (V)

Regulated voltage, V o (V)

1.

   

2.

3.

4.

5.

.

.

.

12.

44

Result: Line Regulation =

%

b) Load Regulation

Load regulation is a measure of regulation against change in the load resistance, i.e. the current drawn from the regulator circuit. To determine load regulation, we begin with no load in the circuit. At constant input voltage, measure output voltage V NL and record the value in Observation Table 9.6. Next, connect a variable load resistance R L and decrease it from 1 kto 100 in steps of 100 . Note the output voltage V L in each case. Calculate the load regulations using the relation

Load regulation

=   V

V

NL

V   × 100.

R

NL

Semiconductor Diodes

V   × 100. R   − NL Semiconductor Diodes Fig. 9.18: Load regulation

Fig. 9.18: Load regulation by a zener diode

Next, plot a graph by taking R L along the x-axis and the corresponding output voltage V R along the y-axis as shown in Fig. 9.18. The minimum load resistance for the regulated output would be that value of R L for which V R begins to drop significantly.

Observation Table 9.6: Load Regulation

Voltage without Load, V NL =……….V.

S.No.

R L ()

Voltage V R (V)

Percentage regulation

1

1000

   

2

900

3

800

4.

700

5.

600

.

.

.

100

Result: Load regulation at maximum loading condition (at the minimum value of R L ) = ……………… %

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Experiments with

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Electronic Circuits

 

Spend

5 min.

46

SAQSAQSAQSAQ 3333 :::: ZenerZenerZenerZener voltagevoltagevoltagevoltage regulatorregulatorregulatorregulator

In the circuit shown in Fig. 9.16, suppose that V i = 12.4V, R L = 500 , V Z = 6 V and R = 100 . Calculate

i) Current through R

ii) Current through zener diode

iii) Power dissipation in the diode and R L