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IGCSE Extended

Revision Booklet
2016
Exam Date: Tuesday 3rd May

Revision sites:
www.vision2learnforschools.com:
(ask your teacher for your password).
Google Apps Site:

https://sites.google.com/a/stantonbury.org.uk/hub/?pli=1
IGCSE Extended Exam Tips
Question 1: Directed writing

15 marks for reading

5 marks for writing


The key to answering this question well is showing that you have understood the details of the
passage and can re-use them for a different purpose, in your own words. The examiner helps you
by:

1. Giving you an overview of what the passage is about and where it is set before the text
begins. This bit is always in italics and is not part of the text. Make sure you read it carefully
as it will help you understand the passage. The writing in italics before the passage begins is
an introduction to the text and will help you to understand WHO it has been written by and
the CONTEXT. Make sure you read this
2. Telling you what words to use to start your answer (You MUST uses these words or it will
look as if you have not followed instructions!)
3. Providing 3 bullet-points to help you to structure your answer. You must cover each bullet-
point equally, making 4-5 points for each.

The bullet points get harder:

 the first usually asks for facts and details of events (so mention as many as you can – names,
places etc);
 the second usually asks for feelings and thoughts. This means you will have to make
inferences – what is the person you are writing about likely to think and feel based on what
you have read? Your ideas must be tethered to the text and what is therefore likely.
 The final bullet point usually asks you to think about the future so you won’t find the details
spelt out in the passage. This is the hardest bullet-point. You need to make 4 – 5 points
about what is likely to happen or what the character is likely to do, think or feel, based on
what you have learned from the passage. This is all inference (reading between the lines!)

Tips for Reading Marks:


 Underline the details you want to include in relation to the bullet-points. Tick them off as
you write to make sure you have put them in.
 Write in paragraphs – at least one a paragraph for each bullet-point
 Write 1.5 – 2 sides to make sure you cover enough points
 Include the key points you have underlined
 Tick them off as you use them
 Extend on each of the points that you make: the mark scheme expects you to develop the
points in order to show that you have understood them (exploding quotations activity)
 But keep to the true meaning of the text.
 Check you have covered all the bullet-points equally

Tips for the writing marks:


 Include high level vocabulary
 Write at least one paragraph for each bullet-point as you MUST write in paragraphs to get
your writing marks.
 Using your own words is IMPORTANT. No marks at all if you lift words and phrases directly
from the text (names are OK). Use SYNONYMS (a word with a similar meaning) and change
the word order. Example: might become watching the sun set over the moors was a
fantastic experience might become: It was inspiring and amazing to watch the sun go
down over the moors.
 Keep to standard English even if writing to a friend. Avoid slang.
 Make sure your full-stops and capital letters are in the right places (leave time to check).
 Add in a semi-colon in your first paragraph to impress the examiner (but don’t over use
them).
 Remember to use complex as well as simple sentences (ed-ing-ly + comma).

Ask the 4 Ws:


 Who are you writing as?
 Who are you writing for?
 Why are you writing?
 What are you writing eg journal (diary); newspaper article; leaflet; letter

Conventions:
You will be asked to write in one of the following formats:

 Journal (diary)
 Interview
 A speech
 A report
 Magazine or newspaper article
 Leaflet

Interview:

Name in margin followed by a colon: Start the speaking with a capital letter. Use
punctuation as normal at the end of the speaking. NO speech marks. It should look like a
playscript. You don’t need stage directions, though.

Reporter : Tell me about your experiences of climbing Mount Everest.

Newspaper Report:

Remember your headline – it should sum up what your article is about and the angle you
are taking. Headlines are always in the present tense.
The standfirst paragraph in a newspaper always covers:

 What happened
 When
 Where
 Who it happened to
 Why it happened.

Then the rest of the report elaborates on this in more detail, bringing in comments from
witnesses etc.

Newspapers are always in the third person (Do not use “I” or “We”).

They often use the passive voice eg “It was alleged that” rather than “We heard that....”

Question 2: The Writer’s effect question

Write IRWL at the top of your question.


Spend 30 minutes on this question. It is worth 10 marks.

How to approach it:


This question asks you to look at the effect of the writer’s word choices. This simply means what
they help the reader to understand about a person, place or event. The question wants you to find
powerful or unusual words that seem to have been chosen deliberately by the writer. Do not
choose ordinary words therefore! Always try to quote an image and show that you understand what
it is eg a metaphor, simile or personification.

1. First, find and circle the paragraphs identified in the question. (The bit in italics at the top of,
is NOT part of the text so don’t count this paragraph).
2. Next to each paragraph, write what the question has asked you to focus on, eg the way a
character or event is described.
3. Now circle words or short phrases in each paragraph that stand out and have probably been
used for effect or because they are important. You should find at least 4 per paragraph. DO
NOT HIGHLIGHT FULL SENTENCES. These are your quotations (the first E of PEE). Number
them.
4. Work out how these words all link together eg all suggest a sense of power and danger.
(Sometimes the words may create contrasting effects).
5. Your answer can either be two extended paragraphs, one for each part of the question OR a
PEA table with 3 columns and 6 rows (take a whole side of A4 to do this and use a ruler).
6. Now choose four words/ phrases to write about from each paragraph.

To do well in this question:

 Start by explaining what the words have in common eg they all create a threatening
atmosphere or they all suggest the strength, power and beauty of the big cats.
 If you can handle it, use the phrase “semantic field” – make sure you spell it correctly. Eg
semantic field of threat or danger is created by the words/ the words create a semantic field
of power and danger, contrasted with beauty. Once you have made the overall links, it is
easy then to explore the associations of the words you have circled because they will all link
to this overall point you have made.
 Then use IRWL to structure your response.
 Make multiple inferences (say more than one thing about what the word makes you think
of; describe its connotations or associations)
 Mention any deliberate use of imagery eg metaphor, simile, personification. Name the
technique and analyse its effect.
 Explain what the words have in common, how they link
 Never quote whole sentences/ lines – just the key words you have circled.

I Inferences (this is where you zoom and explain the different things the word makes you
think of in the context of the whole passage and the question).

R Reader (what the word helps the reader to think, feel or understand in the context of
the passage and the question)

W Writer (what is the writer’s intention? Why has this word been chosen?)

L Links (Make a link to another word that has similar associations or is a contrast; link back
to the overview statement you have made).

Remember: I Really Want to make Links


Use these phrases:
 This word implies/ suggests ...............
 The personification of ............... has the effect of.............
 Verbs such as ................ imply.............
 This makes the reader feel......
 This makes the reader think..........
 The intention of the writer is to...............
 This links with the word “X” because.......
 This is a deliberate contrast to words such as “...” and “...” which emphasises.....

If you use these sentence starts, you WILL answer the question.

Banned phrases for effect on reader:


 It draws the reader in
 It makes the reader want to read on
 This means..........

Examples:
P: The music teacher is friendly
E: “encouraging thump on the shoulder”

A: The intention of the writer is to make..........

Example 1 : Band 2 (A/B)


The semantic field of movement, space and time is created.

“Swirl” and “arrow”: suggest the kite’s rapid movements and how it changes speed and direction
unexpectedly.

“Lifting higher and higher” implies the kite is almost disappearing from view into the air. The writer
is suggesting it represents the children’s enjoyment which increases as the kite rises.

“distant red kite” is an image which links back to the kite Mandy saw in childhood. It reminds her of
being a child again, but this time she is not in charge of the kite. Its colour is bright, suggesting that
it’s reminding her of something.

“Rhythmic tug” is effective because it makes the reader think the kite from childhood was like music,
perhaps a symbol or metaphor of a heartbeat.

Example 3: Band 1 (A*)


The writer uses the verbs “swirl” and then “arrow” to suggest the unpredictability of the kites,
through their rapidly changing movement which is makes the reader think this may be a metaphor
for life itself. “Stony ground” is very powerful imagery as it implies dreams breaking in hard
everyday reality. But the writer suggests that dreams do succeed sometimes as the “possibilities of
flight” seems to be a metaphor for the future – the potential for happiness.

Bad example
Swirl and arrow explains how the kite moves. “Lifting higher and higher” means that it goes up in the
sky. The writer says that the kite reminds Mandy of her childhood. The words are interesting and
make the reader want to read on. Rhythmic tug means that the kite is pulling on its string. Words
like rhythmic draw the reader in because they are interesting and imaginative.

Sound answer (Band 3) Excellent Answer (Band 1/2)


 You locate the right paragraphs  You choose words and phrases carefully
 You select appropriate words and to answer the question
phrases to answer the question  You explain but also interpret meaning
 You say something about the in your own words, making a judgement
effectiveness of the words, but without about combined effects or the particular
much detail or understanding of what is effects of the selected words or phrases.
implied.  You use PEAs
 You use IRWL to structure the analysis
part of your PEA.

Question 3: Summary Question


(15 marks for reading; 5 marks for expression)
Write 15 next to the question.

How to approach it:


This question asks you to work with both texts. You will now need to read Text B.

1. Read the question first. What exactly are you being asked to summarise e.g. the reasons
why people enjoy fear; the evidence that big cats exist?
2. Next: Write the focus of the question at the top of each passage (so your points will be
relevant to the question).
3. Now take a highlighter pen: highlight all the parts of the passage that answer the question.
4. Number 15 points you can make – make sure you don’t repeat any.
5. Complete the bullet point list (it might be easier to put it in your own words)
6. Now look at each bullet-point list. Use numbers or a highlighter pen to connect similar
points together. This will help you to organise your answer so that you link similar ideas
together in mini paragraphs.
7. For higher grades you need to start with the most important point and combine ideas into
complex sentences (never list them). Divide your answer into shorter paragraphs to group
ideas together, but do not go over the recommended length.

DO NOT PEA or PEE!


Tip: You will need to make one point per line to keep it concise.
This technique allows you to cover 15 points and pick up 15 marks for reading. These are important
marks. If you get 15 marks for reading in this question, you only need 10 marks across the whole of
the rest of the paper to get to the bottom of C grade!!!!.

You will be penalised if you add comments and opinions and if you go over half a page for each
summary.

For top marks for writing, make sure you use paragraphs and combine ideas using complex
sentences. Make sure you give an overview rather than just re-work the bullet-points.

Success criteria:

Sound answer (Band 3) Excellent Answer (Band 1/2)


Content Content:
 I can identify and note the main points in  I can identify and note all the main
a passage points in a passage.
 I can identify which points are relevant  I can judge which points are the most
to the question important
 I can guess the meanings of difficult  I can understand implied meaning and
words from their sentences express it in my own words.
 I do not speculate, comment or give
opinions
 I do not quote
 I do not add unnecessary detail
Style (5 marks) Style (5 marks)
 I can express information fluently in my  I can convey a sense of the tone of the
own words eg by using synonyms or passage
changing the word order  I can combine several pieces of
 My writing brings ideas together information into complex sentences,
concisely and covers all the points in no using clauses and my own words
more than half a page. concisely and fluently.
 I can structure my summary logically in a
Note: If your summary is over-long or contains way that makes it easy for the reader to
unnecessary information, you can’t get above 2 follow.
marks.

If you add comments and opinions you are likely


to score no marks for style.

Example response: El Capitan Paper


Passage B – why paintballing is safe Passage A – why climbing is dangerous

 A medical form must be completed to prove the  El Capitan is a rock that is famous for being
satisfactory health of players difficult to climb
 Protective clothing must be worn  El Capitan’s main feature is that it has a 2000 foot
 An eye mask protects the eyes from damage vertical wall with an overhanging shelf.
 The paintballs are made of gel and are therefore  The climber was under-equipped for his climb
harmless  An added danger was his reckless speed
 Paintballs cannot be fired at speeds above a legal  There was a dangerous rushed start
limit  The first climber did not wait until his partner had
 An instructor gives guidance on the strict rules re4ached the first metal peg.
and arranges a practice session  Being joined by a rope meant that a fall by one
 Since the equipment is checked, accidents are pair could pull the other partner down too.
very rare, and in fact other sports are more
dangerous than paintballing
 Paintballing is considered to be safe for families.

Answer: Paintballing is safe enough for families and non-experienced people to participate in pretend battles.
A medical from must be completed to prove the satisfactory health of the players, who are then issued with
protective clothing which includes an eye mask. The paint balls, being made of gel, are harmless, and they cannot be
fired at speeds above the legal limit. An instructor gives guidance on the strict rules and arranges a practice session.

Since the equipment is checked, accidents are very rare, and in fact other sports are more dangerous than
paintballing.

El Capitan is a notoriously difficult and much feared rock for climbers in the USA, because of its 2,000 foot vertical
wall followed by an overhanging shelf, and its narrow handholds.

Potter was under-equipped for his climb in various ways, including the fact that his harness was home-made and
insubstantial. Added dangers were the necessity for reckless speed, which involved a rushed start rather than
waiting until his partner had reached the first metal peg. Being joined by a rope meant that a fall by one of the pair
could pull the other partner down.
Read the following passage carefully and then answer all the questions.
It is a good idea to plan your response first. This will allow you
to locate the relevant information from the text and to consider
the best way to organise it. As it tells you to write it as an
interview it should be laid out appropriately. Also note how much
they expect you to write.

Question 2: Writer’s Effect


This question tests your ability to analyse the language used by the
writer in the passage and to comment on the effects achieved.
Notice the number of marks available for this question.

The effect on the reader created by the writer’s words could be e.g.:

 To stimulate our sense of sight, touch, hearing or smell

 To convey (put across) a particular mood or atmosphere

 To convey a sense of a particular scene or character.

 To convey a particular message or idea.

 To make the reader feel something e.g. anger, pity, fear, sadness.

You need to make sure that you are using PEE and selecting evidence from the
passage. Make sure you are also locating the information from the correct
section of the text (note here it is paragraphs 3 and 5)

Example:

In the extract the writer describes O’Neill’s fall as ‘legs splaying


like a manic puppet out of control’. The use of this simile
conveys to the reader that how O Neill could not control his
movements and the use of the word ‘puppet’ suggests that his
descent was out of his control and he could not prevent it from
happening.

Look for similes, metaphors, sensory language, onomatopoeia, adjectives,


personification, alliteration etc.
Question 3: Summary question

Candidates summarise material in each of the passages, writing


approximately 1 side of A4 in total.

The summary question means to write concisely (in a small amount of words) and
using your own words (not copying or quoting).

Tips for success:

Locate – find the key points from the text using skimming and scanning.

Select - highlight or underline any information which will help you to answer the
question.

Order: put these points in the best order possible to answer the question, using
your own words

Write – your summary in sentences using your own words where possible

Make sure that you are reading the correct passage when answering this
question. Remember it needs to be concise. Highlight the information first
before you start writing.
Remember you need to look for 15 points:

(For this example there are only 10 – this is an old style


question)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9,

10.

You should write no more than one side in total.