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I. Problem 1: Tangential, Radial & Longitudinal Stresses in a


Cylindrical Vessel

This problem was analyzed by using both 2D and 3D Analyses. The set-up and results
for each analysis is given below.

A. 2D Analysis

The cylindrical vessel can be analyzed using 2D analysis. For this problem, sketch of the
rectangular cross section was created with the given dimensions. This is shown in Fig 1.
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Figure 1: Rectangular cross section with its mesh

After 2D rectangular surface was generated, it was exported to Mechanical and its
2D behavior was set to ‘2D axisymmetric’. After mesh was generated, temperature
boundary conditions were applied to the left and right edge of the rectangle. For this
analysis type, the left edge of rectangle represents the inner side of the vessel whereas
the right edge represents the outer side. The following thermal solutions were
retrieved.
i. Temperature Distribution

Figure 2: Temp. Distribution along thickness of vessel


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ii. Temperature at x = 0.2788 in

A new coordinate system was set with its origin at (0.2788, 0). Using a temperature
probe, with scoping method set to the new coordinate system called “Temp.
Location”, the temperature at the specified distance was determined.

Figure 3: Value of Temp. At x = 0.2788 in

iii. Max. and Min. Tangential Stress

In order to find thermal stresses developed within the vessel, the problem was
treated as a coupled problem. Importing results from thermal analysis, a new static
structural analysis was carried out. Frictionless supports were applied at the opposite
ends of the rectangle to limit deformation in the z-direction. The generated result is
shown below.

Figure 4 : Tangential Stress at inner layer (left edge) and outer layer (right edge)

FEA %
Results Theoretical Difference
(psi) (psi)
419.93 420 0.016666667
-194.59 -194 0.304123711
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iv. Max. Radial Stress

Figure 5: Max Radial Stress

The max radial stress was determined to be 85.981 psi

FEA
Results Theoretical % Difference
(psi) (psi)
85.981 87 1.171264368

v. Max. and Min. Longitudinal Stresses

FEA Results
(psi)
Max. 31380
Min. 30765
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Figure 6: Longitudinal Stresses

B. 3D Analysis

The cylindrical vessel was analyzed using 3D analysis. For this problem, half of the
cylindrical vessel was sketched and extruded by 5 in. This is shown in Fig 1.

Figure 7: 3D half vessel with mesh


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After 3D half cylinder was generated, it was exported to Mechanical. After mesh was
generated, temperature boundary conditions were applied to the inner and outer walls
of the cylinder. The following thermal solutions were retrieved.

i. Temperature Distribution

Figure 8: Temp. Distribution along thickness of vessel

ii. Temperature at x = 0.2788 in

A new coordinate system was set with its origin at (0.2788, 0). Using a
temperature probe, with scoping method set to the new coordinate system called
“Temp. Probe”, the temperature at the specified distance was determined.

Figure 9: Value of Temp. At x = 0.2788 in

In order to find thermal stresses developed within the vessel, the problem
was treated as a coupled problem. Importing results from thermal analysis, a new
static structural analysis was carried out. Symmetry condition was set at the two
faces that are parallel to the plane of cut of the cylinder.
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Frictionless supports were applied at the two bottom faces of vessel as shown
below:

Figure 10: Frictionless support faces

Displacement boundary condition was applied to the opposite faces in the longitudinal
direction to restrict deformation in the z- direction.

Figure 11: Displacement applied at face

The generated result is shown below.


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iii. Tangential Stress ( Inner Layer)

Figure 12 : Tangential Stress at inner layer

iv. Tangential Stress ( Outer Layer)

Figure 13: Tangential Stress at the Outer Wall

FEA
Results Theoretical % Difference
(psi) (psi)
418.78 420 0.29047619
-194.54 -194 0.278350515
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v. Max. Radial Stress

Figure 14: Radial Stress

The max radial stress was determined to be 86.121 psi

FEA %
Results Theoretical Difference
(psi) (psi)
86.121 87 1.010344

vi. Max. and Min. Longitudinal Stresses

Figure 15: Longitudinal Stress


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FEA Results
(psi)
Max. 31380
Min. 30765

It can be observed that the results for longitudinal stress are exactly alike for both 2D and
2D analysis.

II. Problem 2: Development of Cortical/Trabecular Bones around


Dental Implants

The dental implant was downloaded and the cortical/ trabecular layers were
sketched and generated around the implant in the Design Modeler of ANSYS. The model of
the bone is given in the picture below:
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Figure 16: Model

Figure 17: Trabecular Bone


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Figure 18: Cortical Bone

** The following volume percentage data is calculated from earlier results that were
generated without convergence. The current solution with convergence is taking significant
amount of time, therefore, I am presenting volume percentages of earlier results below
instead.

Trabecular Bone

No. of Elements Tot. Elements Vol. %


Disuse 4 149838 0.0027
Adapted 118751 149838 79.2529
Mild Overload 30947 149838 20.6536
Pathological
149838
Overload 136 0.0908
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Cortical Bone:

No. of Elements Tot. Elements Vol. %


Disuse 1107 32319 3.43
Adapted 15432 32319 47.7
Mild Overload 14976 32319 46.3
Pathological
32319
Overload 804 2.49