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HSC Biology Topic 1

MAINTAINING A BALANCE
What is this topic about?
To keep it as simple as possible, (K.I.S.S.) this topic involves the study of:
1. THE FUNCTION OF ENZYMES & HOMEOSTASIS
2. TEMPERATURE REGULATION IN ORGANISMS
3. INTERNAL TRANSPORT SYSTEMS IN ORGANISMS
4. EXCRETION & WATER BALANCE

but first, an introduction...


Living Things are Made of Cells Homeostasis
All living things are composed of microscopic units The enzymes that control all the chemical reactions
called cells. You learned in a previous topic about in every living cell are very sensitive to the
the structure of a cell and the functions of the temperature and the pH (acidity) of the
organelles. surroundings. It is vital that the “internal
environment” of any organism is kept as constant as
GENERALIZED DIAGRAM OF A LIVING CELL
possible so that the enzymes and the chemistry of
Organelles each cell keep operating normally.

The process of “keeping everything the same” is called


homeostasis, and is one of the most important and
vital processes in every organism. In this topic you will
study some of the basic mechanisms of homeostasis,
and how certain body systems are involved by
absorbing, transporting, regulating and excreting the
vital chemicals of life.
Nervous System
“Membrane” on the Regulates body
temperature
outside contains the Cytoplasm
cell , and controls jelly-like liquid fills
what goes in or out the cell
Circulatory System
transports gases, Respiratory System
Each cell is “alive” in its own right, and capable of all nutrients & wastes Gas exchange
the life functions:-
• growth • reproduction
• movement • assimilation
• response to changes in its environment
Excretory System
Regulates water
balance and excretes
Metabolism is Chemistry metabolic wastes
Controlled by Enzymes
What goes on inside a living cell is mainly a matter
of chemical reactions... new molecules are built,
others are torn apart. Special reactions release the
energy needed to make all this chemistry happen.

In this topic you will learn about the importance of


Enzymes... the special molecules that control the As well as the homeostatic processes in mammals
chemistry of each cell. and some other animals, you will study some
regulatory processes in plants.

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CONCEPT DIAGRAM (“Mind Map”) OF TOPIC


Some students find that memorizing the OUTLINE of a topic helps them learn and remember the concepts and
important facts. As you proceed through the topic, come back to this page regularly to see how each bit fits the
whole. At the end of the notes you will find a blank version of this “Mind Map” to practise on.

Effects of Temp, pH
& substrate conc. on Temperature
Processesses
enzyme activity range of life
of heating & Endotherms
cooling
Concept of
Negative Feedback Ectotherms Plants

Receptor,
Control Centre Temperature
Hypothalamus
Effectors regulation in...
Shape & & Effector
specificity of Organs
Enzymes
Enzymes
& Temperature
Homeostasis Regulation
in Organisms

Functions &
characteristics
of Enzymes

MAINTAINING
A
Blood &
Coping with salt BALANCE Blood Vessels

Substances
Water conservation in
carried in
Aust. Plants
blood.
Internal Where from,
Importance of where to?
Transport
Excretion water &
Systems
& Water Balance
Water
Balance
Transport in
Plants How the gases
are carried
Water Balance
in Aust. insects Kidney & Nephron
& mammals Structure & Function Oxygen
saturation
Importance of
Transpiration
Translocation Haemoglobin
in Xylem
in Phloem
Enantiostasis

Artificial
blood? Blood products
Excretion
Homeostasis
Dialysis & HRT Filtration & Reabsorption
ADH & Aldosterone

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1. THE FUNCTION OF ENZYMES & HOMEOSTASIS

Metabolism is Chemistry The Importance of Shape


Everything that happens inside a living thing is really a Many of the properties of enzymes are related to their
matter of cell chemistry... “metabolism”. For example... precise 3-dimensional shape.

• In order to move, protein fibres inside muscle cells must The shape of the enzyme fits the “substrate” molecule(s) as
be made to slide past each other. This is achieved by closely as a key fits a lock.
chemical reactions occurring along the muscle fibres.

• For your body to grow, cells must divide and add more
membranes, cytoplasm and organelles to increase the cell
size. This involves the chemical construction of new DNA Various

molecules, new phospholipids for membranes and so on. Different


Enzyme Only this
one fits Substrate
• All these chemical reactions require energy. Energy is
delivered by the ATP molecule, itself the product of a Molecules

series of chemical reactions in the mitochondria... cellular


respiration.

All of these reactions, and more, add up to “metabolism”:


the sum total of all the thousands of chemical reactions This is why enzymes are “substrate-specific”... only one
going on constantly in all the billions of cells in your body. particular enzyme can fit each substrate molecule. Each
chemical reaction requires a different enzyme.
Enzymes
Every one of these reactions requires a catalyst... a Changes in temperature and pH (acidity) can cause the
chemical which speeds the reaction up and makes it shape of the enzyme to change. If it changes its shape even
happen, without being changed in the process. slightly, it might not fit the substrate properly any more, so
the reaction cannot run as quickly and efficiently. This is
In living cells there is a catalyst for every reaction type. why enzymes are found to work best at particular
Biological catalysts are called enzymes, and: “optimum” temperature and pH values.

• are protein molecules


(made of folded chains of amino acids) Substrate...

• have a particular 3-dimensional shape, which fits the


“substrate” molecule(s) of the reaction
• are highly “substrate-specific”. This means that each
enzyme will only catalyse one particular reaction, and no ...no longer
fits enzyme
other. Enzyme shape at
optimum pH and Shape changes slightly
• will only work effectively in a relatively narrow range of at different pH or temp.
temperature
temperature and pH (acidity).
Amino acid molecules Polypeptide chain Protein, with precise 3-D
D shape...

Twists & folds ...ENZYME


molecule
Polymerization

Substrate
molecules are Product released
chemically from enzyme
attracted to Substrate molecules
the enzyme’s brought together and
active site react with each other

Enzyme’s
“Active Site”
has a shape
to fit the
substrate(s) ENZYME ENZYME can react with more substrate
exactly ENZYME

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The pH Scale Optimum Temperature


The acidity or alkalinity of any solution or environment is Not all enzymes will “peak” at the same temperature, or
measured on a numerical scale known as “pH”. have exactly the same shape graph. In mammals, most
enzymes will peak at around the animal’s normal body
On the pH scale, anything which is neutral (neither acid nor temperature, and often work only within a narrow range of
alkaline) has a pH = 7. temperatures.

increasing increasing An enzyme from a plant may show a much broader graph,
Neutral
acidity alkalinity
indicating that it will work, at least partly, at a wider range
of temperatures.
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

An enzyme from a thermophilic bacteria from a hot


The inside environment of a cell, and most parts of an volcanic spring will show a totally different “peak”
organism’s body, is always very close to pH 7... i.e. neutral. temperature, indicating that its metabolism will perform
An exception is in the digestive system where conditions are most efficiently at temperatures that would kill other
usually quite strongly acidic in the stomach (approx. pH 2). organisms.

Enzyme Activity Graphs


You will have carried out experimental work to measure the Mammal
“activity” of an enzyme under different conditions of Enzyme
temperature, pH and the concentration of the substrate
chemical.
Reaction Rate Thermophilic
bacteria enzyme
You may have measured the rate of a chemical reaction
Plant
being catalysed by an enzyme, such as: Enzyme
• the rate of milk clotting by rennin (junket tablets)
• the rate of digestion of some starch by amylase
• the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by
“catalase” enzyme.
0 20 40 60 80 100
A common way to measure the rate of a reaction is to
Temperature (oC)
measure the time taken for a reaction to reach completion...
the shorter the time taken, the faster the reaction. This why
the reciprocal of time taken (1/time) is used as the measure The graph of reaction rate (or “enzyme activity”) against
of rate of reaction. temperature is usually not symmetrical. It tends to rise
gradually at temperatures below the optimum, but often
The Effect of Temperature falls more steeply at temperatures above optimum, because
When enzyme activity is measured over a range of the denaturation of the enzyme can lead to a rapid decline
temperatures, the results produce a graph as below. in activity.

Explanation: As temperature rises the rate increases because


the molecules move faster and are more likely to collide and
1/time taken for reaction (rate)

Experimental react. All chemical reactions show this response.


Points

However, beyond a certain “peak” temperature, the enzyme’s


intricate shape begins to be distorted. The substrate no longer
fits the active site so well, and the reaction slows. If the
temperature was lowered again, the enzyme shape, and
reaction rate could be restored.

If the temperature reaches an extreme level, the distortion of


the enzyme’s shape may result in total shut-down of the
reaction. The enzyme may be permanently distorted out of
shape, and its activity cannot be restored. We say the enzyme
has been “denatured”.

Temperature
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The Effect of pH The Effect of Substrate Concentration
When the temperature is kept constant and the enzyme Generally in any chemical reaction occurring in solution the
tested at various pH levels, the results will produce a graph rate of the reaction increases if the concentration of the
as shown. reacting chemical(s) is increased. The explanation is simply
that if the molecules are more concentrated, then it
becomes more likely that they will collide and react with
1/time (rate) Enzyme Activity

each other.

When an enzyme is involved, the situation is a little more


complicated:

Reaction Rate
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

pH

Generally, all intra-cellular enzymes (i.e. those from within


a cell) will show peak activity at a pH close to neutrality...
their optimum pH is close to 7.
Substrate Concentration
The digestive enzyme “pepsin” from the stomach shows an
optimum pH about 2 or 3, allowing it to work best in the Initially the rate of the reaction increases as the substrate
acidic environment. concentration goes up, just as it does with any reaction.

Intra-cellular Soon though, the graph begins to flatten out and level off
enzyme
because the enzyme molecules are “saturated” with
Pepsin. substrate and cannot work any faster.
(Stomach
enzyme)
If, at this point, you were to add more enzyme then the
reaction rate would once again go up. It would level off
Enzyme Activity

again as the enzyme molecules were once again swamped


and saturated with the substrate.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

pH Extra enzyme
added
The shape of the pH graph is usually symmetrical on either
side of the “peak”... optimum pH.
Reaction Rate

The explanation for the shape is as follows:

• at the optimum pH the enzyme’s 3-D shape is ideal for


attracting the substrate, so reaction rate is maximum

• at any pH higher or lower than optimum, the enzyme’s


shape begins to distort, and reaction rate declines as the
substrate no longer fits so perfectly.

• at extremes of pH, the enzyme can be irreversibly Substrate Concentration


denatured and shows no activity at all.

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Homeostasis Homeostasis always involves “Negative Feedback”. This is


Since... when any change in a system causes a shift in the opposite
direction.
• an organism’s metabolism is largely a matter of chemical
reactions, and For example, a thermostat control of an oven:
• each reaction is catalysed by an enzyme, and
• each enzyme is quite sensitive to temperature and pH Turn heater Turn heater
OFF ON
... it follows that the interior environment of the organism’s

s up
body and cells must be maintained at stable levels of

Ov

heat
temperature and pH close to the optimum for the enzymes.

n e
The process of maintaining a stable, internal environment

co
NEGATIVE FEEDBACK ACTION

NEGATIVE FEEDBACK ACTION


Oven
ol
is called “Homeostasis”.

s
As well as regulation of temperature and pH, homeostasis Temperature
involves the regulation of many other factors such as: Sensor
• water and salt balance in body fluids (detector)
• blood sugar levels
• oxygen and carbon dioxide levels.

Feedback Mechanisms
The mechanism of Homeostasis involves “feedback”... a
situation where the result of some action feeds back into
the system to cause the next change to the system. If temperature If temperature
is too high is too low
In a “Positive Feedback” system any change re-reinforces
itself by causing more change in the same direction.
The result is that the temperature of the oven remains fairly
For example, a fire growing bigger... stable. It oscillates up and down a little, but always stays
close to the temperature the oven was set at.
Negative Feedback
small fire produces Heat ignites causes a system to
heat more fuel maintain stability.

The key parts of a feedback system are:

• a receptor, to measure and monitor the conditions


Produces Fire grows • a control centre, which “decides” how to respond, and
more heat larger
• effectors, which carry out the commands of the control
centre and make the necessary adjustments to the system.

Heat ignites In animals, it is the Nervous System which is largely


more fuel responsible for carrying out the receptor and control centre
functions necessary for many aspects of homeostasis.

In mammals, which maintain fairly constant body


Fire grows temperatures, it is the Hypothalamus at the base of the
larger brain which monitors blood temperature and sends out
Positive Feedback
command messages for negative feedback, rather like the
always causes a oven thermostat system.
system to grow
out of control, or Cerebrum Hypothalamus
shrink away to
nothing
Pituitary
Gland Cerebellum
It never results in
stability.
Spinal chord

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Worksheet 1 3. Sketch a graph of Enzyme activity against pH.


Part A Fill in the blanks. Check your answers at the back.

The sum total of all the chemical reactions in an organism’s


body is called a)....................................................... Each
reaction requires a catalyst, which is a chemical which
b)............................................. the reaction, without being
c)........................................... itself.

Biological catalysts are called d).....................................


These have the following properties:
• They are molecules of e)......................................, which are
polymers of f)................... ................... 4. Explain why the graph shows a “peak” of optimum
• Each one has its own unique g)........................., which activity at a certain pH.
perfectly fits the molecule(s) of the reaction. These
molecules are referred to as the h)..................................
• Because each enzyme only fits its own particular
h)............................., they are said to be h)................................
i)............................................... 5. Why does activity decline at pH values higher or lower
• Enzymes will only work effectively in a narrow range of than the optimum?
j)............................................. and k)........................ This is
because their l).................................. changes so that they no
longer fit their substrate.

The pH scale is a numerical measurement of m)...................... 6. Sketch a graph of enzyme activity against substrate
and n)...................................... Things that are neutral have a concentration.
pH= o)............. Acids have pH values p).................... 7, while
alkalis (bases) have pH q).......................... The pH inside
living cells, and in most parts of an organism’s body is about
r)..........., but an exception is the s)............................... which is
quite strongly t).....................................

Part B Enzyme Graphs


1. Sketch the shape of a graph of Enzyme Activity against
Temperature.
7. Explain
a) why the graph rises

b) why the graph levels off

Part C Fill in the blanks


Homeostasis is the process of keeping an organism’s
internal environment a)......................................... The factors
that need to be maintained include b)..................................
and c)................... as well as d)............................. and salt
balance, e)...................... .............................. levels and oxygen
and carbon dioxide levels.
2. Explain the shape of the graph;
a) at temperatures below the “optimum” Homeostasis involves f)..................................... feedback.
The 3 parts of any feedback system are the
g)........................................, which measures or monitors
conditions, the h)........................................ which decides
how to respond and issues commands, and the
i)........................................... which carry out the commands.

b) at temperatures above the optimum. In animals generally it is the j)..........................................


system which is largely responsible for monitoring and
control. In mammals, homeostasis of body temperature is
controlled by the k).............................................. at the base of
the l).................................................

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2. TEMPERATURE REGULATION IN ORGANISMS

Temperature Control in Mammals Main Parts of the System


In a healthy human the internal “core” temperature of the Receptor and Control Centre is the Hypothalamus at the
body is about 37oC and is maintained within about 0.5oC at base of the brain. Special cells constantly monitor the
all times. If the body temperature goes up, or down, by temperature of blood flowing by. If blood temperature
more than about 4oC, this is a life-threatening situation. varies by even a fraction of a degree, nerve messages are
sent to the effectors.
Control of body temperature is achieved as shown in this The Effectors include blood vessels, sweat glands,
schematic diagram: endocrine (hormone) glands, muscles and body hairs.

COOLING MECHANISMS
Blood vessels dilate BODY TEMPERATURE REDUCES
Sweat glands activated BLOOD COOLS
Hair lowered
Metabolic rate reduced
Nerve Command

to Effectors

BODY TEMPERATURE BODY TEMPERATURE


TOO HIGH TOO LOW

to Effectors

Nerve Command
HYPOTHALAMUS
monitors blood
temperature

WARMING MECHANISMS
BODY TEMPERATURE INCREASES Blood vessels constricted
Muscles begin “shivering”
BLOOD WARMS Hairs erected (goose bumps)
Metabolic rate increased

How the Effectors Make a Difference Muscles


Nerve signals can cause the skeletal
muscles to begin “shivering”. This extra
Blood Vessels muscle activity generates more heat
Body Hairs to warm the body.
Dilation (widening) of veins,
Each hair on your body has a tiny muscle
arteries and capillaries near the
at its base which can cause the hair to Hormones
skin allows more blood to flow
stand up erect and give you “goose are chemicals which control
out near the skin surface.
bumps”. This traps a layer of still air various body functions, including
This allows more body heat to
against the skin and helps insulate and the rate of metabolism and heat
escape from the skin, thus production.
prevent heat loss.
cooling the body. The hormone thyroxine
If the hair follicle muscle is relaxed the (produced by the thyroid gland in
Constriction (narrowing) of the neck) does exactly that and is
hair lies flat and allows more heat loss.
blood vessels causes less under the control of the
blood to flow near skin. Sweat Glands hypothalamus, via another
Less heat flows out to skin When activated, the sweat glands secrete perspiration. hormone from the pituitary
to be lost. Body heat is The water evaporates from the skin, carrying away body gland.
retained more. heat... this has a powerful cooling effect.

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The Temperature Range of Life Temperature Control in Ectotherms


Homeostatic control of body temperature allows an Ectotherms are the “cold-blooded” animals, such as
organism to maintain its cells at a temperature close to the reptiles, amphibians, insects, fish and worms. “Cold-
optimum for its enzymes. This allows metabolism to run blooded” is a misleading term and is best avoided, since
efficiently, despite changes in the surrounding temperature these animals are NOT always cold, but rather they rely on
of the environment. the outside environment for their body heat... they do not
generate heat internally like a mammal or bird.
However, homeostasis has its limits, and no organism can
remain active and thriving under the full range of Ectotherms have a variety of adaptations, many of them
temperatures of the biosphere of the Earth. Different behavioural, to regulate their body temperature and keep it
organisms have adapted to survive in extreme cold within the range in which they can be active; generally
environments, or in extremely hot conditions, but never between 10-30oC.
both extremes.
Ectotherms seek, or avoid
Extreme Heat the heat of the Sun
There are thermophilic bacteria (members of the Archaea)
which live and thrive in volcanic hot springs at
temperatures up to 120oC.

In terrestrial environments such as hot deserts, the


temperature can often reach 40oC and sometimes as high ... and seek shelter
as 60oC. Many plants and animals are adapted to survive Reptiles sun-bake when too hot
these extremes, but few remain active in this heat. when too cool...
Generally in deserts the animals seek shelter and become
inactive, while plants shut down their metabolism and For example, the Blue-Tongue Lizard will lie in a sunny
merely survive. spot with its body flattened and turned side-on to the Sun
on a cool morning. This way it absorbs heat more quickly
Extreme Cold to get its body temperature high enough to become active.
Once again, there are many organisms which can survive
extreme cold, but few that remain active. Certain types of As the day becomes hotter, the lizard will turn facing the
algae and photosynthetic bacteria are found to live within Sun to absorb less heat, and seek shade to avoid over-
the snow and ice near the poles and are still metabolically heating.
active at temperatures as low as -10oC. Below this, the cells
become inactive, but survive and re-activate when it warms In prolonged periods of cold weather, such as winter in the
up again. Australian Alps, ectotherms cannot be active because the
environment cannot supply them with the body heat they
Generally however, plants and animals cannot tolerate their need. Animals such as the Copperhead Snake and the
body temperature going below 0oC, since ice crystals forming Corroboree Frog seek shelter underground and become
in cell cytoplasm can destroy membranes and kill cells. Also, dormant throughout the winter.
the chemical reactions of metabolism run so slowly at low
temperature, that life functions are not possible.

Of course, many animals do live and survive in the cold


because they can produce their own body heat (mammals
and birds) and are equipped with body insulation and
homeostatic mechanisms to maintain their core
temperature despite the cold environment. Perhaps the
world champions in this regard are the Emperor Penguins
which maintain core body temperatures around +33oC
throughout the Antarctic winter in air temperatures as low
as -50oC... an amazing difference of over 80oC! In a process similar to the hibernation of bears, the animal’s
heartbeat and breathing slow down, their metabolism
Cold Water Environments almost stops and their body temperature chills to only just
Even when ice forms on the surface, water environments above freezing. As long as they are more than about 50
rarely fall below +4oC, and are remarkably stable in centimetres underground, the ground will not freeze even
temperature. Life-forms do not need to cope with change, though buried in snow for several months. If they haven’t
although they may need serious insulation to stay warm. It burrowed deeply enough they will freeze to death!
is the terrestrial environment that is more of a challenge.

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Temperature Control in Endotherms Responses of Plants to Temperature Change


Endotherms are the animals which produce their own Plants cannot respond to temperature change by moving
internal body heat and maintain a relatively constant body away or hiding. To cope with temperature extremes they
temperature... the birds and mammals. must have structural or physiological adaptations.

All endotherms rely heavily on having bodily insulation... To cope with seasonal cold weather, many plants (especially
fur, feathers or blubber (fat). Humans are endotherms too, in the northern hemisphere) are deciduous... they shed their
but we rely mostly on our technology to provide heaters, leaves and basically shut down their metabolism for the
air-con, jackets, wetsuits, gloves, etc, to protect our fragile winter, rather like an animal hibernating. Their leaves
bodies from extreme temperatures. What do other cannot be protected from freezing, so the strategy is to lose
endothermic animals in the wild do? the vulnerable parts, survive until next spring, and grow
new leaves then.
Firstly, they have all the responses for homeostasis
described earlier... dilation or constriction of blood vessels, Coping with heat is another story. If there is plenty of
shivering and sweating etc. As well as these, they may have water available, such as in a tropical jungle, then the plants
extra adaptations to help regulate their temperature. cool themselves by allowing maximum evaporative cooling.
The leaves open their stomates and allow transpiration to
In hot environments such as the Australian deserts, many occur. The evaporation has a cooling effect, in the same
mammals such as the Red Kangaroo or the Bilby, have way that sweating cools an animal.
many adaptations to help them cool their bodies:
When it is hot and DRY as well, they have a problem.
In the desert, big ears are cool! Desert plants tend to have very small leaves and thick,
“stocky” shaped stems. This reduces the surface area being
hit by heat radiation from the Sun, and helps prevent over-
heating. The cacti plant group have taken the strategy to the
limit... their leaves are spines, and stems are “fat” and
rounded. They are also light coloured to reflect a lot of the
radiant heat away.

Spikes for leaves


= lower surface
area

Pale colour
• large ears, with good blood supply, increases the surface reflects Low surface
area for heat loss radiation area stem
• like the reptiles, they seek shade in the heat of the day
• panting evaporates water from the mouth and throat, and
cools the oral membranes which have a rich blood supply.
• they may lick their forearms. The evaporation of saliva The sclerophyll plants of Australia (gum trees for example)
cools their body in the same way as sweating. also have small narrow leaves to reduce heat absorption
(Note: many desert animals lack sweat glands because they from the Sun. Their other “trick” is to allow the leaves to
cannot afford the water loss of perspiration.) droop downward. This allows them to catch light for
photosynthesis in the cooler mornings when the Sun is low,
In the cold, endotherms go for thick fur coats (Wallaroo) but avoid absorbing heat when the Sun is overhead in the
or layers of fat (Australian Fur Seal) to limit the loss of heat of midday.
body heat.

Penguins, such as the Fairy Penguins along Australia’s


southern coast, have a special “blood shunt” in their legs.
In warm conditions the shunt is closed and blood flows
normally to the feet. Since the feet are about the only part
of their body not well insulated, in cold water they could
lose a lot of body heat.

So in cold water the flow of blood from body toward the


feet is “shunted” via a special vein with a valve in it, back
Narrow,
into the body. The feet receive virtually no blood, so drooping
conserving body heat. gum tree
leaves
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Worksheet 2 Animals which can regulate their body


Fill in the blanks temperature are called w)......................................
Check your answers at the back. Examples are the x)................................ and
y)........................................ They use all the
Temperature regulation in mammals is homeostasis techniques above, and rely on
controlled by the a)............................................. body insulation with fur, z)........................... or
at the base of the brain. If body temperature is aa)................................... as well.
too high it sends commands to the
In extreme environments endotherms may
b)................................ organs to cool the body. have extra adaptations as well. In Australian
Cooling mechanisms include c)............................ deserts many animals have large ab)....................
of blood vessels to allow d)................... to radiate heat away. They don’t have sweat
(more/less) blood to flow near skin. Also, the glands because they can’t afford to
e)............................... glands may be activated, ac).............................................................................
allowing f)............................... to flow. As it but may lick their ad)............................... or pant
g).............................. from the skin, it carries to achieve some evaporative cooling.
heat away. Metabolic rate may be reduced, to
reduce heat production. This is achieved by In cold environments, thick fur or blubber
h)............................. which are control gives ae)......................................................to
chemicals. An example is Thyroxine, produced retain body heat. The penguins have a special
by the i)................................... gland. adaptation in the blood vessels to their legs. In
cold water, the blood flow to the feet is
af).............................................................................
If the body is too cool, then the hypothalamus so that less heat is lost through the uninsulated
commands various warming mechanisms. feet.
Blood vessels can be j)...........................................
to reduce blood flow to k)............................ Plants also have many adaptations to cope with
Body hairs are l).............................. to trap a temperature extremes. In cold climates many
layer of still air, which acts to plants are ag)............................................. which
m).............................. better. Nerve commands means they ah)....................................................
to muscles can cause them to in winter.
n)........................................ which produces extra
heat. The metabolic rate can be raised by In hot climates with plenty of water, plants
hormones too. open their ai).....................................................
allowing evaporation to cool them. In dry
climates, plants cannot afford the water loss, so
Animals which rely on the environment to they have other ways to stay cool without
supply their body heat are called losing water. For example, cacti have
o)........................................... Examples are aj).......................-shaped leaves to reduce the
p)........................................., amphibians, fish etc. surface area absorbing heat from direct
In terrestrial environments they often seek or sunlight. They are often ak)...........................-
avoid the heat of the q)................ in order to coloured to reflect heat radiation.
regulate temperature. An Australian example is
the r)...................................., which often The Australian al)........................................
s)................................ in the morning to warm plants mostly have am).....................................
up, and t)..................................................... when (shape) leaves to reduce surface area, and
too hot. In cold winters, ectotherms cannot get often allow the leaves to
any heat from the environment and many, such an)................................................. (orientation) to
avoid the Sun’s heat at midday.
as the u).................................................... survive
by v)............................................................ for the
winter. WHEN COMPLETED,
WORKSHEETS BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES

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3. INTERNAL TRANSPORT SYSTEMS IN ORGANISMS

Internal Transport in Mammals Arteries


As is the case with most animals, mammals rely mainly on carry blood from the heart out to the body tissues. The
their Circulatory System for internal transport of walls of an artery are relatively thick and muscular to
substances... their blood, heart and blood vessels; veins, withstand the high pressure in the blood when the heart
arteries and capillaries. A basic knowledge of how the pumps.
system operates was covered in Preliminary Topic 2.
Artery walls are very elastic, and when a pulse of high
Blood and Blood Vessels pressure blood passes through, they expand outwards and
You will have examined blood under a microscope and then contract again, helping to push the blood along. This
seen something like this: rhythmic expanding and contracting is what you can feel as
your “pulse” wherever an artery is close to the skin, such as
in your wrist or throat.
RED BLOOD CELLS
Light microscope view Veins
carry blood back from the body tissues to the heart. The
blood here is under lower pressure and the walls of a vein
are relatively thin. With little pressure to push blood
forward, it is the contraction of the surrounding muscles
which helps push the blood along.

Electron Veins may contain valves to prevent back-flow of the blood.


microscope
view
ARTERY VEIN
Cross-S
Section Cross-S
Section
Size = 7 μm Connective Tissue

blood blood
You should be able to sketch diagrams of blood cells, and
have an idea of their sizes.
Layers of
muscle

Sketch of Blood Cells


White Cell Side view of VEIN
much larger than
red cells
showing a valve. blood
Blood can flow one way, flow
but not back the other.
Red
Cells

no
nucleus
CAPILLARY Cross-S
Section
large, irregular
Shaped like a nucleus.
donut with the Wall just 1 cell thick for
hole closed Ratio: about 600 red easy diffusion
over cells to 1 white cell

Red Blood Cells Capillaries


contain the red pigment haemoglobin, which carries are the tiny blood vessels which form a network throughout
oxygen. This is covered in more detail later. the tissues so that every living cell is close to the blood
supply. The walls of a capillary are only 1 cell thick, so
White Blood Cells diffusion of substances from blood to cells (or cells to
come in a huge variety of types, but all are involved with blood) is easily achieved.
defence against disease. This is covered in a later topic.
The inside of a capillary is so small that red blood cells
often travel through it in single file.

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Substances Carried in the Blood Changes to the Blood as it Circulates


As the blood circulates around the body its chemical
Oxygen O2 composition undergoes a number of changes...
is carried in the red blood cells by haemoglobin.
Nutrients & Nitrogenous Wastes
Carbon Dioxide CO2 As the blood flows through capillaries surrounding the
is partly carried by the haemoglobin in red blood cells, but digestive system it picks up increased quantities of sugars,
most of it is carried in the blood plasma, in the form of amino acids, salts, water, vitamins, etc that have been
bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) absorbed from the gut. (However, lipids are first absorbed
into the lymphatic “drains” and enter the blood much later)
You will have carried out an experiment to see the effect
of dissolved CO2 on the pH of water. This blood from the gut is collected in a vein which takes it
directly to the liver. Here some of the nutrients may be
You might have chemically produced some CO2 and absorbed from the blood for storage or chemical
bubbled it through water. Using a pH meter, or perhaps processing (e.g. glucose is extracted from the blood and
Universal Indicator, you will have measured any change polymerized to form glycogen and stored in the liver). Also
in the pH of the water. in the liver, large amounts of the nitrogenous waste urea is
added to the blood to be carried away and later excreted.
You would have found that the pH went down...
i.e. the water became more acidic. Later, as blood flows through capillaries in body tissues
such as muscle or bone, nutrients are absorbed from the
Explanation and Chemistry: blood into the cells which need energy (glucose) and new
Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid chemical building blocks (amino acids, lipids).

CO2 + H2O H2CO3 Sooner or later, every bit of blood flows through the
kidneys which extract the nitrogenous wastes and excess
Carbonic acid is a weak acid which partly ionizes salts and water for excretion as urine.
CHANGES IN NUTRIENTS, WATER & WASTES
H2CO3 H+ + HCO3- AS THE BLOOD CIRCULATES

Lungs
Hydrogen ion
makes water more acidic Bicarbonate ion.
This is how CO2 is carried
in blood

Water
is carried as the liquid solvent of blood plasma. Heart

Salts & Products of Digestion Some Nutrients


Arteries

to storage
such as sugars and amino acids, are generally water soluble Wastes
and are carried dissolved in the blood plasma. into
blood
Digested
Veins

Nutrients
Lipids (Fats) into blood
absorbed from the digestive system are “packaged” in a Liver
protein coat which makes the fat molecule miscible in
water. This means that, while not fully dissolved, the
Gut
molecules can be dispersed in water and carried without
Wastes and excess water,
joining together into droplets of fat and separating from salts excreted in urine
the water.

In this form they are carried dispersed in the blood plasma.


Kidneys Nutrients from
blood to cells
Nitrogenous Wastes
such as urea, are water soluble and carried dissolved in the
blood plasma.

Body tissues

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Respiratory Gases O2 & CO2 The Need to Remove Carbon Dioxide
As blood passes through capillaries in body tissues, oxygen As already discussed, carbon dioxide doesn’t just dissolve in
is released from the haemoglobin molecules and diffuses water, it reacts to form a weak acid.
along the concentration gradient into the body cells.
CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H+ + HCO3-
There is always a concentration gradient favouring this
because the cells are constantly using up oxygen for cellular carbonic hydrogen bicarbonate
acid ion ion
respiration.

Revision It’s the hydrogen ions that create problems. Hydrogen ions
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP are acids and can lower the pH of cell cytoplasm.

the important At the concentrations produced by a typical cell, the hydrogen


Glucose and Oxygen Chemical product. ions could easily lower the pH of the cytoplasm by 0.5 pH
delivered to cells by the wastes ATP is the energy
blood stream supplier in cells
unit or more. Remember that enzymes are very sensitive to
pH changes and quickly change shape and lose their catalytic
Meanwhile, the concentration of carbon dioxide is high activity. This would be disastrous for cell metabolism.
because of its constant production by cellular respiration,
so it diffuses from the cells into the blood. To avoid this problem, CO2 is carried away by the blood as
rapidly as it is produced in the cells.
When the blood gets to the lungs the opposite occurs.
Inside the alveoli (air sacs of the lungs) the air has a very The Importance of Haemoglobin
high concentration of oxygen and is very low in CO2. Blood is red because of the many red cells, and red cells are
Therefore, oxygen diffuses into the blood, while carbon red because they are packed with the red-coloured, iron-
dioxide diffuses from the blood into the air. containing protein haemoglobin.
CO2
O2
In the lungs, where the oxygen concentration is very high,
Carbon dioxide some oxygen dissolves in the moisture lining the alveoli then
Lungs diffuses into the blood flowing in the surrounding capillaries.
Oxygen Blood Air

Air Blood
Oxygen is not very soluble in water, however, and if that’s all
there was to the story, then our blood could never carry enough
oxygen to supply our cells with what they need. Haemoglobin
molecules have a great attraction for oxygen molecules and
Heart
quickly pick up 4 O2 molecules each. Because of this, our
blood can carry thousands of times more oxygen than would
CHANGES IN be possible by simply dissolving oxygen in the blood plasma.
Arteries

OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE


AS THE BLOOD CIRCULATES
Hb + O2 HbO2
Veins

abbreviation for
Haemoglobin “Oxyhaemoglobin”

When the blood gets to the body tissues with its load of
oxygen, something very “clever” happens...

The high concentration of dissolved CO2 lowers the pH of


the blood slightly. This causes the haemoglobin proteins to
change shape slightly and release the oxygen molecules.

HbO2 Hb + O2
Body tissues
The oxygen diffuses into the cells, and the freed haemoglobin
molecules can pick up some of the CO2 molecules and carry
Oxygen Carbon dioxide them back to the lungs.
Blood Cells Cells Blood

O2 CO2 Of course, this isn’t really “clever” in any sense of intelligence


among haemoglobin molecules. It is the result of Natural
This gas exchange and transport is essential for delivering Selection and Evolution... it gave a huge survival advantage to
oxygen to every cell for cellular respiration... some primitive ancestor millions of years ago, so all mammals
... but why must CO2 be removed? (and many others) have inherited this quite amazing substance.

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Oxygen Saturation & Its Measurement Products of Blood Donation


The concentration of O2 and CO2 in the blood is of great The Australian Red Cross Blood Service collects about a
interest to doctors monitoring a patient, or an athlete in million blood donations per year. Most of this blood is
training, or even to a pilot or mountain-climber at high altitude. used for people who need regular treatment with blood
products for conditions such as leukemia.
The most important measurement is “percentage oxygen
saturation” (%SpO2). A reading of 100 would mean that Only a very small amount is kept as whole blood for
100% of all haemoglobin in an artery is totally saturated emergency transfusions. Most donated blood is separated
with oxygen. Readings between 95-100% indicate good into about 20 different fractions or products, so each
health, fitness and adequate oxygen supplies. donation can treat many different patients.

Lower readings (e.g. 80%) could indicate: The main blood products are:
• respiratory or circulatory problems in a patient
• lack of fitness, or excessive exertion in an athlete Red Cell Concentrate which contains about twice as
• need for supplementary oxygen for a pilot or climber. many red cells as normal, is used to boost the oxygen-
carrying capacity of patients with anaemia or after blood
In years gone by, %SpO2 was measured by taking blood loss.
samples and carrying out complex chemical testing. With
modern technology, however, the readings are done Platelet Concentrate is given to patients who need extra
instantly and non-invasively by a small, portable instrument blood-clotting capability, such as leukemia sufferers, or
clipped onto the end of the finger or ear lobe. following severe blood loss.

Finger-c
clamp Oximeter measures %SpO2 White Cell Concentrate is given to patients needing a
boost to their immune system, perhaps following a severe
Light source sends red infection.
light and infra-red

Plasma is the liquid part of the blood and is often given in


emergency to boost the volume of blood following severe
blood loss.

Cryoprecipitate is a fraction collected from plasma and


Receiver measures contains blood-clotting factors. It is used to treat severe
absorption of light
by haemoglobin haemorrhaging.

Factor VIII and Monofix are extracts from plasma used to


The “Oximeter” works by sending red light and infra-red treat people who have haemophilia... an inherited, incurable
beams through the flesh. The amount of each light disorder in which the blood will not clot properly. These
absorbed by the haemoglobin gives a direct measurement blood products allow patients to lead a relatively normal
of %SpO2, because haemoglobin carrying oxygen, or life.
without, or with carbon dioxide, all absorb these light
beams differently.

Perfluorocarbon-Based Substitutes
Why Is It Needed? ARTIFICIAL BLOOD?
Another area of research aims to
Haemoglobin-B Based Oxygen Carriers develop a truly artificial blood
• Fresh blood cannot be stored
are one of the areas of current research. substitute. The most promising base
for long, and many parts of the
chemicals are the “perfluorocarbon”
world lack the necessary storage Haemoglobin extracted from animal blood compounds.
facilities. can be purified and treated so that it is
disease-free and cannot cause any allergic These can carry up to 5 times more
• Many blood products can set off or “rejection” responses in patients.
oxygen than blood can, can be stored
immune-responses in long-term
indefinitely at room temperature.
patients, even after correct blood- The products can be stored for years at
room temperature, and is highly effective They can be made totally sterile and
typing. (Similar to “rejection” of a
transplanted organ) at carrying oxygen and releasing it into the disease free.
tissues.
At least 5 different products are being
• Donated blood can carry
Currently undergoing clinical trials, but not tested and trialled (USA), but none
diseases, such as hepatitis or HIV.
yet approved for medical use. are yet approved for medical use.

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Transport Systems in Plants Active & Passive Transport


In Preliminary Topic 2 you were introduced to the Note that the flow of water in the xylem costs the plant
transport systems in plants... nothing in energy to run the system... it is “passive”
transport.
Xylem Tubes Carry Water
In contrast, the other transport system in plants is an
Hollow, dead cells, joined end
“active transport” system... the plant must constantly
to-end forming a tube
supply energy to make it happen.

Phloem Tubes Carry Food Nutrients


While the xylem tubes are formed from dead cells, the
phloem are living cells joined end-to-end. The ends of each
cell are perforated (“sieve plates”) so each cell is open into
the next so they form a continuous tube.

PHLOEM CELL
alive and filled with
cytoplasm.
Cell walls
re-inforced Circulation of
cytoplasm carries sugars
with rings sugars through actively
and spirals each cell transported in
of lignin the cytoplasm
of the cells

Sieve plate sugars


between cells diffuse
Xylem tubes are dead, hollow cells, joined end-to-end from one
forming a continuous tube from root to leaf. The xylem cell
into the
tubes transport water (and dissolved minerals). How do next
they work to lift water from roots to leaves, against the
force of gravity? “Companion
cell”
has many
“Transpiration” is the evaporation of water from the mitochondria to
leaves. When the stomates are open, water can constantly provide ATP to
the phloem cell
evaporate, creating a tension, or “pull” in the remaining
water in the leaves.

Water molecules are quite strongly attracted to each other While the xylem is a one-way flow system, the phloem
and tend to cling tightly together. This force is called system can carry food (especially sugars) in either direction.
“cohesion” and is the reason that water tends to form If a lot of photosynthesis is occurring, the phloem will carry
droplets... little blobs of water that cling together. sugar to storage sites in roots or stem. If photosynthesis is
not possible for an extended time, then the phloem will
So, when water evaporates from leaves and creates a “pull” carry sugars back from the storage sites to feed the leaf cells,
force, each water molecule pulls on those behind it because or supply a growing flower or fruit.
of the cohesion. Each molecule pulls others upward and so
the entire column of water in a xylem tube moves upwards Sugar is carried in by active
Higher Pressure transport, requiring energy.
to replace the water lost by transpiration. So water is pulled Water flows in due to
upwards by a combination of transpiration and cohesion. osmosis, raising pressure
This flow is called the “transpiration stream”.

Another factor which helps the process is called Translocation...


PH

“capillarity” or the “capillary effect”. This is the way that


LO

how it works
Tr

water can “climb up” the walls of a container forming a


EM
an

Sugar solution
meniscus in a test tube, for example. This happens because
slo

TU

flows due to
ca

BE

water molecules are not only attracted to each other pressure


tio

(“cohesion”) but also to some other substances such as differential


n

glass. This attraction is called “adhesion”.

In very narrow tubes (“capillaries”) the water will climb


upwards against gravity because of adhesion, and drag Sugar is removed by active
more molecules along by cohesion. This happens in xylem transport, requiring energy. DESTINATION
Water flows out due to
Lower Pressure
and helps lift water upwards. osmosis, lowering pressure

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Worksheet 3 WHEN COMPLETED,


Part C Fill in the blanks Check your answers at the back.
WORKSHEETS BECOME SECTION
Part A Fill in the blanks SUMMARIES
Oxygen is carried by the a)...............-coloured, b)...................-
containing protein called c).........................................................
Blood is made up mainly of a liquid called a).......................... It has a great affinity for oxygen molecules, and each
and many blood cells. The most numerous blood cells are the molecule can absorb d).................... (number) oxygen
b)........................... which contain the protein c)............................. molecules, in which form it is called e)..............-
responsible for carrying d).............................. gas. Most of the .............................................. In the body tissues, the presence
carbon dioxide in blood is carried in the form of of f)......................................... gas lowers the pH slightly,
e).................................... ions. These are made when carbon which causes haemoglobin to change shape slightly and
dioxide reacts with f).................. forming g).......................... acid. g).......................................... the oxygen, which then
h)..................................... into the cells.
Most other substances carried in blood are dissolved in the
h)....................................... This includes nutrients such as The “%SpO2” is a measure of the
i).................................... and j)......................................., water and i)............................................. in a person’s blood. Good
salts, and the nitrogenous waste k)............................. health, fitness and adequate oxygen supply are indicated by
Lipids (fats) are first wrapped in a coating of l)............................ readings above j)..............% This can be easily measured by
so they can be dispersed without separating. a k).............................................. which sends beams of
l).......................................... and .............................................
There are 3 types of blood vessels: the m)................................... through a finger or ear-lobe. Oxygen saturation is measured
have thick muscular walls to withstand the high n)...................... according to how much of each type of light is
of the blood being pumped from the o).................................. m)....................................... by the blood.
p)................................ have thinner walls, and have q)................... Most blood donated to the “Blood Bank” is separated into
along their length to prevent blood r)............................................ different fractions for different uses. Some of the main
Capillaries have walls which are s)..........................................thick blood products are:
and form a network throughout the body’s t).............................. • n)..................... Cell Concentrate, to boost O2-carrying
capacity. •White Cell Concentrate, to boost
As the blood flows around the intestines it picks up o)...............................................
u)......................................... It then flows straight to the p).................................. Concentrate, to help blood clotting
v)...................................., where some nutrients are removed for q)...................................., which is the liquid part of the
w).......................&............................, and wastes such as blood, used in emergency to increase
x).............................are added. These wastes are later removed r).....................................................
from the blood by the y)............................ and excreted with any
excess z)........................... & .......................... as urine. Research is going on into developing artificial blood. This is
needed because fresh blood cannot be
Meanwhile, when blood flows through the capillaries of the s)..................................... for long, and can cause
lungs, aa)........................... gas is absorbed into the blood and t)............................................................. in some patients, and
ab).............................. gas is released from blood into lungs. there is a danger that donated blood might carry
When blood flows through the body tissues, nutrients move u).....................................................
from ac)............................ to ad)................................. as does Two of the areas of research for artificial blood are
ae)............................... gas, while af)..................................... gas v)................................-Based w)................................. Carriers,
moves the other way. made from animal blood, and completely artificial
substitutes based on the chemicals called
Part B Questions x)......................................................
1. Write 2 chemical equations to summarize how carbon
dioxide reacts with water. In what form is CO2 carried in Part D
blood? Transport in plants is carried out by 2 separate systems. The
a)..................................... tubes carry water and dissolved
minerals from the b)............................. to c)...............................
These tubes are d).............................. (dead or living) cells. The
transport is e)......................................... (active or passive) and
the movement of water is called f).................................................
2. With reference to a chemical equation, explain why it is Basically the process works because, as water
essential to remove carbon dioxide from body tissues. g)......................................... from the leaves, this “pulls” water up
from above because water molecules are h).............................
and tend to cling together.

Meanwhile, the i)..................................... vessels carry out


3. With reference to a chemical equation, explain how j)................................................. (name of process) which moves
transfere of oxygen from blood to cells is facilitated. k)................................................ around the plant to wherever it is
needed. The cells are l)..................................... (dead or living)
and the transport is m).........................................(active/passive)
requiring the plant to n)......................................................... in
order to make the process happen.
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4. EXCRETION & WATER BALANCE

The Importance of Water Kidneys Also Excrete Metabolic Wastes


Life cannot exist without water. All living cells are about
75% water. The functions of water in living things include: What Are the Metabolic Wastes?
The many chemical reactions of metabolism sometimes
Water is the solvent of life produce chemicals which are toxic to cells, often because
All the chemical reactions of metabolism take place in the chemical, when dissolved in water, can change the pH
water solution, and the transport of materials in cytoplasm, and reduce enzyme activity.
blood or phloem takes place mainly in water solution.
Therefore, it is essential that these wastes are removed
Water is involved in life chemistry (“excreted”) as soon as possible. The major wastes are:
Water is a reactant or product of many metabolic reactions.
The reactions of photosynthesis and cellular respiration are • Carbon dioxide, produced by cellular respiration.
just two of the many examples. As covered previously, it will lower the pH (acidic).
It is carried in the blood and excreted by the lungs.
Water is vital in temperature regulation
Water has a very high specific heat capacity. This means it • Nitrogenous wastes, (contain nitrogen) are produced
can absorb (or lose) relatively large quantities of energy mainly from the metabolism of proteins.
with minimal temperature change. This helps stabilize the There are 3 main compounds that can be produced:
temperature of all living things. • Ammonia in fish and aquatic invertebrates
• Uric acid in birds, reptiles and insects
Water also has a very high heat of vaporization. This means • Urea in mammals and amphibians
that when it evaporates it absorbs huge amounts of heat.
This is why evaporation of perspiration from the skin has Excretion & Water Balance in Fish
such a cooling effect. Fish produce the waste ammonia which is very alkaline and
toxic. Luckily it is very soluble in water. Since they live
Water supports and cushions cells and organs surrounded by water, fish simply excrete ammonia from
Many plants and animals rely on water for body support. their gills by simple diffusion.
Non-woody plants pump their cell vacuoles full of water to
make cells “tight” and keep stems and leaves upright. Their kidneys are used not so much for excretion, but for
Animals such as worms rely on the hydraulic pressure of maintaining their water balance. Freshwater fish and
water in their tissues to support their body and maintain its saltwater fish have opposite problems with water balance.
shape.
SALTWATER FISH Wat
(ma er loss
inly f
In vertebrate animals the water solutions in the tissues thro rom ti
ugh ssue
gill sb
helps to cushion organs against bumps and impacts. s) yo
smo
sis
(eg cerebrospinal fluid around the brain)
Constantly
drink to
Homeostasis of Water & Salts replace
It’s not just the water that is important, but its water
(but get
concentration, and the concentration of substances salt, too)
dissolved in it, such as salts. Kidneys produce
Gills excrete Ammonia, small amounts
Carbon Dioxide and of urine to
excess salt save water
If the concentrations are not kept at the correct levels, then
osmosis may cause problems. Cells could lose water and FRESHWATER FISH Tiss
u
(mai es gain
dehydrate, or gain too much water and be damaged. nly t w
hrou ater by
gh g o
ills) smosis
THE CONCENTRATION OF WATER &
DISSOLVED SALTS MUST BE MAINTAINED

THIS IS ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF HOMEOSTASIS Do not


drink
IN MOST ANIMALS
WATER BALANCE IS REGULATED Kidneys produce a
lot of dilute urine to Gills excrete Ammonia & Carbon
BY THE KIDNEYS remove water Dioxide, and actively
from body absorb salts

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Excretion in Terrestrial Environments How the Kidneys Work in Mammals


The fish can get away with production of highly toxic Each kidney contains about 1 million nephrons. Each
ammonia. They can rely on constant diffusion of nephron is a complicated tangle of blood vessels and renal
ammonia from the blood in their gills into the water tubules (=small tubes), but what happens in a nephron can
environment which surrounds them. be summarized in a very simple way... K.I.S.S.

In terrestrial environments, waste gases can do exactly the Filtration


same; that’s how carbon dioxide is excreted... by simple removes some of the water and many small dissolved
diffusion from the blood to the air in the lungs. However, molecules (including the waste urea) from the blood into the
nitrogenous wastes are not gaseous and need to be excreted renal tubules. This occurs because the walls of the
in water solution. This means that: glomerulus are “leaky” and the blood is under high pressure.

• nitrogenous wastes are produced not as ammonia, but the Reabsorption


less toxic compounds urea (mammals) or uric acid then occurs to move useful substances back into the blood.
(birds, reptiles, insects) This is achieved by:
•Active Transport of sugar, amino acids & salts from the
• excretion is via the kidneys, and the simple processes of renal tubules back into the blood. This requires energy to
diffusion and osmosis are not adequate to achieve this. be used to transport these chemicals across the cell
For simple diffusion to achieve excretion it would require membranes, against a concentration gradient.
huge amounts of water to be excreted too, and no terrestrial •Osmosis then occurs, which causes water to flow from the
animal can afford to do this, especially in a desert. tubules back into the blood. This is Passive Transport and
costs the body no energy.

THE NEPHRON
Renal Tubules
of the KIDNEY
Glomerulus
a coiled blood vessel

Blood in

from artery
This blood contains urea

Filttrattion
n Reabsorrpttion
n
occurrs herre occurrs Urine
herre flows to
Bowman’s Capsule
a “receiving cup” to collect collecting
the filtrate liquid duct
from the blood
Blood Capillary
Network then via
shown in simplified form Ureter to
Bladder,
for
Blood out excretion
to vein
This blood has had wastes removed,
and water balance adjusted for
Homeostasis

Filtration is the process in which some water and Reabsorption is the process in which any useful
many dissolved substances (including sugar, salts & substances (such as sugars & amino acids) are
urea, BUT NOT any cells or blood proteins) leave absorbed back into the blood. Water & salts are also
reabsorbed, but in varying quantities... the body is
the blood and flow into the renal tubules. adjusting water balance for Homeostasis

Urea is not reabsorbed back into the blood.


Urea and some water continue along the tubule. This liquid is URINE.
Urine flows into the Ureter and is carried to the Bladder for storage.
When the bladder becomes full, the urine is excreted via the Urethra.

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The Kidneys & Homeostasis


The kidneys are not just used for excretion. As well, the kidneys can adjust the “water balance” of the body by allowing
more, or less, urine to be produced. In this way the kidneys are a vital part of homeostasis.

Once again, the Hypothalamus is involved, but the control mechanism is by hormones... chemicals which are released into
the blood and exert a control function on some “target organ”. In this case the hormone is called “Anti-Diuretic Hormone”
(ADH) and the target organ is the kidney, specifically the nephron tubules.

Pituitary Gland releases


ADH causes more
more ADH BODY RETAINS MORE WATER,
reabsorption of water
(Also nerve signals to brain excretes less urine.
from kidney tubules
cause “thirsty” feeling so Urine is more concentrated
you will want to drink)
Note the typical pattern of a
to Pituitary Gland
Nerve Command

negative feedback system

WATER LEVEL IN WATER LEVEL IN


BODY TOO LOW BODY TOO HIGH

Nerve Commands
HYPOTHALAMUS
&
PITUITARY GLAND

Pituitary Gland releases


BODY PASSES MORE WATER, Less ADH causes less less ADH
excretes more urine. reabsorption of water (Also nerve signals to brain
Urine is more dilute. from kidney tubules. cause feeling that you do
NOT want to drink)

How the Hormones Work Control of Salt Levels by Aldosterone


The hypothalamus monitors the blood flowing through it Sitting on top of the kidneys are the “Adrenal Glands”
for the “osmotic balance” of water and dissolved salt. If which produce a variety of steroid hormones controlling a
the body is even slightly dehydrated, more ADH is released number of body functions. One of the adrenal hormones
by the pituitary gland and circulates in the blood stream. is Aldosterone which controls reabsorption of salt from
the nephron tubules.
The effect of ADH is to alter the permeability of the
membranes lining the tubules of the kidney nephrons. If salt levels are too low, special cells in the adrenal glands
Increased ADH levels make the membranes more detect this and increase the production of aldosterone into
permeable to water, so more water is reabsorbed back into the bloodstream. This causes the cells lining the nephron
the blood. This means that less urine is produced. tubules to actively transport more sodium ions back into
the blood. Chloride ions follow the sodium, and so more
If the body is over-hydrated, the production of ADH is salt is reabsorbed.
reduced. This causes the tubules to become less permeable
to water so less is reabsorbed into the blood. The result is If salt levels are too high, the adrenal glands produce less
more urine being produced. aldosterone so less salt is reabsorbed, and the excess salt
will be excreted in the urine.
ADH is the hormone controlling the water levels, but this
is only part of the “osmotic balance” story... the salt levels Between ADH and aldosterone the body maintains a
can be controlled too. Read on... constant “osmotic balance” of water and dissolved salt...
Homeostasis.

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Addison’s Disease & HRT Kidney Structure & Nephrons


Addison’s Disease occurs when a person’s adrenal glands You may have dissected a kidney in your laboratory work in
do not produce enough aldosterone, even when their salt class. You should be able to relate the gross structure of the
levels are too low. Their nephrons constantly fail to kidney and urinary system to the structure and functioning of
reabsorb salt and so the “osmotic balance” of the body is the nephrons. This is summarized by these diagrams.
chronically out of order.

This leads to a variety of problems and malfunctions DISSECTED KIDNEY


Position of an Adrenal Gland
throughout the body involving the heart, intestines and (not usually present in school
liver, and may cause psychological disorders as well. specimens)

This is a disease that can be sucessfuly treated by Renal Cortex


Artery & Dark red in colour due
“Hormone Replacement Therapy” (HRT). to the many blood
Vein
capillaries of the
nephrons
A person with Addison’s Disease can be treated with
appropriate doses of steroid hormones (usually cortisone)
and although they cannot be totally cured, they can lead a
normal, symptom-free life on HRT.
Medulla
Lighter in colour... less
Renal Dialysis blood vessels.
If a person’s kidneys cease functioning properly he/she can Here many collecting
ducts carry urine to the
no longer remove toxic wastes such as urea from the blood, Ureter ureter
nor maintain homeostasis of “water balance”. In the case carries urine to
bladder
of complete kidney failure, this condition is fatal within
about 3 days without treatment.
GENERAL STRUCTURE OF THE URINARY SYSTEM
Over the past 40 years or so, many people have been
successfully treated by receiving a kidney transplant.
However, they may have to wait months or years to find a Kidneys
suitable organ donor. In the meanwhile, they need to be
treated by Renal Dialysis... the use of medical technology
to remove wastes from the blood artificially. In effect, a
renal dialysis machine is an “artificial kidney”.
Ureters
The simplified diagram explains how this works.

Blood
returns to FLUID
patient’s IN
vein Bladder
Dialysis Urethra
wastes such fluid flows
as urea past the
diffuse tubes
Patient’s blood carrying the
from an artery out of the blood Comparison of Renal Dialysis
blood with Natural Kidney Function

OUT
Similarities
Pump
•Both processes remove urea and other wastes from the blood.
Blood flows through “dialysis tube” with •Both rely on movement of dissolved substances through
semi-permeable membrane walls
semi-permeable membranes.

Differences
The dialysis fluid contains water, salts, sugars, minerals etc • Kidney function involves the 2 steps of filtration and
exactly as in healthy blood plasma. Since there is no reabsorption; dialysis involves only 1 step of diffusion
concentration gradient for these chemicals they do not of wastes from blood.
diffuse in or out of the blood. However, the wastes such as • In a kidney, movement across membranes is
urea are in higher concentration in the blood, and so they achieved by both active transport and by passive osmosis
diffuse from the blood into the dialysis liquid, which is later and diffusion; dialysis involves only passive diffusion.
disposed of.

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Water Balance in Australian Animals Water Conservation & Excretion


The different conditions of each environment dictate what in Australian Mammals
an animal must do to to achieve homeostasis of its “water Many Australian environments are desert or semi-arid and
balance”. In each environment there are different problems water conservation is vital for survival. Some adaptations
to be overcome, and the animal’s body organs must for temperature control, while conserving water, were
respond appropriately. Exactly how homeostasis is covered earlier in this topic (see page 10).
achieved will be reflected in the urine the animal produces.
Many Australian mammals have excretory systems that also
Comparison of Urine Production contribute to water conservation, while managing to
in Different Environments efficiently remove their nitrogenous waste, urea.
Marine Fish (revise page 18)
Photo by Diana
• problem: constant loss of water by osmosis.
• urine: small amount, to conserve water.
Urine does not contain wastes, since ammonia
is excreted from the gills.
Freshwater Fish (revise page 18)
• problem: constant gain of water by osmosis.
• urine: large volume, to remove water.
Urine does not contain wastes, since ammonia
is excreted from the gills.
Terrestrial Mammal
• problem: must excrete wastes in urine, but cannot
afford to lose too much water, especially in dry The desert-living Red Kangaroo, the Spinifex Hopping
Australian ecosystems. Mouse, and even the Koala (which rarely drinks) all have
• urine: generally small volume, to conserve water. the ability to produce very small amounts of highly
Urine is relatively highly concentrated in wastes concentrated urine.
such as urea.
They achieve this by:
Water Conservation & Excretion in Insects • having longer tubules in their kidney nephrons, which
All insects are small, and most are adapted for flight. This allows for more reabsorption of water back into the blood,
means they cannot afford to carry large amounts of water thus less urine is produced.
in their bodies just for the purpose of excreting urine. • the cells lining the tubules are able to actively transport
Their excretory system must be able to remove nitrogenous urea from blood into the urine. So, not only is urea not
wastes, while losing only a minimum of water. reabsorbed from the “filtrate” liquid, but is actively
“pumped” from the blood.
Firstly, their nitrogenous wastes are processed chemically
into the form of uric acid, which has a low solubility in The result is less water and more urea in their urine.
water. This means that, when their urine is separated from
the blood (filtration) and then concentrated by Enantiostasis
reabsorption of water, the uric acid precipitates as a solid. Enantiostasis is a special case of homeostasis. It refers to
the maintenence of metabolic and physiological functions,
After further reabsorption of water, the insect’s urine is a (i.e. homeostasis) despite significant variations in the
semi-solid paste, which is passed into the rectum and surrounding environment.
excreted with their solid digestive wastes.
An important example is an estuary, where river meets sea.
The Malpighian Tubes are Organisms are able to maintain their water and salt balance,
the insect equivalent of despite wild fluctuations in the water and salt
kidneys
Intestine concentrations around them, every time the tides change.

Some of the ways they cope with this are:


ANUS

MOUTH
• burrowing into the mud, where the salt concentrations are
more stable (e.g. crabs, yabbies)
MALPIGHIAN TUBES extend through • closing their shell, to avoid extreme conditions they
insect’s body, collecting and cannot cope with. (e.g. oysters)
concentrating urine.
Urine is emptied into the gut for • switching their excretory systems from water conservers
excretion. when salty, to water excreters when fresh. (e.g. fish)

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Water Conservation in Australian Plants How Plants Cope With Salt


The characteristics of Australia’s sclerophyll plants were Many of the Australian coastal estuaries are home to
dealt with in the Preliminary Course topic “Evolution of Mangrove trees which have a number of adaptations to
Australian Biota”. cope with the salt water that covers their roots with every
high tide.
In summary, the sclerophyll plants include the gum trees,
banksias and acacias (wattles) and all show numerous To maintain their “osmotic balance” they must both
adaptations to conserve water in our arid climate, such as: conserve water and deal with high levels of salt. One of the
most common species is the “Grey Mangrove”, Avicennia
Small & narrow to reduce marina, which has all the following adaptations:
Surface Area for less
evaporation
GUM LEAVES • leaves with a thick, waxy cuticle and fine hairs on the
undersurface, all to minimize water loss.

• salt glands in the leaves which excrete a concentrated salt


brine onto the leaf surface. The salt gets washed away
when it rains.

Thick, waxy
• salt is deposited in older leaves, so when they drop off
cuticle they carry a load of excess salt away.
minimizes
evaporation • special tissues within their roots which allows water to
pass through, but reduces the passage of salt. This helps to
Droop downwards to avoid the heat reduce the salt intake.
of midday for less evaporation
Mangroves
coastal NSW
• small, narrow, drooping leaves with thick, waxy cuticles

• In dry times, gum trees shed many of their leaves so that


there are less surfaces for evaporation. In some species,
such as the River Red Gum, entire branches are sacrificed
by cutting off their water supply so that they die. (This is
why gum trees are dangerous... whole dead branches often
fall off onto cars, homes or campsites.)

• Species such as Spinifex grass limit evaporation by having


fine hairs all over their leaves. This traps a layer of air near
the leaf so that wind cannot increase evaporation rates.

• Generally, all Australian sclerophylls have fewer stomates


on their leaves to limit the water loss from transpiration.

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Worksheet 4 So, an increase in ADH secretion leads to greater


Fill in the blanks Check your answers at the back. al)................................. (excretion/retention) of water, while
a decrease in ADH results in am)..........................
Water is vital to all living things because: (more/less) urine production.
1. It is the a)................................... of life, and most
substances are b).............................. in water solution. Another hormone called an)....................................... is
2. Water is involved in many c)............................... reactions, produced by the ao).......................................... glands
such as photosynthesis or d)............................................. controls the reabsorption of ap).................................. Some
3. Water has very high “heat e)....................................” and people do not produce enough of this hormone and so
“heat of f)....................................” so it is vital to temperature have a chronic salt-balance problem called
control aq)................................. Disease. This disease is treated by
4. Water g)................................ and cushions cells and organs. ar)................................................... Therapy (HRT).
For example, plants rely on water in cell
h).................................. to keep leaves and stems upright. If a person’s kidneys fail, they can have their blood
Maintaining the correct balance of both water and “cleaned” of wastes by the process of “Renal
dissolved i)................................ is another aspect of as)..................................... This is similar to kidney function
j)...................................... in that both involve movement of dissolved chemicals
through at)............................................... membranes. It is
In vertebrate animals, the control of water balance is done different from kidney function in that it involves only
by the k)..............................., which also are responsible for au)............ (number) process, which involves
excretion of l).................................. wastes. Different animals av).............................. (active/passive) diffusion. Kidney
produce different wastes: the fish produce mainly function has aw).................... (number) steps, and involves
m)...................................... while birds and insects produce both ax).............................. (active/passive) transport and
n)................................................... and mammals produce osmosis.
o).................................. In fish, the kidneys are used mainly
for p).......................................... because excretion of the Insects process their nitrogenous wastes into the chemical
ammonia takes place from their q)................................ ay)......................................... which has very low solubility.
This allows them to excrete “urine” which is almost entirely
Each kidney contains about 1 million units called az)........................... Many Australian mammals excrete very
r)................................ There is a coiled blood vessel, the ba)................................ (small/large) amounts of
s)..................................... which is inside the bb)................................... (dilute/concentrated) urine. They
t).............................. capsule. Here the process of achieve this by having increased ability to reabsorb
u).............................................. takes place, where water and bc)............................... from the nephron tubules, and can
many dissolved substances leave the blood and flow bd).................................... (actively/passively) pump urea
throught the v).............................................. The second from be)............................. into the bf)...................................
process is w)......................................... in which any useful
substances (most of the water, plus x)............................... and When an organism can maintain homeostasis despite
..................................) are absorbed back into the significant variations in the environment, this is called
y)...................................... by a combination of active bg).......................................... A good example is the way that
transport and z)..................................... Some water plus the estuarine animals can maintain bh)......................................
aa).............................. are not reabsorbed but pass into a balance despite the fluctuations in salt concentrations as the
ab)..................................... duct, and down the bi)......................... change. Mangrove plants deal with salt by
ac)..................................... to the bladder to await excretion. special root tissue to bj).............................. its entry, or by
The kidneys also have a role in ad).......................................... bk).................................. salt onto their leaves, or by
by adjusting the amounts of water and bl).......................... salt in older leaves which are later shed.
ae)......................................... that are reabsorbed into the Many Australian plants are well-adapted to conserve water
blood. This function is controlled by the by such features as leaves which are
af)................................. which monitors “water balance” and bm)............................................ (shape & size) and are
controls the release of the hormone ag).............................. covered with a thick, waxy bn)...........................................
from the ah)................................... gland. This hormone They often have fewer bo)......................................... on their
increases the permeability of membranes in the leaves, or may be covered with bp)..................................... to
ai)...............................so that aj)............................. (more/less) trap a layer of air.
water will be absorbed, and ak)............................ (more/less) WHEN COMPLETED,
urine formed. WORKSHEETS BECOME SECTION SUMMARIES
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Blank “Mind Map”
Use this scaffold to try and learn all the parts of this topic.
Some students find that if they know what’s in the topic,
they also remember the facts & concepts that need to be learnt.

MAINTAINING
A
BALANCE

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Practice Questions 5. The effect on enzyme activity of increasing the substrate


These are not intended to be "HSC style" questions, but to concentration is best described as:
challenge your basic knowledge and understanding of the topic, A. Activity rises to an “optimum” level, then declines again.
and remind you of what you NEED to know at the K.I.S.S. B. Activity always rises as substrate concentration increases.
principle level. C. Activity declines as substrate concentration increases.
D. Activity rises, then levels off as the enzyme becomes
When you have confidently mastered this level, it is strongly saturated.
recommended you work on questions from past exam papers.
6. Which of the following is least likely to be controlled by
Part A Multiple Choice a negative feedback system?
1. Which of the following is NOT true about enzymes? A. Body temperature B. Blood sugar levels
Enzymes:- C. Rate of digestion D. Water & salt levels.
A. are catalysts which speed up chemical reactions.
B. are carbohydrate molecules of a special shape. 7. The “control centre” for homeostasis involving the
C. will only work within a narrow range of temperature & pH. nerve system is the:
D. are substrate-specific; each only works for one substrate. A. Hypothalamus B. Cerebrum
C. Cerebellum D. Pituitary gland
The graph shows the rate of
B
an enzyme-catalysed reaction.
Questions 2 and 3 refer to it.
8. Which of the following is a response by an effector
organ which would be appropriate when the body is too
C
2. Which part of this graph warm?
Rate of reaction

(A,B,C or D) corresponds to the A. Muscles begin shivering.


A
enzyme having the best 3- B. Blood vessels dilated.
dimentional shape to fit its C. Body hairs erected, forming “goose bumps”.
substrate? D. Metabolic rate increased by the hormone thyroxine.
D

3. At point D on this graph, you Temperature


9. Which statement is correct?
could describe the enzyme as: A. Ectotherms such as fish, generate their own body heat.
A. saturated with substrate.
B. Endotherms such as birds, rely on their surroundings to
B. optimum shape.
C. decomposed.
supply their body heat.
D. denatured. C. Ectotherms such as mammals, generate their own body
heat.
4. This graph compares the performance of 2 enzymes at D. Ectotherms such as reptiles, rely on their surroundings
different pH levels. to supply their body heat.

10. A typical response of an ectotherm to over-heating is:


Enzyme Q A. sweating B. sun-baking
C. seeking shade D. shivering
Enzyme P
11. An important adaptation in Australian mammals to help
keep cool in a desert environment is:
Enzyme Activity

A. a lot of sweat glands in the skin.


B. a “stocky”, thick-set shape to minimize heat absorption.
C. large ears to acts as heat radiators.
D. thick fur to prevent heat getting to their body.

12. A blood vessel with relatively thin muscle layer and


equipped with one-way valves is most likely a:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 A.Vein B. Arteriole
pH C. Artery D. Capillary
It would be reasonable to conclude that:
A. “P” is a stomach enzyme, “Q” is an intra-cellular enzyme.
13. As blood flows through a capillary in an active muscle,
B. “P” is from a plant cell, “Q” is from a mammal cell. you would expect changes in the substances carried in the
C. “Q” performs better than “P” under all conditions. blood, as follows:
D. Both would be at their optimum activity at about 40oC. A. Increase in CO2, decrease in O2 and sugars.
B. Decrease in CO2 and sugars, increase in O2
C. Inrease in CO2 and sugars, decrease in O2
D. Decrease in CO2 and O2, decrease in sugars

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14. Part B Longer Response Questions


Which line correctly identifies the way in which most of the Mark values given are suggestions only, and are to give you an idea
oxygen and carbon dioxide gases are carried in the blood? of how detailed an answer is appropriate.
Oxygen Carbon Dioxide
A. dissolved in plasma, in haemoglobin 21. (4 marks)
B. in haemoglobin, dissolved as bicarbonate ion Discuss the importance of shape to the characteristics of
C. in white cells, in haemoglobin an enzyme, with specific reference to
D. in haemoglobin, dissolved as carbonic acid a) why each enzyme will usually only catalyse only one
reaction.
15.
The “Oximeter” is able to measure percentage oxygen b) why enzymes only work within fairly narrow ranges of
saturation of the blood because, depending on the amount temperature and pH.
of oxygen present:
A. the blood pH changes 22. (8 marks)
B. the ratio of red and white cells changes The following data was collected in an experiment in which
C. the blood flows at a different rate the time taken for a chemical reaction catalyzed by an
D. haemoglobin absorbs light differently enzyme, was measured at different temperatures.
Temp (oC) Time taken for reaction (min.)
16. 5 4.0
Which statement about plant transport systems is correct? 10 2.0
A. Xylem use active transport for Transpiration. 15 1.0
B. Xylem cells are alive and carry out Translocation 20 0.2
C. Phloem cells use active transport to move nutrients 25 2.5
D. Phloem tubes carry out Transpiration by passive means 30 10
a) Tabulate this data appropriately, adding a third column
17. for “Reaction Rate” and calculating values for this.
A freshwater fish:
A. produces a large volume of dilute urine b) Construct a graph of Temperature v Rate.
B. produces a small volume of concentrated urine
C. excretes urea in large amounts via the kidneys c) Is it likely that this is a human enzyme? Explain.
D. excretes water from its gills and must drink to replace it
23. (5 marks)
18. a) What is meant by “Homeostasis”
In the mammalian kidney nephrons the formation of urine b) What is the link between the necessity for homeostasis
occurs in 2 stages. Which line describes correctly the and enzymes?
location of each process? c) Using a simple example, explain the concept of
Filtration Reabsorption “negative feedback” as a way to maintain stability of any
A. Glomerulus Bowman’s capsule system.
B. Renal tubules Ureter
C. Glomerulus Renal tubules 24. (8 marks)
D. Bowman’s capsule Collecting duct a) Discuss the role of the hypothalamus in the regulation of
body temperature in a mammal.
19.
An increase in the level of the hormone “ADH” would b) Give an outline of how the blood vessels function as
cause the kidney nephrons to: “effectors” in the regulation of body temperature.
A. reabsorb less salt
B. reabsorb more water c) List 3 other effectors (apart from blood vessels) involved
C. reabsorb more salt in temperature regulation.
D. reabsorb less water
25. (6 marks)
20. a) Explain the difference between an ectotherm and an
Insects conserve water by excreting their nitrogenous endotherm.
wastes in the form of:
A. a semi-solid paste of uric acid b) Using a named Australian example, outline how an
B. a small volume of urine, highly concentrated in urea ectotherm regulates its body temperature.
C. a large amount of ammonia-containing urine
D. pellets of solid urea c) Using a named Australian example, outline 2 adaptations
of desert-living endotherm to keep their bodies cool.

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26. (3 marks) 32. (4 marks)


Describe some adaptations of sclerophyll plants which help Outline the processes of Filtration and Reabsorption in the
them minimize absorption of heat from the Sun. nephron of a mammalian kidney. Identify where each process
occurs and the main events occurring.
27. (5 marks)
Describe the structural difference(s) of veins and arteries, 33. (6 marks)
and relate these differences to the functions of these blood Compare and contrast the role of the hormones “ADH” and
vessels. “Aldosterone” in the maintenence of mammal homeostasis. Your
answer should include
28. (9 marks) • source of each hormone
a) Contrast the way(s) that the gases oxygen and carbon dioxide • precise effect on the target organ
are carried in the blood. • how this contributes to Homeostasis

b) These gases are described as the “respiratory gases” because of 34. (5 marks)
their involvement in cellular respiration. Summarize this process a) Outline the process of excretion of nitrogenous wastes in
with a chemical equation. insects, explaining how it contributes to conservation of water in
their bodies.
c) How is the release of oxygen from the bloodstream facilitated
by the high concentration of carbon dioxide in the body tissues? b) Using a named example of an Australian mammal, explain how
the excretion of nitrogenous wastes is achieved with minimum
29. (4 marks) water loss.
Identify 2 of the “blood products” extracted from donate blood,
and describe the uses of these products. 35. (8 marks)
a) What is “Enantiostasis”? Give an example of an environment
30. (6 marks) where this process is vital and outline some of the strategies for
Construct a table to contrast the processes of Transpiration and achieving enantiostasis in the named environment.
Translocation in plants. Your answer should cover:
• the name and nature of the vessels involved b) Identify strategies for conservating water in 2 named Australian
• the substance(s) transported plants.
• the basic nature of the processes
c) Describe 2 strategies used by mangrove trees to maintain water
31. (4 marks) balance in a saline environment.
Discuss briefly the importance of water in living organisms,
identifying 4 functions of water.

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Answer Section Worksheet 1 (continued)

Worksheet 1 Part C
Part A a) stable / at the same level b) temperature
a) metabolism b) speeds up c) pH d) water
c) used up / consumed d)enzymes e) blood sugar f) negative
e) protein f) amino acids g) receptor h) control centre
g) 3-dimensional shape h) substrate(s) i) effectors j) nervous
i) specific j) & k) temperature & pH k) hypothalamus l) brain
l) shape m) & n) acidity & alkalinity
o) 7 p) below Worksheet 2
q) above 7 r) 7 / neutral
s) stomach t) acidic a) hypothalamus b) effector
c) dilation d) more
Part B e) sweat f) perspiration
1. graph g) evaporates h) hormones
i) thyroid j) constricted
Activity

2.a) reaction rate (=activity) k) the skin l) raised / erected


increases as temp. goes up m) insulate n) shiver
because molecules are more likely o) ectotherms p) reptiles
to collide and react with each q) Sun r) Blue-tongue lizard
Temp
other. s) sunbakes t) seeks shade
u) copperhead snake / corroboree frog
b) Above the optimum the shape of the enzyme protein begins v) becoming dormant w) endotherms
to change and be distorted. The substrate(s) no longer fit the x) & y) mammals & birds z) feathers
enzyme perfectly, and activity declines rapidly. aa) blubber (fat) ab) ears
ac) lose water ad) fore arms
ae) insulation af) shunted back into the body
ag) deciduous ah) shed their leaves
3. graph ai) stomates aj) needle / spine
ak) light al) sclerophyll
4. At the optimum pH the shape am) narrow an) droop downwards
Activity

of the enzyme is a perfect “lock


& key” shape to fit the substrate, Worksheet 3
so activity is at a maximum.
pH
Part A
5. At pH’s either side of optimum a) plasma b) red
the shape of the enzyme changes so that the “fit” with the c) haemoglobin d) oxygen
substrate is no longer perfect, so activity declines. e) bicarbonate f) water
g) carbonic h) plasma
6. graph i) sugars j) amino acids
k) urea l) protein
7. a) As the concentration of m) arteries n) pressure
Activity

substrate molecules increases, it o) heart p) Veins


becomes more likely that they q) valves r) flowing backwards
will collide with an enzyme and s) one cell t) tissues
Substrate concentration
undergo the reaction. So u) digested nutrients v) liver
reaction rate increases. w) processing & storage x) urea
b) However, once all the available enzyme molecules are being y) kidneys z) water & salts
used, (they are “saturated” with substrate) increasing the aa) oxygen ab) carbon dioxide
concentration cannot increase reaction rate any further, so the ac) blood ad) cells
graph levels off. ae) oxygen af) carbon dioxide

HSC Biology Topic 1


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Worksheet 3 Worksheet 4 (continued)
Part B ac) ureter ad) homeostasis
1. Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid ae) salt af) hypothalamus
CO2 + H2O H2CO3 ag) ADH ah) pituitary
Carbonic acid is a weak acid which partly ionizes ai) renal tubules aj) more
H2CO3 H+ + HCO3- ak) less al) retention
Carbon dioxide is mostly carried as bicarbonate ion. am) more an) aldosterone
ao) adrenal ap) salt
2. The equations show that carbon dioxide reacts with aq) Addison’s ar) Hormone Replacement
water forming an acid. If allowed to accumulate, this would as) Dialysis at) semi-permeable
lower the pH, which could seriously affect the activity of au) one av) passive
enzymes and disrupt metabolism. aw) two ax) active
ay) uric acid az) solid / dry
3. As shown in the equations above, the presence of carbon ba) small bb) concentrated
dioxide lowers the pH. In tissue capillaries, the slightly bc) water bd) actively
lowered pH alters the shape of the haemoglobin molecules be) blood bf) tubules / urine
slightly. This causes them to release the oxygen molecules bg) enantiostasis bh) water & salt
they are carrying, which then diffuse into the cells. bi) tides bj) limit
bk) secreting / excreting bl) storing / accumulating
Part C bm) small & narrow bn) cuticle
a) red b) iron bo) stomates bp) hairs
c) haemoglobin d) 4
e) oxyhaemoglobin f) carbon dioxide Practice Questions
g) release h) diffuse
i) percent oxygen saturation j) 95% Part A Multiple Choice
k) Oximeter l) red light & infra-red light 1. B 5. D 9. D 13. A 17. A
m) absorbed n) Red 2. B 6. C 10. C 14. B 18. C
o) immunity p) Platelet 3. D 7. A 11. C 15. D 19. B
q) Plasma r) blood volume 4. A 8. B 12. A 16. C 20. A
s) stored t) immune-responses
u) diseases v) Haemoglobin Part B Longer Response
w) Oxygen x) Perfluorocarbons In some cases there may be more than one
correct answer possible. The following “model”
Part D answers are correct, but not necessarily perfect.
a) xylem b) roots 21.
c) leaves d) dead a) Enzymes are protein molecules and each has a a particular 3-
e) passive f) transpiration dimensional shape which fits its substrate like a key fits a lock.
g) evaporates h) cohesive Usually each enzyme will only “fit” one particular substrate, so it
i) phloem j) translocation will only catalyse one reaction.
k) nutrients / sugars l) alive b) Any change in temperature or pH can change the shape of an
m) active n) use energy enzyme, by causing the protein chain to alter the way it is folded
and twisted. As its shape changes, its ability to “fit” the substrate
Worksheet 4 will change too. Thus each enzyme only works fully within
relatively narrow ranges of temperature and pH.
a) solvent b) dissolved
c) chemical d) metabolic / chemical 22.
e) capacity f) vaporization a) Table should • be ruled • have clear headings
g) supports h) vacuoles The values in the 3rd column should be:
i) salts j) homeostasis Reaction Rate (min-1)
k) kidneys l) nitrogenous 0.25
m) ammonia n) uric acid 0.5
o) urea p) water balance 1.0
q) gills r) nephrons 5.0
s) glomerulus t) Bowman’s 0.4
u) filtration v) renal tubules 0.1
w) reabsorption x) sugars / salts / amino acids (These values are calulated as 1/time taken)
y) bloodstream z) osmosis
aa) urea ab) collecting

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22. (continued) 25.
Reaction Rate v Temp. Graph a) Endotherms are animals which generate their own body heat.
b)
Ectotherms rely on their environment to supply their body heat;

5
c) No. they do not generate internal body heat.

Reaction Rate (1/min)


The graph shows b) Ectotherms such are the Blue-Tongue Lizard often use

4
that at human instinctive behaviours to regulate temperature. When too cold, it
body temp. (37C) will sunbake, flattening its body to increase the surface area
the enzyme’s 3 exposed to the Sun. When too hot, it will seek shade and avoid the
activity is almost heat of the Sun.
2

zero. This c) Desert-living endotherms, such as the Bilby, cannot afford the
water loss involved with sweating to cool off. Instead, they have
1

enzyme would
NOT function in large ears to radiate heat away. They seek shade in the heat of the
a human body. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 day and are active only in the evenings and early morning. Instead
of sweating, they “pant” so that evaporation from the mouth and
Temperature (oC)
throat has a cooling effect.

23. 26.
a) Homeostasis is the process of maintaining a stable, Sclerophyll plants have
internal environment, for such things as temperature, pH, • small, narrow leaves to reduce surface area exposed to Sun
water balance, etc. • shiny leaf cuticle to reflect some radiant heat
b) Homeostasis is vital so that the optimum conditions (of • leaves which “droop” downwards. This allows for absorption of
temp., pH etc) for enzymes to function efficiently are light for photosynthesis in the cool of the morning, but avoids
maintained. Efficient enzyme activity is essential so that the heat absorption in the heat of midday.
reactions of metabolism occur at a rate appropriate for life
functions. 27.
c) example: thermostat control of an oven Arteries have thick, muscular walls. This allows them to withstand
A temperature sensor constantly monitors the temp. the high pressure blood they carry as the heart pumps. Being
If oven is too cool, the control mechanism sends an elastic, the walls can expand outwards under pressure, then
electrical signal to turn the heating element on. (effector) contract and help squeeze the blood on its way.
If the oven is too hot, a signal is sent to turn the heating Veins have thinner walls since the blood they carry back to the
element off, so the oven will cool down. heart is at low pressure. Veins are equipped with valves to prevent
By always taking action in the opposite direction (negative back-flow. The thin walls of a vein allow them to be compressed
feedback) a relatively stable temperature is maintained. by neighbouring muscles, which helps squeeze the blood forward.

24. 28.
a) The hypothalamus is both the receptor and control a) Oxygen is carried attached to the haemoglobin molecules in the
centre for regulation of body temperature. red blood cells.
Blood flowing through the hypothalamus is constantly Most carbon dioxide is carried in solution in the blood plasma as
monitored by special, heat-sensitive cells lining the blood bicarbonate ion, HCO3-.
vessels. If body temperature is even slightly high or low, the b) C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
hypothalamus sends nerve messages to various effector c) The high concentration of dissolved CO2 causes the pH to be
organs to either warm or cool the body back to its correct slightly lower (because CO2 reacts with water forming carbonic
temperature. acid). This change in pH causes a change in the shape of the
b) The peripheral blood vessels are “effector organs” for haemoglobin molecule, which causes it to release oxygen, which
temperature regulation. Veins and arteries can be can then diffuse into the surrounding body cells.
constricted (narrowed) to reduce the blood flow to the skin.
This reduces the amount of heat lost through the skin, 29.
thereby helping to warm the body. The opposite process of Red Cell Concentrate contains about 2x as many red cells as
dilating (widening) the blood vessels allows more blood normal blood. It is used to treat people with severe anaemia, or
flow to the skin. This allows more heat to be lost from the following severe blood loss.
skin, thereby cooling the body. Platelet Concentrate is given to patients who need extra blood-
c) Three other effector organs: clotting capability, such as leukemia sufferers.
Sweat glands (perspiration), skeletal muscles (shivering),
thyroid gland (hormone thyroxine), body hair muscles
(goose bumps).

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30. 34.
Transpiration Translocation a) The insect equivalent of kidneys are the “malphigian
Vessels Xylem Phloem tubes” which run all though the body and collect and
involved concentrate nitrogenous wastes in the form of uric acid.
Substances Water & dissolved Nutrients, especially Since this is basically insoluble, the “urine” can be
transported minerals sugars concentrated to a semi-solid paste by reabsorbing virtually
Processes Passive transport Active transport all the water, before passing the wastes into the rectum for
involved excretion with the digestive wastes. This means there is
virually no loss of water during excretion.
31.
Water is the solvent of life b) The Spinifex Hopping Mouse is a desert-dweller which
All the chemical reactions of metabolism take place in produces very small amounts of very concentrated urine.
water solution, and the transport of materials in cytoplasm, This is achieved because:
blood or phloem takes place mainly in water solution. • the nephron tubules are very long, allowing for more
Water is involved in life chemistry reabsorption of water, and less volume of urine.
Water is a reactant or product of many metabolic reactions. • the cells lining the tubules are able to actively transport
The reactions of photosynthesis and cellular respiration are urea from the blood into the urine. This allows the urine to
just two of the many examples. be even more highly concentrated than in other mammals.
Water is vital in temperature regulation
Water has a very high specific heat capacity. This helps 35.
stabilize the temperature of all living things.Evaporation of a) Enantiostasis is a special case of homeostasis, in which
sweat is an important cooling mechanism in mammals. an organism maintains a stable internal environment
Water supports and cushions cells and organs despite significant changes in the environment around it.
Animals such as worms rely on the hydraulic pressure of An example of a habitat where this is important is a tidal
water in their tissues to support their body and maintain its estuary, where the tides cause the salinity of the
shape. In vertebrate animals the water solutions in the environment to fluctuate.
tissues helps to cushion organs against bumps and impacts. To maintain their “osmotic balance” while their evironment
(eg cerebrospinal fluid around the brain) changes from virtual fresh water, to salty and back again,
requires estuarine organisms to cope by strategies such as:
32. • burrowing into the mud where the salinity is more
Filtration occurs in the glomerulus. Some of the water of constant. (eg crabs & yabbies)
the blood plasma and its dissolved sugars, minerals, urea etc • adjusting the functioning of their kidneys from water
seep out of the blood vessel, like water through a filter excreters to water conservers as the tides change. (eg fish)
paper. Blood cells and proteins cannot leak out.
This “filtrate” flows along the renal tubules where b) Spinifex Grass has fine hairs all over its leaves. This traps
reabsorption occurs. Useful nutients (sugars, amino acids) a layer of still air near the leaf, reducing the evaporative
are actively transported back into the bloodstream. Most of effect of the wind.
the water in the filtrate flows back to the blood by osmosis. Gum trees, such as the River Red Gum, has leaves with very
A portion of the water with dissolved urea flows on to be few stomates, and a thick, waxy cuticle to minimize water
excreted as urine. losses.

33. c) Mangroves:
ADH is secreted by the pituitary gland (under control of • secrete salty brine onto the leaf surface. This washes away
the hypothalamus) It alters the permeability of the renal when it rains.
tubules to water. Increased ADH allows greater water • accumulate salt in older leaves which are then shed,
reabsorption, and less urine production. carrying away a load of excess salt.
Aldosterone is secreted by the adrenal glands. It stimulates
the cells lining the renal tubules to actively transport more
sodium ions back into the blood from the renal fitrate. This
retains more salt in the body to adjust “osmotic balance”.

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