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1)MillingMachinesandOperations(Précis) 4 ·Introduction 5 ·TypesofMillingOperations 20 ·TheMillingProcess 31 ·Work-holdingmechanisms 72

2a)IntroductiontoCNCTechnology(Instructional) 90 I. CNC Milling 91 II. CNCProgramming 117 III.CNCVerticalMillInstallation 138

b)StandardOperatingProceduresforManual MillingMachines (Lecture) 191

I. SAFETYRULES 192

II. USINGTHEMACHINE 195

III.GENERALSHOPSAFETY 203

3a)MeasuringandGauging(Pamphlet) 206

b)OptimizingMillingOperations(Article) 276

Chip-BreakingPredictiveModelforThree-DimensionaGroovedInserts 277

Experiment-basedPredictiveModelofChip-BreakingLimit 298

AnalysisofMillingMachinechattervibrationreduction 317

CuttingStrategiesforCastingDieManufacturingonCNCMillingMachine 330

UsingPulsedjetminimumquantitylubricationsysteminmachining 365

Virtualtrainingenvironmentfora3-axisCNCMillingmachine 341

AppendixA

SpeedsandFeeds375

AppendixB MillingFormulas 381

AppendixC SampleChip-BreakingChartsofThree-dimensionalGroovedInserts 385

Millingisaprocessofproducingflatandcomplexshapeswiththeuseofmulti-tooth cuttingtool,whichiscalleda millingcutter andthecuttingedgesarecalled teeth. Unlikelathes,whichhavebeenknownforthousandsof years,millingmachinesareless thantwohundredyearsold. Becausetheyrequiremuchmorepowerthanhand-driven lathes, theirintroductionhadtowaitfortheinventionofindustrialwaterandsteam power.Also,alltheirmechanicalcomponentshadtofirstbemadeavailable,suchas accuratelyfittedslides,largecastingstoresist cuttingforces,calibratedleadscrews,and hardened steel cutting tools. Eli Whitney is credited with inventing the first milling machineabout1818,buttheknee-and-columnsupportarrangementofthe universal millingmachineofJosephA.Brown(later ofBrownandSharpe)datesfrom1862and marksanimportantstepinthemachine’sdevelopment.Duringthelasthalf of the nineteenthCentury,millingmachinesgraduallyreplacedshapersandplanerswhichhave lathe-type,single-pointtoolbitsthatmoveovertheworkinastraightlineandscrapeoff metalonestroke atatime.Millingmachines,withtheircontinuouscuttingaction,not onlyremovemetalfasterthanshapersandplaners,theyperform additionaloperations likecuttinghelicesforgearsandtwistdrills.Today,milling machinesgreatlyoutnumber shaping and planing machines. Americans in New England and later the midwest continuouslyaddedfeaturesleadingtothemodernmillingmachine.

continuouslyaddedfeaturesleadingtothemodernmillingmachine. (Brown&Sharpe)

(Brown&Sharpe)

Theaxisofrotationofthecuttingtoolisperpendiculartothedirectionoffeed,either parallelorperpendiculartothemachinedsurface.Themachinetoolthattraditionally performsthisoperationisa millingmachine.

90°Table-SwivelUniversalknee-typemillingmachine.(HumSeries)

90°Table-SwivelUniversalknee-typemillingmachine.(HumSeries)

Inmilling,eachtoothonatoolremovespartofthestockintheformofachip. Thebasic interfacebetweentoolandworkpartispicturedbelow. Thisshowsaonlyafewteethofa peripheralmillingcutter.

Basicsofaperipheral(slab)millingoperation.Workingofamillingmachineisbasedonthefactthatmillingcutteris

Basicsofaperipheral(slab)millingoperation.Workingofamillingmachineisbasedonthefactthatmillingcutteris

fedagainstworkpiece.Thisisachievedbydevelopingrelativemotionwithprecisecontrolbetweenworkpieceand

rotatingmillingcutter.Feedmotionisgenerallygiventotheworkpiecethroughitsholdingdevice.Cuttingmechanism

oftheworkpieceinmillingoperationsissameasthatinturningoperationonlathe.Thiscuttingtakesplacedueto

plasticdeformationofmetalbythecuttingtool.Millingmachinecanalsoholdmorethanonecutteratatime.The

holdingdeviceissupportedbymechanismthatcanofferaselectiveportionoftheworkpiecetomillingcutterforits

processing.Indexingisoneoftheexamplesofthistypeofprocessing.

(HARVEYTOOLCOMPANY,LLC) Cuttingvelocity V istheperipheralspeedofthecutterisdefinedby V =π DN where D is

(HARVEYTOOLCOMPANY,LLC)

Cuttingvelocity VistheperipheralspeedofthecutterisdefinedbyVDNwhereDis thecutterouterdiameter,andNistherotationalspeedofthecutter.Asinthecaseof turning,cuttingspeed Visfirstcalculatedorselectedfromappropriatereferencesources, andthentherotationalspeedofthecutterN,whichisusedtoadjustmillingmachine controlsiscalculated.Cuttingspeedsareusuallyintherangeof0.1~4 m/s, lower for difficult-to-cut materials and for rough cuts, and higher for non-ferrous easy-to-cut materialslikealuminumandforfinishingcuts.Threetypesoffeedinmillingcanbe identified: feed per tooth f z : the basic parameter in milling equivalent to the feed in turning. Feed per tooth is selected with regard to the surface finish and dimensional

accuracyrequired.Feedspertoothareintherangeof0.05~0.5mm/tooth,lowerfeedsare

forfinishingcuts;feedperrevolution f r :itdeterminestheamountofmaterialcutperone fullrevolutionofthemillingcutter.Feedperrevolutioniscalculatedas

f r =f z z

zbeingthenumberofthecutter’steeth;feedperminute f m :Feedperminuteiscalculated takingintoaccounttherotationalspeedNandnumberofthecutter’steethz,

f m =f z zN=f r N

Feedperminuteisusedtoadjustthefeedchangegears.

Millingisaninterruptedcuttingoperation:theteethofthemillingcutterenterandexitthe workduringeachrevolution. Thisinterruptedcuttingactionsubjectstheteethtoacycle of impact force and thermal shock on every rotation. The tool material and cutter geometrymustbedesignedtowithstandtheseconditions.Cuttingfluidsareessentialfor mostmillingoperations.machineisoneoftheimportantmachiningoperations.Inthis operationtheworkpieceisfedagainstarotatingcylindricaltool.Therotatingtoolconsists ofmultiplecuttingedges(multipointcuttingtool).Normallyaxisofrotationoffeedgiven totheworkpiece.Millingoperationisdistinguishedfromothermachiningoperationson thebasisoforientationbetweenthetoolaxisandthefeeddirection,however,inother operationslikedrilling,turning,etc.thetoolisfedinthedirectionparalleltoaxisof rotation.Thecuttingtoolusedinmillingoperationiscalledmillingcutter,whichconsists ofmultipleedgescalledteeth.Themachinetoolthatperformsthemillingoperationsby producingrequiredrelativemotionbetweenworkpieceandtooliscalledmillingmachine. Itprovidestherequiredrelativemotionunderverycontrolledconditions.Theseconditions willbediscussedlaterinthisunitasmillingspeed,feedrateanddepthofcut.Normally, themillingoperationcreatesplanesurfaces.Othergeometriescanalsobecreatedby millingmachine.

(BusyBeeTools) TypesofMillingOperations

(BusyBeeTools)

TypesofMillingOperations

Millingoperationsarebroadlyclassifiedasperipheralmillingandfacemilling:

PeripheralMilling.Thisoperationisalsocalledplainmillingoperation.Inthisoperation

axisofrotatingtoolisalwayskeptparalleltothesurfacebeingmachined.Thisoperation

isdonebythecuttingedgesonoutsideperipheryofthemillingcutter.Differenttypesof

peripheralmillingoperationsarepossibleasdescribedbelow.

SlabMilling.Inthismillingoperationthecutterwidthextendsbeyondtheworkpieceon

bothsides.

Slotting.Itisalsoatypeofmillingoperation,alsocalledasslotmillingoperation.Inthis

casewidthofthecutterislessthanthewidthofworkpiece.Itisusedtomakeslotinthe

workpiece.Thinslotscanbemadebyusingverythinmillingcutters.Theworkpiececan

becutintotwopiecesbymakingaverythinslotthroughoutthedepthofworkpiece.

Cuttingtheworkpiecethiswaybeslotmillingiscalledsawmilling.

SideMilling.Thecutterisusedformillingofsidesofaworkpiece.

StraddleMilling.Itisjustlikesidemillingwithdifferencethatcutting(millingoperation)

takesplacesimultaneouslyonboththesidesofworkpiece.

UpMilling.Itisalsocalledconventionalmillinginthiscasemovementofcutterteethis

oppositetothedirectionoffeedmotion.

DownMilling.Itisalsocalledclimbmilling.Inthiscasedirectionofcuttermotionisthe

samesothatofdirectionoffeedmotion.

Face Milling. In the operation of face milling, axis of the milling cutter remains perpendiculartothesurfacebeingmilled.Inthiscasecuttingactionisdonebycutting edgesofbothsides(endandoutside)peripheryofthemillingcutter.Dependinguponthe relative geometry of workpiece and milling cutter face milling is different types as describedbelow.

ConventionalFaceMilling.Inthiscasediameterofmillingcutterisgreaterthanthewidth

ofworkpiece.Themillingcutterremainsoverhangingonbothsidesofworkpiece.

PartialFace.MillingInthiscasethemillingcutteroverhangsontheworkpieceonone

sideonly.

EndMilling.Incaseofendmillingthin(lowdiameter)cutterareusedascomparedto

workpiecewidth.Itisusedtomakeslotintheworkpiece.

ProfileMilling.Thisisjustlikeendmillinginwhichtheoutersideperipheryofaflatpart

ismachined(milled).

PocketMilling.Thisisaselectiveportionmillingontheflatsurfaceofworkpieceusedto

makeshallowpacketsthere.

SurfaceContouring.Inthisoperationaballnosecutteriffeedbackandforthacrossthe

workpiecealongacurvilinearpathatshortintervals.Thiscreatestherequiredcontourson

thesurfaceofworkpiece.Thisoperationisusedtomakecontoursofmoldsanddiesand

thistimetheoperationisnamedasdiesinking.

thistimetheoperationisnamedas diesinking .

Twobasictypesofcolumn-and-kneemillingmachines,(Left)horizontal,and(Right)vertical.

TypesofMillingMachines.Millingmachinescanbeclassifiedintodifferentcategories depending upon their construction, specification and operations. The choice of any particularmachineisprimarilydeterminedbynatureoftheworktobedone,itssize, geometryandoperationstobeperformed.Thetypicalclassificationofmillingmachines on the basis of its construction is given below. The broader classification has three

categoriesandeachcategoryhasitssub-classificationsgivenbelow:

ColumnandKneeTypeMillingMachine

HeadmillingmachineColumnandKneeTypeMillingMachine Plainmillingmachine Universalmillingmachine

PlainmillingmachineColumnandKneeTypeMillingMachine Headmillingmachine Universalmillingmachine Omniversalmillingmachine

UniversalmillingmachineHeadmillingmachine Plainmillingmachine Omniversalmillingmachine Verticalmillingmachine

OmniversalmillingmachinePlainmillingmachine Universalmillingmachine Verticalmillingmachine FixedBedTypeMillingMachine

VerticalmillingmachineUniversalmillingmachine Omniversalmillingmachine FixedBedTypeMillingMachine Simplexmilling Duplexmilling

FixedBedTypeMillingMachine

SimplexmillingVerticalmillingmachine FixedBedTypeMillingMachine Duplexmilling Triplexmilling SpecialTypeMillingMachine

DuplexmillingFixedBedTypeMillingMachine Simplexmilling Triplexmilling SpecialTypeMillingMachine Rotarytablemilling

TriplexmillingFixedBedTypeMillingMachine Simplexmilling Duplexmilling SpecialTypeMillingMachine Rotarytablemilling Drummilling

SpecialTypeMillingMachine

RotarytablemillingDuplexmilling Triplexmilling SpecialTypeMillingMachine Drummilling Planetarymilling Tracercontrolledmilling

DrummillingTriplexmilling SpecialTypeMillingMachine Rotarytablemilling Planetarymilling Tracercontrolledmilling

PlanetarymillingSpecialTypeMillingMachine Rotarytablemilling Drummilling Tracercontrolledmilling

TracercontrolledmillingRotarytablemilling Drummilling Planetarymilling

Inadditiontoabovethreetypes,thereisonemoretypeofmillingmachine,theplanner

typemillingmachine,whichisrarelyused.

Inadditiontoabovethreetypes,thereisonemoretypeofmillingmachine,theplanner typemillingmachine,whichisrarelyused.

Amachiningcenterisahighlyautomatedmachinetoolcapableofperformingmultiplemachiningoperationsunder CNCcontrol. Thefeaturesthatmakeamachiningcenteruniqueincludethefollowing:

-Toolstorageunitcalledtoolmagazinethatcanholdupto120differentcuttingtools.

-Automatictoolchanger,whichisusedtoexchangecuttingtoolsbetweenthetoolmagazineandmachiningcenter

spindlewhenrequired.ThetoolchangeriscontrolledbytheCNCprogram.

-Automaticworkpartpositioning.Manyofmachiningcentersareequippedwitharotaryworktable,whichprecisely

positionthepartatsomeanglerelativetothespindle.Itpermitsthecuttertoperformmachiningonfoursidesofthepart.

ColumnandKneeTypeMillingMachine.Mainshapeofcolumnkneetypeofmilling machine consistsofabasehavingdifferentcontrolmechanismshousedtherein.Thebase consistsofaverticalcolumnatoneofitsend.Thereisonemorebaseabovethemainbase andattachedtothecolumnthatservesasworktableequippedwithdifferentattachmentsto holdtheworkpiece.Thisbasehavingworktableisidentifiedas“knee”ofthemilling machine.Atthetopofthecolumnandkneetypemillingmachinesareclassifiedaccording tothevariousmethodsofsupplyingpowertothetable,differentmovementsofthetable anddifferentaxisofrotationofthemainspindle.

HeadMillingMachine.Inthecaseofheadmillingmachinefeedmotionisgivenbyhand

andmovementsofthemachineareprovidedbymotor.Thisisasimpleandlightduty

millingmachineintendedforbasicoperations.

PlainMillingMachine.ThePlainmillingmachineissimilartothehandmillingmachine,

butfeedmovementcanbepower-controlledinadditiontomanualcontrol.

PlainMilling,alsocalledSurfaceMillingorSlabMilling,isthemillingofflatsurfaces

withthemillingcutteraxisparalleltothesurfacebeingmilled.Generally,plainmillingis

donewiththeworkpiecesurfacemountedparalleltothesurfaceofthemillingmachine

tableandthemillingcuttermountedonastandardmillingmachinearbor.Thearboris

wellsupportedinahorizontalplanebetweenthemillingmachinespindleandoneormore

arborsupports.

MountingtheWorkpiece.Theworkpieceisgenerallyclampeddirectlytothetableor supportedinaviseforplainmilling.Themillingmachinetableshouldbecheckedfor alignmentbeforestartingtocut.Iftheworkpiecesurfacetobemilledisatanangletothe baseplaneofthepiece,theworkpieceshouldbemountedinauniversalviseoronan adjustable angle plate. The holding device should be adjusted so that the workpiece surfaceisparalleltothetableofthemillingmachine.

SelectingtheCutter.Acarefulstudyofthedrawingmustbemadetodeterminewhatcutter isbestsuitedforthejob.Flatsurfacesmaybemilledwithaplainmillingcuttermounted onanarbor.Deepercutsmaygenerallybetakenwhenusingnarrowcuttersthanwithwide cutters. The choice of milling cutters should be based on the size and shape of the workpiece.Ifawideareaistobemilled,fewertraverseswillberequiredusingawide cutter.Iflargequantitiesofmetalaretoberemoved,acoarsetoothcuttershouldbeused forroughingandafinertoothcuttershouldbeusedforfinishing.Arelativelyslowcutting speedandfasttablefeedshouldbeusedforroughing,andarelativelyfastcuttingspeed andslowtablefeedusedforfinishing.Thesurfaceshouldbecheckedforaccuracyafter eachcompletedcut.

eachcompletedcut. Atypicalsetupforplainmilling.

Atypicalsetupforplainmilling.

Themillingcutterispositionedonthearborwithsleevessothatitisascloseaspractical

tothemillingmachinespindlewhilemaintainingsufficientclearancebetweentheviseand

themillingmachinecolumn.Thispracticereducestorqueinthearborandpermitsmore

rigidsupportforthecutter.

Column&KneetypeMillingMachines.Usedforgeneralpurposemillingoperations,columnandkneetypemilling
Column&KneetypeMillingMachines.Usedforgeneralpurposemillingoperations,columnandkneetypemilling

Column&KneetypeMillingMachines.Usedforgeneralpurposemillingoperations,columnandkneetypemilling

machinesarethemostcommonmillingmachines.Thespindletowhichthemillingcutterismaybehorizontal(left;slab

milling)orvertical(right;faceandendmilling).Thebasiccomponentsare:Worktable,onwhichtheworkpieceis

clampedusingtheT-slots.Thetablemoveslongitudinallywithrespecttothesaddle.Saddle,whichsupportsthetable

andcanmovetransversely.

Knee,whichsupportsthesaddleandgivesthetableverticalmovementsforadjustingthedepthofcut.

Overarminhorizontalmachines,whichisadjustabletoaccomadatedifferentarborlengths.

Head,whichcontainsthespindleandcutterholders.Inverticalmachinestheheadmaybefixedorverticallyadjustable.

Bridgeportsystems.Anotherimportantdevelopmentcame inthe1930swhenRudolph Bannow and Magnus Wahlstrom brought out the Bridgeport-style vertical milling machine.Thisdesignoffersversatilityandeconomy inplaceofthehighermetalremoval

rates oftraditionalhorizontal millingmachines.Becauseof thisversatility, thereare moreBridgeport-stylemillsinexistencetodaythan anyothermillingmachinedesign. Horizontal millsarenowusuallyreservedforproductionapplicationswherehighmetal

removalratesonidenticalpartsareneeded,notprototypingandshortruns.Bridgeport-

stylemachinesarealsocalled knee-and-columnmachines and turretmills.

stylemachinesarealsocalled knee-and-columnmachines and turretmills. Thekeyfeaturesofthesemachinesarea:

Thekeyfeaturesofthesemachinesarea:

• Knee-and-column supportforthemillingtable,whichprovidesverticalmotionof the workwithrespecttothetool.

• Saddlewhichsupportsthetableto providein-and-outmotionfromtheverticalcolumn.

• One-piecetoolheadwhichholdsthe motor,drivepulleys,andspindle.• Sliding overarms or rams wereeventuallyaddedtoallowthetoolheadtobemovedinorout withrespectto thevertical column.Some machineshaveprovisionsforthetoolheadto betiltedsidetosideorbacktofront.

betiltedsidetosideorbacktofront. TheBridgeport-stylemachineoffers

TheBridgeport-stylemachineoffers manyadvantagesovertheolderhorizontalmilling machinedesign:

• Thebiggestadvantageisthequill’s abilityto advanceandretractthecuttereasily

without crankingtoraiseandlowerthemillingtable.Thisspeedsproductionandreduces operator fatigue. Theretractablequillletstheoperatorquicklywithdrawthetool toclear chipsfrom aholeorcheckitsprogress. Tactilefeedbackthroughthequillfeedhandleor handwheelalsotellsthe machinisthowthetool iscuttingandletshim optimizefeed withlessdangeroftoolbreakage. Verticaltablemovementisstillavailableforhigh- accuracydepthadjustmentorwhenmore forceonthetoolisrequired.

• ThesecondlargestadvantageistheBridgeport-stylemachine’sabilitytomakeangle

cuts.Withthehorizontalmillingmachine,either themillingcutterismadeonan angle, ortheworkmustbepositionedatanangletothespindleaxis.WiththeBridgeport-style machinetheoperator merelyneedstotiltthespindle tomakean anglecut.Ofcourse, theBridgeportcanalsouseanangledcutteror mounttheworkonanangle.

• Verticalmillingmachinesmustusesmallercuttingtoolsthanhorizontalmillsbecause

theyhavelessrigid,lessmassivecastings,andlowerhorsepowermotors.Still,theycan

accomplishthesame endresults asthehorizontalmill,justmoreslowly.

• Verticalmillingmachinesareless complexthanhorizontalmachinesbecausetheone-

piecetoolheadeliminatestheneedforcomplicatedgearing inside theverticalcolumn.

• Bridgeport-typemillingmachinesusuallyhave1 to5-horsepowermotors,andsmaller castingsthanmosthorizontalmills.Because ofthis theygenerallycostless.

• Knee-and-column millsofferversatilityandeconomy inplaceof thehighmetal removalratesoftraditionalhorizontalmillingmachines.

Knee-and-column millsofferversatilityandeconomy inplaceof thehighmetal removalratesoftraditionalhorizontalmillingmachines.

Therearebetween15and36milling machinedesignsorstyles,depending onwhois counting,butthefocusofthis studyistheBridgeport-styleverticalkneemillbecause they aremostoftenusedin shopsdoing prototypingandR&Dwork.Theyoutnumberall otherdesignscombined.Thisdesignhassomuchtoofferthatithasbeencopied inevery industrializedcountry.

AworkingknowledgeofaBridgeport-styleverticalmillingmachinealsoprovidesagood startforoperating anyotherstylemillingmachine.Lathesand millsarecomplementary machines. While lathes rotate the workpiece and produce a cylindrical cut, milling machinesmoveworkintoarotatingcutterand makeastraightlinecut. Lathesand mills are both capableof boringlarge-diameterholes,butmills arebetter atplacingholes anywhereonthesurfaceofthework.Althoughone cansometimes makedowith justa latheor mill,awell-equippedshopmusthavebothmachines.Thelathecuttingtoolisin continuous contactwiththeworkandsomakesacontinuouscut.Milling machinesare just the opposite. They use multi-tooth cutting tools and their cutting action is intermittentaseachtoothtakesabite.Metalisremovedinsmallindividual chips.Unlike lathe cuttingtools,endmills,themostcommoncuttingtoolforBridgeport-stylemills, cannotbesharpenedfreehandbecausetheymustbeperfectlysymmetrical.Sharpening them requires specialfixturesand shapedgrindingwheels. Smallershopssendtheir cuttersoutforsharpening.Addingadigitalreadout(DRO)is agreatconveniencetoany millingmachine.Itreducestheneedtorepeatedlystopthe milltomakemeasurements and lowers the chance of errors. When reset to zero, the DRO displays the exact displacementfrom areferencepointon theworkpiecemakingitpossiblefortheoperator to work directly with the dimensions on his working drawing. For production applications,therearelarge,expensivemillingmachineswiththreeormoreaxesunder computer control. Some machines perform all operations including automatic tool changing.However,todaythereisanintermediate stepbetweenamanualmillandafully automatedone.Addingacomputer,digitalreadouts,andactuatorsto theX-andY-axesof aBridgeport-stylemilldoesthis.Notonlycanthisenhancedmachinetirelesslyperform allitsexistingrepetitivefunctions, italso hasaddednewcapabilities.Nowthemillcan engrave(drivethetool tocutnumbersandletters in varioussizesandfonts),cutradii andangleswithoutarotarytable,makeislands,pockets,andcutellipses,andframes. Entering the position, diameter and number of holes, automates cutting a bolt-hole pattern;thesystem doesthemath.Thecomputercan automaticallycompensateforthe reduceddiameterof resharpenedmilling cutters,savingtimeandmoney.

The system can be manually programmed through its control panel, use stored programs,“learn”new tasks by memorizing a series of manual operations as the operatormakesthefirstpart,oracceptfilesfrom CADprograms.

TheMillingProcess

TheMillingProcess

Modernmillingisaveryuniversalmachiningmethod.Duringthepastfewyears,hand-in-

handwithmachinetooldevelopments,millinghasevolvedintoamethodthatmachinesa

verybroadrangeofconfigurations.Thechoiceofmethodstodayinmulti-axismachinery

isnolongerstraightforward–inadditiontoalltheconventionalapplications,millingisa

strongcontenderforproducingholes,cavities,surfacesthatusedtobeturned,threads,etc.

Toolingdevelopmentshavealsocontributedtothenewpossibilitiesalongwiththegains

inproducitivity,reliablityandqualityconsistencythathavebeenmadeinindexableinsert

andsolidcarbidetechnology.

Millingisprincipallymetalcuttingperformedwitharotating,multi-edgecuttingtool which performs programmed feed movements against a workpiece in almost any direction. It is this cutting action that makes milling such an efficient and versatile machiningmethod.Eachofthecuttingedgesremoveacertainamountofmetal,witha limitedin-cutengaugement,makingchipformationandevacuationasecondaryconcern. Mostfrequentlystill,millingisappliedtogenerateflatfaces–asinfacemilling-butother formsandsurfacesareincreasingsteadilyasthenumberoffive-axismachiningcentres andmulti-taskmachinesgrow.

ClassificationofMillingCutters.Millingcuttersareusuallymadeofhigh-speedsteeland

areavailableinagreatvarietyofshapesandsizesforvariouspurposes.Youshouldknow

thenamesofthemostcommonclassificationsofcutters,theiruses,and,inageneralway,

thesizesbestsuitedtotheworkathand.

thesizesbestsuitedtotheworkathand.

Twoviewsofacommonmillingcutterwithitspartsandanglesidentified.Thesepartsandanglesinsomeformare

commontoallcuttertypes.Thepitchreferstotheangulardistancebetweenlikeoradjacentteeth.

Thepitchisdeterminedtoothfaceistheforwardformsthecuttingedge.bythenumberofteeth.facingsurfaceofthe

toothThethatThecuttingedgeistheangleoneachtooththatperformsthecutting.Thelandisthenarrowsurface

behindthecuttingedgeoneachtooth.Therakeangleistheangleformedbetweenthefaceofthetoothandthe

centerlineofthecutter.Therakeangledefinesthecuttingedgeandprovidesapathforchipsthatarecutfromthe

workpiece.Theprimaryclearanceangleistheangleofthelandofeachtoothmeasuredfromalinetangenttothe

centerlineofthecutteratthecuttingedge.Thisanglepreventseachtoothfromrubbingagainsttheworkpieceafterit

makesitscut.Thisangledefinesthelandofeachtoothandprovidesadditionalclearanceforpassageofcuttingoiland chips.Theholediameterdeterminesthesizeofthearbornecessarytomountthemillingcutter.Plainmillingcuttersthat

aremorethan3/4inchinwidthareusuallymadewithspiralorhelicalteeth.Aplainspiral-toothmillingcutterproduces

abetterandsmootherfinishandrequireslesspowertooperate.Aplainhelicaltoothmillingcutterisespeciallydesirable

whenmillinganunevensurfaceoronewithholesinit.

Theteethofmillingcuttersmaybemadeforright-handorleft-handrotation,andwith eitherright-handorleft-handhelix.Determinethehandofthecutterbylookingattheface of the cutter when mounted on the spindle. A right-hand cutter must rotate counterclockwise;aleft-handcuttermustrotateclockwise.Theright-handhelixisshown bytheflutesleadingtotheright;aleft-handhelixisshownbytheflutesleadingtotheleft. Thedirectionofthehelixdoesnotaffectthecuttingabilityofthecutter,buttakecareto seethatthedirectionofrotationiscorrectforthehandofthecutter.

seethatthedirectionofrotationiscorrectforthehandofthecutter.

SawTeeth.Sawteeth areeitherstraightorhelicalinthesmallersizesofplainmilling cutters,metalslittingsawmillingcutters,andendmillingcutters.Thecuttingedgeis

usuallygivenabout5degreesprimaryclearance.Sometimestheteethareprovidedwith

off-setnickswhichbreakupchipsandmakecoarserfeedspossible.

HelicalMillingCutters.Thehelicalmillingcutterissimilar,totheplainmillingcutter,but

theteethhaveahelixangleof45°to60°.Thesteephelixproducesashearingactionthat

resultsinsmooth,vibration-freecuts.Theyareavailableforarbormounting,orwithan

integralshankwithorwithoutapilot.Thistypeofhelicalcutterisparticularlyusefulfor

millingelongatedslotsandforlightcutsonsoftmetal.

MetalSlittingSawMillingCutter.Themetalslittingsawmillingcutterisessentiallya verythinplainmillingcutter.Itisgroundslightlythinnertowardthecentertoprovideside clearance.Thesecuttersareusedforcutoffoperationsandformillingdeep,narrowslots,

andaremadeinwidthsfrom1/32to3/16inch.

SideMillingCutters.Sidemillingcuttersareessentiallyplainmillingcutterswiththe

additionofteethononeorbothsides.Aplainsidemillingcutterhasteethonbothsides

andontheperiphery.Whenteethareaddedtoonesideonly,thecutteriscalledahalf-side

millingcutterandisidentifiedasbeingeitheraright-handorleft-handcutter.Sidemilling

cuttersaregenerallyusedforslottingandstraddlemilling.Interlockingtoothsidemilling

cuttersandstaggeredtoothsidemillingcuttersareusedforcuttingrelativelywideslots

withaccuracy.

Interlockingtoothsidemillingcutterscanberepeatedlysharpenedwithoutchangingthe

widthoftheslottheywillmachine.Aftersharpening,awasherisplacedbetweenthetwo

cutterstocompensateforthegroundoffmetal.

EndMillingCutters.Theendmillingcutter,alsocalledanendmill,hasteethontheend

aswellastheperiphery.Thesmallerendmillingcuttershaveshanksforchuckmounting

ordirectspindlemounting.Endmillingcuttersmayhavestraightorspiralflutes.

Spiralfluteendmillingcuttersareclassifiedaslefthandorright-handcuttersdepending

onthedirectionofrotationoftheflutes.Iftheyaresmallcutters,theymayhaveeithera

straightortaperedshank.

Themostcommonendmillingcutteristhespiralflutecuttercontainingfourflutes.Two-

fluteendmillingcutters,sometimesreferredtoastwo-lipendmillcutters,areusedfor

millingslotsandkeywayswherenodrilledholeisprovidedforstartingthecut.These

cuttersdrilltheirownstartingholes.

Straight flute end milling cutters are generally used for milling both soft or tough materials,whilespiralflutecuttersareusedmostlyforcuttingsteel.

Largeendmillingcutters(normallyover2inchesindiameter)arecalledshellendmills

andarerecessedonthefacetoreceiveascrewornutformountingonaseparateshankor

mountingonanarbor,likeplainmillingcutters.Theteethareusuallyhelicalandthecutter

isusedparticularlyforfacemillingoperationsrequiringthefacingoftwosurfacesatright

anglestoeachother.

T-Slot Milling Cutter. The T-slot milling cutter is used to machine T-slot grooves in worktables,fixtures,andotherholdingdevices.Thecutterhasaplainorsidemilling cuttermountedtotheendofanarrowshank.ThethroatoftheT-slotisfirstmilledwitha sideorendmillingcutterandtheheadspaceisthenmilledwiththeT-slotmillingcutter.

WoodruffKeyslotMillingCutters.TheWoodruffkeyslotmillingcutterismadeinstraight,

tapered-shank,andarbor-mountedtypes.Themostcommoncuttersofthistype,under1

1/2inchesindiameter,areprovidedwithashank.Theyhaveteethontheperipheryand

slightly concave sides to provide clearance. These cutters are used for milling semicylindricalkeywaysinshafts.

Angle Milling Cutters.The angle milling cutter has peripheral teeth which are neither parallel nor perpendicular to the cutter axis. See Figure 8-8. Common operations performedwithanglecuttersarecuttingV-notchesandserration’s.Anglecuttersmaybe single-angle milling cutters or double-angle milling cutters. The single-angle cutter containsside-cuttingteethontheflatsideofthecutter.Theangleofthecutteredgeis

usually30°,45°,or60°,bothrightandleft.Double-anglecuttershaveincludedangles

of45,60,and90degrees.

GearHob.Thegearhobisaformedtoothmillingcutterwithhelicalteetharrangedlike

thethreadonascrew.Theseteeth-areflutedtoproducetherequiredcuttingedges.Hobs

aregenerallyusedforsuchworkasfinishingspurgears,spiralgears,andwormgears.

Theymayalsobeusedtocutratchetsandsplineshafts.

ConcaveandConvexMillingCutters.Concaveandconvexmillingcuttersareformed

toothcuttersshapedtoproduceconcaveandconvexcontoursof1/2circleorless.Thesize

ofthecutterisspecifiedbythediameterofthecircularformthecutterproduces.

Roughing millingcutter. (DormerPramet)

Roughing millingcutter. (DormerPramet)

Roughing millingcutter. (DormerPramet) Hhelicalmillingtool.(Datron)

Hhelicalmillingtool.(Datron)

Fingerjointmillingcutter. (Weiss) Burrmillingcutter.(Fiudi)

Fingerjointmillingcutter. (Weiss)

Fingerjointmillingcutter. (Weiss) Burrmillingcutter.(Fiudi)

Burrmillingcutter.(Fiudi)

Drillingmillingtool.(Starcut) Gearcuttingmillingtool.(Knuth)

Drillingmillingtool.(Starcut)

Drillingmillingtool.(Starcut) Gearcuttingmillingtool.(Knuth)

Gearcuttingmillingtool.(Knuth)

Roughingmillingcutter(DormerPramet) Slotmillingcutter.(Mikron)

Roughingmillingcutter(DormerPramet)

Roughingmillingcutter(DormerPramet) Slotmillingcutter.(Mikron)

Slotmillingcutter.(Mikron)

Threadmillingcutter.(OSG) CornerRoundingMillingCutter. Thecorner-roundingmillingcutterisaformedtooth

Threadmillingcutter.(OSG)

CornerRoundingMillingCutter.Thecorner-roundingmillingcutterisaformedtooth

cutterusedformillingroundedcornersonworkplacesuptoandincludingone-quarterofa

circle.Thesizeofthecutterisspecifiedbytheradiusofthecircularformthecutter

produces,suchasconcaveandconvexcuttersgenerallyusedforsuchworkasfinishing

spurgears,spiralgears,andwormwheels.Theymayalsobeusedtocutratchetsand

splineshafts.

SpecialShaped-FormedMilling Cutter.Formedmillingcuttershavetheadvantageof beingadaptabletoanyspecificshapeforspecialoperations.Thecutterismadespecially foreachspecificjob.Inthefield,aflycutterisformedbygrindingasinglepointlathe cutterbitformountinginabar,holder,orflycutterarbor.Thecuttercanbesharpened manytimeswithoutdestroyingitsshape.

SelectionofMillingCutters.Considerthefollowingwhenchoosingmillingcutters:High-

speed steel, stellite, and cemented carbide cutters have a distinct advantage of being capableofrapidproductionwhenusedonamachinethatcanreachtheproperspeed.

45°angularcutsmayeitherbemadewitha45°single-anglemillingcutterwhilethe

workpieceisheldinaswivelvise,orwithanendmillingcutterwhiletheworkpieceisset attherequiredangleinauniversalvise.Theharderthematerial,thegreaterwillbethe heat that is generated in cutting. Cutters should be selected for their heat-resisting properties;useacoarse-toothmillingcutterforroughingcutsandafiner-toothedmilling cutterforlightcutsandfinishingoperations.Whenmillingstocktolength,thechoiceof usingapairofsidemillingcutterstostraddletheworkpiece,asingle-sidemillingcutter, oranendmillingcutterwilldependuponthenumberofpiecestobecut.Someoperations canbedonewithmorethanonetypeofcuttersuchasinmillingthesquareendonashaft orreamershank.Inthiscase,oneortwosidemillingcutters,aflycutter,oranendmilling cuttermaybeused.However,forthemajorityofoperations,cuttersarespeciallydesigned andnamedfortheoperationtheyaretoaccomplish.

Themillingcuttershouldbesmallenoughindiametersothatthepressureofthecutwill

notcausetheworkpiecetobesprungordisplacedwhilebeingmilled.

SizeofMillingCutter.Inselectingamillingcutterforaparticularjob,chooseonelarge

enoughtospantheentireworksurfacesothejobcanbedonewithasinglepass.Ifthis

cannotbedone,rememberthatasmalldiametercutterwillpassoverasurfaceinashorter

timethanalargediametercutterwhichisfedatthesamespeed.

CareandMaintenanceofMillingCutters.Thelifeofamillingcuttercanbegreatly prolongedbyintelligentuseandproperstorage. Newcuttersreceivedfromstockare usuallywrappedinoilpaperwhichshouldnotberemoveduntilthecutterisused.Take caretooperatethemachineattheproperspeedforthecutterbeingused,asexcessive speedwillcausethecuttertowearrapidlyfromoverheating.Takecaretopreventthe cutterfromstrikingthehardjawsofthevise,chuck,clampingbolts,ornuts.Whenever practical,usethepropercuttingoilonthecutterandworkpieceduringoperations,since lubricationhelpspreventoverheatingandcutterwear.Keepcutterssharp.Dullcutters requiremorepowertodriveandthispower,beingtransformedintoheat,softensthe cutting edges. Dull cutters should be marked as such and set aside for grinding. Thoroughlycleanandlightlycoatmillingcutterswithoilbeforestoring.Placecuttersin drawersorbinssothattheircuttingedgeswillnotstrikeeachother.Hangsmallcutterson hooksorpegs,andsetlargecuttersonend.Placetaperandstraightshankcuttersin separatedrawers,bins,orracksprovidedwithsuitablesizedholestoreceivetheshanks. Never operate a cutter backwards. Due to the clearance angle, the cutter will rub, producingagreatdealoffriction.Operatingthecutterbackwardmayresultincutter

breakage.

Arbors.Millingmachinearborsaremadeinvariouslengthsandinstandarddiametersof

7/8,1,11/4,and11/2inch.Theshankismadetofitthetaperholeinthespindlewhilethe

otherendisthreaded.

NOTE:Thethreadedendmayhaveleftorright-handedthreads.

Themillingmachinespindlemaybeself-holdingorselfreleasing.Theself-holdingtaper is held in the spindle by the high wedging force. The spindle taper in most milling machinesisself-releasing;toolingmustbeheldinplacebyadrawboltextendingthrough thecenterofthespindle.Arborsaresuppliedwithoneofthreetaperstofitthemilling machinespindle:theStandardMillingMachinetaper,theBrownandSharpetaper,andthe BrownandSharpetaperwithtang.

TheStandardMillingMachineTaperisusedonmostmachinesofrecentmanufacture.

Thesetapersareidentifiedbythenumber30,40,50,or60.Number50isthemost

commonlyusedsizeonallmodernmachines.

Machine tapers. The Brown and Sharpe taper is found mostly on older machines. Adaptersorcolletsareusedtoadaptthesetaperstofitmachineswhosespindleshave StandardMilling.

The Brown and Sharpe taper with tang is used on some older machines. The tang engaugesaslotinthespindletoassistindrivingthearbor.

Standard Milling Machine Arbor. The standard milling machine arbor has a tapered, cylindricalshaftwithastandardmillingtaperonthedrivingendandathreadedportionon theoppositeendtoreceivethearbornut.Oneormoremillingcuttersmaybeplacedon thestraightcylindricalportionofthearborandheldinpositionbysleevesandthearbor nut.Thestandardmillingmachinearborisusuallysplinedandkeysareusedtolockeach cuttertothearborshaft.Thesearborsaresuppliedinthreestyles,variouslengthsand, standarddiameters.Themostcommonwaytofastenthearborinthemillingmachine spindleistouseadrawbar.Thebarthreadsintothetapershankofthearbortodrawthe taperintothespindleandholditinplace.Arborssecuredinthismannerareremovedby backingoutthedrawbarandtappingtheendofthebartoloosenthetaper.Theendofthe arboroppositethetaperissupportedbythearborsupportsofthemillingmachine.Oneor moresupportsreuseddependingonthelengthofthearborandthedegreeofrigidity required.Theendmaybesupportedbyalathecenterbearingagainstthearbornutorbya

bearingsurface0fthearborfittinginsideabushingofthearborsupport.Thearbormay

alsobefirmlysupportedasitturnsinthearborsupportbearingsuspendedfromtheover-

arm. StyleAhasacylindricalpilotontheendthatrunsinabronzebearinginthearbor support.Thisstyleismostlyusedonsmallmillingmachinesorwhenmaximumarbor supportclearanceisrequired.StyleBischaracterizedbyoneormorebearingcollarsthat canbepositionedtoanypartofthearbor.Thisallowsthebearingsupporttobepositioned closetothecutter,to-obtainrigidsetupsinheavydutymillingoperations).StyleCarbors areusedtomountthesmallersizemillingcutters,suchasendmillsthatcannotbebolted directlyonthespindlenose.Usetheshortestarborpossibleforthework.

ScrewArbor.Screwarborsareusedtoholdsmallcuttersthathavethreadedholes. These arborshaveatapernexttothethreadedportiontoprovidealignmentandsupportfortools thatrequireanuttoholdthemagainstatapersurface.Aright-handthreadedarbormustbe usedforrighthandcutterswhilealeft-handthreadedarborisusedtomountleft-hand cutters.

Screwarborsareusedtoholdsmallcuttersthathavethreadedholes.Thesearborshavea

tapernexttothethreadedportiontoprovidealignmentandsupportfortoolsthatrequirea

nuttoholdthemagainstatapersurface.Aright-handthreadedarbormustbeusedfor

right-handcutterswhilealeft-handthreadedarborisusedtomountleft-hand.

Theslittingsawmillingcutterarbor isashortarborhavingtwoflangesbetweenwhich themillingcutterissecuredbytighteningaclampingnut.Thisarborisusedtoholdmetal

slittingsawmillingcuttersusedforslotting,slitting,andsawingoperations.Theshellend

millingcutterarborhasaboreintheendinwhichshellendmillingcuttersfitandare

lockedinplacebymeansofacapscrew.Theflycutterarborisusedtosupportasingle-

edgelathe,shaper,orplanercutterbitforboringandgearcuttingoperationsonthemilling

machine.

Collets,SpindleAdapters,andQuick-ChangeTooling

Millingcuttersthatcontaintheirownstraightortaperedshanksaremountedtothemilling

machinespindlewithcollets,spindleadapters,andquick-changetoolingwhichadaptsthe

cuttershanktothespindle.

Collets

Acolletisaformofasleevebushingforreducingthesizeoftheholeinthemilling

machinespindlesothatsmallshanktoolscanbefittedintolargespindlerecesses.They

aremadeinseveralforms,similartodrillingmachinesocketsandsleeves,exceptthat

theirtapersarenotalike.

SpindleAdapters

Aspindle adapter is a form of a collet having a standardized spindle end. They are availableinawidevarietyofsizestoacceptcuttersthatcannotbemountedonarbors. TheyaremadewitheithertheMorsetapershankortheBrownandSharpetaperwithtang havingastandardspindleend.

ChuckAdapter.Achuckadapterisusedtoattachchuckstomillingmachineshavinga

standardspindleend.Thecolletholderissometimesreferredtoasacolletchuck.Various

formsofchuckscanbefittedtomillingmachinesspindlesforholdingdrills,reamers,and

smallcuttersforspecialoperations.

Quick-ChangeTooling

Thequick-changeadaptermountedonthespindlenoseisusedtospeeduptoolchanging.

Toolchangingwiththissystemallowsyoutosetupanumberofmillingoperationssuch

asdrilling,endmilling,andboringwithoutchangingthesetupofthepartbeingmachined.

Thetoolholdersaremountedandremovedfromamasterholdermountedtothemachine

spindlebymeansofaclampingring.

Vises

Eitheraplainorswivel-typevise(discussedatlengthlaterinthisprécis)isfurnished witheachmillingmachine.Theplainvise,similartothemachinetablevise,isusedfor millingstraightworkplacesandisboltedtothemillingmachinetableeitheratrightangles orparalleltothemachinearbor.Theswivelvisecanberotatedandcontainsascale graduated in degrees at its base to facilitate milling workplaces at any angle on a horizontal plane. The universal vise, which may be obtained as extra equipment, is designedsothatitcanbesetatbothhorizontalandverticalangles.Thistypeofvise maybeusedforflatandangularmilling.

Theallsteelviseisthestrongestsetupbecausetheworkpieceisclampedclosertothe

table.Thevisecansecurelyfastencastings,forgings,andrough-surfacedworkplaces.The

jawcanbepositionedinanynotchonthetwobarstoaccommodatedifferentshapesand

sizes.Theairorhydraulicallyoperatedviseisusedmoreofteninproductionwork.This

typeofviseeliminatestighteningbystrikingthecrankwithaleadhammerorothersoft

facehammer.

Adjustable AnglePlate.Theadjustableangleplateisaworkpieceholdingdevice,similar totheuniversalviseinoperation.WorkpiecesaremountedtotheangleplatewithT-bolts andclampsinthesamemannerusedtofastenworkplacestotheworktableofthemilling machine.Theangleplatecanbeadjustedtoanyanglesothatbevelsandtaperscanbecut withoutusingaspecialmillingcutteroranadjustablecutterhead.

IndexingFixture.Theindexfixture consistsofanindexhead,alsocalledadividinghead, andfootstockwhichissimilartothetailstockofalathe.Theindexheadandfootstock attachtotheworktableofthemillingmachinebyT-slotbolts.Anindexplatecontaining graduationsisusedtocontroltherotationoftheindexheadspindle.Theplateisfixedto theindexhead,andanindexcrank,connectedtotheindexheadspindlebyawormgear andshaft.Workpiecesareheldbetweencentersbytheindexheadspindleandfootstock. Workpiecesmayalsobeheldinachuckmountedtotheindexheadspindleormaybe fitteddirectlyintothetaperspindlerecessofsomeindexingfixtures.Therearemany variationsoftheindexingfixture.Universalindexheadisthenameappliedtoanindex headdesignedtopermitpowerdriveofthespindlesothathelixesmaybecutonthe millingmachine.Gearcuttingattachmentisanothernameappliedtoanindexingfixture; inthiscase,onethatisprimarilyintendedforcuttinggearsonthemillingmachine.

High-SpeedMilingAttachment

Therateofspindlespeedofthemillingmachinemaybeincreasedfrom11/2to6times

by using the high-speed milling attachment. This attachment is essential when using cuttersandtwistdrillswhichmustbedrivenatahighrateofspeedinordertoobtainan efficientsurfacespeed.Theattachmentisclampedtothecolumnofthemachineandis drivenbyasetofgearsfromthemillingmachinespindle.

Vertical Spindle Attachment. This attachment converts the horizontal spindle of a horizontalmillingmachinetoaverticalspindle.Itisclampedtothecolumnanddriven fromthehorizontalspindle.Itincorporatesprovisionsforsettingtheheadatanyangle, fromtheverticaltothehorizontal,inaplaneatrightanglestothemachinespindle.End millingandfacemillingaremoreeasilyaccomplishedwiththisattachment,becausethe cutterandthesurfacebeingcutareinplainview.

UnversalMillingAttachment.Thisdeviceissimilartotheverticalspindleattachmentbut

ismoreversatile.Thebutterheadcanbeswiveledtoanyangleinanyplane,whereasthe

verticalspindleattachmentonlyrotatesinoneplacefromhorizontaltovertical.

Rotary Table or Circular Milling Attachment. This attachment consists of a circular worktablecontainingT-slotsformountingworkplaces.Thecirculartablerevolvesona baseattachedtothemillingmachineworktable.Theattachmentcanbeeitherhandor powerdriven,beingconnectedtothetabledriveshaftifpowerdriven.Itmaybeusedfor millingcircles,angularindexing,arcs,segments,circularslots,grooves,andradii,aswell as for slotting internal and external gears. The table of the attachment is divided in degrees.

OffsetBoringHead.Boring,anoperationthatistoooftenrestrictedtoalathe,canbedone

easilyonamillingmachine.Theoffsetboringheadisanattachmentthatfitstothemilling

machinespindleandpermitsmostdrilledholestohaveabettersurfacefinishandgreater

diameteraccuracy.

OffsetBoringHeadandTools.Theboringbarcanbeadjustedat rightangletothespindle axis.Thisfeaturemakesitpossibletopositiontheboringcutteraccuratelytoboreholesof varyingdiameters.Thisadjustmentismoreconvenientthanadjustingthecutterinthe boringbarholderorchangingtheboringbar.Anotheradvantageoftheoffsetboringhead isthefactthatagraduatedmicrometercollarallowsthetooltobemovedaccuratelya

specifiedamount(usuallyinincrementsof0.001)withouttheuseofadialindicatoror

othermeasuringdevice.

NOTE:Onsomeboringheads,thereadingonthetoolslideisadirectreading.Onother

boringheads,thetoolslideadvancestwicetheamountshownonthemicrometerdial.

MountingandIndexingWork

Anefficientandpositivemethodofholdingworkplacestothemillingmachinetableis

importantifthemachinetoolistobeusedtoitsfullestadvantage.Themostcommon

methodsofholdingareclampingaworkpiecetothetable,clampingaworkpiecetothe

angleplate,clampingtheworkpieceinfixtures,holdingaworkpiecebetweencenters,

holdingtheworkpieceinachuck,andholdingtheworkpieceinavise.Regardlessofthe

methodusedinholding,therearecertainfactorsthatshouldbeobservedineverycase.

Theworkpiecemustnotbesprunginclamping,itmustbesecuredtopreventitfrom

springingormovingawayfromthecutter,anditmustbesoalignedthatitmaybe

correctlymachinedT-slots,MillingmachineworktablesareprovidedwithseveralT-slots

whichareusedeitherforclampingandlocatingtheworkpieceitselforformountingthe

variousholdingdevicesandattachments.TheseT-slotsextendthelengthofthetableand

areparalleltoitslineoftravel.Mostmillingmachineattachments,suchasvisesandindex

fixtures,havekeysortonguesontheundersideoftheirbasessothattheymaybelocated

correctlyinrelationtotheT-slots.

Indexing. Indexing is the process of evenly dividing the circumference of a circular workpieceintoequallyspaceddivisions,suchasincuttinggearteeth,cuttingsplines, millinggroovesinreamersandtaps,andspacingholesonacircle.Theindexheadofthe indexingfixtureisusedforthispurpose.

IndexHead.Theindexheadoftheindexingfixturecontainsanindexingmechanism which is used to control the rotation of the index head spindle to space or divide a

workpieceaccurately.Asimpleindexingmechanismconsistsofa40-toothwormwheel

fastenedtotheindexheadspindle,asingle-cutworm,acrankforturningthewormshaft,

andanindexplateandsector.Sincethereare40teethinthewormwheel,oneturnofthe

indexcrankcausestheworm,andconsequently,theindexheadspindletomake1/40ofa

turn;so40turnsoftheindexcrankrevolvethespindleonefullturn.

IndexPlate.Theindexingplate isaroundplatewithaseriesofsixormorecirclesof equallyspacedholes;theindexpinonthecrankcanbeinsertedinanyholeinanycircle. Withtheinterchangeableplatesregularlyfurnishedwithmostindexheads,thespacing necessaryformostgears,boltheads,millingcutters,splines,andsoforthcanbeobtained. Thefollowingsetsofplatesarestandardequipment:

BrownandSharpetypeconsistsof3platesof6circleseachdrilledasfollows:PlateI-15,

16,17,18,19,20holesPlate2-21,23,27,29,31,33holesPlate3-37,39,41,43,47,49

holesCincinnatitypeconsistsofoneplatedrilledonbothsideswithcirclesdividedas

follows:Firstside-24,25,28,30,34,37,38,39,41,42,43holesSecondside-46,47,49,

51,53,54,57,58,59,62,66holesSectorThesectorindicatesthenextholeinwhichthe

pinistobeinsertedandmakesitunnecessarytocountholeswhenmovingtheindexcrank

aftereachcut.Itconsistsoftworadial,beveledarmswhichcanbesetatanyangletoeach

otherandthenmovedtogetheraroundthecenteroftheindexplate.

Supposethatitisdesiredtomakeaseriesofcuts,movingtheindexcrank11/4turnsafter

eachcut.Sincethecircleillustratedhas20holes,turnthecrankonefullturnplusfive

spacesaftereachcut,Setthesectorarmstoincludethedesiredfractionalpartofaturnor

fivespacesbetweenthebevelededgesofitsarms,asshown.Ifthefirstcutistakenwith

theindexpinagainsttheleft-handarm,totakethenextcut,movethepinonceagainstthe

right-handarmofthesector.Beforetakingthesecondcut,movethearmssothattheleft-

handarmisagainagainstthepin;thismovestheright-handarmanotherfivespacesahead

ofthepin.Thentakethesecondcut,andrepeattheoperationuntilallthecutshavebeen

completed.

NOTE:Itisgoodpracticealwaystoindexclockwiseontheplatetoeliminatebacklash.

PlainIndexing.Thefollowingprinciplesapplytobasicindexingofworkpieces:Suppose

itisdesiredtomillaprojectwitheightequallyspacedteeth.Since40turnsoftheindex

crankwillturnthespindleonefullturn,l/8thof40or5turnsofthecrankaftereachcut

willspacethegearfor8teeth,Ifitisdesiredtospaceequallyfor10teeth,1/10of40or4

turnswouldproducethecorrectspacing.

Thesameprincipleapplieswhetherornotthedivisionsrequireddivideequallyinto40,

Forexample,ifitisdesiredtoindexfor6divisions,6dividedinto40equals62/3turns;

similarly,toindexfor14spaces,14dividedinto40equals26/7turns.Theseexamples

maybemultipliedindefinitelyandfromthemthefollowingruleisderived:todetermine thenumberofturnsoftheindexcrankneededtoobtainonedivisionofanynumberof

equaldivisionsontheworkpiece,divide40bythenumberofequaldivisionsdesired

(providedthewormwheelhas40teeth,whichisstandardpractice).DirectIndexingThe

constructionofsomeindexheadspermitsthewormtobedisengaugedfromtheworm

wheel,makingpossibleaquickermethodofindexingcalleddirectindexing.Theindex

headisprovidedwithaknobwhich,whenturnedthroughpartofarevolution,operatesan

eccentricanddisengaugestheworm.

Directindexingisaccomplishedbyanadditionalindexplatefastenedtotheindexhead spindle.Astationary plungerintheindexheadfits theholesin thisindexplate.By movingthisplatebyhandtoindexdirectly,thespindleandtheworkpiecerotateanequal

distance.Directindexplatesusuallyhave24holesandofferaquickmeansofmilling

squares,hexagons,taps,andsoforth.Anynumberofdivisionswhichisafactorof24can

beindexedquicklyandconvenientlybythedirectindexingmethod.

DifferentialIndexing. Sometimes, a number of divisions is required which cannot be obtainedbysimpleindexingwiththeindexplatesregularlysupplied.Toobtainthese divisions,adifferentialindexheadisused.Theindexcrankisconnectedtothewormshaft byatrainofgearsinsteadofadirectcouplingaswithsimpleindexing.Theselectionof thesegearsinvolvescalculationssimilartothoseusedincalculatingchangegearratiofor lathethreadcutting.

IndexinginDegrees.Workpiecescanbeindexedindegreesaswellasfractionsofaturn

withtheusualindexhead.Thereare360degreesinacompletecircleandoneturnofthe

indexcrankrevolvesthespindle1/40or9degrees.Therefore,1/9turnofthecrankrotates

thespindle1degree.Workpiecescanthereforebeindexedindegreesbyusingacircleof

holesdivisibleby9.Forexample,movingthecrank2spacesonan18-holecircle,3

spacesona27-holecircle,or4spacesona36-holecirclewillrotatethespindle1degree,

Smallercrankmovementsfurthersubdividethecircle:moving1spaceonan18-hole

circleturnsthespindle1/2degree(30minutes),1spaceona27-holecircleturnsthe

spindle1/3degree(20minutes),andsoforth.

IndexingOperations.Thefollowingexamplesshowhowtheindexplateisusedtoobtain anydesiredpartofawholespindleturnbyplainindexing,Millingahexagon.Usingthe

rulepreviouslygiven,divide40by6whichequals62/3turns,orsixfullturnsplus2/3of

aturnoranycirclewhosenumberisdivisibleby3.Takethedenominatorwhichis3into

whichoftheavailableholecirclesitcanbeevenlydivided.Inthiscase,3canbedivided

into the available 18-hole circle exactly 6 times. Use this result 6 as a multiplier to generatetheproportionalfractionrequired.

Example:2x6 = 12;3x6=18

Therefore,6fullturnsofthecrankplus12spacesonan18holecircleisthecorrect

indexingfor6divisions.Cuttingagear.Tocutagearof52teeth,usingtheruleagain,

divide40by52.Thismeansthatlessthanonefullturnisrequiredforeachdivision,40/52

ofaturntobeexact.Sincea52-holecircleisnotavailable,40/52mustbereducedtoits

lowesttermwhichis10/13.Takethedenominatorofthelowestterm13,anddetermine

intowhichoftheavailableholecirclesitcanbeevenlydivided.Inthiscase,13canbe

dividedintoa39-holecircleexactly3times.Usethisresult3asamultipliertogenerate

theproportionalfractionrequired.Example: 10x3 = 3013x3=39Therefore,30holes

ona39-holecircleisthecorrectindexingfor52divisions.Whencountingholes,start

withthefirstholeaheadoftheindexpin.

IndexingFundamentals

Indexingistheprocessofevenlydividingthecircumferenceofacircular

workpieceintoequallyspaceddivisions,suchasincuttinggearteeth,cutting

splines,millinggroovesinreamersandtaps,andspacingholesonacircle.

Theindexheadoftheindexingfixtureisusedforthispurpose.IndexHead

Wheneverpossible,theworkpieceshouldbeclampedinthecenterofthevise

jaws.However,whennecessarytomillashortworkpiecewhichmustbeheld

attheendofthevise,aspacingblockofthesamethicknessasthepiece

shouldbeplacedattheoppositeendofthejaws.Thiswillavoidstrainonthe movablejawandpreventthepiecefromslipping.Iftheworkpieceissothin thatitisimpossibletoletitextendoverthetopofthevise,holddownstraps aregenerallyused. Thesestrapsarehardenedpiecesofsteel,havingone

verticalsidetaperedtoformanangleofabout92°withthebottomsideand

theotherverticalsidetaperedtoanarrowedge.Bymeansofthesetapered

surfaces,theworkpieceisforceddownwardintotheparallels,holdingthem

firmlyandleavingthetopoftheworkpiecefullyexposedtothemilling

cutter.

The index head of the indexing fixture contains an indexing mechanism whichisusedtocontroltherotationoftheindexheadspindletospaceor divideaworkpieceaccurately.Asimpleindexingmechanismconsistsofa

40-toothwormwheelfastenedtotheindexheadspindle,asingle-cutworm,a

crankforturningthewormshaft,andanindexplateandsector.Sincethere

are40teethinthewormwheel,oneturnoftheindexcrankcausestheworm,

andconsequently,theindexheadspindletomake1/40ofaturn;so40turns

oftheindexcrankrevolvethespindleonefullturn.

IndexPlateTheindexingplateisaroundplatewithaseriesofsixormore circlesofequallyspacedholes;theindexpinonthecrankcanbeinsertedin anyholeinanycircle.Withtheinterchangeableplatesregularlyfurnished with most index heads, the spacing necessary for most gears, boltheads, millingcutters,splines,andsoforthcanbeobtained.Thefollowingsetsof platesarestandardequipment:

BrownandSharpetype Thistypeconsistsof3platesof6circleseachdrilled

BrownandSharpetypeThistypeconsistsof3platesof6circleseachdrilled

asfollows:PlateI-15,16,17,18,19,20holesPlate2-21,23,27,29,31,33

holesPlate3-37,39,41,43,47,49holesCincinnatitypeconsistsofoneplate

drilledonbothsideswithcirclesdividedasfollows:Firstside-24,25,28,30,

34,37,38,39,41,42,43holesSecondside-46,47,49,51,53,54,57,58,59,

62,66holes

Sector.Thesectorindicatesthenextholeinwhichthepinistobeinserted

andmakesitunnecessarytocountholeswhenmovingtheindexcrankafter

eachcut.Itconsistsoftworadial,beveledarmswhichcanbesetatanyangle

toeachotherandthenmovedtogetheraroundthecenteroftheindexplate.

Supposethatitisdesiredtomakeaseriesofcuts,movingtheindexcrank1

1/4turnsaftereachcut.Sincethecircleillustratedhas20holes,turnthe

crankonefullturnplusfivespacesaftereachcut,Setthesectorarmsto include the desired fractional part of a turn or five spaces between the bevelededgesofitsarms,asshown.Ifthefirstcutistakenwiththeindexpin againsttheleft-handarm,totakethenextcut,movethepinonceagainstthe right-handarmofthesector.Beforetakingthesecondcut,movethearmsso thattheleft-handarmisagainagainstthepin;thismovestheright-handarm anotherfivespacesaheadofthepin.Thentakethesecondcut,andrepeatthe operationuntilallthecutshavebeencompleted.

NOTE: It is good practice always to index clockwise on the plate to eliminatebacklash.PlainIndexingThefollowingprinciplesapplytobasic

indexingofworkpieces:Supposeitisdesiredtomillaprojectwitheight

equallyspacedteeth.Since40turnsoftheindexcrankwillturnthespindle

onefullturn,l/8thof40or5turnsofthecrankaftereachcutwillspacethe

gearfor8teeth,Ifitisdesiredtospaceequallyfor10teeth,1/10of40or4

turnswouldproducethecorrectspacing.

The same principle applies whether or not the divisions required divide equally into 40, For example, if it is desired to index for 6 divisions, 6 divided into 40 equals 6 2/3 turns; similarly, to index for 14 spaces, 14 divided into 40 equals 2 6/7 turns. These examples may be multiplied indefinitelyandfromthemthefollowingruleisderived:todeterminethe numberofturnsoftheindexcrankneededtoobtainonedivisionofany

numberofequaldivisionsontheworkpiece,divide40bythenumberof

equaldivisionsdesired(providedthewormwheelhas40teeth,whichis

standardpractice).DirectIndexingTheconstructionofsomeindexheads permitsthewormtobedisengaugedfromthewormwheel,makingpossiblea quicker method of indexing called direct indexing. The index head is provided with a knob which, when turned through part of a revolution, operatesaneccentricanddisengaugestheworm.

Directindexingisaccomplishedbyanadditionalindexplatefastenedtothe indexheadspindle.Astationaryplungerintheindexheadfitstheholesin thisindexplate.Bymovingthisplatebyhandtoindexdirectly,thespindle andtheworkpiecerotateanequaldistance.Directindexplatesusuallyhave

24holesandofferaquickmeansofmillingsquares,hexagons,taps,andso

forth.Anynumberofdivisionswhichisafactorof24canbeindexedquickly

and conveniently by the direct indexing method. Differential Indexing Sometimes,anumberofdivisionsisrequiredwhichcannotbeobtainedby simpleindexingwiththeindexplatesregularlysupplied.Toobtainthese divisions,adifferentialindexheadisused.Theindexcrankisconnectedto thewormshaftbyatrainofgearsinsteadofadirectcouplingaswithsimple indexing.Theselectionofthesegearsinvolvescalculationssimilartothose usedincalculatingchangegearratioforlathethreadcutting.Indexingin DegreesWorkpiecescanbeindexedindegreesaswellasfractionsofaturn withtheusualindexhead.

Thereare360degreesinacompletecircleandoneturnoftheindexcrank

revolvesthespindle1/40or9degrees.Therefore,1/9turnofthecrankrotates

thespindle1degree.Workpiecescanthereforebeindexedindegreesby

usingacircleofholesdivisibleby9.Forexample,movingthecrank2spaces

onan18-holecircle,3spacesona27-holecircle,or4spacesona36-hole

circle will rotate the spindle 1 degree, Smaller crank movements further

subdividethecircle:moving1spaceonan18-holecircleturnsthespindle

1/2degree(30minutes),1spaceona27-holecircleturnsthespindle1/3

degree (20 minutes), and so forth. Indexing Operations The following examplesshowhowtheindexplateisusedtoobtainanydesiredpartofa whole spindle turn by plain indexing, Milling a hexagon. Using the rule

previouslygiven,divide40by6whichequals62/3turns,orsixfullturns

plus2/3ofaturnoranycirclewhosenumberisdivisibleby3.Takethe

denominatorwhichis3intowhichoftheavailableholecirclesitcanbe

evenlydivided.Inthiscase,3canbedividedintotheavailable18-holecircle

exactly6times.Usethisresult6asamultipliertogeneratetheproportional

fractionrequired.

Example: 2x6 = 12;3x6=18

Therefore,6fullturnsofthecrankplus12spacesonan18holecircleisthe

correctindexingfor6divisions.Cuttingagear.Tocutagearof52teeth,

usingtheruleagain,divide40by52.Thismeansthatlessthanonefullturn

isrequiredforeachdivision,40/52ofaturntobeexact.Sincea52-hole

circleisnotavailable,40/52mustbereducedtoitslowesttermwhichis

10/13.Takethedenominatorofthelowestterm13,anddetermineintowhich

oftheavailableholecirclesitcanbeevenlydivided.Inthiscase,13canbe

dividedintoa39-holecircleexactly3times.Usethisresult3asamultiplier

togeneratetheproportionalfractionrequired.Example: 10x3 = 3013x3

=39Therefore,30holesona39-holecircleisthecorrectindexingfor52

divisions.Whencountingholes,startwiththefirstholeaheadoftheindex

pin.

BasicMillingdefinitions Amillingcutterwillbasicallyemployoneoracombinationofthefollowingbasiccutting actions: (A)radial

BasicMillingdefinitions

Amillingcutterwillbasicallyemployoneoracombinationofthefollowingbasiccutting

actions:

(A)radial

(B)peripheral

(C)axial

Throughoutthevariationsinmillingmethods,onecantracebackthecuttingactionto

thesefeeddirectionsinrelationtotheaxisoftoolrotation.Forexample:Facemillingisa

combinedcuttingactionbythecuttingedges,mainlytheonesontheperipheryandto

someextentbytheonesonthefaceofthetool.Themillingcutterrotatesatarightangle

tothedirectionofradialfeedagainsttheworkpiece.Sideandfacemillingusesmainlythe

cuttingedgesontheperipheryofthetool.

tothedirectionofradialfeedagainsttheworkpiece.Sideandfacemillingusesmainlythe cuttingedgesontheperipheryofthetool.
tothedirectionofradialfeedagainsttheworkpiece.Sideandfacemillingusesmainlythe cuttingedgesontheperipheryofthetool.
tothedirectionofradialfeedagainsttheworkpiece.Sideandfacemillingusesmainlythe cuttingedgesontheperipheryofthetool.
Themillingcutterrotatesroundanaxisparalleltothetangentialfeed.Plungemilling

Themillingcutterrotatesroundanaxisparalleltothetangentialfeed.Plungemilling mainlyusesthecuttingedgesonthefaceorendofthetoolasitisfedaxially,performing apartialdrillingaction.Toset-upthemillingoperation,anumberofdefinitionsshouldbe established. These define the dynamics of the rotating milling tool, with a specified diameter(D c ),havinglargestdiameters(D c 2orD3),movingagainsttheworkpiece,with aneffectivecuttingdiameter(D e ),thebasisforthecuttingspeed.

Cuttingspeed inm/minindicatesthesurfacespeedatwhichthecuttingedgemachines theworkpiece.Thisisatoolorientedvalueandpartofthecuttingdatawhichensuresthat theoperationiscarriedoutefficientlyandwithintherecommendedscopeofthetool material.

Spindlespeed inrpmisthenumberofrevolutionsthemillingtoolonthespindlemakes perminute.Thisisamachineorientedvaluewhichiscalculatedfromtherecommended cuttingspeedvalueforanoperation.

Feedperminutealsoknownasthetablefeed,machinefeedorfeedspeed inmm/minis
Feedperminutealsoknownasthetablefeed,machinefeedorfeedspeed inmm/minis

Feedperminutealsoknownasthetablefeed,machinefeedorfeedspeed inmm/minis thefeedofthetoolinrelationtotheworkpieceindistancepertime-unitrelatedtofeedper toothandnumberofteethinthecutter.Maximumchipthickness(h ex )inmmisthemost importantlimitationindicatorforatool,foranactualoperation.Acuttingedgeona millingcutterhasbeendesignedandtestedtohavearecommendedstartingvalueanda minimumandmaximumvalue.Feedpertooth(f z )inmm/toothisavalueinmillingfor calculatingthetablefeed.Asthemillingcutterisamulti-edgetool,avalueisneededto ensurethateachedgemachinesundersatisfactoryconditions.Itisthelineardistanceh ex aemovedbythetoolwhileoneparticulartoothisengaugedincut.Thefeedpertooth valueiscalculatedfromtherecommendedmaximumchipthicknessvalue.Thenumberof availablecutterteethinthetool(z n )variesconsiderablyandisusedtodeterminethetable feedwhiletheeffectivenumberofteeth(z c )isthenumberofeffectiveteeth.Thematerial, widthofcomponent,stability,power,surfacefinishinfluencehowmanyteetharesuitable. Feedperrevolution(f n )inmm/revisavalueusedspecificallyforfeedcalculationsand oftentodeterminethefinishingcapabilityofacutter.Itisanauxiliaryvalueindicating howfarthetoolmovesduringtherotation.

Depth of cut in mm (axial) is what the tool removes in metal on the face from the workpiece.Thisisthedistancethetoolissetbelowtheun-machinedsurface.

Cuttingwidth inmm(radial)isthewidthofthecomponentengaugedincutbythe diameterofthecutter.Itisdistanceacrossthesurfacebeingmachinedor,ifthetool diameterissmaller,thatcoveredbythetool.

Theaveragechipthickness(h m )isausefulvalueindeterminingspecificcuttingforceand subsequently power calculations. It is calculated in relation to the type of cutter engaugementinvolved.

subsequently power calculations. It is calculated in relation to the type of cutter engaugementinvolved.
subsequently power calculations. It is calculated in relation to the type of cutter engaugementinvolved.
The removal rate is volume of metal removed per time in cubic-mm and can be

The removal rate is volume of metal removed per time in cubic-mm and can be establishedusingvaluesforcuttingdepth,widthandfeed.

Themachiningtime orperiodofcutterengaugementisthemachininglength dividedby thetablefeed.

Thespecificcuttingforce isapowercalculatingfactortakingintoaccountthematerialin questionandforachipthicknessvalue.Itrelatestomachinabilityaswellasfeedrateand cuttingspeed.

Powerandefficiency(η)aremachinetoolorientedvalueswherethenetpowercanbe

calculatedtoensurethatthemachineinquestioncancopewiththecutterandoperation.

Asregardscuttinggeometryinmilling,theenteringangle,orthemajorcuttingedge

angle,ofthecutteristhedominantfactoraffectingthecuttingforcedirectionandchip

thickness.Thechoiceofinsertgeometryhasbeensimplifiedintothreepracticalareasof

varyingcuttingactioneffects:Light(L),generalpurpose(M)andtough(H)geometries.

Pitchisthedistancebetweenteethonthecutter.Itisthedistancebetweenonepointon

onecuttingedgetothesamepointonthenextedge.

Millingcuttersaremainlyclassifiedintocoarse(L),close(M)andextraclose(H)pitches, aswellasextra,extraclosepitch.Thedifferentpitchesaffectoperationalstability,power consumption and suitable workpiece material. Adifferential pitch means an unequal spacingofteethonthecutterandisaveryeffectivemeanswithwhichtocountervibration tendencies.

Millingdirection.Duringthemillingoperation,theworkpieceisfedeitherwithoragainst

thedirectionofrotationandthisaffectsthenatureofthestartandfinishofthecut.In

Downmilling(alsocalledclimbmilling),theworkpiecefeeddirectionisthesameasthat

ofthecutterrotationattheareaofcut.Thechipthicknesswilldecreasefromthestartof

thecutuntilitiszeroattheendofthecutinperipheralmilling.

InUpmilling (alsocalledconventionalmilling),thefeeddirectionoftheworkpieceis oppositetothatofthecutterrotationattheareaofcut.Thechipthicknessstartsatzero andincreasestotheendofthecut.InUpmilling,withtheinsertstartingitscutatzero chipthickness,therearehighcuttingforceswhichtendtopushthecutterandworkpiece awayfromeachother.Theinserthastobeforcedintothecut,creatingarubbingor burnishingeffectwithfriction,hightemperaturesandoftencontactwithawork-hardened surfacecausedbythepreceedinginsert.Forceswillalsotendtolifttheworkpiecefrom thetable.

In Down milling, the insert start its cut with a large chip thickness. This avoids the burnishingeffectwithlessheatandminimalwork-hardeningtendencies.Thelargechip thicknessisadvantageousandthecuttingforcestendtopulltheworkpieceintothecutter, holdingtheinsertinthecut.Duringmilling,chipswillsometimesstickorweldtothe cuttingedgeandbecarriedaroundtothestartofthenextcut.InUpmilling,thechipcan easilybetrappedorwedgedbetweentheinsertandworkpiece,whichcanthenresultin insertbreakage.

InDownmilling,thesamechipwouldbecutinhalfandnotdamagethecuttingedge. Downmillingispreferredwhereverthemachinetool,fixturing,andworkpiecewillallow. Downmilling,however,makescertaindemandsontheprocessinthatforcestendtopull thecutteralongwhiletheyholdtheworkpiecedown.Thisneedsthemachinetocopewith table-feedplaythroughback-lashelimination.Ifthetoolpullsintotheworkpiece,feedis increasedunintentionallywhichcanleadtoexcessivechipthicknessandedgebreakage. Up milling should be selected in such cases. Also when large variations in working allowanceoccur,upmillingmaybeadvantageous.Fixturinghastobeadaptedtoholdthe workpiececorrectlyaswellashavingtherightcuttersizeforthejob.Thedirectionof cuttingforcesare,however,moreadvantageousasregardsvibrationtendencies

Cutterdiameterandposition.Theselectionofmillingcutterdiameterisusuallymadeon thebasisoftheworkpiecewidthwiththepoweravailabilityofthemachinealsobeing takenintoaccount.Thepositionofthecutterinrelationtotheworkpieceengaugement andcontactthecutterteethhavearevitalfactorsforsuccessfuloperation.Therearethree principal types of milling cutter/workpiece relationship situations: Firstly, when the

workpiecewidthislargerthanorthesameasthecutterdiameter,leadingtothinchipsat entry/exitorwhenseveralpassesarerequired.(Typicalofwhentheworkpiecesurfaces areverylargeorthecutterdiametertoosmallfortheapplication).Secondly,wherethe cutter-diameter is somewhat larger than the workpiece width, as is often case in

facemilling.(20to50%-oftenrepresentingtheidealsituationespeciallyinfacemilling.)

Thirdly,wherethediameterisconsiderablylargerthanthewidthofcut,withcutteraxis

welloutsidetheworkpiecewidth.(Thisisoftenthecasewithsideandfacemilling,long

edgemillingandendmilling.)

In facemilling especially, the workpiece width should influence the milling cutter diameter.Thecutterdiametershouldnotbethesameastheworkpiecewidth–adiameter

20to50%largerthantheworkpiecewidthisnormallyrecommended.Ifseveralpasses

need to be taken, these should be taken in a way that creates the diameter/width

relationshipofapproximately4/3andnotthefulldiameterateachpassasthishelpsto

ensuregoodchipformationandsuitablecuttingedgeload.Intheidealsituation,withthe

cutterbeingsufficientlylargerthantheworkpiecewidth,themillingcuttershouldalways

bepositionedslightlyoff-center.Beingclosetothecenterisadvantageousinthatthecut

whicheachinserttakesisatitsshortestandthatentryandexitofcutsaregoodfroma

chipformationandshock-loadpointofview.However,whenthetoolispositioneddead

oncentre,adisadvantageoussituationarises.

Radialforcesofevenmagnitudewillfluctuateindirectionasthecuttingedgesgoinand out of cut. The machine spindle can vibrate and become damaged, inserts may chip resultinginpoorsurfacefinish.Movingthecutterslightlyoff-centerwillmeanamore constantforcedirection-atypeofpre-loadingisachievedwhenthecutterisagainst the workpiece.

Entryandexitconsiderations.Eachtimeoneofthemillingcutterinsertsentersintocut,

thecutting edge is subjected to a shock load, which depending upon the chip cross- section,workpiecematerialandtypeofcut.Therighttypeofinitialcontact,andfinal contact, between edge and material is an important aspect of the milling process. Positioningthecutterrightasregardsentryandexitofthecuttingedgesisimportant.In thefirstsituation,thecenter-lineofthecutteriswelloutsidetheworkpiecewidthandthe impactattheentryistakenupbytheoutermosttipoftheinsert,whichmeansthatthe initialshockloadistakenupbythemostsensitivepartofthetool.Thecutteralsoleaves thecutwiththistiplast,whichmeansthatthecuttingforcesareactingontheoutermost tipuntiltheinsertsuddenlyemergesfromtheworkpiece.Thisisshock-unloadingof forces.Inthesecondsituation,thecenter-lineofthecutterisinlinewiththeworkpiece

edge.Theinsertisleavingcutwhenthechipthicknessisatitsmaximum,withshock-

loadsveryhighatentryandexit.Inthirdsituation,thecenter-lineofthecutteriswell

insidetheworkpiecewidth.Theinitialimpactattheentryofcutistakenupfurtheralong

thecuttingedge,awayfromthesensitivetip.Alsoattheexit,theinsertleavesthecut

moregradually.Thewaythatthecuttingedgeleavestheworkpiecematerialisimportant.

Astheendofcutisapproached,theremainingmaterialmaygiveway,somewhatreducing

theinsertclearance.Alsoamomentarytensileforcecreatedalongthefaceoftheinsertas

thechippullsawayandoftengivingrisetoaburrontheworkpiece.Thistensileforce

putsthecuttingedgesecurityatrisk.Thissituationisacutewhenthecenterlineofthe

cuttercoincideswith,oriscloseto,theedgeoftheworkpiece.Inthissituationthemilling

cuttershouldleavetheworkpieceatapositiveangletothecuttingedges,notnegative.

Acomplication arises when there are voids in the workpiece surface. In this case, a strongercuttingedgeisoftenthesolution,andalsothepitchorcuttergeometrymayhave tobere-considered.Themillingoperationshouldbelookedatasawhole,consideringall thedifferentaspects,toarriveatthemostsuitablecutterandinserttype.

Basicmethodsofcontrollingcuttingtemperature

Itisalreadyrealizedthatthecuttingtemperature,particularlywhenitisquitehigh,isvery

detrimentalforbothcuttingtoolsandthemachinedjobsandhenceneedtobecontrolled,

i.e.,reducedasfaraspossiblewithoutsacrificingproductivityandproductquality.The

methodsgenerallyemployedforcontrollingmachiningtemperatureanditsdetrimental

effectsare:

•Properselectionofcuttingtools;materialandgeometry

•Properselectionofcuttingvelocityandfeed

•ProperselectionandapplicationofcuttingfluidoSelectionofmaterialandgeometryof

cuttingtoolforreducingcuttingtemperatureanditseffects

Cutting tool material may play significant role on reduction of cutting temperature dependingupontheworkmaterial.Asforexample, PVDorCVDcoatingofHSSand carbidetoolsenablesreducecuttingtemperaturebyreducingfrictionatthechip-tooland work-toolinterfaces.Inhighspeedmachiningofsteelslesserheatandcuttingtemperature developifmachinedbyCBNtoolswhichproducelessercuttingforcesbyretainingits sharpgeometryforitsextremehardnessandhighchemicalstability.Thecuttingtool temperatureofceramictoolsdecreasefurtherifthethermalconductivityofsuchtoolsis enhanced(byaddingthermallyconductivematerialslikemetals,carbides,etcinAl 2 O 3 or Si 3 N 4 ).

Cutting temperature can be sizeably controlled also by proper selection of the tool geometryinthefollowingways:

Cutting temperature can be sizeably controlled also by proper selection of the tool geometryinthefollowingways: largepositivetool–rakehelpsinreducingheatand temperaturegenerationby reducingthecutting forces,buttoo muchincreasein rake mechanicallyandthermallyweakensthecuttingedgescompoundrake,preferablywith chip–breaker, also enables reduce heat and temperature through reduction in cutting forcesandfriction.Evenforsameamountofheatgeneration,thecuttingtemperature decreaseswiththedecreaseintheprincipalcuttingedgeangle;noseradiusingofsingle pointtoolsnotonlyimprovessurfacefinish,butalsohelpsinreducingcuttingtemperature tosomeextent.

Purposesofapplicationofcuttingfluidinmachiningandgrinding.Thebasicpurposesof

cuttingfluidapplicationare:

•Coolingofthejobandthetooltoreducethedetrimentaleffectsofcuttingtemperature

onthejobandthetool

•Lubricationatthechip–toolinterfaceandthetoolflankstoreducecuttingforcesand

frictionandthustheamountofheatgeneration.

•Cleaningthemachiningzonebywashingawaythechip–particlesanddebriswhich,if

present,spoilsthefinishedsurfaceandacceleratesdamageofthecuttingedges

•Protectionofthenascentfinishedsurface–athinlayerofthecuttingfluidstickstothe machinedsurfaceandthuspreventsitsharmfulcontaminationbythegaseslikeSO 2 ,O 2 , H 2 S,N x O y presentintheatmosphere.However,themainaimofapplicationofcutting fluidistoimprovemachinabilitythroughreductionofcuttingforcesandtemperature, improvementbysurfaceintegrityandenhancementoftoollife.

Essential properties of cutting fluids. To enable the cutting fluid fulfil its functional requirementswithoutharmingtheMachine–Fixture–Tool–Work(M-F-T-W)system andtheoperators,thecuttingfluidshouldpossessthefollowingproperties:

Forcooling:

•highspecificheat,thermalconductivityandfilmcoefficientforheattransfer

•spreadingandwettingability

Forlubrication:

•highlubricitywithoutgummingandfoaming

•wettingandspreading

•highfilmboilingpoint

•frictionreductionatextremepressure(EP)andtemperature

Chemicalstability,non-corrosivetothematerialsoftheM-F-T-Wsystemolessvolatile

andhighflashpoint

highresistancetobacterialgrowth

odorlessandalsopreferablycolorless

nontoxicinbothliquidandgaseousstage

easily availableandlowcost.

Principlesofcuttingfluidaction.Thechip-toolcontactzoneisusuallycomprisedoftwo

parts;plasticorbulkcontactzoneandelasticcontactzoneasindicatedinthediagram

below.

Thecuttingfluidcannotpenetrateorreachtheplasticcontactzone,butentersinthe

Thecuttingfluidcannotpenetrateorreachtheplasticcontactzone,butentersinthe

elasticcontactzonebycapillaryeffect.Withtheincreaseincuttingvelocity,thefraction

ofplasticcontactzonegraduallyincreasesandcoversalmosttheentirechip-toolcontact

zoneasindicatedinthegraphbelow.Therefore,athighspeedmachining,thecuttingfluid

becomesunabletolubricateandcoolsthetoolandthejobonlybybulkexternalcooling.

Apportionmentofplasticandelasticcontactzonewithincreaseincuttingvelocity.

Thechemicalslikechloride,phosphateorsulphidepresentinthecuttingfluidchemically reacts with the work material at the chip under surface under high pressure and temperatureandformsathinlayerofthereactionproduct.Thelowshearstrengthofthat reactionlayerhelpsinreducingfriction.Toformsuchsolidlubricatinglayerunderhigh pressureandtemperaturesomeextremepressureadditive(EPA)isdeliberatelyaddedin

reasonable amount in the mineral oil or soluble oil. For extreme pressure, chloride, phosphateorsulphidetypeEPAisuseddependingupontheworkingtemperature,i.e. moderate (200 o C ~ 350 o C), high (350 o C ~ 500 o C) and very high (500 o C ~ 800 o C) respectively.

Typesofcuttingfluidsandtheirapplication.Generally,cuttingfluidsareemployedin

liquidformbutoccasionallyalsoemployedingaseousform.Onlyforlubricatingpurpose,

oftensolidlubricantsarealsoemployedinmachiningandgrinding.Thecuttingfluids,

whicharecommonlyused,are:

•AirblastorcompressedaironlyMachiningofsomematerialslikegreycastironbecome

inconvenientordifficultifanycuttingfluidisemployedinliquidform.Insuchcaseonly

airblastisrecommendedforcoolingandcleaning

•WaterForitsgoodwettingandspreadingpropertiesandveryhighspecificheat,wateris

consideredasthebestcoolantandhenceemployedwherecoolingismosturgent.

•SolubleoilWateractsasthebestcoolantbutdoesnotlubricate.Besides,useofonly watermayimpairthemachine-fixture-tool-worksystembyrustingSooilcontainingsome emulsifyingagentandadditivelikeEPA,togethercalledcuttingcompound,ismixedwith

waterinasuitableratio(1~2in20~50).Thismilklikewhiteemulsion,calledsoluble

oil,isverycommonandwidelyusedinmachiningandgrinding.

•CuttingoilsCuttingoilsaregenerallycompoundsofmineraloiltowhichareadded

desiredtypeandamountofvegetable,animalormarineoilsforimprovingspreading,

wettingandlubricatingproperties.AsandwhenrequiredsomeEPadditiveisalsomixed

toreducefriction,adhesionandBUEformationinheavycuts.

•ChemicalfluidsTheseareoccasionallyusedfluidswhicharewaterbasedwheresome organicandorinorganicmaterialsaredissolvedinwatertoenabledesiredcuttingfluid action. There are two types of such cutting fluid;Chemically inactive type–high cooling,anti-rustingandwettingbutlesslubricatingActive(surface)type–moderate coolingandlubricating.

•Solidorsemi-solidlubricantPaste,waxes,soaps,graphite,Moly-disulphide(MoS 2 )may alsooftenbeused,eitherapplieddirectlytotheworkpieceorasanimpregnantinthetool toreducefrictionandthuscuttingforces,temperatureandtoolwear.

•CryogeniccuttingfluidExtremelycold(cryogenic)fluids(oftenintheformofgases) likeliquidCO 2 orN 2 areusedinsomespecialcasesforeffectivecoolingwithoutcreating muchenvironmentalpollutionandhealthhazards.

SelectionofCuttingFluid.Thebenefitsofapplicationofcuttingfluidlargelydepends uponproperselectionofthetypeofthecuttingfluiddependingupontheworkmaterial, toolmaterialandthemachiningcondition.Asforexample,forhighspeedmachiningof not-difficult-to-machinematerialsgreatercoolingtypefluidsarepreferredandforlow speed machining of both conventional and difficult-to-machine materials greater lubricatingtypefluidispreferred.Selectionofcuttingfluidsformachiningsomecommon engineeringmaterialsandoperationsarepresentedasfollows:

•Greycastiron:

-Generallydryforitsself-lubricatingproperty

-Airblastforcoolingandflushingchips

-Solubleoilforcoolingandflushingchipsinhighspeedmachiningandgrinding

•Steels:

-IfmachinedbyHSStools,sol.Oil(1:20~30) forlowcarbonandalloysteelsandneat oilwithEPAforheavycuts

-Ifmachinedbycarbidetools thinnersol.Oilforlowstrengthsteel,thickersol. Oil(1:10

~20)forstrongersteelsandstarightsulphurizedoilforheavyandlowspeedcutsandEP

cuttingoilforhighalloysteel.

-Oftensteelsaremachineddry bycarbidetoolsforpreventingthermalshocks.

•Aluminiumand itsalloys:

-Preferably machined dry

-Lightbutoilysolubleoil

-Straightneatoilor keroseneoilforstringentcuts.

•Copperand itsalloys:

-Waterbasedfluidsaregenerallyused

-OilwithorwithoutinactiveEPAfortoughergradesofCu-alloy.

•StainlessSteelsandHeatresistantalloys:

-HighperformancesolubleoilorneatoilwithhighconcentrationwithchlorinatedEP

additive.

Thebrittleceramicsandcermetsshouldbeusedeitherunderdryconditionorlightneatoil

incaseoffinefinishing.Grindingathighspeedneedscooling(1:50~100)solubleoil.

Forfinishgrindingofmetalsandalloyslowviscosityneatoilisalsoused.

Methodsofapplicationofcuttingfluid.Theeffectivenessandexpenseofcuttingfluid applicationsignificantlydependalsoonhowitisappliedinrespectofflowrateand direction of application. In machining, depending upon the requirement and facilities available,cuttingfluidsaregenerallyemployedinthefollowingways(flow):

•Drop-by-dropundergravity

•Floodundergravity

•Intheformofliquidjet(s)

•Mist(atomizedoil)withcompressedair

•Z-Zmethod–centrifugalthroughthegrindingwheels(pores).

•Z-Zmethod–centrifugalthroughthegrindingwheels(pores). Z-Zmethodofcuttingfluidapplicationingrinding.

Z-Zmethodofcuttingfluidapplicationingrinding.

Thedirectionofapplicationalsosignificantlygovernstheeffectivenessofthecuttingfluid inrespectofreachingatornearthechip-toolandwork-toolinterfaces.Dependingupon the requirement and accessibility the cutting fluid is applied from top or side(s). in operationslikedeepholedrillingthepressurizedfluidisoftensentthroughtheaxialor inner spiral hole(s) of the drill. For effective cooling and lubrication in high speed

machiningofductilemetalshavingwideandplasticchip-toolcontact,cuttingfluidmay

bepushedathighpressuretothechip-toolinterfacethroughhole(s)inthecuttingtool,as

schematicallyshownbelow.

schematicallyshownbelow. Applicationofcuttingfluidathighpressurethrough

Applicationofcuttingfluidathighpressurethrough theholeinthetool.

Work-holdingmechanisms

Themillingmachineviseisthemostcommontypeofworkholdingdeviseusedonthe

millingmachine.

millingmachine. Theplainmillingmachineviseis usedforholdingwork

Theplainmillingmachineviseis usedforholdingwork whichhasparallelsides.Theviseisbolteddirectlytothetable using theT-slotsinthemachinetable.Theplainvisecanbeaccompaniedbyaswivelbase.(Gibraltar)

Five types of vises are manufactured in various sizes for holding milling machine workplaces.Theseviseshavelocatingkeysortonguesontheundersideoftheirbasesso theymaybelocatedcorrectlyinrelationtotheT-slotsonthemillingmachinetable.The plain vise similar to the machine table viseis fastened to the milling machinetable. Alignmentwiththemillingmachinetableisprovidedbytwoslotsatrightanglestoeach otherontheundersideofthevise.Theseslotsarefittedwithremovablekeysthatalignthe visewiththetableT-slotseitherparalleltothemachinearbororperpendiculartothe arbor.Theswivelvisecanberotatedandcontainsascalegraduatedindegreesatitsbase whichisfastenedtothemillingmachinetableandlocatedbymeansofkeysplacedinthe T-slots.Bylooseningtheboltswhichclampthevisetoitsgraduatedbase,thevisemaybe movedtoholdtheworkpieceatanyangleinahorizontalplane.Tosetaswivelvise accuratelywiththemachinespindle,atestindicatorshouldbeclampedtothemachine arborandacheckmadetodeterminethesettingbymovingeitherthetransverseorthe longitudinalfeeds,dependinguponthepositionofthevisejaws.Anydeviationasshown bythetestindicatorshouldbecorrectedbyswivelingtheviseonitsbase.Theuniversal viseisusedforworkinvolvingcompoundangles,eitherhorizontallyorvertically.The

baseofthevisecontainsascalegraduatedindegreesandcanrotate360°inthehorizontal

planeand90°intheverticalplane.Duetotheflexibilityofthisvise,itisnotadaptable

forheavymilling.

planeand90°intheverticalplane.Duetotheflexibilityofthisvise,itisnotadaptable forheavymilling.

SwivelBaseandVise

Theswivelbaseis graduated indegrees andallowsthe vise toswivelinthehorizontal plane.The swivelbasegivestheviseagreaterdegree ofversatility,butshouldbe avoidedwhendoing heavyroughcuttingoperationsbecauseitreducestherigidityofthe setup. For machining operations involving compound angles, a universal vise is commonlyused.

involving compound angles, a universal vise is commonlyused. UniversalAngleMillingVise.

UniversalAngleMillingVise.

Theuniversalviseallowstheoperatortotilttheworkpiece90degreesinthevertical

plane as well as swivel it 360 degrees in the horizontal plane. In high production situationsanairorhydraulicallyactuatedvisemaybeused.Thesetypesofvisesarequick acting. They also maintain consistent clamping pressures from one part to the next. However,onmost manualtypemillingmachinestheviseisopenedorclosedusinga handle. Whentighteningaplaintypemillingmachineviseitis not necessarytostrike thehandleofthevise.

(Univ.ofMaine) Strikingthevisehandlewithahammercan eithercausethevisetobecomeovertightened orcausethevisehandletobreak.

(Univ.ofMaine)

Strikingthevisehandlewithahammercan eithercausethevisetobecomeovertightened orcausethevisehandletobreak. Ifitbecomesapparent thattheviseisnotholding properly, checkwithyourinstructorforotherpossiblecauses totheproblem. InFigure6 pleasestudythecorrectand incorrectviseclampingpractices.Keeptheworkpieceas lowintheviseaspossible.Workthatextendsoutofthevisehasagreaterchanceof looseningupundercuttingconditions.

ViseClampingPrinciplesForMilling

Blocks.V-Blocksholdandsupport roundworkformillingordrilling.V-Blocks comein manydifferentsizes.Onmillingmachines,V-Blocksaretypicallyclampeddirectlytothe table.

AV-Block andastrapclampcanbeusedtoclamparoundparttothetable.

AV-Block andastrapclampcanbeusedtoclamparoundparttothetable.

AV-Block andastrapclampcanbeusedtoclamparoundparttothetable.

Angelplates

Anangleplateissimplyapieceofcastironorsteelthathastwoflatsurfacesatright

anglestoeachother.Thetwoendsoftheangleplatearealsoflatandatrightanglesto

bothofthetwoothersurfaces.Onsomeangleplatestherecanbewebbingbetweenthe

twosurfacestoaddtotherigidityofthesurfaces.Inthiscaseinsidesurfacesareoftenjust

theroughsurfaceoftheoriginalcasting.Mostangleplateshaveonthetwomainsurfaces

slotssoeitherfacecanhaveaworkpiece,otherdeviceorthemillingtableattachedtoit.

Webbedangleplate.Someangleplatesaremadethickersotheyarerigidenoughwithout

anystiffeninganddonotneedwebsattheends.Thismeanstheinternalsurfacescanbe

machinedaccuratelyandflat.Itwillbeseenthatthisisaveryusefulfacilityespecially

wherespaceislimited.Iftheangleplatedoesnothaveholesinitwheretheyareneeded

thentheycanoftenbedrilledinit.Thisisnotagoodideatodothistoooften.Butitis

worthdoingittoachieveacommonset-uplikefittingarotarytabletoit.Inthiscaseit

canbeconvenienttodrillandtaptheseholessothatstudscanbefittedintothem.Thisis

canbeeasierthantryingtoclamptherotarytableusinglooseboltsandnuts.

Useofanangleplate.Themainpurposeoftheangleplateisthatiteffectivelyrotatesone surface,forexample,amillingtable,intoanothersurfaceatrightanglestothefirst.Ifa

workpieceisclampedtoanangleplate,iteffectivelyrotatesitthrough90º.Whena

flattish workpiece is clamped to the milling tableit is usually with the largesurface horizontal.Inthispositionitisnotalwayseasytomachinethesidesoftheworkpieceas

mightberequired.Butifweuseanangleplatetoturnitthrough90ºwecaneasily

machinethesides.Similarly,itispossibletoholdalongthinworkpieceonendonan

angleplate.Itisthenpossibletomachinetheendoftheworkpiece.

Mountingtothetable.Workthatistoolargeorhasanoddconfigurationis usuallybolted directlytothetable.Thismethodofwork holdingtakesthemostingenuityandexpertise. Thereareanumberofaccessoriesthatcanbeusedtohelpyouset uptheworkpiece.

DirectClampingusingstrapclamps-Noticethestopblock.Itisusedtoaligntheworkas

DirectClampingusingstrapclamps-Noticethestopblock.Itisusedtoaligntheworkas wellaspreventthepartfromslipping.Avarietyofcommerciallyavailableclamp setsare availablefordirectlymountingworkpieces.

ClampingSets.
ClampingSets.

ClampingSets.

Parallels

Parallelsarepieces ofsteelbarstockaccuratelymachinessothattheopposingsidesare paralleltoeachother.Parallelsareprovidedinsetsoftwowithidenticaldimensions. Parallelscomeinsetsoftwoandareusedinordertoprovideclearanceundertheworkso thecuttingtooldoesnotdamagethemachinetableorthevisebase.

thecuttingtooldoesnotdamagethemachinetableorthevisebase. Setsofparallels. ViceAlignment

Setsofparallels.

ViceAlignment

Inthesettingupoftheviceontothemachinetable,thefix jawofthevicemustbeset paralleltothemachinetableusingaParallelBarand aDialIndicator.Adjustmentscan onlybemadebyusingahidefacehammertocorrectitspositionsuch thatanearzero indicatormovementisachieved atallpositionsalongtheparallelbar.

WorkHoldingMethod. Inthemachiningofacomplexcomponent,it isusuallystartedoff withthemillingofarectangular block.To ensurethateach surfaceoftherectangular block is perpendicular to its neighbouring surfaces, the following points should be noted:

• Thevicejawsandtheworkpiecemust befreefromburrs,chips,andcuttingfluid.

• Smallerworkpieceshouldbesupported byparallelbarstoprovidethesupporting datum.

• Roundbarmustbeplacedbetweenthe workpieceandthemovablejawtoensurethat theworkpieceisin perfectcontactwiththefixjaw.

• Thevicehandleshouldbetightenedbyhandtoavoidoverclampingoftheworkpieceas wellasthevice.Hide facehammershouldbeusedtoassurethattheworkpieceisin perfect contactwiththesupportingbase.

• On completion of the milling of the first face, the workpiece should be unloaded, deburred,andcleaned beforethenextoperation.

• Tomachinethesecondandthethirdfaces,theworkpiece shouldbeclampedwithits precedingmachinedsurfacefacingagainstthefixjawofthevice.

• Similarclampingmethodcanbeappliedin themachiningofthefourthface.

• Yetitcanalsobeclampedon thevicewithouttheroundbar.

• Bothends oftheworkpiececanbemachinedwiththe peripheryflutesofthecutter usingupcutmillingasshowninfigure below.

peripheryflutesofthecutter usingupcutmillingasshowninfigure below. Thecorrectand incorrectdirectclampingpractices.

Thecorrectand incorrectdirectclampingpractices.

Squaringavise.

Squaringavise. Squaringaviseisanimportantsteptocompletebeforeyoustartmachining. Ifyouwork

Squaringaviseisanimportantsteptocompletebeforeyoustartmachining. Ifyouwork inasharedworkspace,itisalwaysagoodideatocheckbeforestartingyourproject. Toolsrequired:

·DialTestIndicator(DTI)

·R8collettoholdthedialtestindicator(typically3/8”)

·Deadblowhammer

·7/8”wrench

Ensureboththemilltableandbottomofvisearecleanandfreeofdebris.Usingthe

channels(t-slots)onthemilltable,alignthebackjaw(fixed)withthet-slotsbyeye.

1)INSTALLBOLTS…ANDSPACERSIFNEEDED

Iftheboltsaretoolong,youwillneedaspacerbelowthebolttomakeitwork. Installon bothsides.

2)TIGHTENANDCREATEAPIVOTPOINT

Apivotpointmustbecreated ontheviseforfinetuning. Tightenoneboltapproximately “monkeytight”andleavetheotherboltalittleloose.

3):LOWGEARBEFORELOADINGDIALTESTINDICATOR

Put the mill in low gear. This prevents the spindle and our dial test indicator from rotating.

4)MOUNTDIALTESTINDICATOR

Usealotofcarewithdialtestindicators;theyareverypreciseinstrumentsandtypically costmorethan$100. Ifyoudroptheindicatororexposeittoanexcessiveamountof shock,itwillloseitsaccuracy.

5)LOWERTHEQUILL-GETEVERYTHINGINPLACE

Tosquarethevise, positionthedialtestindicatoronthefixedjawandnotethevalueon bothsides. Whenbothvaluesarethesame, theviseisnowsquare.

Itiseasiesttolowerthequilltopositionthedialtestindicatoronthefixedjaw. Youcould alsoraisethekneeofthemilltobringthevise/tabletothetop(thiswouldbeamorerigid positionandisrecommendedduringmillingoperations),butthistakesquiteafewturns andisn’tnecessary.

Quiz:Isthequilllockedorunlocked?

6)FINDTHEDIFFERENCEINTHEPICTURE

Isthequilllockedorunlocked?

7)TOUCHINDICATORTOFIXEDJAW

Movey-axis(bringthevisetowardsyou)soindicatortouchesthefixedjaw. Youonly wanttodeflecttheneedleontheindicatorafewthousandths.

8)READINGTHEDIALTESTINDICATOR

Youarestartingontheleftsideofthevise. Youonlywanttodeflecttheneedleonthe indicatorafewthousandths(afewbigtickmarks).

Bigtickmarktobigtickmarkarethousandths(.001”).

Smalltickmarktobigtickmarkarehalf-thousandths(.0005”).

Thisdialisreading,inmachinistterms,“alittlemorethantenandahalfthousandths (.0105).” Rememberthatvalue.

9)MOVEINDICATORTOOTHERSIDE

Nowthatyou’rehere,hitthebackbuttonandlookattheneedleonthedial. Press forwardandcomebackhere.

Movetheindicatortotherightsideofthevise.

The indicator is now on the right side of the vise and the needle shows about 9 thousandths. Thedifferencebetweentheleftandrightsideisoneandahalfthousandths.

Wemustadjustthevisesobothvaluesarethesame.

10)FINETUNINGTHEVISE

Usingthenumbershere:

RightSide=.009”

LeftSide=.0105”

LeftSide(minus)RightSide=.0015”

.0015”isthemaximumamountwewanttomovetherightside(towardsus).

Lightlytapthevisewitharubbermallet(deadblowhammer)torotatethevisetowards you. Rotatingittowardsyouincreasesthevalueontheindicator.

11)NEWRIGHTSIDEVALUE

Afterlightlytappingwiththedeadblowhammer,here’sthenewvalue(.0105”). Check theotherside.

12)LEFTSIDEVALUE

On the other side (left) the indicator now shows 11.5 thousandths, it was 10.5 thousandths. Let’sgobacktotherightsideandslightlyadjust.

13)RIGHTSIDETWEAK

Nowyou’re ontherightside. Movingthevisetowardsyoumakesthevalueincrease

from10.5thousandsto11.4thousandths.

Youcanadjustthevisewhilereadingtheindicatoronlyononeside. Inthiscaseweare measuringontherightside.

Nowgobacktotheleft.

14)FINALLEFTSIDEVALUE

11.5onleft11.4thousandthsonright.

Sincethisindicatorisaccurateto.0005”(halfthousandth)asstampedonthedial,itis

satisfactory.

Nowtightendowntheboltsandsecurethevisetothetable.

15:TIGHTENBOLTS

Monkey tight, not gorilla tight. There’s no need to go too tight on machine tools, especiallywhenyouhavealongwrenchthatgivesyoualotoftorque.

Itmightbehardnottorotatetheviseasyoudothis,sotrytodoitcarefully.

16)FINALCHECK

Runtheindicatoracrosstheviseasafinalcheck. Ifitmovedslightlywhiletightening andit’ssomethingyouwanttocorrect,youcangiveitalittletapwhileit’sfullysecured. Thislastditchalignmentisokandwillonlymove.0005”. Ifit’sstillwayoffthemark, repeatthestepsandgetitaligned. Tighteningabolttobeasnugpivotpointtakesalittle practice.

17)Unlockthequill,retracttheit,andremovethedialtestindicatorandcollet.

HoldingWorkpiecesBetweenCenters

Theindexingfixtureisusedtosupportworkplaceswhicharecenteredonbothends.When thepiecehasbeenpreviouslyreamedorbored,itmaybepresseduponamandrelandthen mounted between the centers. Two types of mandrels may be used for mounting workplacesbetweencenters.Thesolidmandrelissatisfactoryformanyoperations,while

onehavingashanktaperedtofitintotheindexheadspindleispreferredincertaincases.

Ajackscrewisusedtopreventspringingoflongslenderworkplacesheldbetweencenters

orworkplacesthatextendsomedistancefromthechuck.Workpiecesmountedbetween

centersarefixedtotheindexheadspindlebymeansofalathedog.Thebenttailofthe

dogshouldbefastenedbetweenthesetscrewsprovidedinthedrivingcenterclampinsuch

amannerastoavoidbacklashandpreventspringingthemandrel.

Whenmillingcertaintypesofworkpieces,amillingmachinedogisheldinaflexibleball

jointwhicheliminatesshakeorspringofthedogortheworkpiece.Theflexibleballjoint

allowsthetailofthedogtomoveinaradiusalongtheaxisoftheworkpiece,makingit

particularlyusefulintherapidmillingoftapers.

HoldingWorkpiecesinaChuck

Beforescrewingthechucktotheindexheadspindle,itshouldbecleanedandanyburrson

thespindleorchuckremoved.Burrsmayberemovedwithasmooth-cut,threecornered

fileorscraper,whilecleaningshouldbeaccomplishedwithapieceofspringsteelwire

bentandformedtofittheangleofthethreads.Thechuckshouldnotbetightenedonthe

spindlesotightlythatawrenchorbarisrequiredtoremoveit.Cylindricalworkplaces

heldintheuniversalchuckmaybecheckedfortruenessbyusingatestindicatormounted

uponabaserestinguponthemillingmachinetable.Theindicatorpointshouldcontactthe

circumferenceofsmalldiameterworkpieces,orthecircumferenceandexposedfaceof

largediameterpieces.Whilechecking,theworkpieceshouldberevolvedbyrotatingthe

indexheadspindle.

Whenever possible, the workpiece should be clamped in the center of the vise jaws. However,whennecessarytomillashortworkpiecewhichmustbeheldattheendofthe vise,aspacingblockofthesamethicknessasthepieceshouldbeplacedattheopposite endofthejaws.Thiswillavoidstrainonthemovablejawandpreventthepiecefrom slipping.Iftheworkpieceissothinthatitisimpossibletoletitextendoverthetopofthe vise, hold down straps are generally used. These straps are hardened pieces of steel,

havingoneverticalsidetaperedtoformanangleofabout92°withthebottomsideand

theotherverticalsidetaperedtoanarrowedge.Bymeansofthesetaperedsurfaces,the

workpieceisforceddownwardintotheparallels,holdingthemfirmlyandleavingthetop

oftheworkpiecefullyexposedtothemillingcutter.

2a)I.CNCMilling

CNC,computernumericcontrolled,referstoanymachinetool(i.e.mill,lathe,drillpress, etc.)whichusesacomputertoelectronicallycontrolthemotionofoneormoreaxeson themachine. ThedevelopmentofNCmachinetoolsstartedfromatasksupportedbythe US Air Force in the early 1950’s, involving MIT and several machine-tool manufacturing companies. The need was recognized for machines to be able to manufacturecomplexjetaircraftparts.

As computer technology evolved, computers replaced the more inflexible controllers foundontheNCmachines;hencethedawnoftheCNCera.

CNCmachinetoolsusesoftwareprogramstoprovidetheinstructionsnecessarytocontrol the axis motions, spindle speeds, tool changes and so on. CNC machine tools allow

multipleaxesofmotionsimultaneously,resultingin2Dand3Dcontouringability.

CNCtechnologyalsoincreasesproductivityandqualitycontrolbyallowingmultipleparts

tobeproducedusingthesameprogramandtooling.

In CNC milling the main function of thework partclampingdevices is thecorrect positioningof theworkparts. The work part clamping should allow awork part change which is as quick, easy to approach, correctly and exactly positioned, reproducibleas possible.For simplemachiningcontrollable,hydraulic chuck jaws are sufficient.For millingonallsides, thecompletemachiningshould be possible with as few re-clamping as possible.For complicatedmillingparts millingfixtures,also with integratedautomatic rotation,are being manufacturedor builtoutof availablemodular systems toallow, as far as possible, complete machining without reclamping. Work part pallets, which areloadedwiththenextwork partby theoperator outsidethework roomandthenautomaticallytakenintotherightmachiningposition,areincreasingly beingused.

beingused. Fig.2a-1.Haas CNCVerticalmillingmachine.(Haas) CNC tool

Fig.2a-1.Haas CNCVerticalmillingmachine.(Haas)

CNC tool machines areequippedwithcontrollableautomatic toolchangefacilities.

Depending on the type

simultaneously take various quantities of toolsand set thetoolcalledby theNC program intoworkingposition.Themostcommontypesare:

and application area these tool change facilities can

·thetoolturret

·thetoolmagazine.

The tool turret is mostly used forlathesandthetoolmagazineformillingmachines.If anew toolis calledby theNCprogram the turretrotates as longas the required tool achieves working position. Presently such a tool change only takes fractions of seconds.

such a tool change only takes fractions of seconds. Fig.2a-2.Exampleofaturret.

Fig.2a-2.Exampleofaturret.

Dependingonthetypeandsize,theturrets of theCNCmachines have8to16 tool places. In large millingcenters up to 3turrets canbeusedsimultaneously.If more than48tools areusedtoolmagazines of differenttypes are used in such machining centers allowing a chargeof upto100andevenmore tools. Therearelongitudinal magazines,ringmagazines,platemagazines andchainmagazines as well ascassette magazines.

Fig.2a-3.

Fig.2a-3.

Fig.2a-4.Exampleofachainmagazine. Fig.2a-5.Automatictoolchangefacility: 1.millingtools 2.toolgripper(toolchanger)

Fig.2a-4.Exampleofachainmagazine.

Fig.2a-4.Exampleofachainmagazine. Fig.2a-5.Automatictoolchangefacility: 1.millingtools 2.toolgripper(toolchanger)

Fig.2a-5.Automatictoolchangefacility:

1.millingtools

2.toolgripper(toolchanger)

3.workspindle

4.toolmagazine

Inthetoolmagazinethetoolchangetakesplaceusingagrippingsystemalsocalledtool changer. Thechangetakes placewithadoublearm grippingdeviceafter a new tool has been called in the NCprogramasfollows:

·Positioningthedesiredtoolinmagazineintotoolchangingposition

·Takingtheworkspindleintochangingposition

·Revolvingthetoolgrippingdevicetotheoldtoolinthespindleandtothenewtoolin

themagazine

·Takingthetoolsintothespindleandmagazineandrevolvingthetoolgrippingdevice

·Placingthetoolsintothespindlesleeveormagazine

·Returningthetoolgrippingdeviceintohomeposition

The tool change proceduretakes between6to15seconds,whereby thequickesttool changers areabletomakethetoolchangeinmerelyonesecond.Securityprecautionson CNCmachinetoolsThetargetof work security is toeliminateaccidents anddamages to persons, machines and facilities at worksite.Basically the same work security precautions apply toworkingonCNCmachines as toconventionalmachinetools.They canbeclassifiedinthreecategories:

security precautions apply toworkingonCNCmachines as toconventionalmachinetools.They canbeclassifiedinthreecategories:
·Dangerelimination:Defectsonmachinesandonalldevicesnecessaryforworkneedto

·Dangerelimination:Defectsonmachinesandonalldevicesnecessaryforworkneedto

beregisteredatonce.Emergencyexitshavetobekeptfree.Nosharpobjectsshouldbe

carriedinclothing.Watchesandringsaretobetakenoff.

·Screening and marking risky areas: The security precautions and corresponding notifications arenotallowed to be removed or inactivated.Movingandintersecting partsmustbescreened.

·Eliminatingdangerexposure:Protectiveclothingmustbeworntoprotectfrompossible

sparksandflashes.Protectiveglassesorprotectiveshieldsmustbeworntoprotectthe

eyes.Damagedelectricalcablesarenotallowedtobeused.

Coordinatesystemdefinitionwithreferencetomachineorworkpart Machinecoordinatesystem The machinecoordinatesystem of
Coordinatesystemdefinitionwithreferencetomachineorworkpart Machinecoordinatesystem The machinecoordinatesystem of

Coordinatesystemdefinitionwithreferencetomachineorworkpart

MachinecoordinatesystemThe machinecoordinatesystem of theCNCmachinetoolis definedby themanufacturerandcannotbechanged.Thepointof originfor this machinecoordinatesystem,also calledmachinezero pointM, cannot beshiftedinits location(seeFig.2a-6,left).WorkpartcoordinatesystemThework partcoordinate system is definedby theprogrammer andcanbechanged.Thelocation of the point of originfor thework partcoordinatesystem,also calledwork partzero pointW, can bespecifiedas desired(seeFig.2a-6,right).

Fig.2a-6.Machinecoordinatesystem(left);Workpartcoordinatesystem(right). Thedesignof theCNCmachinespecifies thedefinitionof
Fig.2a-6.Machinecoordinatesystem(left);Workpartcoordinatesystem(right). Thedesignof theCNCmachinespecifies thedefinitionof

Fig.2a-6.Machinecoordinatesystem(left);Workpartcoordinatesystem(right).

Thedesignof theCNCmachinespecifies thedefinitionof the respective coordinate system. Correspondingly, the Z axis is specified as theworkingspindle(tool carrier) in CNCmillingmachines (see Fig.2a-7),wherebythepositiveZdirectionrunsfromthe workpartupwardstothetool.

For an easier calculation of the points needed for programmingitis advisabletouse theouter edges of theupper(seeFig.2a-7,left)orthelowerarea(seeFig.2a-7,right).

IntheCNClathes theworkingspindle(toolcarrier)is specifiedas Zaxis.This means the Z axis is identical totherotationaxis (Fig.2a-8). Thedirection of the Z axis is specified so that the tool withdraws fromtheworkpartwhenmovingtothepositive axisdirection.The X axis is locatedinarightangletotheZ axis.However, the

directionof theX axis always depends onifthetoolislocatedinfrontof(Fig.2a-9,

left)orbehind(Fig.2a-9,right)therotationcenter.

left)orbehind(Fig.2a-9,right)therotationcenter. Fig.2a-7.Workpartzeropointintheupperleftouteredge(left);

Fig.2a-7.Workpartzeropointintheupperleftouteredge(left);

Workpartzeropointinthelowerleftouteredge(right)

Workpartzeropointinthelowerleftouteredge(right)

Fig.2a-8.MillingworkpartinCartesiancoordinatesystemwith2-axistoolinfrontoftherotationcenter

Fig.2a-9.Milling workpartinCartesiancoordinatesystemwith2-axistoolbehindtherotationcenter Machinezeropoint M Each

Fig.2a-9.Milling

workpartinCartesiancoordinatesystemwith2-axistoolbehindtherotationcenter

MachinezeropointM

Each numerically controlledmachine tool works withamachinecoordinatesystem. The machine zeropoint is theoriginof themachine-referencedcoordinatesystem.Itis specifiedby the machine manufacturer andits positioncannot be changed. In general,themachinezero pointMis located in the center ofthe work spindlenose forCNClathes andabovetheleft corner edge of thework partcarrierforCNC verticalmillingmachines.

corner edge of thework partcarrierforCNC verticalmillingmachines. Fig.2a-10.Locationofthezeroandreferencepointsforturning

Fig.2a-10.Locationofthezeroandreferencepointsforturning

Fig.2a-11.Locationofthezeroandreferencepointformilling ReferencepointR Amachinetoolwithan incremental travel path

Fig.2a-11.Locationofthezeroandreferencepointformilling

ReferencepointR

Amachinetoolwithan incremental travel path measuring system needs acalibration pointwhichalsoserves for controllingthetoolandwork part movements. This calibrationpointis calledthereferencepoint R. Its locationis setexactly by alimit switch oneachtravelaxis.Thecoordinates of the referencepoint, with referencetothe machinezero point,always have thesame value.This valuehas asetadjustmentin the CNC control. After switching the machine on the reference point has to be approachedfrom all axes tocalibratetheincrementaltravelpathmeasuringsystem.

ToolCompensationsforCNCMachining

Usingtoolcompensationvalues

Using the tool compensation values it is easy to program a work part without considerationof the actuallyapplicabletoollengths or toolradii.Theavailablework

partdrawing data can be directly used for programming. The tooldata,lengths as wellas radiiof themillingmachines or indexableinserts areautomaticallyconsidered bytheCNCcontrol.

Toollengthcompensationformillingandturning

Atoollengthcompensationregardingthereferencepointenables theadjustmentbetween thesetand actualtoollength,as incase of toolfinishing.This toollengthvaluehas to be available for the control. For this it isnecessary to measure the length L, i.e. the distancebetweenthetoolsetuppointBandthecuttingtip,andtoenteritintothe

control.IncaseofmillingtoolsthelengthisdefinedinZdirection(Fig.2a-12).

Z direction(Fig.2a-12). Fig.2a-12.Toolcompensationvaluesonacuttingtool B

Fig.2a-12.Toolcompensationvaluesonacuttingtool

Btoolsetuppoint

Llength=distanceofthecuttingtiptothetoolsetuppointinZ

Rradiusofthemillingtool

IncaseoflathetoolsthelengthLisdefinedinZdirection(Fig.2a-13).

Fig.2a-13.Toolcompensationvaluesonalathetool B toolsetuppoint L length=distanceofthecuttingtiptothetoolset-inpointinZ Q

Fig.2a-13.Toolcompensationvaluesonalathetool

Btoolsetuppoint

Llength=distanceofthecuttingtiptothetoolset-inpointinZ

Qoverhang=distanceofthecuttingtiptothetoolsetuppointinX

Rcuttingradius

IntheCNCcontrolthesetoolcompensationvalues arestored in the compensation value storage, whereby inmost CNCcontrols it is possibletodescribeupto99tools. Thesevalues havetobeactivatedduringmachining.This is doneby callingthedata withintheNCprogram,e.g.,withtheaddress Hor by specific placesintheTword.

AdvantagesOf CNC Machines When Compared ToConventional Machines Key LearningPoints: Machine axis determination for

AdvantagesOf CNC Machines When Compared ToConventional Machines

Key LearningPoints: Machine axis determination for horizontal and vertical spindle machines. Constructionaldetails e.g. special configurations to increase accuracy. Recirculating ball leadscrews andanti-friction slideways. Use of servo and stepping motors in slide movement. Visual displaysunit – user interfaces. Swarf removalsystems.

Machine Axis Determination ForHorizontal And VerticalSpindleMachines

The primary axes of a machine are designated as X, Y, Z, which have positive and negativevalues. The Z-axis is always the main spindle axis and is positive away from the work, whichis for safety reasons. The X-axis is always horizontal and parallel to the surface of the work.The Y-axisisperpendicular tobothXand Z axes. For the milling machine, the Z + direction is upwards away from the work, Z – direction isdownwards into the work. The X + direction is to the right of the work and the X – directionto the left. The Y + direction is back into the machine and the Y- direction is directly towardstheoperator.

For the lathe, the Z + direction is to the right and away from the work, Z – direction is to theleft and into the work. The X + direction is directly towards the operator, the X – direction isbackintothemachine away fromthe operator.

The conventional machine is designed to have an operator standing directly in frontcontrolling the machine. For the CNC machine this is no longer required as the machine isoperating underprogram control. CNC machines have more rigid construction when compared to the conventional machine.The slide ways, guide and spindles of the CNC machine all look over proportioned whencompared to the conventional machine. The structure of the CNC machine is thereforedesigned to cope withthe torsionalforces andheavy duty cutting imposed onthese machines.

Recirculating BallLeadscrews And Anti-Friction Slideways.The slideways on a conventional machine operate under the conditions of sliding friction,where the friction is higher at lower velocities, which can result in jerky slide movements. Toovercome this rolling friction can be used instead of sliding friction, where re- circulatingroller bearings are positioned under the slideways. The leadscrews in conventional machinesare usually of theAcme threadform,which are inefficient due tothe highfrictionalresistancebetween the flanks of the screw and the nut. There is also backlash, because of the clearancebetween the screw and the nut. This has been replaced in the CNC machine with the recirculating ball lead screw, where both the leadscrew and the nut have a precision groundradiused shaped thread. The space or track between the leadscrew and nut is filled with anendless stream or ball bearings. The advantages are longer life, less frictional resistance, lower torque required, more precise positioning of slides, where backlash is almost completely eliminated.

UseOf Servo AndSteppingMotorsInSlideMovement.The slides and spindle of the CNC machine are driven by either stepper motor, which areused in an open-loop system or servo motors, which are used in a closed-loop system.Stepper motor – a digital signal is sent from the controller to the motor in the form of pulses, which will cause the motor to rotate through a specified angle, which causes the

slide tomove by the required distance, e.g. if five digital pulses are sent to the stepper motor then itwill rotate by five steps, which is converted to linear movement by the leadscrew. The speedby which the pulses are sent to the stepper motor will determine the velocity of the slidemovement. As the distance moved by the slide and the feed can be accurately controlled bythe CNC control system, then there is no need for positional or velocity feedback. There arehoweversome disadvantagesassociatedwiththisopen-loopsystemusing steppermotors:

- Ifthemachine axisisstalledthroughoverload,the pulseswill continue tocountand loss ofpositionwilloccur.

- Themaximumoutputof powerfroma steppermotorisrelatively low.

- Thepulserateorfrequency islimitedtherefore the maximumaxisfeedrate is restricted,whichmeansthatthe rapidtraverse speedsare low.

The steppermotorsare only used onsmall lowpoweredmachines.

Servo Motor – the servo motor requires both positional and velocity feedback, which meansthat the actual position and velocity of the slideway is continuously compared to the digitalsignal that is being sent out by the controller. This therefore is a closed-loop system. Thedevice used to provide feedback from the slide to the controller is a transducer, whichconvertsmechanicaldisplacementintoan electricalsignal.

VisualDisplays Unit – User Interfaces. The visualdisplay unit (VDU),whichis alsocalleda monitoror a display isnormally built-into the side panel of the CNC machine. It visually lists the machining program in the form ofG-codes and can also be used to show a graphical display of the path that the cutting tool will take to machine the part. A keyboard close to the VDU allows programs to be written directlyinto the controller unit of the machine or can be used to modify existing programs. It is morecommon nowadays to prepare the program on a separate computer and then load it onto theCNC machine later. The advantage of this is that the CNC machine is not idle while theprogramisbeing written.

SwarfRemovalSystems.When swarf builds up on the table of a conventional machine, it is usually removed by themachine operator. The build up is easily seen by the operator and removed when required.However for CNC machines swarf build-up is a problem due to the high rates of metalremoval and the fact that CNC machines may not have an operator present during machining.Therefore in CNC machines have built in swarf removal equipment such as rotary screw or linear conveyors. Slanted beds in CNC lathes allow swarf to fall away into the base of themachine.Multiple coolant nozzles around thecutting zone can assistin

removing swarf.

Key Learning Points: Advantages of CNC machining: high accuracy and repeatability, production times, safety.Elimination of special jigs and fixtures. Reduction of machine set up times. Flexibility inchanges of component design. Reduction of operation error. Complex one-off components and small batch quantities. Guarding arrangements for CNC machines. Adaptability andadvantages of CNC within modern and evolving industries including the apprenticesworkplace.

Advantages OfCnc Machining: High Accuracy And Repeatability,ProductionTimes, Safety

Once the program has been written and proved, parts can be consistently machined to a highdegree of accuracy and consistency. Production time can also be reduced due the fact that thetool can be feed at a rapid feed rate to the work. Also complex form tools are not required asthe CNC machine can generate the required profile. Safety has also been improved as mostCNCmachineshave safety featuressuchas guards.

EliminationOf SpecialJigs AndFixtures

Production time can also be reduced and costs reduced due the fact that writing a partprogramisquicker andcheaperthanmanufacturing jigsand fixtures.

ReductionOfMachineSetUpTimes

Setup times can be reduced when compared to the setup times on conventional machines dueto the fact that equipment such as, the rotary table, jigs, fixtures, form tools etc., do not needtosetup.

Flexibility InChangesOfComponentDesign

When the program is written to the drawing dimensions, a trial part is machined to prove theprogram. The machined part is rarely correct on the first run, therefore modifications willneed to be made to the program to bring some features within the required tolerance band.This is easily done by calling up the program, which will be displayed on the screen. Theoperator then scrolls down to

the line where the value needs to be changed. When the changeis made the program can be run again. Also future design changes can be made in the same way.

ReductionOfOperationError

Provided that the program is correct and the cutting tools are setup properly no errors willoccur in the work. As explained above, the program is normally proved in advance ofproduction.Operator fatigue, boredomorinattentionwill notaffectthe quality orthe durationof machine as canoccur whenmachining ona conventional machine.

ComplexOne-OffComponents AndSmallBatchQuantities

CNC machines are ideal for one-off components and small batch quantities. The fast changeover times that can be achieved by the CNC machine means that small batches can bemachinedeconomically. The programneedstobe preparedon a separate computersothattheCNCmachine can remaininproduction.The programcan be stored onthe CNCmachine andcalledupwhen required againinthefuture.

Guarding ArrangementsforCNCMachines

Safety has also been improved when compared to conventional machines, as most CNCmachines have safety features such as guards. The machine is only accessible through thesliding doors that are closed prior to the machine starting up. Safety switches are placedbehind the sliding doors will not allow the machine program to run until the doors are closed.Also,ifthe doorsare openedthemachine will switchoff.

Adaptability and Advantages of CNC within Modern and Evolving Industries includingthe Apprentices Workplace

In thepastitwasadequate for theapprentice Toolmakertobe trained onconventional millingmachines andthe lathes. In ordertouse these machineseffectively the apprentice hadtolearnto use other equipment such as the sine bar, rotary table, dividing head etc., on the millingmachine and learn how to turn tapers, stepped diameters, threads etc., on the lathe.

NowadaystheCNCmachineisused throughoutindustry. Itcanperformall theabove tasksand can alsobe programmed and run by semi-skilled operators. It is still very important to be proficient inall aspects of the conventional milling machine and lathe, but learning to use the CNCmachineisa necessary requirementof the modern day apprentice.

FeedsandSpeeds

One of the challenges in getting good CNC cuts is in selecting the best cutting speed (feed rate) androuter/spindle RPM (speed of rotation). Feeds and speeds are a critical part of machining and shouldbe fully understood before deviating from recommended settings. One of the primary concerns ofmachining is chip load, which is arepresentation of the size of the chips produced during cutting. The goal is to get the maximum chip load possible to increase productivity, reduce heat, and preventpremature dulling. When chip load is too small, bits will get too hot and dull quicker. When chip loadis too high, the tool will deflect creating a bad surface finish and, in extremecases, willchip or breakyour bit.

Chip load is a function of three different parameters: feed rate, RPM, and number of fluteson the tool.Selection can be facilitated using the guidance provided by manufacturersregarding the best chipload foraparticularcutter. Chip load is the thickness ofthe chunk ofmaterial taken by a tooth of thecutter. This parameter has a relationship between the combination of how fast the cutter is moving forward into the material and how fast it is turning (Chip load = Feed Rate / [RPM x number offlutes]). This relationship shown in the formula gives you starting point speed values for testing todetermine the most suitable parameters for any cutting situation. The ShopBot “ChipLoadCalculator” simply provides a quick way to explore these values, and is most useful if youknowthe approximate desired chip load foraparticularcutter and material.Your machine will have either a router or a spindle.The advantage ofaspindle is that speed can bevery precisely controlled. This allows for optimization of your cuts. A router does not have a precisespeed controller so the actual speed of the router is directly correlated to the depth of cut, material,and feed rate it is cutting at. For routers these numbers will be a starting point, but will have to beadjusted for real life conditions. Thisisa necessity because routers tend to run a speed lower thanthe setting on the router indicates; settings should be recorded as they willwork for similar cuts insimilarmaterial. Itis recommendedthat you start with the low numbers to ensure it is within anacceptable range foryour tool. Note that there is considerable overlap in the range of parameters; you will need to test in this

rangefor the best speed selection for a particular cutting or machining operation.

Below is the strategy thatOnsrudsuggests.Thisworksparticularlywellforrouters. Optimizing feed rates and speeds:

1. Start off using an RPM derived for the chip load forthe material you are cutting (see charts).

2. Increase the cutting speed (feed rate) until the quality of thepart’s finish starts

to decreaseor the part is starting to move from hold downs. Then decrease speed by 10%.

3. Decrease RPMuntil finish deteriorates, then bring RPM back up until finish is

acceptable.

4.This optimizes RPM and speed so that you are taking the largest possible chips. This willbe the best feed and speedfor that particularcut.In order to reduce the amount of workneeded we supply arange offeeds and speeds to start at (step 1 above). To increase performanceyou willwant to optimize feeds and speeds as detailed above. If you run into any surface finishproblems you can adjust them until performance is acceptable. If you run into a lot of work holdingissues you may need to revisityour work holding method to ensureit is adequate.

Manufacturersettingsforbits

Fortunately, most manufacturers have done the work of finding the optimal speeds and feeds for you.Your first resource for proper feeds and speeds should be the manufacturer of your bit. There arenumerous calculators available online that will give you rough numbers. These should work fine, butmaynot be optimized for your particular bit. The manufacturer of the bit will still be the bestresource; most reputable companies have information and live support available to help users oftheir tools utilize them properly. We recommend Onsrud tools and will be passing on theirrecommendations for our basic bit kit.If you are going to do production work in a certain type of material, you would be best served by purchasing a bit made for that type of cutting. Ifyou are going to do anumberof different materials,then a more general bit could be used. Wewill try to giveyou a general overview, but bitmanufacturers will be happy to work with you to help you determine the bit you will need for aparticularuse.

Chip Load = per cutting edge.IPS = Inches Per Second.

IPM = Inches Per Minute.RPM= Revolutions Per Minute.#of cutting edges =#

of flutes.*

*typicallytrueunlessstatedotherwisebymanufacturer.

Chip Load = Feed Rate (IPM) / (RPM x # of cutting edges)

Feed Rate(IPM) = RPM x # of cutting edges x Chip LoadSpeed (RPM) =Feed Rate(IPM) / (#of cutting edges xChip Load)

IPM=IPSx60

Depthofcut:Afunctionofcuttingedgediametersetbymanufacturer.Onsrud bits are typically allowed a cut depth per pass equal to the cutting edge diameter unless otherwise specified foraparticularmaterial. If you wish to cut deeper you will need to reduce thechip load. For twice the depth of cut you will have to reduce the chip load per tooth by 25% and fortriple the depth of cut you will have to reduce the chip load by 50%. Please note that if you do thisyou will have to calculate the feed rate and speed yourself instead of using thechart.

Example usinga1/4” or0.125” bitStraight V Carbide Tipped Endmill SB# 13642:You decide to use this bit for soft wood, and decide to use this to a depth of cut of1/2” (2 times thediameter) which means youcan’t use our chart. You decide to start with the middle of the range ofrecommended chip load provided on the chart ((.006+.004)/2=.005). You then reduce that by 25% toallow for the deeper cutting depth (0.75x0.005=0.00375). You decide you are going to cut at a RPMof 18,000 and this tool only has one flute as shown in the chart provided below. Now that you havethe information needed to find the feed speed, we will usethe ShopBot 3 “Chip LoadCalculator” todecide what value to start with.

SpeedandFeedcharts

The values in these charts have been taken from Onsrud’s recommendations and calculatedforyouinordertosavetimeforthebitsprovidedinourbitkit.Forfurther information,Onsrudseriesnumbersareprovided.WealsoprovidetheShopBotnumbers foraneasier,streamlinedorderingexperienceforyou.Onsrudprovidednumbersarecut depths,chiploads,andflutes.Theexceptiontothisruleisthe“CarbideTippedSurfacing Cutter”whichhasallvaluesprovidedbyOnsrud.Anytoolswithnovaluesprovidedare notlistedbyOnsrud,butifyoucontactthemaboutyourspecificusetheymayprovide youwithsomebasenumbersfromwhichtocalculate.The“ChipLoadCalculator”in

ShopBot3wasutilizedwithastartingRPMof18,000onalltoolstofindthecalculated

feedrate.Anydeviationsfromprovidednumbersshouldbeverifiedandadjustedthrough

recalculationinShopBot3“ChipLoadCalculator.”

recalculationinShopBot3“ChipLoadCalculator.”
recalculationinShopBot3“ChipLoadCalculator.”
BeginningCNCProgramming TherearetwowaystoprogrammodernCNCmachinetools. 1.ConversationalProgramming.

BeginningCNCProgramming

TherearetwowaystoprogrammodernCNCmachinetools.

1.ConversationalProgramming. Thisisthesimplerofthetwomethods. Ineffect,thisis amacroprogramminglanguageusedtoinstructthemachinetoperformpre-programmed cycles(i.e.facing,drillingholesinarrays,etc.). Whenwritingaconversationalprogram,

yousimplyentertheappropriateparametersassociatedwitheachmachiningcycle. This isanalogoustousingthepolararrayfunctioninSolidWorksorPro/E;youdon’thaveto dothelayoutortrigtofindthelocationofthefeatures;youjustspecifytheessential parametersandthesoftwaredoestherestforyou.

2. CAM Programming. This is the more powerful of the two methods. Using this method, you import your part model into a CAM (computer aided manufacturing) programanddefinetheparametersassociatedwitheachandeverymachinedfeatureon thepart. These parameters include tool diameterand length, depth of cut, toolpath geometry,etc.

2a)II.CNCProgramming

ConversationalCNCProgramming

Thefollowingcyclesaretypicalofthemachiningoperationsavailablewhenprogramming a3-axisCNCmillingmachine.Position. UsedtomovetheXYZcoordinatesatrapid feedrate.Drill_one. UsedtopositionthetoolataspecificXYZcoordinatepositionin ordertoautomaticallydrillahole. Theautomaticdrillcyclesallowforsimpledrilling, peck drilling, spot-facing and bore cycles. Drill_pattern. Used to define polar or rectangularholearraysforautomaticdrilling.Line. Usedtocutstraightlinesalongan axisoradiagonalatthedesiredfeedrate.Arc. Usedtocutacircleorpartialcirclethatis part of a series of cuts that usually includes lines as well. Face. Used to define a rectangularzig-zagpatternusedtocleanoffapartsurface.Pocket. Usedtoclearthe materialoutofarectangle,circleorpolygon.Frame. Usedtocuttheinsideoroutside outlineofarectangle,circleorpolygon.Tool. Usedtoentertoolparameters,machine functionparametersandprogrampause/stopcodes.Scale/mirror. Usedtoscaleand/or mirrorotherpartfeatures.Rotate. Usedtorepeatotherpartfeaturesaroundaspecific centerofrotation.

Conversational CNC Programming Example #1 Drill Pattern Bolt Circle Variables (G121): X=XcenterY=Ycenter R=Radius A=Startangle(absolute)N=#ofholes H=#ofholestodrill

CNC Mill Calibration Procedure Memorial University Technical

ServicesDocumentNo.:TS-0057Revision:21.0

StandardsandEquipment

Procedure Memorial University Technical ServicesDocumentNo.:TS-0057Revision:21.0 StandardsandEquipment Exhibit1

Exhibit1

Thefollowingequipmentisrequired:

CalibratedDialIndicator

CalibratedFingerDialIndicator

NOTE: Standards and equipment used must have a valid calibration

certificate2.0CalibrationProcedure“TS-0079CNCMillCalibrationRecord

Sheet.pdf”mustbeusedCleantheDialIndicatorandFingerDialIndicator’s

measuringsurfacesandstand,themillbed,spindle,andallmountingpoints

forthemagneticbase

NOTE: EnsurethatthedialindicatorstylusisperpendiculartotheX,Y,and Z axisandthespindlewhenperforminganymeasurement

Step1:Measuretheambienttemperatureandrecordit. Ifthetemperatureis <18°Cor>24°C, seetheDivisionManagerforfurtherinstructions.

Step2:TestCharacteristic:SpindleBore

TestMethod:Removeanytoolthatmaybeattachedtothespindle(Thismust bedoneviathedigitalpanelandamachinistshouldbeaskedtoshow/verify themachineissafetocalibrate).Mountthemagneticbasesecurelyonthe tableandplacethefingerdialindicatoragainsttheinnerboreofthespindle

(Exhibit1).

Exhibit2 Rotatethespindle360degreesandthenrecordthemaximumdeflection. AcceptableLimit: +/-0.001”or0.025mm Step3:

Exhibit2

Rotatethespindle360degreesandthenrecordthemaximumdeflection.

AcceptableLimit: +/-0.001”or0.025mm

Step3:TestCharacteristic:X-AxisScale

TestMethod:Securelymountthemagneticbaseonthetableandplacethe dialindicatorstylusagainstthespindlerim,makingsureitisperpendicularto

theyandzaxis(Exhibit2).

Withthedialtouchingtheouterrimofthechuck,thecenterpointmustbe

found.Movethetableleft/rightinthexdirectionuntiltheneedlestartsto

deflect.

Nowmoveintheydirection,andthepointofmaximumdeflectionwillbe thecenterpoint.Nowmovethetableright/leftinthexdirectionuntilthedial stopsmoving,andmoveitbackinuntilitjuststartstodeflect.DONOT MOVETHETABLEBACKWARDSFROMTHISPOINTON.Zeroboth thedialandthedigitalreadout,thenmovethetableinthexdirectionuntilthe

digitalreadoutdisplays1.0000”.

Recordboththedigitalreadoutanddialindicatorreading.

AcceptableLimit:+/-0.001”or0.025mm

Exhibit3 Step4: TestCharacteristic:Y-AxisScale TestMethod:Securelymountthemagneticbaseonthetableandplacethe

Exhibit3

Step4: TestCharacteristic:Y-AxisScale

TestMethod:Securelymountthemagneticbaseonthetableandplacethe dialindicatorstylusagainstthespindlerim,makingsureitisperpendicularto thexandzaxis. Withthedialtouchingtheouterrimofthespindle,the centerpointmustbefound.Movethetablein/outintheydirectionuntilthe needlestartstodeflect.Nowmoveleft/rightthexdirection,andthepointof maximumdeflectionwillbethecenterpoint.Nowmovethetableout/inin theydirectionuntilthedialstopsmoving,andmoveitbackinuntilitjust startstodeflect.DONOTMOVETHETABLEBACKWARDSFROMTHIS POINTON.Zeroboththedialandthedigitalreadout,thenmovethebedin

theydirectionuntilthedigitalreadoutdisplays1.0000”.Recordboththe

digitalreadoutanddialindicatorreading.

AcceptableLimit:+/-0.001”or0.025mm

Step5: TestCharacteristic:Z-AxisScale

TestMethod:Securelymountthemagneticbaseonthetableandplacethe dialindicatorstylusagainstthebottomofthespindlefaceorotherflatpoint ontheheadstock,makingsureitisperpendiculartothexandyaxis. With thedialtouchingthesurface,movethetableupwardsinthezdirectionuntil

theneedlestartstodeflect.DONOTMOVETHETABLEBACKWARDS

FROMTHISPOINTON.Zeroboththedialandthedigitalreadout,then

movethetableinthezdirectionuntil

movethetableinthezdirectionuntil Exhibit4

Exhibit4

thedigitalreadoutdisplays1.0000”.Recordboththedigitalreadoutanddial

indicatorreading.

AcceptableLimit:+/-0.001”or0.025mm

ArcsandLines(dashedlineistoolpathfor1/8”diameterendmill).

Belowistheactualtoolpathcodeforthepreviousexample. Aftertheuserentersthe

Belowistheactualtoolpathcodeforthepreviousexample. Aftertheuserentersthe basicparameters,thisistheprogramthatisgeneratedbytheconversationalinterfaceto runontheCNC.Ananalogytosoftwareprogrammingisthatconversationalprogramming issimilartoprogrammingusingacompiler(i.e.,C,Fortran,VB,etc.)andtheactualtool pathcodegeneratedisequivalenttothefinalcompiledmachinecodeorinstructions.

CNCCAMProgramming Once the part has been designed using conventional mechanical design methods

CNCCAMProgramming

Once the part has been designed using conventional mechanical design methods (structuralanalysis,FEA,fatiguestudy,etc.),thepartismanufacturedusingthefollowing method.

1.Createasolid3Dmodeloftheparttobeproduced. AnystandardCADformatis acceptable.

2.ImportthesolidmodelintotheCAM(computeraidedmanufacturing)software. (this demonstrationusesMasterCAM)

3.Inputtherawmaterialstocksizeandsetthepart’scoordinateorigin.

4.Inputthenecessaryinformationforeachtoolusedinmachiningthepartfeatures.

Typically,atoollibrarywillexist,whichissimplyadatabaseoftoolsandtheirrelated

parameters.

5.Foreachpartfeature,selecttheappropriatetoolfromthelibraryandsettheparameters

necessaryformachiningthatfeature. Typicalparametersincludespindlespeed,depthof cut,feedrate,numberofpasses,toolpathpattern,etc.

6.Verifytheprogrammedtoolpath(s)byrunningtheCAMsoftware’svirtualmachining

cycle.

InventorCADmodelofexamplepart(mirroredforclarity). CAMpartsetupandcoordinatezeroing.

InventorCADmodelofexamplepart(mirroredforclarity).

InventorCADmodelofexamplepart(mirroredforclarity). CAMpartsetupandcoordinatezeroing.

CAMpartsetupandcoordinatezeroing.

Toollibraryshowingdatabaseofpreviouslyusedtools.

Toollibraryshowingdatabaseofpreviouslyusedtools.

Toolparametersstoredforeachcuttingtoolused. forcuttingonefeature(pocket)inthepart. CAMparameters

Toolparametersstoredforeachcuttingtoolused.

Toolparametersstoredforeachcuttingtoolused. forcuttingonefeature(pocket)inthepart. CAMparameters

forcuttingonefeature(pocket)inthepart.

CAMparameters

CAMroughingandfinishingparameters.

CAMroughingandfinishingparameters.

listshowingallcuttingoperations&tools. CAM operations

listshowingallcuttingoperations&tools.

CAM operations

listshowingallcuttingoperations&tools. CAM operations

Virtualverificationcycleusedtocatcherrorsbeforecutting.

Virtualverificationcycleusedtocatcherrorsbeforecutting. FinalprogramreadytobeprocessedbytheCNCmachine.

FinalprogramreadytobeprocessedbytheCNCmachine.

FinalFactsaboutCNCMachining

•CNCmanufacturingoffersadvantagesontwotypesofparts:(1)simplepartsthatare

mass produced and/or (2) complex parts with features requiring multiple axes of simultaneousmotion. Forsimplepartsinlowquantity,itisoftenquickertoproducethe partsonmanualmachines(asinlab).

•CNCdoesnotinherentlyimplyincreasedpartaccuracy. AnoldCNCwithalotofhours

ofusewillproducelessaccuratefeaturesthananewqualitymanualmachineandvise-

versa;sodon’tautomaticallyassociatehigheraccuracywithCNCmachines. (Accuracy hasmoretodowithmachinedesign,componentselectionandmechanicalwear.)

•ModernCNCmachinesofferincreasedproductivityduetostiffermachineandspindle

designs,morepowerfulmotors,highpressurecoolant(upto1000psi)thatfloodsthe

cutting zone, automatic tool changers, digital workpiece and tool probing, and/or horizontallymountedspindles.

•Downsides to CNC machines are higher initial cost, larger space and electrical requirements, increased maintenance cost, required programming skillset and their inherentcomplexitymeansthere’sahigherprobablyofcomponentfailureduringthe usefullifespan.

programming skillset and their inherentcomplexitymeansthere’sahigherprobablyofcomponentfailureduringthe usefullifespan.
(Brown&Sharpe) Commonterminology Computercontrolled–indicatinglocalprocessoronthemachinetool

(Brown&Sharpe)

Commonterminology

Computercontrolled–indicatinglocalprocessoronthemachinetool

Movement–followingCartesian(2D/3D)coordinatesdefinedbythesourcecode

Tool–predominatelyvisualizedwithamillingcutter,butcouldbeanythingfromaglue

guntoaplasmatorch

Space–themachinetoolenvelope–theXYZmotionlimits

ComponentDefinition-CADmodelorengineeringdrawing.Asimplecomponentdefined in an engineering drawing could be taken straight to the machine but consider the dimensions–aretheyappropriateforthedirectdefinitionoftoolmotionsinstandard cyclesonyourcontroller?Toolradiuscompensationisusuallyhandledbythecontroller softwarewhenusingshopfloorsoftware.

Sourcecode–alistofcommandslistedinaProgramdefiningmachineactionsandtool movements, the program will either originate from CAM software following a CAD modelorfromshopfloorsoftware.

CAM software following a CAD modelorfromshopfloorsoftware.

G-Code-thefundamentalmachinecontrolcode,itcanbemanuallyinputoroutputfroma

CAMsystemviaatranslatorcalledaPostProcessor.Therearethreebroadelementsin

this language – machine control M codes, motion control G codes, and the position

coordinates.Complex3DformswillgenerallybemachinesusingISOoutputfromaCAM

system.

system. Conversational Programming - For simpler components

Conversational Programming - For simpler components programmed at the machine conversationalprogramming(CP)canbeused.Thissystemofautomatingcommontasks suchasmachiningapocketordrillingagroupofholesthoughacannedcycle(similartoa wizardormacro)canmakesignificanttimesavinghidingorbypassingtheG-code.CP

languagesandprotocolareuniquetoindividualmanufacturers,thecodeaboveisfroma

Heidenhaincontroller.

Controller – the user interface of the machine tool. Although they facilitate a lot of common functions, the machine control interfaces are very different in layout and workflow.Youwillcommonlyseeasmallnumberofcontrollersfittedtomanydifferent CNCmachines.CommoncontrollermanufacturersareHaas,Mazak,Heidenhain,Hurco, FanucandPrototrak.

FanucandPrototrak.

Offsets-whenthemachinetoolisfirststartedallthedriveaxisare‘homed’–drivento

theirlimitstodeterminetheactualpositionofthecenterandendofthespindleinthe

machineenvelope.Thisdefinesthethemachinecoordinatesystem.

But the range of tools used in a job will have different lengths and the component geometryisrelativetoaposition withinitsextents –thisis whereOffsetscomein, constantlyadjustingtheXYZreferencepointrelativetofixturepositionsandtoolchanges.

Cost of a crash - Ultimately the machine drives will simply do what they’re told – although we have virtual collision checking there is no physical collision avoidance, crashingatoolcoststimeandmoneysouseallyourresourcesandtrainingtoproveyour codebeforecuttingmaterial.

2a)III.CNCMillInstallationInstructions

For operator safety and proper operation, a separate earth ground wire of the same conductorsizeastheinputpowermustbeconnectedtothemachinechassis.Thisground wireisrequiredforoperatorsafetyandforproperoperation.Thisgroundmustbesupplied fromthemainplantgroundattheserviceentrance,andshouldberoutedinthesame conduitastheinputpowertothemachine. Alocalcoldwaterpipeorgroundrodadjacent tothemachinecannotbeusedforthispurpose.Inputpowertothemachinemustbe grounded.Forwyepower,theneutralmustbegrounded.Fordeltapower,acentralleg groundoroneleggroundshouldbeused.Themachinewillnotfunctionproperlyon ungrounded power. (This is not a factor with the External 480V Option.) The rated horsepowerofthemachinemaynotbeachievediftheimbalanceoftheincomingvoltage isbeyondanacceptablelimit.Themachinemayfunctionproperly,yetmaynotdeliverthe advertised power. This is noticed more often when using phase converters. Aphase

convertershouldonlybeusedifallothermethodscannotbeused.Themaximumleg-to-

legorleg-to-groundvoltageshouldnotexceed260volts,or504voltsforhigh-voltage

machineswiththeInternalHighVoltageOption.

1.Thecurrentrequirementsshowninthetablereflectthecircuitbreakersizeinternalto

themachine.Thisbreakerhasanextremelyslowtriptime.Itmaybenecessarytosizethe external service breaker up by 20-25%, as indicated by“powersupply”, for proper operation.

2.Thehigh-voltagerequirementsshownreflecttheInternal400Vconfigurationwhichis

standardonEuropeanmachines.DomesticandallotherusersmustusetheExternal480V

option.

Therecommendedmethodofattachingtheairhoseistothebarbfittingatthebackofthe

Therecommendedmethodofattachingtheairhoseistothebarbfittingatthebackofthe

machinewithahoseclamp.Ifaquickcouplerisdesired,usea3/8”for40tapermachines,

ora1/2”for50tapermachinesandmachineswiththesidemounttoolchangeroption.

Excessiveoilandwaterintheairsupplywillcausethemachinetomalfunction.Theair filter/regulator has an automatic bowl dump that should be empty before starting the machine. This must be checked for proper operation monthly. Also, excessive contaminantsintheairlinemayclogthedumpvalveandcauseoiland/orwatertopass intothemachine.

Keep in mind when moving the VF, VM, and VR models, much of its weight is concentratedinthecolumnattheback.Whenlifting thesemillsfromtheside,itis importantthattheforksoftheforkliftbepositionedasclosetothebackofthemachineas possiblewithoutbeingonthepads.

CAUTION:Donotliftthemachineanyfartherthannecessaryoffthefloorwhenmoving

it,andmoveasslowlyandcautiouslyaspossible.Droppingthemachine,evenfroma

heightofafewinches,cancauseinjury,resultinexpensiverepairs,andvoidthewarranty.

VF1-2andVM-2:Theonlyacceptablewaytomovethismillistopickitupfromthe

SIDEwithaforklift.Followthemachineweightandforklengthspecificationsdescribed earlier.Theforksmustbesetasfarapartaspossiblewithoutbeingonthepads.Theforks

mustbepositionedallthewaytothebackoftheVMCandtheymustextendatleast3”

past the far side of the machine base. Also, there must be about approximately 6” clearancebetweentheforkliftandthesideofthemachine.

VF3-11andVR-11: LiftfromtheBACKofthemachinewithaforklift.Followthe machine weight and fork length specifications described earlier. There must be

approximately6”clearancebetweentheforkliftandthebackofthemachine.Attempting

tomovethemachineanyotherwaymayvoidthewarranty.

tomovethemachineanyotherwaymayvoidthewarranty.

1.Liftthemachineclearofthepallet.2.Threadthelevelingscrewsthroughthecasting

untiltheyextendaboutaninchoutofthebottomofthemachine.Ifascrewisexcessively

hardtoturn,removeit,dressthethreadsintheholewitha1-14UNCtap,andinspectthe

screw. Ifthescrewhasdings,dressthethreadswitha60°Vfile.(Youmusthavegood controloverthesescrewsbecausetheyareusedtoprecisionlevelthemachine.)

3.Movethemachinetowhereitwillbelocated.Greasethedimpleineachlevelingpad

andlocatethemunderthelevelingscrewsatthefourcorners.Thenlowerthemachine.

4.Removeallbandingandpackingmaterialaroundthecontrolpanelandthedoors. 5.OntheVF-6/8andVRseries,removethependantsupport.

4.Removeallbandingandpackingmaterialaroundthecontrolpanelandthedoors.

5.OntheVF-6/8andVRseries,removethependantsupport.

6.Removethecontrolarmshippingbrace.OntheVF-3/4,swingthecontrolarminto

positionandboltittothesupportonthetopfrontofthemachineenclosure.OntheVF-

6/8,swingcontrolarmtotheproperposition.

Settingthemachineinplace(VS)

Ensuretheanchoringpreparationsareinaccordancewiththeanchoringinstructionsprior

tosettingthemachineinplace.

1.Preparethetablebaseformating

•RemovetheX-axisaugerandaugertrough

•Stoneandcleanthoroughlythematingflangesurface.Thisisanextremelyimportant stepthatmustbe wellandproperlydonebeforethebasesaremovedintopositionwith respect to each other. (Failure to properly prepare the surfaces and preserve their cleanlinessmayrequireseparationofthemain componentsforcorrectiveaction).

•Cleantheholesinthetablebase.

•Ensuretheair/electrical/oillinesandconnectorsarebundledandsafelyawayfromthe

matingsurfaces.

2.Preparethecolumnbaseformating•Stoneandcleanthoroughlythematingflange

surface.Thisisanextremelyimportantstepthatmustbe wellandproperlydonebefore thebasesaremovedintopositionwithrespecttoeachother.(Failureto properlyprepare the surfaces and preserve their cleanliness may require separation of the main componentsforcorrectiveaction).

•Checkthethreadofeachholeinthecolumnbase,ensurethereisnodamage.

•Ensure the air/electrical/oil lines and connectors are safely away from the mating surfaces.

3.Placethetablebaseassemblyinposition.Roughlevelbymeasuringfromthefloorto

thebottomofthebase(verycloseto2.5inches).Eachofthelevelingscrewsandpads

shouldbeinplaceatthistimeanditisadvisabletotakethemeasurementateachleveling

screwlocationforbestresults.Thiswillensurethatthefinallevelingprocedurewillgo

morequicklyandthatthecoolanttankwillproperlyfitbeneaththecoolantdischarge.

Looselyscrewthejamnutsontothelevelingscrews.

4.Placethecolumnbaseassemblyinposition.Whenplacingthecolumnbaseinposition

withrespecttothetablebase,itisimportantthatthetwomatingflangesbeasparallelas possible (vertically and horizontally). Be certain that each of the screws are actually engaugedinthethreads,andthatwhenthecolumnbaseisinplaceandthematingsurfaces areincontactthateachscrewisfreetorotate.Roughlevelbymeasuringfromthefloorto

thebottomofthebase(verycloseto2.5inches).Eachofthelevelingscrewsandpads

shouldbeinplaceatthistimeanditisadvisabletotakethemeasurementateachleveling

screwlocationforbestresults.Thiswillensurethatthefinallevelingprocedurewillgo

morequickly.

Afterroughleveling,fullytightentheconnectingscrewstobesurethematingsurfacesare

infullcontact,andthenloosenthemallapproximately3fullturns.Becertainthatthe

connectingscrewsarestillfreetorotate(donotleavetheconnectingboltstightatthis

timebecausethemachinestillmustbefinalleveledandsquared).

GratingPlatform

Largeverticalmachines(VF-6through11)haveasmallplatformlocatedoneithersideof

theY-axiswaycovertoprovideasafesupportforanoperatorshoulditbenecessaryto entertheenclosure.Theplatformsupportsarepreinstalledindomesticmachines.Export machinesdonothavetheplatformsupportsinstalledtoallowforlifting.Thetwosupports andrequiredboltsareshippedinsidethemachineenclosure.Afterthemachineissetin

place,installtheplatformsupportsinthecountersunkholes(3each)oneithersideofthe

Y-Axiswaycoverusingthesuppliedbolts.

WorkPlatform

Largeverticalmachines(VF-6through11)haveamoveableworkplatformthatcanbe

placedinfrontofthemachineforoperatoraccess.Theplatformiswrappedandshipped

attachedtothepalletalongsidethemachine.Whenthemachineisinplace,setthework

platformonitslegsinfrontofthemachineenclosure.

Unblockingthemachine

CAUTION: Before unblocking machine ensure that counterbalance cylinder charging hose is attached to nitrogen tank and nitrogen tank is fully charged to 1250psi. The counterbalancecylindershavebeenremoved(foroverheadclearanceduringshipping), andtheymustbereinstalledandrechargedwithdrynitrogenpriortoenablingtheZ-axis.

Thetableissecuredforshippingbymeansofblocksthatareboltedtothetablebase.The

columnissecuredforshippingbymeansofblocksthatareboltedtothecolumnbase.The

spindleheadissecuredforshippingandacoverhasbeenplacedovertheY-axisballscrew

andthatcovermustberemoved.

andthatcovermustberemoved. Y-axisBallscrewCover

Y-axisBallscrewCover

RemovethecoverfromaroundtheY-axisballscrew.Therearetwopartstothecover,a long section above the ballnut and a short section below the ballnut. Be certain to completelyremovethecoverfromtheballscrewtopreventcontaminationaftertheY-axis islaterenabled.Inspecttheballscrewforanycontaminationthatmayhavegottenthrough thedustcoverduringshippingandremoveifnecessary.

Installingthehydrauliccounterbalancesystem

Thehydrauliccounterbalancesystemhasbeendischargedofnitrogen(butcontainsthe

correctvolumeoffluid)andthehydrauliccounterbalancecylindershavebeenremoved

fromthecolumnforoverheadclearanceintheshippingconfiguration.Thehoseshave

beendisconnectedfromthehydrauliccylindersandplugged.Thehydrauliccylindershave

beenplacedintheY-axisaugertroughforshipping.Thetwoshoulderscrewsthatsecure

eachofthehydrauliccylinderstothetopofthecolumnhavebeenstoredbytightening

themintothethreadsonthecylindermountingsurfaceontopofthecolumn.TheZ-axis

hasbeendisabledforreasonsofsafetywheninitiallypoweringupthemachine.

1.Removethecounterbalancecylindersfromtheaugertroughandunwrapthem.

2.Removetheflatwasherandtwojamnutsfromtheendoftherod.

3.Removethetwoshoulderscrewsfromthethreadsinthemountingsurfaceontopofthe

column.

4.Removetheplugfromtheportofthecylinderandfullyextendthecylinderrod.

5.Insertthecounterbalancecylinderdownthroughthetopofthecolumnandfeedtheend

oftherodthroughthematingholeinthebackofthespindlehead.

oftherodthroughthematingholeinthebackofthespindlehead.
oftherodthroughthematingholeinthebackofthespindlehead.

jammingthenutstogether,becertaintheyarebothhighenoughtoallowtheinsertionof

thecotterpinintotheholeontheendofthecylinderrod.Whenthenutsareinplace,jam

thenutstogether.Insertthecotterpinintotheholeontheendoftherod.Repeatforthe

remaininghydrauliccylinder.

7.Insertandtightenthehydraulichosefitting(useteflontapeonthefitting)intheportof

thecounterbalancecylinder.

8.Orientthecylindersothehosewillbeawayfromthespindleheadduringoperationand

tightentheshoulderscrews.

9.Removethecapplugontheendofthehydraulichoseandconnectittothefitting(use

teflontape)thatisnowintheportofthecylinder.

10.Chargethecounterbalancesystemusingdrynitrogentoabout1300psi(measureatthe

bottomoftraveloftheaxis).Useallappropriatesafetyprecautionsandasupplybottleof

adequatevolume.Eachbottlethatistobechargedisa90cubicfootbottle.11.Powerup

themachineandenabletheZ-axis.

12.ChecktheoperationoftheZ-axislimitswitchindiagnostics

13.ZeroreturntheZ-axisonly.Thefinalpressureofthesystematthetopoftravelshould

be slightly more than 1250 psi. After the axis has established zero, E-stop and note whethertheaxishasatendencytoslowlyfall.Thisshouldbemonitoredintheposition page of the display as well as a visual determination. If the axis falls at all, the counterbalance pressure should be slightly increased until the head cannot move downwardfromthetopoftravelinaservooffcondition.Takecarenottooverchargethe system,anoverchargecouldcausethespindleheadtomoveupwardwheninanE-stop conditionatthebottomoftravel.

Unblockingthetable

Thetableisheldinplaceforshippingbymeansofblocksthatarescrewedintothetable base.Thereisoneblockoneachendofthetable.Theseblocksmustberemovedbefore normaloperationoftheX-axisispossible.Toaccesstheshippingblocks,bothX-axisway covers need to be fully retracted from the table. The X-axis has been disabled in parametersforreasonsofsafetyonpowerupofthemachine.

1.DisconnecttherearY-axiswaycoverfromthecolumnandfullyretract.

1.DisconnecttherearY-axiswaycoverfromthecolumnandfullyretract.

2.Removethetwoshippingblocksandhardwarecompletelyfromthecolumnbase.

3.RaisethespindleheadtothefulluppositiontoallowthelowerZ-axisbellowstobe

collapsedupward.

4.DisconnectthelowerZ-axisbellowsfromthefrontY-axiswaycoverandblockupto

permitaccesstothescrewsthatattachtheY-axiswaycovertothecolumn.Disconnectthe

frontY-axiswaycoverfromthecolumnandfullyretracttakingcaretonotallowtheZ-

axisbellowstofall.Whenthewaycoverisretractedfarenough,blocktheZ-axisbellows

upandthencontinuetocollapsetheY-axiswaycoveruntilitisfullyretracted.

5.EnabletheY-axisinparametersbutdonotzeroreturn

6.WhileensuringtheZ-axisbellowsdonotfall,handlejog(withoutzeroreturn)theY-

axistowardtherearofthemachineuntilaccesstotheboltsholdingtheforwardshipping

blocksareaccessible.

7.BlocktheZ-axisbellowsupandremovetheshippingblockscompletelyfromthe

columnbase.

8.CheckthattheY-axiscablesareproperlyroutedandthecableguideissecurelyattached

tothebase.

9.ChecktheoperationoftheY-axislimitswitchindiagnostics

10.ZeroreturntheY-axis.

Shippingbolts-doors(VF/VM/VR) Removeanddiscardshippingboltfromtheinsidebothdoorsinitialsetup
Shippingbolts-doors(VF/VM/VR) Removeanddiscardshippingboltfromtheinsidebothdoorsinitialsetup

Shippingbolts-doors(VF/VM/VR)

Removeanddiscardshippingboltfromtheinsidebothdoorsinitialsetup

UNSECUREDWARNING:ATTHISPOINT,THERESHOULDBENOELECTRICAL CONNECTIONTOTHEMACHINE.ELECTRICALPANELMUSTBECLOSEDAND SECURED. WHEN MAIN SWITCH IS ON, THERE IS HIGH VOLTAGE THROUGHOUTTHEELECTRICALPANEL(INCLUDINGTHECIRCUITBOARDS AND LOGIC CIRCUITS) AND SOME COMPONENTS OPERATE AT HIGH TEMPERATURES. THEREFORE, EXERCISE EXTREME CAUTION WHEN WORKINGINTHEPANEL.

1.Setthemainswitchattheupperrightoftheelectricalpanelonthebackofthemachine

toOFF.

2.Usingascrewdriver,unlockthetwolatchesonthepaneldoor,unlockthecabinetwith

thekey,andopenthedoor.

3.Takesufficienttimetocheckallthecomponentsandconnectorsassociatedwiththe

circuitboards.Withthepoweroff,pushonthemgentlytomakesurethattheyareseated

intheirsockets.Lookforanycablesthathavebecomedisconnected,lookforanysignsof

damageandloosepartsinthebottomofthepanelbox.Ifthereareanysignsthatthe

machinewasmishandled,callthefactorybeforeproceeding.

Installationofpendant(VSseriesonly)

CAUTION:Useproperliftingequipmentandtechniqueswhenperformingthefollowing

steps.

1.Unpackandremovethependantfromitsshippingcrate.Removethesmallretaining

plateboltedtothebottomofthepivotofthependant.

2.Positionthependantsothatthepivotpointisnearthependantpivotblockalready

boltedtothetablecasting.Ensurethependantwiringismovedoutofthewayandwillnot

interfereinfittingthependantpivottothependantpivotblock.

3.Insertthependantpivotintothependantpivotblock.Securethependantusingtheplate

andhardwareremovedinStep1.

NOTE:Wheninsertingthependantpivotintothependantpivotblock,makesurethe

pendantarmisperpendiculartothetable,asshowninthefigure.

pendantarmisperpendiculartothetable,asshowninthefigure. 4.Place the table cable trough on the floor. Arrange the

4.Place the table cable trough on the floor. Arrange the pendant wiring through the pendantpivotblockandintothetrough.Slidethetroughunderthemilltable.

5.Movetotheoppositesideofthetable(chipaugerside).Removethe1/4-20BHCSfrom

thetroughcoverandremovethecover.Cutthecabletiesandunrollthecontrolcabinet

wiringintothetrough.

6.Attachtroughextensiontotheflangeofthetablebed.Routethecablesfromthetable

cabletroughupintothetroughextension.Connectthecableendsfromthependanttothe

cableendsfromthecontrolcabinet.7.Whenthepropercableconnectionshavebeen

made,attachallthetroughcoverstothetroughassemblyusing1/4-20BHCS.

8.Attachthetablecabletroughtothetableandsecurewith1/4-20BHCS.9.Movetothe

pendantsideofthetable.Attachthetablecabletroughtothebottomofthependantpivot

blockusing1/4-20BHCS.

Airconnection

CAUTION:Workingwiththeairservicerequiredforamillcanbehazardous.Make sure thatpressurehasbeenremovedfromtheairlinebeforeconnecting/ disconnectitfromthe machine,orservicingpartsoftheairsystem.

disconnectitfromthe machine,orservicingpartsoftheairsystem.

1.Whenthemachineleavesthefactory,theairfilterisempty,andthelubricatorreservoir

tankisfull.However,theyshouldbecheckedandservicedifrequiredbeforecompressed

airissuppliedtothemachine.

2.Withthepressureoffintheairline,connecttheairsupplytothehosebarbnexttothe

airfilter/regulator.Ifthefittingsuppliedisnotcompatible,replaceit.

3.Startthecompressor;setitbetween100and150psi.Settheregulatoronthemachineto

85to90psi.

4.Primethelubricatortomakesureitisworking.Toprimethelubricationsystem,pullup

onthehandleontopofthereservoirtank.

CAUTION:Neverpushdownontheprimerhandle.Itgraduallyreturnstothedown

positionbyitself,andthecorrespondingpressureincreasecanbeseenonthepressure

gauge.

NOTE: Dependingonthepositionofthecamthatdrivesit,thelubricationsystemmay notactivateuntilafewminutesafterthemachineisstarted.However,ifthereisaproblem withthesystem,analarmwillstopthemachine.

5.VerifyspindleairpressureusingthegaugelocatedbehindtheAirRegulatorpanel.

Mostmachinesshouldshow17psi.Adjustifnecessary.VFmachinesequippedwitha

15Kspindlemusthavetheregulatorsetto20psi.

Electricalconnections

NOTE: The machine must have air pressure at the air gauge, or a“Low Air Pressure”alarmwillbepresentonpower-up.

CAUTION: Working with the electrical services required for the mill are extremely hazardous. Theelectricalpowermustbeoffandstepsmustbetakentoensurethatitwill notbeturnedonwhileyouareworkingwithit. Inmostcasesthismeansturningoffa circuitbreakerinapanelandthenlockingthepaneldoor. However,ifthisisnotthecase or are not sure how to do this, check with the appropriate personnel or obtain the necessaryhelpbeforecontinuing.

WARNING:KEEPTHEELECTRICALPANELCLOSEDANDTHELATCHESON

THEDOORSECUREDATALLTIMESEXCEPTDURINGINSTALLATIONAND

SERVICE.ATTHOSETIMES,ONLYQUALIFIEDELECTRICIANSMAYACCESS

TOTHEPANEL.WHENTHEMAINCIRCUITBREAKERISON,THEREISHIGH

VOLTAGETHROUGHOUTTHEELECTRICALPANEL(INCLUDINGTHECIRCUIT

BOARDSANDLOGICCIRCUITS)ANDSOMECOMPONENTSOPERATEATHIGH

TEMPERATURES.THEREFORE,EXTREMECAUTIONISREQUIRED.

BOARDSANDLOGICCIRCUITS)ANDSOMECOMPONENTSOPERATEATHIGH TEMPERATURES.THEREFORE,EXTREMECAUTIONISREQUIRED.

1.Hookupthethreepowerlinestotheterminalsontopofthemaincircuitbreakeratthe

upperrightoftheelectricalpanel.Connecttheseparategroundlinetothegroundbusto

theleftoftheterminals.

NOTE: Makesurethattheservicewiresactuallygointotheterminal-blockclamps.(Itis easytomisstheclampandtightenthescrew.Apoorconnectionwillcausethemachineto runintermittentlyorhaveotherproblems,suchasservooverloads.)Tocheck,simplypull onthewiresafterthescrewsaretightened.

2.Afterthelinevoltageisconnectedtothemachine,makesurethatthemaincircuit

breaker(attoprightofrearcabinet)isOFF.TurnONthepoweratthesource.Usea digitalvoltmeterandappropriatesafetyprocedures,tomeasurethevoltagebetweenall threepairphasesatthemaincircuitbreakerandwritedownthereadings.Thevoltage

mustbebetween195and260volts(360and480voltsforhigh-voltageoption).

NOTE: Widevoltagefluctuationsarecommoninmanyindustrialareas;youneedto knowtheminimumandmaximumvoltagewhichwillbesuppliedtothemachinewhileit isinoperation.TheU.S.NationalElectricalCodespecifiesthatmachinesshouldoperate

withavariationof+5%to-5%aroundanaveragesupplyvoltage.Ifproblemswiththe

line voltage occur, or low line voltage is suspected, an external transformer may be required.Ifyoususpectvoltageproblems,thevoltageshouldbecheckedeveryhouror

twoduringatypicaldaytomakesurethatitdoesnotfluctuatemorethan+5%or-5%

fromanaverage.

CAUTION!MakesurethatthemaincircuitbreakerissettoOFFandthepowerisoffat

yoursupplypanelBEFOREyouchangethetransformerconnections.Makesurethatall

threeblackwiresaremovedtothecorrectterminalblockandthattheyaretight.

3.Checktheconnectionsonthetransformeratthebottom-rightcorneroftherearcabinet.

Thethreeblackwireslabeled74,75,and76mustbemovedtotheterminalblocktriple

which corresponds to the average voltage measured in Step 2 above. There are four

positionsfortheinputpowerforthe260-volttransformerandfivepositionsforthe480-

volttransformer.Thelabelsshowingtheinputvoltagerangeforeachterminalpositionare

asshowninthefollowingillustrations.

4.TransformerT5supplies24VACusedtopowerthemaincontactor.Therearetwo

versionsofthistransformerforuseon240and400Vmachines(32-0964Band32-0965B,

respectively).The240Vtransformerhastwoinputconnectorslocatedabouttwoinches

fromthetransformer,whichallowittobeconnectedtoeither240Vor200V.Usersthat

have220V-240VRMSinputpowershouldusetheconnectorlabeled240V,whileusers

with190-220Vinputpowershouldusedtheconnectorlabeled200V.

UserswiththeExternalHighVoltageOptionshouldusethe240Vconnectoriftheyhave

420V-510V60Hzpowerorthe200Vconnectoriftheyhave50Hzpower.Failuretouse

thecorrectinputconnectorwillresultineitheroverheatingofthemaincontactororfailure

toreliablyengaugethemaincontactor.

The480Vtransformerhasthreeinputconnectors,labeled360V,400Vand480V.Users

with340-380V50Hzpowershouldusethe360Vconnectorwhileuserswith380-440V

50Hzpowershouldusethe400Vconnector.The480Vconnectorisnotcurrentlyused.

5.SetthemaincircuitbreakertoON.Checkforevidenceofproblems,suchasthesmell

ofoverheatingcomponentsorsmoke.Ifsuchproblemsareindicated,immediatelysetthe

maincircuitbreakertoOFFandcallthefactorybeforeproceeding.

WARNING: THETHROUGHTHESPINDLECOOLANT(TSC)PUMPISATHREE- PHASE PUMPAND MUST BE PHASED CORRECTLY! IMPROPER PHASING

WARNING:THETHROUGHTHESPINDLECOOLANT(TSC)PUMPISATHREE-

PHASE PUMPAND MUST BE PHASED CORRECTLY! IMPROPER PHASING WILLCAUSEDAMAGETOTHETSCPUMPANDVOIDTHEWARRANTY.REFER TOTHETSCSTART-UPSECTIONIFYOURMACHINEISEQUIPPEDWITHTSC.

6.Afterthepowerison,measurethevoltageacrossthebottomterminalsonthemain

circuitbreaker.Itshouldbethesameasthemeasurementswheretheinputpowerconnects

tothemaincircuitbreaker.Ifthereareanyproblems,checkthewiring.

7.ApplypowertothecontrolbypressingthePower-Onswitchonthefrontpanel.Check

thehighvoltagebussontheVectorDrive(pin2withrespecttopin3ontheterminalbus

atthebottomofthedrive).Itmustbebetween310and360volts.Ifthevoltageisoutside

theselimits,turnoffthepowerandrechecksteps2and3.Ifthevoltageisstilloutside

theselimits,callthefactory.

Next,checktheDCvoltagedisplayedinthesecondpageoftheDiagnosticdataonthe display. It is labeled DC BUS. Verify that the displayed voltage matches the voltage

measuredatpins2and3oftheVectorDrive±7VDC.Ifthedisplayedvoltageexceeds

themeasuredvoltageby12voltsormore,installaferriteEMIfilter(65-1452)tothe

currentcommandcablenearitsconnectiontothevectordrive.Securewithacabletie(See

photo).Recheckvoltage.

8.Electricalpowermustbephasedproperlytoavoiddamagetoyourequipment.The Power Supply Assembly PC board incorporates

8.Electricalpowermustbephasedproperlytoavoiddamagetoyourequipment.The

Power Supply Assembly PC board incorporates a“Phase Detect”circuit with neon

indicators,shownbelow.Whentheorangeneonislit(NE5),thephasingisincorrect.If

thegreenneonislit(NE6),thephasingiscorrect.Ifbothneonindicatorsarelit,thenyou

havealoosewire;checktheconnections.AdjustphasingbyswappingL1andL2ofthe

incomingpowerlinesatthemaincircuitbreaker.

incomingpowerlinesatthemaincircuitbreaker. WARNING:

WARNING:Allpowermustbeturnedoffatthesourcepriortoadjustingphasing.

10. Removethekeyfromthecontrolcabinetandgiveittotheshopmanager.

Installationprocedureforexternal480vtransformer

Theexternaltransformeraddstooverallmachinereliabilityandperformance;howeverit

doesrequireextrawiringandaplacetolocateit.

The external transformer provides electrostatically shielded isolation. This type of transformeractstoisolateallcommonmodelinetransientsandimproveEMIconducted emissions. The external transformer has a 45 KVA rating. It is a 480V 60Hz only transformer.

Installation

Thetransformershouldbelocatedasclosetothemachineaspossible.Theinputand outputwiringofthetransformershouldconformtothelocalelectricalcodesandshould beperformedbyalicensedelectrician.Thefollowingisforguidanceonly,andshouldnot beconstruedtoaltertherequirementsoflocalregulations.Theinputwireshouldnotbe

smallerthan6AWGforthe45KVAtransformer.Cablethatrunslongerthan100”will

require at least one size larger wire. The output wire size should be 4 AWG. The transformer is 480V to 240V isolation transformers with delta-wound primary and

secondarywindings.Theprimarywindingsoffer7tappositions,2aboveand4belowthe

nominalinputvoltageof480V.Theprimarysideshouldbewiredasfollows:

nominalinputvoltageof480V.Theprimarysideshouldbewiredasfollows:
Thisshouldproduceavoltageonthesecondarysideof234-243VRMSL-L.Verifythis

Thisshouldproduceavoltageonthesecondarysideof234-243VRMSL-L.Verifythis

andreadjustthetapsasrequired.Atthemachine,connectthecablesattheinputofthe

internal230Vtransformertothe227-243Vtaps.Applypowertothemachineandverify

thattheDCvoltagebetweenpins2and3oftheVectorDrive(2ndand3rdpinsfromthe

left)is329-345VDC.Ifnot,returntothe480Visolationtransformerandreadjustthetaps

asrequired.Donotusethetapsontheinternal230Vtransformertoadjustthevoltage.

50HzInstallations

Theexternaltransformersare60Hzrated,andcannotbeusedat50Hzwithoutderatingthe

inputvoltage.Fortheseapplications,taptheinternal230Vtransformeronthelowest

setting(195-210VRMS).Theexternaltransformershouldbetappedaccordingtothe

followingtable.IfthesetapsettingsdonotproduceaDCbusvoltagebetweenpins2and

3 on the Vector Drive between 320 and 345VDC, readjust the taps on the external transformerasrequired.Donotmovethetapsontheinternaltransformerfromthelowest position.

MachinepowerON

RemoveShippingBrackets

CAUTION: DO NOT press POWER UP/RESTART on the control panel while the shippingbracketsareunderthespindle. Also,donotpresstheX,Y,orZbuttonsorthe joghandlewhiletheshippingbracketsarelocatedunderthespindle.

SpindleHeadShippingBracket

LoosenthefourSHCS(threescrewsareinthetable,andoneisinthespindlehead)

holdingeachshippingbracketunderthespindlehead,andremovethetwobrackets.

VF-11andVR-11DoorShippingBrackets

VF-11andVR-11DoorShippingBrackets

Theoperatordoorsaresecured,topandbottom,withblocks.Removetheboltthatsecures

eachblock.MillDrillRearShippingBracketRemoval1.Removethescrewsthatsecure

therearpanel.

2. Remove the four screws that hold the shipping bracket to the spindle and saddle castings.

3.Removetherearshippingbracketandtwocolumnshippingbrackets(therearethree

boltsineachone)andreplacetherearpanel.

MDCPendantArmShippingBracketRemoval

1.Removethependantshippingbracket,therearethreescrewsholdingitinplace.

2.Replacethependantstop;orientitasshownintheillustration.Usethescrewsremoved

fromtheshippingbracket.

PowerON

1.WiththemainswitchontheelectricalpanelsettoON,pressandreleasePOWERON

attheupperleftofthecontrolpanel.Youwillhearaclickinthebackofthemachineand

thefanswillenergize.Afterafewseconds,thedisplaywillappearonthescreen.

2.PressandreleaseSETNG/GRAPH.Pagedowntothelastpage(pressandreleasePAGE

DOWNseveraltimes).CursortoSetting53,JOGW/OZERORETURN(withthecursor

downkey).PressandreleasethecursorrightkeyandthenpressandreleasetheWRITE

keytoturnthissettingon.TurningonJOGW/OZERORETURNbypassesthezero

returninterlock.

3.PressandreleasetheRESETbuttontwice,oruntiltherearenoalarms,toturnthe

servoson.(Themessage“ALARM”appearsatthelowerrightofthescreenifanyalarms areineffect.)NOTE:IfanyalarmsarepresentandcannotbeclearedwiththeRESET button, press and release the ALARM / MESGS button for more information on the alarms. Ifyouareunabletoclearthealarms,writedownthealarmnumbersandcallthe factory.

4.PressandreleasetheHANDLEJOGbuttonandcheckthescreenforthe“JOGGINGZ

AXISHANDLE.001”message.Ifthemessagedoesnotread.001,pressandreleasethe

.001buttonnexttotheHANDLEJOGbutton.Ifthe“JOGGING ”messageshowsthe X-orY-axisinsteadofZ,pressandreleasethe+Zbutton.Verifythattheheadwilltravel SLOWLY (not more than 0.001 inch per impulse—the “.001” part of the Z-axis message). JogtheZ-axistothetopofitstravel.FortheVF-1/2/3/4,jogtheZ-axistothe topofitstravel,andremovetheflextubecradleasshown.

topofitstravel,andremovetheflextubecradleasshown.

NOTE:TheuppernumbersonthebuttonsnexttoHANDLEJOGareforthejoghandle

use,andthelowernumbersareforthejogspeedininchesperminutewhenusingtheJOG

buttonsonthekeypad.

5.OncetheZ-axisisworkingcorrectly(itoperatessmoothlyandtherearenostrange

noises,etc.),makesurethatallalarmsareclear—checkforthe“ALARM”messageat

thelowerrightofthescreen.Next,closethedoorsandpressandreleasetheZERO

RETURNbuttonfollowedbytheAUTOALLAXESbutton.TheZaxismovesupslowly.

Afterithasreacheditshomeposition,theX-andY-axesmovetotheirhomepositions.

IMPORTANT: Toverifycorrecthydrauliccounterbalancepressure,jogtheheadtothe

topandbottomofitstravel,andensurethetankpressuresmatchthoseprintedbelowand

onthetanks.

onthetanks. VF/VM/VRserieslevelingoverview

VF/VM/VRserieslevelingoverview

Levelingofthemachineisrequiredtoobtainthecorrectrightanglegeometryofthe VMC’sX,Y,andZaxes. Incorrectlevelwillresultinout-of-roundcirclemillingand incorrectlinearinterpolation.Levelingisdoneintwostepswithoutremovingcovers:

roughlevelingensuresthemachineislevelforcoolantandoildrainage,andfineleveling foraxisgeometry. Finally,thespindlesweepischecked.

NOTE:Manyfactorscanaffectamachine’sabilitytoremainlevel—therigidityofthe floor,thestabilityofthesupportunderthefloor,trainsortruckspassingnearby,seismic activity, and so on. Therefore, until your experience shows how often re-leveling is required,youshouldcheckthemachine’slevelfrequentlyafteritisinstalled.Wiring connectionstopowerthemachinemustbemadebeforetheLevelingProcedurecanbe followed.

connectionstopowerthemachinemustbemadebeforetheLevelingProcedurecanbe followed.
Useaprecisionbubblelevelwitheachdivisionequalto0.0005inchper10inches,or.05

Useaprecisionbubblelevelwitheachdivisionequalto0.0005inchper10inches,or.05

mmpermeter,or10secondsperdivision.Beforestarting,checktheaccuracyofyour

level.SetitonthetableontheXaxisandrecordthereading.Thenturnit180°andthe

readingshouldbethesame.Ifitisnot,thelevelisoutofcalibrationandshouldbe

adjustedbeforeyoucontinue.

RoughLeveling

NOTE:FortheVF-1/2,itmaybenecessarytopullthecoolanttanktowardthebackofthe

machinetoaccessthelevelingscrews.

1.Screwthefourlevelingscrewsatthecornersthroughthebaseuntilthebaseis2½”to

3”abovethefloor.Thattranslatesintoaminimumofoneinchofthelevelingscrew

extendingfromthebottomofthemachineoroneinchbetweenthepadsandcasting.Turn

eachscrewuntiltensionisaboutthesameasontheotherscrews(sameefforttoturneach

screw).Screwjamnutsontothelevelingscrews,butdonottightendown.

screw).Screwjamnutsontothelevelingscrews,butdonottightendown.

2.Installthetwocenterlevelingscrews,ensuringthattheydonottouchthefloor. Screw thejamnutsontothelevelingscrews,butdonottightenthemdown.

3.UseHandleJogsetfor0.01ontheXandYaxesforthelevelingprocedure.This

providesagoodrateoftravelasyoumanuallymovethetable.

4.Usingthejoghandle,centerthetableunderthespindle.Youdonotneedtomovethe

tablewhileroughlevelingthemachine.

5.PlacethelevelparalleltotheYaxis(sidetoside)onthetableandobservethebubble.

Ifthebubbleiscentered,thetableislevelonthisaxis.Ifthebubbleisofftotheleftofthe level,itmeansthattheleftsideofthetableishigh.And,conversely,ifthebubbleisoffto theright,itmeansthattherightsideofthetableishigh.Adjustthetwofrontleveling

screwsuntilthelevelreads+/-0.0005”.

6.RotatethelevelheadsothatitisparalleltotheX-axis.Adjusttherightfrontandrear

levelingscrewsuntilthelevelreads+/-0.0005.NOTE: Makesurethatthebubblehas

steadiedbeforeyoutakethereading.7.Turnthescrewsonthelowsideofthemachine

clockwise(screwthemin)alittleatatimeandchecktheleveluntilthebubbleiscentered.

NOTE:Inmostcasesitisbettertoraiseasideorcornerthanitistolowerit—whenyou

loweramachinethereisagreaterriskofrunningoutofadjustment.

8.RepeatthepreviousstepswiththelevelontheYaxis(fronttoback).

9.Continuethisprocessuntilthemachineislevelonbothaxes.

NOTE:Ifthelevelisoffonbothaxes,itindicatesthatonecornerofthemachineishigh

orlow.

10. Astheprocesscontinues,thelevelingscrewsareturnedinsmallerincrements—1/4 turn,1/8turn,andsmaller. Also,asthemachineisleveled,makesurethatthetension continuestobeequalonthescrewsatallfourcorners.

NOTE: Thefollowingprocedurefor fine-leveling the machine must be performed exactly asnotedtoensurethemachinewillmeetallqualitystandardsformachining operations. Failure tofollow theseguidelines will preventthemachine frombeing trulyleveledandresultinpoormachiningfinishes.

FineLeveling

11.Withthetablecentered,placethebubblelevelinthecenterofthetableparalleltothe

Y-axis.Usingthejoghandle,movethe Y-axis,stoppingatthefront,middle,andbackof thetravels. Theobjectiveistoadjusttheleveltomakethe Y-axisguidesparallel. The bubblelevelmustindicatethesamereadingateachposition(front,middle,back). Adjust the front leveling screws as necessary. To check for Y-axis roll, position the level perpendiculartothe Y-axisandjogtoeachendoftravel.Ifnecessary,adjustthefront rightorleftlevelingscrew. TochecktheX-axis,jogaxistoeachendoftravelandtighten themiddlelevelingscrewsagainstthelevelingpads.VerifyX-axisrollbyplacinglevel parallelwiththe Y-axis,jogX-axistoeachendoftravel.Repeattheabovestepsuntil thereisnoperceptibleXor Y-axisroll.Thefollowingprocedureissimplyacheckof machinelevel.Ifitdoesnotmeetspecifications,thenyoumustrepeatthisoperation.Do notadjustthemiddlescrewsatthispoint.RefertotheMachineInspectionReportthat accompaniesyourmachine.Checkyourresultswiththoseofthereportunderthe Table Travel Flatness verification. By duplicating these results, you will obtain the same alignmentspecificationsthatwereachievedatthefactory.

12.Placea 0.0005 testindicatorinthespindleandsweepa 10”diameter circleonthe table(seetheMachineInspectionReportinthemanualfortheresultsofthistestatthe factory).Greasethedimpleineachofthetworemainingpads,locatethemunderthe middlelevelingscrews,andusethesescrewstocompensateforanyerror.Ifthereisno error, tighten the screws evenly until they contact the pads. When fine leveling is completed,tightenthejamnutsonthelevelingscrews.

Tool changer assembly (VR series)

CAUTION! Useextremecautionwheninstallingthetoolchanger.Sincethemachine hasnotbeenleveledyet,thetoolchangermayswingandcauseserious injuryor machinedamage.

1.Removethetoolchangercomponentsfromtheirshippingcrate.2. IMPORTANT:

Removetheshippingbracketfromthetoolchangertothecolumn(2SHCS).Removethe

toolchangerenclosurefrominsidethemachine(18BHCS).3.Removethe1/2”-13x1

1/4”SHCSthatmountsthetoolchangerlinktothecolumn.

4.Hoistthetoolchangerrearmountintoplaceandmountitwithsix1/2”-13x11/4”

SHCS,two1/2”-13x3”SHCS,andtwospacers.

5.Carefullyswingthetoolchangerintoplace. Attachtheaircylinderrodwiththe5/8”-11 x7”SHCS. Attachthestabilizerrodwiththe1/2x5”SHCS.

6.Mountthetoolchangerlinktotherearmountwithtwo1/2”-13x11/4”andtheshaft

link.

7.Connecttheairlines(2)ateachendoftheaircylinder.

IMPORTANT! Theairlinefromthebottomfittingofthelube/airpanelconnectstothe rearfittingontheaircylinder. Theairlinefromthetopfittingofthelube/airpanel connectstothefrontfittingontheaircylinder.

8.Hoistthetoolchangerenclosureintoplace,sothatitprotrudesfromtherearofthe

machine. Attachitwiththe18BHCS. Attachthebracketfromthecolumntothetool

changerenclosurewith6BHCS.

Tool changer alignment (VR series)

Thisprocedurewillalignthetoolchangertothespindleinthe Y-axis.1.ZeroReturn All

Axes.Placecardboardonthetableforprotection.2.Placeatoolinthespindle.Pressthe

ORIENT SPINDLEkey.Ensurethereisnotoolinthetoolchangerpocketfacingthe spindle.PressEmergencyStop.

3.Swingthetoolchangerintothetoolchangepositionbyhand.Markthetopofthetool

changerlinkwithpainttoestablishaninitialposition.

NOTE: Ensurethespindle doesnotspin.WhenE-Stopispressed,thespindle isfreeto rotate,andmayloseitsorientation.

4.Checkthetoolchangerpocketpositioninrelationtothetoolinthespindle.Ifthetool

changerismisalignedinthe Y-axis,continuewiththisprocedure.Ifthetoolchangeris misalignedintheX-axis,contacttheServiceDepartment.

5.Loosenthelocknutateachendofthetoolchangerlink.Notethatoneisaleft-hand

thread and one is a right-hand thread. Once the locknuts are loose, rotate the link clockwise,andthencounterclockwiseuntilresistanceisfeltineachdirection.Rotatethe linktothecenteroftheareainwhichthelinkturnsfreely.

6. Tightenthelocknutsateachend,whileholdingthelinkinplacewithawrench.

7.Pushthetoolchangerawayfromthespindle.ZeroReturn All Axes,andthetool changershouldmovebacktotheHOME(outoftheworkenvelope)position.

8.Runanumberoftoolchanges,andensuretheyareperformedsmoothly.Ifnot,perform

thisprocedureagain.

Outriggerleveling procedures

NOTE: Not all mills are equipped with outriggers. The standard mill leveling proceduresmustbecompletedbeforestartingthissection.

1.Locatethelevelingpadsunderneaththeoutriggerlevelingscrews.Greasethedimples

andkeepthescrewsatleast1/4”abovethepads.

2.PlacealevelinthecenterofthetableandparalleltotheX-axis.

3.Jogthe Y-axisback(towardthecolumn)tomaxtravel.

4.Startingfromeithertheleftorrightofthemachine,jogthetabletothemaxXtravel

andovertherearoutriggerlevelingscrew. DONOTMOVETHELEVEL.

5. Tightenthelevelingscrewontotherearpad,whichwillraisethetableandzerothe level. Over-tightening the outrigger leveling screws will result in poor machine performance.6.Jogthe Y-axisforwardtomaxtravelandrepeatstep5.

7.JogtheX-axistomaxtravelovertheotheroutrigger,andrepeatthelevelingprocess.

8.ChecklevelthroughfullXand Y axesrangesoftravel.

Sheetmetal support pads

1.Screwthesupportpadsdowntothefloor.

2. Turnthemanadditional1/4turnoncetheyhavecomeincontactwiththefloor. Additionaltighteningofthepadsagainstthefloormayaffectthelevelofthemachine.

3.Lockinplacewiththejamnut.

CAUTION: Toavoiddamagingthesheetmetalwhenmovingorshippingthemachine, fullyretractthesupportpads.

Levelingthe MDC-500

Levelingofthemachineisrequiredtoobtainthecorrectrightanglegeometryofthe machine’sX, Y,andZaxes.Incorrectlevelwillresultinout-of-roundcirclemillingand incorrectlinearinterpolation.Levelingisdoneintwosteps:roughlevelingtoensurethe machineislevelforcoolantandoildrainage,andfinelevelingforaxes’geometry.Finally, thespindlesweepischecked.

NOTE:

Many factors can affect a machine’s ability to remain level — the

rigidity of thefloor, the stability of the support under the floor, trains or trucks passing nearby,seismicactivity,andsoon. Therefore,untilexperience showshowoften re-levelingisrequired,checkthemachine’slevelfrequentlyafteritisinstalled.Usea

precisionorelectronicbubblelevelwitheachdivisionequalto0.0005inchper10inches,

or.05mmpermeter,or10secondsperdivision.

Beforestarting,checklevelaccuracy.SetitonthetableontheX-axisandrecordthe reading,thenturnit180°. Thereadingshouldbethesame.Ifnot,thelevelisoutof calibration and should be adjusted before continuing. Verify the four corner feet are supportingthemachineandscrewlevelingscrewsatthecornersthroughthebaseuntilthe

itis3”to31/2”abovethefloor.Verifythecoolanttankslidesunderthemachinebase

with1/4”to1/2”ofclearance. Thattranslatesintoaminimumof13/4”oftheleveling screwextendingoutofthemachinebasebottom,oroneinchbetweenpadsandcasting. Turneachscrewuntiltensionisaboutthesameastheotherscrews.Screwthejamnuts

ontothefour(4)levelingscrews,butdonottightenthemdown.

VerifyColumnLevel

1.Cleanthecolumnofthemachineandtheprecisionlevelofalldebris.

2.Placethelevelonthemachinedsurfaceontopofthecolumnparalleltothe Y-axis.

3.JogtheX-axisfromonesidetotheotherandnotethereadingfromoneendoftravelto

theother. Themaximumallowabledeviationis0.0003”.

4.RotatethelevelsoitisparalleltoX-axis.JogtheX-axisfromonesidetotheotherand

notethereadingfromoneendoftraveltotheother. Themaximumallowabledeviationis

0.0003”.

RoughLevel

1.Centerallmachinetravels(X, Y,Z).

2.Loosentherightfrontlevelingscrewsothereisatleast1/4”betweenthetipofthe

levelingscrewandthelevelingpad. Thetwomiddlescrewsshouldnotbetouchingthe floororthelevelingpads.

3.Positionthelevelonthetopofthecolumn,paralleltoX-axis. Adjusttheright-front

andright-rearlevelingscrewsuntilthelevelreads+/-.0005”.4.Positionthelevelonthe

topofthecolumn,parallelto Y-axis. Adjustthetwofrontlevelingscrewstoread

+/-.0005”.

FineLevel

Duringfineleveling,placethelevelonthetopofthecolumnandnotethepositionofthe bubble. Toachievepropermachinegeometry,followtheinstructionsbelowandadjustthe levelingfeetasdescribedsothereisnoperceptiblemovementofthebubbleposition.

1.Positionthelevelparalleltothe Y-axis.Jogthe Y-axistoeachendofitstravel.If necessary,adjustthefrontlevelingscrewsevenly.

2.Verify Y-axisroll:Positionthelevelperpendiculartothe Y-axisandnotethereading, thenjogthe Y-axistoeachendofitstravel.Ifnecessary,adjusttheright-frontorleft-front levelingscrew.

3.JogtheX-axistoeachendofitstravelandtightenthemiddlelevelingscrewsagainst

thelevelingpads.

4.VerifyX-axisroll:Positionthelevelparalleltothe Y-axisandnotethereading,then jogtheX-axistoeachendofitstravel.

5.RepeattheaxisrollverificationasnecessaryuntilnorollisperceptibleineithertheX-

or Y-axis.

SpindleSweep

Placea 0.0005 testindicatorinthespindleandsweepa 10”diameter circleonthetable (seetheMachineInspectionReportinthemanualfortheresultsofthistestatthefactory). Grease the dimple in each of the two remaining pads, locate them under the middle levelingscrews,andusethesescrewstocompensateforanyerror.Ifthereisnoerror, tightenthescrewsevenlyuntiltheycontactthepads.Whenfinelevelingiscompleted, tightenthejamnutsonthelevelingscrews.

VS series leveling overview

Levelingofthemachineisrequiredtoobtainthecorrectrightanglegeometryofthe