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ESE 633

Statistics in Education


This Guide explains the basis on which you will be assessed in this course during the semester. It
contains details of the facilitator-marked assignment.

One element in the assessment strategy of the course is that all students should have the same
information as facilitators about the Assignment.

Please read through the whole guide.

Academic Writing

NOTE the following:

A) Plagiarism in all forms is forbidden. Students who submit plagiarised assignment will
be penalised.

i) What is Plagiarism?
Any written assignment (essays, project, take-home exams, etc) submitted by a student
must not be deceptive regarding the abilities, knowledge, or amount of work contributed by
the student. There are many ways that this rule can be violated. Among them are:
o Paraphrases: The student paraphrases a closely reasoned argument of an author
without acknowledging that he or she has done so. (Clearly, all our knowledge is
derived from somewhere, but detailed arguments from clearly identifiable sources
must be acknowledged.)
o Outright plagiarism: Large sections of the paper are simply copied from other
sources, and are not acknowledged as quotations.
o Other sources: often include essays written by other students or sold by
unscrupulous organizations. Quoting from such papers is perfectly legitimate if
quotation marks are used and the source is cited.
o Works by others: Taking credit deliberately or not deliberately for works produced
by another without giving proper acknowledgement. Works includes photographs,
charts, graphs, drawings, statistics, video-clips, audio-clips, verbal exchanges such
as interviews or lectures, performances on television and texts printed on the web.
o The student submits the same essay to two or more courses.

ii) How can I avoid Plagiarism?

o Insert quotation marks around ‘copy and paste’ clause, phrase, sentence, paragraph
and cite the original source.
o Paraphrase clause, phrase, sentence or paragraph in your own words and cite your
o Adhere to the APA (American Psychological Association) stylistic format,
whichever applicable, when citing a source and when writing out the bibliography
or reference page
o Attempt to write independently without being overly dependent of information from
another’s original works
o Educate yourself on what may be considered as common knowledge (no copyright
necessary), public domain (copyright has expired or not protected under copyright
law), or copyright (legally protected).

B) Documenting Sources
Whenever you quote, paraphrase, summarise, or otherwise refer to the work of another, you
are required to cite its original source documentation. Offered here are some of the most
commonly cited forms of material.

Simply having a thinking skill is no assurance that children will use it. In
order for such skills to become part of day-to-day behaviour, they must be
cultivated in an environment that value and sustains them. “Just as children’s
musical skills will likely lay fallow in an environment that doesn’t encourage
music, learner’s thinking skills tend to languish in a culture that doesn’t
encourage thinking” (Tishman, Perkins and Jay, 1995:5).

According to Wurman (1988), the new disease of the 21st century will be
information anxiety, which has been defined as the ever-widening gap
between what one understands and what one thinks one should understand.


All sources that you cite in your paper should be listed in the Reference section at the
end of your paper. Here’s how you should do your Reference.

From a Journal
DuFour, R. (2002). The learning-centred principal: Educational
Leadership, 59(8). 12-15.

From an Online Journal

Evnine, S. J. (2001). The universality of logic: On the connection between
rationality and logical ability [Electronic version]. Mind, 110, 335-367.
From a Webpage
National Park Service. (2003, February 11). Abraham Lincoln
Birthplace National Historic Site. Retrieved February 13, 2003,

From a Book
Naisbitt, J. and Aburdence, M. (1989). Megatrends 2000. London: Pan

From an Article in a Book

Nickerson, R. (1987). Why teach thinking? In J. B. Baron & R.J. Sternberg
(Eds). Teaching thinking skills: Theory and practice. New York: W.H.
Freeman and Company. 27-37.

From a Printed Newspaper

Holden, S. (1998, May 16). Frank Sinatra dies at 82: Matchless stylist of
pop. The New York Times, pp. A1, A22-A23.


Question 1: [4 marks]

A physical education teacher collected data on students’ height AND the span of jump (see Table
1 below:

Student Height (m) Span of jump (m)

Table 1: 1 1.63 2.34
2 1.80 2.48
3 1.75 2.29
4 1.86 2.62
5 1.83 2.64
6 1.71 2.30
7 1.75 2.44
8 1.96 2.67
9 1.60 2.39
10 1.68 2.47
11 1.80 2.60
12 1.87 2.75
13 1.74 2.40
14 1.67 2.46
15 1.64 2.33

a) What statistical procedure would you use to predict length of jump using height? Give
b) Explain clearly two assumptions that must be met in conducting the test that you have
identified in Q1(a). Why it is important these assumptions are met?

Question 2 [9 marks]

A researcher was interested in finding out whether attitude towards English would be enhanced
when students were taught using newspapers in education.

Table 1:
Table 1 : Mean Attitude Score before and after the intervention
N Mean Std. Std. Error
Deviation Mean
Pretest 30 18.50 5.33 0.97

Posttest 30 23.86 4.75 0.87

Table 2:

Table 2 : Paired t Test

Mean Std. Std. Error Lower Upper t df Sig.
Deviation Mean (2
Pretest -5.36 2.90 0.62 -6.65 -4.08 - 29 .000

See Table 1 and Table 2 and answer the following questions:

a) What is the statistical test used?

b) State the assumptions that should be met to use the above statistical test.

c) States the null hypothesis.

d) State the alternative hypothesis.

e) What can you conclude from the two tables?

Question 3 [7 marks]

A study was conducted to assess the logical reasoning ability of male and female undergraduates.
The results of the study are shown in Table 1 and 2.

Table 1

Gender N Mean Score on the Standard deviation p-value

Logical Reasoning Test

Male 35 72 7.2

Female 40 82 7.4

See Table 1 and answer the following:

a) What is the statistical test used?

b) Suggest one null hypothesis.

c) What can you conclude?

Table 2:
Gender Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk
Statistic df Sig. Statistic df Sig.
Spatial Male 0.879 34 0.012 0.971 78 0.016
Test Female 0.185 39 0.001 0.079 96 0.008
a. Lilliefors Significance Correction

Question 4 [5 marks]

See Table 2 above and answer the following:

a) What is the purpose of the statistical test used?

b) Explain the difference between ‘Kolmogorov-Smirnov’ and ‘Shapiro-Wilk’.

c) What can you conclude?

Question 5 [10 marks]

A researcher conducted a study skills course over a period of five days among a group of
beginners, intermediate and advanced speakers of English. At the end of the programme he
administered a test to determine which group of students benefited from the programme.

The results of the study was analysed using One-Way ANOVA and the results are shown in the
tables below:

Table 1

a) See Table 1 and answer the following questions:

i) State one research question for the study

ii) Why was the Oneway-ANOVA used?

iii) What can conclude from the above table?

iv) State the assumptions for using the One-way ANOVA.

Table 2

b) See Table 2 above and answer the following questions:

v) What can you conclude from the above table?

vi) What does the standard deviation tell you about the results?

vii) Explain the meaning of “95% confidence interval for mean”?

Table 3

c) See Table 3 above and answer the following questions:

viii) What is the meaning of “multiple comparison”?

ix) What can you conclude from Table 3?

x) Answer the Research Question stated in a (i)?

Question 6 [5 marks]

Spatial Memory Metacogniton Mathematical Verbal

Reasoning ability reasoning
Spatial reasoning
Memory 0.56
Metacognition 0,65 0.67
Mathematical 0.43 0.60 0.59 .
Verbal reasoning 0.34 0.41 0.49 0.70
A study was conducted to determine the relationships between spatial reasoning, memory,
metacognition, mathematical ability and verbal reasoning. The sample consisted of 80 males and
80 female 16 year old students. The Table above shows a correlation matrix between the five
variable. Based on the table answer the following questions:

a) State THREE research questions

b) Discuss the findings of the study.

Question 7

A researcher conducted a study to measure the Emotional Intelligence of a group

of 16-year old students. The sample consisted of 120 subjects; 60 males and 60
female subjects. In her study, the researcher defined Emotional Intelligence as
consisting of three factors or constructs; namely, Stress Tolerance, Optimism
and Emotional Self-awareness.

List THREE possible research objectives.

[6 marks]

Question 8.

State a hypothesis each using Emotional Intelligence as the dependent variable (as defined
by the factors Stress Tolerance, Optimism and Emotional Self-Awareness ) for the following:

i) Comparison according to Gender (Male & Female)

ii) Comparison according to Socioeconomic status (High, Middle & Low)
iii) Comparison according to Types of school (Rural & Urban)

[6 marks]

Question 9.

State the appropriate statistical tests to test the three hypotheses listed in Question 8.

[3 marks]

Question 10

State the assumptions required for the statistical test(s) used in Question 8.

[5 marks]



a) Format for the assignment:

a. New Times Roman font

b. 1½ spacing on A-4 paper

b) Submit as one pdf file to MyPLS.

c) Use cover page.

d) Keep a copy of your Assignment in a safe pace.

Cover page:



SUBJECT TITLE : Statistics in Education

LEVEL : Master of Education