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Music is Love in search of a word SYDNEY LANIER.

Thoroughly Raised, and Augmented by an Appendix

of ?00 Additional Words and Phrases


Containing upwards of 9,000 English, French, German, Italian,
Latin and Greek words and phrases used in the art and

science of music, carefully defined, and with the accent

of the foreign words marked; preceded by rules for

the pronunciation of Italian, German and French.



An EngUsh-ItaUcpi Vocabulary fof Composers





Copyright, 1895, by G. Schirmer, Inc.
Copyright renewal assigned, 1923, to G. Schirmer. Inc.


Panted in the U. S. A.

IT is the aim of this Dictionary of Musical Terms to furnish an accurate and

concise explanation of any technical word or phrase which the student is

apt to

meet with, The English vocabulary will be found practically exhaustive, Want

of space forbade making the foreign vocabulary equally so ;

but the editor has

endeavored to preserve a pr&per balance by giving any term, appearing in either

German, French, or Italian, in each of :hose languages, thus maintaining a con-

polyglot character so far as necessary limitations permitted.

The scope of the work, which is rather a dictionary than a lexicon, rendered

the editor's task more that of a compiler than of an original investigator. Most of

the material here presented has been gleaned from numerous standard works of

reference, such as those of Grove (Dictionary), Riemann (Musik-Lexikon), Gevaert

(Instrumentation), Weitzmann (History of Pianoforte-Playing), Stainer and Barrett,

Ambros (Geschichte der Musik), Paul (Handlexikon), Soullier "(Dictionnaire),

Helmholtz (Tonempfindungen), Niecks, The Century Dictionary, many English,

German, French, and Italian

periodicals and musical journals, etc.,
etc. Literal

quotations are duly credited to their sources ;

condensations and adaptations, how-

ever, are, for obvious reasons, not so credited, and must, therefore, be included

under this general acknowledgment. The information so gathered has been care-

fully sifted, and supplemented by the personal researches of over ten years.

Due credit should be given to Dr. William Mason for suggesting the Supple-

" lf

ment, containing an English-Italian Vocabulary for Composers ,

to which Dn

Mason also contributed valued additions.


ITALIAN. than in English, being prolonged

Vowels : and dwelt upon rather than forci-

General rule: The vowels are very bly marked,

sc like sh, before e and f,
open, and never to be pronounced "
z rfj
(very soft fo).
as impure vowels or diphthongs ;

they are long in accented syllables GERMAN,

which they terminate, short in
unaccented syllables, or in accented
The simple vowels
as in Italian J
ones ending with a consonant.
amare y like German * or 4.
a like ah or ah (never &) ; e.g.

[pron. ali-mah'-rfli], Modified vowels :

e ay in bay (without the vanish i}\ a a in bare, but broader /in bed.
like ;

/in bed ; a in bare (before r).

" 5 has no English equivalent ; long 9
i ee in beet ; i in bit i before a ;
can be pronounced by forming
vowel, like y (consonant). the lips to say ok and then
" t

o aw, or oh (without the vanish with the

saying d (as in bay)
6 in Opinion.
tl) ;
in the first position ; short
" win lips
u 00 ia boot; bull.
in bed) instead
0, by saying / (as
Consonants: of &
[N.B. Long o is the

French eu (in /?)]. ^

General rule ; Even the hard con-
ii has np English equivalent; pro-
sonants are somewhat softer' than
nounce long u by forming the
in English; the soft consonants
oo (as in boot), and
are very delicate. lips to say
then saying ee (beet) with the
b, d, f, 1, m, n, p, qu, s, t, v, as in
in the first position short ;
English. / (as in bit) instead
u or another n, by saying
C like t, before a, o, t

consonant except c, as "below.

of ee.
[N.B. Long & is the

" ' French

c ch in chair before e or i; cc .]

like t-ch before e or i.

" Diphthongs :
g g hard before 0,0, tf, or another ai and ei like long I in bite.
consonant ; except before / (pro-
ae like a.
nounce gl like l-y [consonant], "
au <w in brow.
e.g. sugli, [pron. sool'-ye]),
eu and au like ri (more exactly atfrf,
n (pronounce #
like?? in caJion '

closely together).
" Consonants
z in azure (or a very soft j) be-
g :

fore e or i.
f, h, k, 1, m, n, p, t, as in English.
h is mute. b and d, beginning a word or syllable,
j like y in you. as in English ; ending a word
of tongue
r, pronounce with a roll (tip or syllable, like /and t respec-

against hard palate). tively.

Where a doubled consonant oc-
c like k before a, o, and ; like is

curs, the* first syllable is dwelt before *, ,

and &
in' ecco [pronounce but like * in azure in
upon; e.g. g usually hard,
ek'-ko, not ek'-o]. Accented words from the French and
take a less explosive stress which g is so sounded

syllables Italian in ;

* These " hints * are offered as an aid for

terminate, at the end of $. word,
tyros, and not in the least as an exhaustive let of
rules. wjth a >5-sound (e.g,

i or i like ee in beet ;
short I as in
like ^(consonant).
" to. English,
qtt i t .

or a harsh breath- as in Italian.

r either with a roll,
ii like the German &
8 beginning a word or syllable, and
before a vowel, like * (soft) ;

ai like ai in fair; but before Uinal, or

a word or syllable, like
ending as a diphthong
//, is pronounced
before / and /, begin-
sharp t; drawn closely together).
like $h (alf-eci
ning a word, usually aiandeilTke*.
shtum [ as
(e.g. sfomm, pron.
eu, eii and ceu like German
in bull]) otherwise as in Eng-
01 like oMtf (drawn closely together).
ou and ou like oo in boot.
vlifce/ ,

eau like o long, without the vanish #.

w * v and w).
if (but softer, between Modified by a following n, m, nd, nt or
x " jb (also when beginning a word).
mt at the end of a syllable, the
2 " ft.
vowels and diphthongs are nasal
verbal ending of
Compound consonants : (exception,
ch is a sibillant without an English 3rd pers. plural).
when beginning a
equivalent ;
Consonants as in English, with the
or after t, z, fl, <?, , at, 1

syllable, following exceptions :

a, <?, and *, it is ^// (set like s in song before e, /, I, and
et, C t, t.

the tongue as if to pronounce rf, "

ch *h.
and breathe an h through it ; e.g. "
g 'in azure before e, /, ^ ^ and i.

Strith, pron. shtrtd-h); after as in Italian.

and MI, is hard gn
the treatment of initial h
it (a
a, 0, ,
h is mute ;

guttural )- cannot be explained here,

chs like x. i like z in azure,
sch *&.
11 after i is usually sounded like Eng-
st, see j, above, and frequent-
lish;/ (consonant),
like t. the i (ee) ; e.g.
ly prolongs
Accented have% a forcible trawiller [trah-v&h-a, tran-
syllables ,

stress, as in English.
In com-

pound words there always a is

n see above; otherwise as in
/y nasal,
secondary accent( sometimes a
[The nasal effect is
tertiary one('"), depending
on the
accurately obtained by sounding
number of separate words enter- n (or m) together with (instead
of the
ing into the composition of after) the preceding vowel ;

compound' word ; e.g, Zwi'sckwr

but the sound of e is changed
aktf"nudk", Bo'genhamf'merkla- to ah, i to & (in bat), and u
vier"'. The accent is
principal to eu.]
regularly marked Q
in this work.
m, nasal in certain situations.
r with a roll.
s-final is silent
t-final is silent.
a as in Italian, but shorter, often ap-
er, et, es, est, ez, as final syllables,
proaching English & are like
pronounced <

a like ah.
" u in but ^-final is dmost silent Accentuation, The strong English

in polysyllabic words. stress on some one syllable of a

ay in bay, polysyllabic word is wanting in
u /in there. French ; the general rule issKf&tfy
" German and to accent the last syllable.
ti, always long.


A. Abbandonatamen'te )
(It.) In an im<
Abbando'no, con jpassioned style,
A* i. (Ger. A; Fr. and It. la.) The as if carried away by emotion subordi-;

sixth tone in the typiui diatonic scale nation of rhythm and tempo tc expres-
of C-major. ^"Le tone a (see Pitch, sion.
absolute) is that sounded by the oboe or c<
other fixed-tone instr. (pfte., organ) to
Abbassamen'to (It., abbr. alb.) Lov/>
for the other instr. s of ering indicates in pfte.-playing that
give the pitch

the orchestra or militarv band. 2. In one hand is to play below the other,
mus. theory, capital A otten designates opp. to alzamen'to...A. di ma'no, sink-
the A -major triad, small a the rt-minor ing of the hand in beating time ; A. di
the capitals, or vo'ce^ diminution (in volume) of the
triad. 3. In scores,
doubled letters (A a Z z), are often set
at the head of main divisions or at any Falling of the
at Abbattimen'tp (It)
critical point to facilitate repetition hand in beating time ;
the down-beat.
rehearsal, 4. As an Italian (or French)
Abbellimen'to) (It.) Embellishment,
a (or a) signifies to, at, for, Abbellitu'ra ^ } ornament, grace;
by, in, etc. 5. Aft ajji a|j, see Sharp,
from abbelfrre, to embellish.
Flat, Natural 6. At the head of
etc., A means Abljetont (Ger.)

Gregorian antiphones, With final accent.

that the first mode
be employed, is to
Abbreviation (Ger. AbbreviatuS, Ab'~
7. In this Dictionary, an -a appended
to an Italian word signifies, that in the
kurzung; Fr. abrMation; It. abbrevia*
tu'ra.) [In this Dictionary, any key-
feminine form a is substituted for the
word recurring in the article which it
masculine termination 0.
heads will be represented by its initial
Ab (Ger.) Off (organ-music). letter or letters ; for instance, Abbassa-
Ab'acus harmon'icus (Lat.) i. A dia- *
menlo above by A. Also, various other
gram of the notes, with their names. abbreviations are used, such as abbr.
2. The structureand disposition of the for abbreviation, instr. for instrument,

digitals and pedals of a mus. instr. mus. for musical, ffte. for pianoforte,

Abandon Unrestrained abandon, opp. for opposed, etc.]

ment to natural emotion ; avec a., same r. The commonest abbreviations^ of
as con abbandono* musical technical terms are the following :

A, See A.
Abb. Abbassamento

Ace. )
Accom. > Accompaniment
Accomp. J
Accres. Accrascendo
Adg,orAd, Adagio
Ad lib. Ad libitum
Aevia Alleluia
Affett. Affettuoso
Affrett. Affrettando
. or Agit . Agitato

2. Abbreviations in manuscript or printed music by means of conventional signs.

64 8

(A) Of rests : \^m**\~^ I haJ I cgjl etc* (compare Rest).

(B) Of notes:
(a) Of single notes.


(b) Of doubled notes (see Tremolo), [Note to (b). When the abbreviation
consists of two consecutive notes, the sum of the notes in the solution is equal
to only one of them, unless specially marked.]

[pianoforte] [violin]
(c) Of figures and phrases,

mmz/^ [or segue] simile

(Also compare Arpeggio, Bis,

r, Simile, Ter, Tremolo.)
AB C, masikalisches (Ger., "musi, settled or recognized
A ^1
' J" ~
** AlPh*&fa*ltation. to that of the
form, especially
neo-German school.
to use, in
singing exer- Ab'fallen (Ger.)
ir-names of the notes. To deteriorate said;
of any
part of the compass of an instr.
t(Gr.) Evening bell, cur- or voice
7ifl/, evening song.
showing a falling-off, in quality
or volume of
" tone, as compared with
(Ger., Adventurous. ') other parts.
Grange, singular, uncoath ; an epithet
sometimes applied to music Kadenz' (Ger.) See
having no

Ab'geleitet (Ger.) Derived, derivative. Ab'stossen (Ger.) To play staccato, to

See Strophe. detach. .
.Ab'stosszeichen, staccato-mark.
Ab'gesang (Ger.)
staccato. Abstrak'ten (Ger.) Trackers.
Ab'gestossen(Ger.) Detached, ' '

To slip or slide any Ab'stufung graduation. ") The

(Ger. ,
Ab'gleiten (Ger.)
the keyboard, from a black shading of a passage or piece, either
finger, on
to the next white one. emotionally or dynamically.
Hebrew Abun'dans (Lat.) Superfluous.
Ab'hub, abub. wind-instr. re-

sembling the cornet. Ab'wechseln (Ger.) To alternate ; mit

Ab ini'tio (Lat,) Same as Da capo.
ab' wechselnden Manua'len, with alter-

Abbreviation. nating manuals.

Ab'kiirzung (Ger.)
Ab'weichtmg (Ger.) variant a differ-
Ab'leiten (Ger.) To derive from. ent reading or notation


Ab'losen (Ger.) To change fingers qui- the measure or measures marked secunda.
or organ.
etly on a digital
-of the pfte. wlta in a repeat.
Ab'nehmen, Ab'nehmung (Ger.) Dimi- Ab'ziehen (Gen) i. See Abgleiten.2.
nuendo. To unstring (in the sense of taking off
worn-out a
Abre"g6s (Fr.) Trackers. strings) violin, harp, etc.

Ab'reichen (Ger ) In violin-playing, to Ab'zug (Ger.) i. See Abgleiten.z. The

take a tone by extending the little fin- lifting of the fingers in playing wind-
or by drawing back instr.s, or of the bow from the strings.
ger (see Extension),
the forefinger. Acathis'tus (Gk.) In the Gk, Church, a

Ab'reissung (Ger.) See Abruptio. long -canon or hymn in praise of the

" Virgin, sung by all standing.
Abrup'tio (Lat. a breaking-off.") The
sudden stopping of a melody before Accarezze'vole )
(It.) Caressful-
Accarezzevolraen'te )
reaching the actual close, it being con- ly, caressingly,
tinued after a pause. coaxingly.
" "
Ab'satz (Ger,) i, A thematically or Accelerando (It.) Accelerating,
rhythmically 'well-defined division of a gradually growing lz$\vc... Acceleratio^

piece or movement. 2. melodic A

accelerated, livelier.

phrase. Accent. (Ger. Accent*, Beto'nung ; Fr.

Ab'schwellen (Ger.) Decrescendo. accent; It. accen'to.) I. The natural
stress or emphasis regularly recurring
Ab'setzen (Ger., "to lift from".) To

on certain tones in each measure, called

Strike two digitals in succession with the
the grammatical, metrical, or regular
accent ; e.g. that on the first beat in
same finger, to lift ; e.g. (fl)
p-"r every species of time

Absolute Music. In contradistinction

program-music," which is supposed HBE r nr r
or intended to express (depict, portray)
and on the third beat
something tangible, absolute music (primary accent),
subsists in and for itself, without being in triple or compound duple time
in any way derived from concrete con-
ditions or objects. Program-music
seeks its inspiration in poetry, in art,
in living realities ; absolute music is
itself the inspiration, awakening emo- (sub-accent). 2, The monotony of the

tion through emotion without the in- regular accent is varied by the rhyth
mical accent, which brings out mpr*
terposition of or definite interpretation musical dm
by the intellect, infecting and influenc- prominently the broader
sions of a composition by special cm
ing the soul directly.. .Absolute Pitch,
see Pitch. phasis at the entrance or culminating
points of motives, themes, phrases,
Ab'stammen (Ger.) To be derived from.
the rhythmical
passages, sections, etc.;
Ab'stand (Ger.) See Tonabstand. a. is nearly synonymous with the
Ab'stimmen (Ger.) i. To tune. 2. To patheticor a., as an aid in inter-
lower the pitch (of instr.s).. .Ab'siim* preting the meaning
and making plain
the construction of a work. 3. An ir-
mtnd, Ab'stimmig, discordant, dissonant
upon any tone o a or chord-note being
regular stress melody-note
beat at the composer's pleasure, is th struck with the latter, but instantly
rhetorical or esthetic a. , indicated eithe released :
by a special sign (sfz.fz, >, A), written :
played :

of the natura
by an interruption
flow (syncopation), whereb
the natural a. is thrown back to a
otherwise less accented or non-accente
beat 4. See Accentus. 5. An obso
2. Same as short appoggiatura. 3 (in
lete harpsichord-grace resembling th Ger. usage). Same as Acciaccatur.
appoggiatrura ;
Accident (Fr.) Accidental.
Accidental. (Ger. zu'falliges Verse'-
tzungszeichen ; Fr. accident, or sight
accidents I; It. acdden'te.) chro- A
matic sign not found in the signature;
set before a note in the midst of a com-

CrlCF4t^P position. (See Chromatic Signs.)

Accen'tor. The leading singer in a choi Accolade (Fr.) Brace.

or vocal performance. Accompaniment (Ger. Beglei'tung; Fr.
Accentuie'ren (Ger.) To accent, , . accompagnement ; It, accompagna*
centoae/ier Durch'gang, a passing-note men'to.) The
accessory part or parts
or -chord on a strong beat* attending the voices or instr.s bearing
the principal part or parts in a musical
Accen'tus (Lat) In the R. C. Church
that part of the service which is chanted composition. Its intention may be to
enhance the general or to steady
-or intoned at the altar by the officiating
the soloists either as regards rhythm or
priest and his assistants ; opp. to Cm-
pitch. Either one or more instr.s, or a
centus* the part taken by the choir,
vocal chorus, may carry out an ace. An
Accen'tus ecclesiastic! (Lat.) The ace. is ad li'hitum when the piece can
musical inflections observed in intoning be performed without it, and obbliga'io
the gospels, epistles, etc., correspond- when of vital importance to the latter.
ing to a certain extent with the punctua- Acc m of the scale, the harmonies as-
tion.There are 7 accents (r) accentus :
signed to the successive tones of the
immutaftilis, the voice neither rising
f ascending or descending diatonic scale.
nor falling ; (2) a, me dius y falling a Additional
tf^ J (3) & gra'vis* falling a fourth accompaniments y parts
; added to a composition by some other
(4) a. acvflus, first fallinga third, then than its original author.
rising to the reciting-note ; (5) a. mode-
reftus, first rising a second, then fall- Accompanist. (Ger. Beglei'ter; Fr. x

ing to the reciting-note ; (6) a. inter- accompagnatiur m., *trice f.; It. ac+
rtigati'vusr at a question, first falling a
compagnato'rem.,-tri'ce f.) One who
executes an accomp.
second, then rising to the reciting-note ;

(7) #. fwjflis, falling at the end of a Accompany. (Ger. begin' ten ; Fr. ac-
sentence by a fourth, by a diatonic pas- compagner ; It. accompagna're?) To
sage through the intervening tones. perform an accompaniment.
Accessis'ten. (Ger.)
Unpaid choir- Accoppia'to coupled.") Tied. * .
singers, supernumeraries. Accoppiamen'to, pedale di, see Pedal,
Accessory note. In a trill, the higher sustaining.
auxiliary. .ccord (Fr.)
I. chord. A
A. a Vou-vert,
chord produced by sweeping
Awacca'to,-a{It.) Vehemently. only open
Acciaccatur' (Ger.) In
strings,.. A
fondamental, or nature!,
fundamental chord... A. parfait
the doubling by lie left hand of the (or
chord on the dominant, its resolution
karmonique\ common chord,
triad... A, plaqu/, a solid chord (not
to the dominant chord
being effected f
arp eggio d). . .A. 1

renverse*, inverted
by the right nand alone. t ,

chord. 2, Tune (i.e. the state of being/

Acciaccata'ra (It) x, (Ger. Zusam'- in tune). .Etre d* accord, to be in tune.

wnschkg; Vr.fincJ ttwffQ grace A ,

3. Accords (pi., poetical). Strains,
OB keyboard instns, the semitone below
^harmonies. 4. Accordatura,
" "
Accordable (Fr.) Tunable, that may be &., coupler.
.Accouplez> couple,
tuned. (i.e. draw coupler^).

Accordamen'to (It.) Accordance ;

con- Accrescen'do (It.) Same as Crescendo*

sonance. Accrescimen'to (It.) Augmentation (of '

a fugal theme). Pun' to d cccr. t ^Q\.
Accord'ance. An English equivalent
. .

of prolongation (J.).
for Accordatura ; used in GROVE, vol.
IV, 187^, l.Q-io, and foot-note.
p. Accresciu'to (It.) Augmented,
Accordance (It.) Accordant, in tune, Aceta'bulum. Latin name for an an-
.tuned together ; applied also to comic cient Gk. instr., of percussion. The
scenes in which the tuning of an instr. acetabula were earthen or metallic ves-
or instr.s is imitated by the orchestra. sels struck with sticks, like a carillon,

Accordant (Fr.) Consonant. or clashed together, like cymbals.

Accorda're (It.) To tune, tune to- Acht (Ger.) Eight. .Achtf&ssig, 8-foot .

gether. ...Achtfstimmig, in or for 8 parts,-

Accordato'io (It.) Tuning-key, tuning- 8-part
hammer. An
Ach'tel, Ach'telnote (Ger.) eighth-
Accordatu'ra (It.; see Accordance.} note. ,
.Ach'tetyause^ eighth-rest.
The series of tones according to which
a stringed instr. is tuned ; thus^v/ -^
1 1
- Ac'ocotl. A wind- instr. of the Mexican
aborigines, consisting of a thin tube
is the a. of the violin.
or 10 feet long made of the dried stalk
Accorder (Fr.) To
accorder,tune. . . S of the plant acocotl, and played by in-
to tune together, get the pitch (as an haling the air through it. (Also called
orchestra). Ckrin.)
Accprdeur i. Tuner. 2. The
(Fr.) Acoustic color. The timbre (character
monochord. 3. A small instr. contain-
or quality) "of a mus. tone.
set on a sound-

ing 12 steel tuning-forks

board and yielding the 12 tones of the Acoustics. (Ger. Aku'stik ; Fr. acaus-
scale. tique ; It. acu'stica.)
The science of
equally tempered
the properties and relations of sounds.
Accor'dion. (Ger. Accor 'deon> Akkor*- i. Musical acoustics, the science

dion, Zieh'harmmika; Fr. accordton; of mus. tones, distinguishes between

It. accoSdeon.) A
free-reed instr. in-
tones and noises. tone of sustained A
vented by Damian, of Vienna, in 1829. and equal pitch is generated by regular
The elongated body serves as abellows, and constant vibrations of the, air, these
which can be drawn out or pushed to-
being generated by similar vibrations
the bellows is closed at
gether at will ; in the tone-producing body ; whereas a
either end by a keyboard, that for the noise is caused by irregular aftd fluctu-
a diatonic (or incom-
right hand having ating vibrations. Briefly, "the
plete chromatic) scale, while that for sation caused by a tone is produced by
the left has 2 or more keys for harmonic
rapid periodic movements ;
that caused
bass tones. There are two sets of
by a noise, by imperiodic movements
reeds, one sounding when the
bellows But a sonorous or tone-
is opening, by suction, the other
when vibrates not only as a
producing body
it is closing, (Compare Concertina.) whole, but in its various fractional parts
Accor'do I. A chord... A* con'- as well. Take a pfte.-string, for in-
sono (di$'sono\ a consonant (dissonant) stance ;
when struck by the hammer it

vibrates, not simply-as a whole in

chord, 2. An instr. formerly used in
the bass viol, having entire length, but each half, each , i, J
Italy, resembling as
etc., of the string vibrates by itself,
from 12 to 15 strings, and played with
a bow in such a way that several strings it were (comp. Node), and produces a
were caused to vibrate at once em- ;
tone of a pitch corresponding to its own
thus, produces, be-
harmonies were length the ^string
ployed where powerful

modem sides the fundamental tone or generator,

required. (Also called the lyre,
its twelfth g
and Barbary C, its octave c ft of string),
J), fifteenth
^ (i), seventeenth $ (J5,
tun- 1
The points of rest
Aqcordoir (Fr.) Tuning-hammer, nineteenth^- (J),-etc.
or -horn.
ing-key ; (org.) tuning-cone in the string (or other tone-producing

To . . Tirant body) where such vibrating portions

Accoupler (Fr.) couple,
of the composite
meet, are called nodes, or nodalpoints; being considered parts
tone (clang) named after the generator.
the tones produced by the vibrating di-
visions are called harmonics, or
over- The series of partial tones may be
as follows, numbered
tones; and the entire series, including given in notes
the generator, are called partial tones, consecutively from C upward

*> & 8 10 ii 12 13 14 15 16
4 5 9
C: I- Ill (= major triad).
* are only approximately
(Notes marked correct.)

The intensity of the harmonics ordin- difference, 2, represents the number of

as their pitch beats per second, a beat being the pul-
arily decreases rapidly
becomes higher. sation or throb caused by the coinci-

2. The harmonics are important in dence of, consequent momentary


Their presence in increase of the intensity in, the sound-

many ways, (a)
waves of the two tones this coinci-
varying degrees of intensity produces

the timbre peculiar to the several instr.s; dence recurring regularly at every 22ist
thus the tone of the stopped diapason vibration of the first tone and 220th
are weak, is soft vibration of the second. As soon
(organ), in which they

and "hollow"; the tone of an old as the number of beats per second

violin, in which the lower harmonics

are amounts to about 32, the ear no longer
well-developed and evenly balanced,
is distinguishes them as separate throbs,
mellow, round, and sonorous; that of the and they unite to form a very low tone
trumpet, in which
the high dissonant (32 v. = Ci), called a combinational,
harmonics also make themselves felt, summational) or resultant tone; in fact,
is ringing, "metallic," and brilliant. the various combinations of interfering
(Compare Scale.). (b) On bowed vibrations produce, in their different
instr.s they yield an additional and combination, a series of harmonics, the
highly characteristic register (see Har- lowest and chief among which is always
monic 2). {*) On wind-instr.s, from the generator of the series to which the
which they are obtained by varying the two original tones belong. Thus, accord-
intensity and direction of the air-cur-
rent, they are indispensable for extend-
ing to Tartini, the interval ^
the following series of resultant tones ;
ing and completing the natural scale ;
thus the bugle and French horn, which
yield but one fundamental tone (without
^ =^
keys or valves), depend entirely on the
harmonics for the production of their etc.
scale ; the flute depends upon overblow-
ing, which produces the harmonics of (<:)
In the series of partials given in
Its tube, for its upper register; etc., i, those belonging to the major scale
etc. (d) Musical theory owes highly of the generator C are written as half-

important discoveries to the investiga- notes ; the consonance of the major

tion of the harmonics, of which discov- triad is derivable from and based upon
eries practical music in turn reaps the the principal partial tones. In like
benefit (improved construction of many manner, the consonance of the minor
instr.s).(Comp. Scale.) triad is derived from a reverse series of
3. By sounding two tones together, lower partials, the existence of which
various phenomena are produced, (a) 2 is proved by the phenomena of
tones of the same pitch produce thetic vibration and of the resultant
beats. E. g, if the one makes 442 vibra- tones. In this series of lower partials
tions per second and the other 440, the (undertones),

the numerals also represent the relative movement (comp. Tempo-marks)*** A.

length of the strings necessary
to yield assa'i, A. mol'to^ very slow... ntm A
the several tones ; while in the series of tan'to, n0nmoIfo,KQt too slow. . .Adagio

higher partials (overtones)

the string- adagio t very slow. ..Jf
the simple
lengths are represented by
fractions formed by the numerals. (d) Adaptation. Same as Arrangement.
From the relative number and import- Adagio (It.) Same as Adagio.
ance (intensity) of the first 6 partials in Added sixth. See Sixth.
either series, it follows, that the only
consonant chords are the major and Addita'to (It) Provided with a finger-
minor triads^ and that the only conso- ing, fingered.

nant intervals are such as are derived Addition. * Obsolete term for the dot
from these chords or their inversions ;

the addition of any further tone, either Additional accompaniments.

found in or foreign to the series of par- . ..Ad-
produces a dissonance.
tials, ditional keys, those
above /*
Act. (Gen Akt, Aufzug; Fr. acte;
It. at' to.) One
of the principal divi-
Addolora'to (It.) Plaintive ; in a style
sions of a dramatical performance.
expressive of grief.
Acte de cadence (Fr.) A
Adi'aphon. See Ga'belklavier.
in one of the parts, particularly the
bass, which forces the others to join Adi'aphonon. A keyboard Jnstr. in-
either in forming a cadence, or in avoid- vented by Schuster of Vienna in 1820.

ing one apparently imminent. Adira'to (It.) Angry, wrathful.

Actin'ophone. An apparatus for the Ad'junct. Closely related, as one key 01
production of sound by actinic rays. scale to another. .A. note^ an auxiliary .

Action. (Ger. Mecha'nik; Fr. note, unaccented, and unessential to

It. In keyboard the harmony.
nique; mecca'nica.)
instr.s, the mechanism
actuated Ad'juvant. The cantor's assistant, as

by the player's finger, or set in motion sistant teacher.

by the organ-pedals. In the harp, the A'dler (Ger.) An obsolete organ-stop.

fiction (pedals) does not directly produce
Ad libitum (Lat., "at pleasure," "at
the sound, but effects a change of key
will") A direction signifying (i )
that the
by shortening the strings, whereby chro-
matic alterations of a semitone or a performer is free in choice of expression
or tempo ; (2) that any vocal or instru-
whole tone result. (See Pianoforte, mental part so marked is not absolutely
Organ.) essential to a complete performance of
Act-tune. Music performed between a piece. . . Caden'za ad lib. thus means,
the acts of a drama ; an entr'acte. that a given cadenza may be performed'
" In the or not, or another substituted, at the
Acu'ta (Lat., sharp, shrill.")
organ, a mixture-stop having 3 to 5 executant's discretion.
ranks of from if to I foot, usually in- Ad lon'gam "
with the long. *) A
cluding a Third ; its compass is higher term applied to certain ancient church-
than that of the ordinary Mixture. music written entirely in equal notes,
Acu'tae elates (Lat.; also acuta loca> generally the longest in use.
acute voces!) Literally, acute keys
Adornamen'to (It.) A grace.
(pitch, voices) ; the tones from a
to g
inclusive ; so termed by Guidod'Arezzo.
Adquis'ta or adsum'ta (vox) (Lat,
M the added
tone.") The lowest tone
Acute* (Ger. scharf^ hock; Fr. aigu; of the scale, the Proshmbvnom'enos.
It, actfto, ) High in pitch, sharp, shrill ; See Harmonium.
said of tones ; opp. to grave.
-dEolharmon'ica. See Seraphine.
Acutez'za (It.) Acuteness; sharpness
^Eolian attachment. An attachment
(of pitch).
to a pfte. for directing a current of air
Acu'tus (Lat.) See Accentus eccl, 4.
against the strings, reinforcing thejr vi-
Adagiet'to (It) i. A movement slightly bration and thus prolonging and 'sus-
than adagio. 2. A short Adagio.
faster taining the tones,.. Molian harp or
" A slow
Ada'gio (It, slow, leisurely.") lyre. (Ger. A'okkarfa Wind'-. Wtt*
- or Gd'sterharfe; Fr. harps eous syncopation, or "deviation from
the natural order of the measure, in
A stringed Instr sounded by the wind all the parts.

It consists of a narrow, oblong wooden AEVIA. A frequent abbr. of Allelui&

resonance-box, across the low bridges in MS. music of the middle ages.
at either end of which are stretched gu
Affable (It.) Sweetly and gracefully,
strings in any desired
number and o
different thickness and tension, but al Affanna'to (It.) Uneasily, distressfully.
producing the same fundamental
When adjusted in an appropriate aper Affannosamen'te (It.) Anxiously, rest-
tare, like a window through which the , lessly .Affanno'so^ anxious, restless.
, ,

air passes freely, the latter causes the Affet'to tender-

(It.) Emotion, passion,
if the
strings to vibrate and to produce, ness. ..Con #., Qiaffettuosamen'tei ajfet*
tension be properly adjusted (rather
tuo'so, with emotion or feeling, very
slack than otherwise), full chords com
expressively. (Compare Innig.)
posed of the harmonics of the funda-
mental tone common to all the strings ;
Affezic/ne, con (It.) In a style express-
ive of tender emotion.
and rising, according to the force of the
wind, from pure, dreamy, deliciously Affilar' (or filarO il tuc/no (It.)
In the
Italian school of singing, to produce a
vague harmonies to a plaintive wail or
a thrilling forte...&olian modt^ see long-sustained and uniform tone near- ;

Grrtek music. , .Mdian piano, see ly the same as metier la voce,

messa di
wee, except that with these a crescendo
or decrtscendo is usually to be combined.
JEoiina, I. A
small instr. consisting of a
Affinitd (Fr.) Affinity, relationship.
graduated series of free reeds set in a
petalplate and blown by the mouth Afflifto (It.) Melancholy, sad...
; 4^
invented by the Messrs. Wheatstone in zio'ne, con, sorrowfully, mournfully.
1829. As the first practical attempt to Affrettan'do (It.) Hurrying (stringendd)
tise free reeds in this way, it maybe re- . .
,AJfretto'$o> hurried (fi& mosso).
garded as the precursor of the accordion After-beat.
and melodion. The Germans, how- (From Ger. Nacttschlag;
Fr. note de contpldment^ terminaison.)
ever, claim the invention for Eschen-
An ending added to a trill, comprising 2
bach, of Hamburg, about 1800. 2. An
notes, the lower auxiliary anc) the main
organ-stop constructed on the same note ; compare Trill.
principle as the above, without (or with
very short) pipe-bodies, and of very After-note. I. Occasional for unae*
soft tone. cented appoggiaiura. 2. The unac-
cented note of a pair.
. A keyboard instr. em-
bodying the principle of the JEolina, After-striking, (Ger.
and thedirect precursor of the harmo-
The reverse of anticipation by the
nium. (Also JEolodion, KlavdoK'ne. bass; e.g.
,.A further modification was the
Mokmel</duon> invented ty Prof.
Hoffmann of Warsaw about 1825, ih
which short brass tabes were a4ded to
the reeds.

^Eolopaa'talon. An ^Eolomelodicon
combined with a pfte., constructed
about 1830 by Dlugosz of Warsaw. (Compare Anticipation)
(Ger., from Lat. agen'da.) Bre-
Aeqnal' (Gen) Formerly, an independ-,
cnt 8-foot prgan-stop 4
viary, more especially of the Ger. Re-
(Aequal 'stimme) \
still used as formed Church, containing in regular
prefix to names of organ-
order the formularies, prayers,
stops, indicating that they belong to respons-
the standard 8-foot registers, as
es, collects, etc., employed in religious
prinzipal^ etc.
jEquiso'nus (Lat. ; Ger. dquison') Uni- AgeVole (It.) Easy, light.. .AgevokJ.
son (of either primes or za, con, easily, lightly.
JEquiva'gans (Lat.) Denotes simultau
Agiustataraen'te (It.) Strictly in time

Aggraver la fugue (Fn) To aug- Ajoute,-e (Fr.) Added. (See Ligne, Six.
ment the theme of & fugue. 4
' "
te.\ . .
Ajoutez, add (organ-mus.) ;
Agiatamen'te (It) abbr. ajout.
Easily, indolently
Agilitt' (It.}) Agility, sprightliness, vi- Ajuster (Fr.) See Accorder.
Agilit^ (Fr.)j vacity; con a., in a
light and lively style.
Akkord' i.(Ger,) A
chord... Akkonf*
passage, arpeggio. . . kkord''zither, the
Agilmen'te (It.) Nimbly, lightly, vi- A set of several instns
autoharp. 2.
vaciously. of one family, but different in size,
Agitamen'to (It.) Agitation.;. Agita- as made from the 15th to the i8th
tamen'te, conagitazio'ne, excitedly, agi- century (cornp^ Engl. chest or consort
tatedly. .Agita'to, agitated ; a. con pas-
of viols). (Also
sio'ne, passionately agitated... Agita- Akkor'dieren (Ger.) r. To tune an
zio'ne, agitation.
reference to the harmony of
Ag'nus De'i (Lat. "Lamb of God.")
t its
principal chords. 2. To- get the
Closing movement of flie mus. Mass. pitch (said of the orchestra),
Ago'ge (Gk.) The order, with refer- AkroamVtisch (Ger.) Pleasing to the
ence to pitch, in which the tones of a ear said of music depending more up.

melody succeed each other.. .A. rhytkf- on outward effect than on depth.
mica, their succession with reference to Akt (Ger.) Act.
accent and rhythm ;
Aku'stik (Ger.) Acoustics; akufstiseA,
Ago'gik (Ger.)Theory of the tempo acoustic.
rubato...Ago'gisch, relating to such de-
viations from the Al (It.) To the, up to the, at the, ia
Accent* (RIEMANN), a etc.../// al (or alia) fine,
sign(A)over a the,
note indicating the slight pianissimo to the end
of its value required, in certain
rhythms, Albertischer Bass (Ger.) Albert!
to mark the
culminating point of the bass* (See JBass.)
Alcu'no (It.) Some, certain.
Agraffe'. Inthepfte,, a small metallic Alexandre
organ. See American o#*
support of the string, between bridge
and pin, serving to check vibration m
that part Al'iquot (Lat.) Forming an exact mea-
sure of something ; a- factor, or even
Agr&nens (Fr., pi.) Harpsichord- &\<xx...A'liquotflilgel (Ger.) A
grand piano, invented by Julius Bltith-
Acute ; also used ner of Leipzig, the tone of which is
Aigu, ai^uS (Fr.)
reinforced and enriched by an addition-
substantively, e. g* passer de Faigu au
al sympathetic string stretched over,
and tuned in the higher octave to, each
Air. (Gex.MebdiSt Wei'se, Sing'tveise ; unison. These added strings are not
Fr. air, mtfodie; It. atria?) I. A struck by the hammers, and are called
rhythmical melodious series of single A' liquotsaiten. ..A'liquottheorie, theory
tones in a metrical
(symmetrical) group- of overtones produced by the vibration
ing easily recognizable by the ear a of strings or of wind-instr.s.
; Such
tune or melody. 2. The highest overtones or harmonics are called A'li*
in a harmonized
composition. . . Nation- quottone.
al air, a melody become
All', al'la (It.) To the, at the, in the;
popular through long usage and pecu-
in the style of.
liar fitness,
recognized as a national
emblem, and performed at public festi-
Allabre've (Ger.) See A Ha breve, under
vals, etc. Breve. .Allabrefvetakt, alia breve tim.

Air (Fr.) Air, melody, tune also song,

Allargan'do (It.) Same as Largando.
as Airs a boire,
drinking-songs. . .Also, Allegramen'te (It.) Nimbly, lightly,
instrumental melody, as air de yiolon, vivaciously.
deflate ; air de ballet 1 de danse, etc. . .
short Allegretto ; A
Allegretti'no (It.)
Also, aria air d^tache, any single aria
also, a movement slower than alle-

taken from an opera.

A1s(Ger.) A#. ^'IJW.AX. Allegretto (It. f abbr. all* .) Dimin.
of allegro; moderately fast, lively wood. The scale of the tube is nar-
faster than andante^ slower than allegro row, and the tones produced are its
Liveliness, vivacity.
natural harmonics. The alpine herds-
Ailegrez'za (It)
men use this horn to play the Ranz des
Altegris'sirao (It,) Superl. of allegro vackes and other simple melodies.
extremely rapid, as quick as possible
Alphabetical notation. Any method
of writing music which uses the letters
AHe'gro (It., abbr. all*.) Lively , brisk
of the alphabet, The earliest known
rapid. Used substantively to designat
method was the ancient Greek, which
any rapid movement slower than pre
sto...^. tfjjfl'i, a, di
moio+ very fas employed two parallel series of letters,
one for vocal and the other for instru-
(usually faster than the foregoing move
mental music, the letters being various-
di bravu'ra, a technically
ly inverted, accented, or mutilated to
difficultpiece or passage to be executec
indicate the several octaves and chro-
swiftly and boldly, .A. giu'sto, amove

matic tones. This method was retained,

ment the rapidity of which is conformec
to the subject.. . A. risolu'to^ rapidly anc
down to the roth
at least by theorists,
century (see Neumes\ when the begin-
energetically; etc., etc.
nings of a new method appeared, em-
AJlein' (Ger.) Alone.
ploying the first 7 letters of the Latin
Alleluia (Hebr.) Lit. "Praise ye the
alphabet A B C DEF for theG
Lord,* an exclamation closing various major diatonic scale now
Psalms, or introduced in their midst by C DEF G A
B, and repeating
Taken, by the early Christian Church the same series for the higher octaves.
from the ancient Hebrew ritual, it de- These Latin letters were at first used
veloped into the long jubilations (see for instrumental notation
(psaltery or
Jubilatio] of the early middle ages (on rotta, later the organ). Their significa-
the vowels AEVIA), to the melodies of tionwas soon altered, however, to con-
which were set, after the adoption of form to that of the earlier Greek sys-
the cantus phnu^ special words. (Also, tem (minor), the series then
with our present one ; the' Greek r
Allemande (Fr.; It. alternantda.) I. (Gamma, G) was added as the lowest
A Ger. dance in 3-4 time, like the
tone, and the octaves above I were
L&ndltr.z. A lively Ger. dance in written ABCDEFG abcdefg aabbccdd
2-4 time, 3. A movement in the etc.
"ffgg (or
ll l\ etc.) ; though
Suite, either the first or immediately
following the prelude, in 4-4 time and sometimes, instead of small letters, the
moderate tempo (andantino), commenc- capitals ran on (HIKLMNOF), in
ing with a short note in the auftakt. which latter system A was equivalent
4. A figure in dancing. to our modern
C, as at first. Arbitrary
innovations led to great confusion in
Allentamen'to (It.) Same as Rallen-
the alphabetical notation, which was in
tando* (Also allentan'do, allenta'to.)
realityrendered superfluous, as a me-
ATte Sai'ten (Ger.) Same as Tutu thod of writing music, by Guido d'Arez-
zo's invention or systematization
AU'gemeiner Bass (Ger.) Thorough- 1026) of line-notation (see Notation).
bass. (Now General'bass?)

When letters were used, without staff-

Altaahlich (Ger.) Gradually, by de- lines, instead of neumes, they were
grees. (Also allm&hfKjr, allma'lig.) often written above the words in this
Allonger 1'archet (Fr.) To prolong wise;
(the stroke of) the bow. O-f EE E E
ASo'ra(It.) Then.
Ahaain', Almaad', Almayne'.
as Allemande.
Same 4
//CD/F /D /

Qui tol -
Us fee - ca - ta
ATpetthorn, Alpliorn (Ger.) The
alp-horn, an instr. made of strips or i.e., in notes :

staves of wood firmly bound

to form a conical tube from
3 to 8 feet
long, the bell slightly curved upward,
and with a cupped - - Us pec
mouthpiece of hard Qui tol - ca * ta

ascending or descending as the voice term being reserved for the lower alto
was to rise or fall. Our present theo
voice). Ordinary compass from g to
retical division of the octave is firs
which, in voices of unusual
found fully developed in the works of range, may be extended
Praetorius (1619) ; side by side with down to d and up to
which the old method of writing music A
/*, or even higher. a. high head-
(A-G, a-g etc.) still occurred, until the voice in men (It afti natura'li) for-
various systems of tablature were given
merly cultivated for the performance
up (comp. Tablaturt). Letters are no of church-music (in England for secu-
longer used in practical mus. notation,
g, glees), but now
lar music as well, e.
except by Tonic Sol-fa, in which, how* generally superseded by the female alto
ever, they represent no fixed pitch, as or high tenor. 3. (Ger. Bra'tsche, Alf-
formerly, but are mere abbreviations oJ viok; Fr. alto> quinte^ basse de violon;
the movable solmisation-syllables. In
It. a?to> vio'ta.) The tenor violin, or
modern theory, letters are variously em- viola.
ployed (comp. Pitchy absolute).
Al'to,-a (It.) High...0/fo'w alia, an
Alt (Ger.)Alto (voice or part). ..In octave higher. ^Altavicfla^ tenor violin.
compound words, the alto instr. of any .Atto basfso, an obsolete variety of

family, as Atfgtige, Atfhorn, Alt?- dulcimer, consisting of a square wooden

klarinttte, Alfoboe, AWviolc, etc. box set on legs and strung with gut. It
(Engl.) Hence, the same employment was generally employed to accompany
in English usage [alt-clarinet, alt- simple melodies played by the performer
horn].. .Notes "in alt" are those of on a flageolet held in his right hand, the
the next octave (//*) above
/ left striking the strings,
_ ; notes in the octave above Alto-clet
" SeeC/*/.
: this are said to be in altis-
Alt'posaune (Ger.) Alto trombone.
Al'tro,-a (It,) Other... Altra vol'ta,
Aitera're (It.) To alter, change. "encore!"
Altera'tio (Lat.) See Notation, 3. Alt'schltissel (Ger.) Alto-clef.
Alteration, i. Same as Alteratio.z. AltMole
(Ger.) Viola.
Chromatic alteration of the pitch of a
Alzamen'to or (It.) raisingA lifting
(opp. to Abbassamento). Abbrcv. Alt.
Altera'to (It.), Alter* (Fr.) Chromatic-
Ama'Mleflt) Sweet, tender.
ally altered.
Amare'vole (It) Bitterly, mournfully.
Alterez'za (It,) Pride, loftiness. Con
(Sometimes written mistakenly for A mo*
a.) in a lofty and dignified style.
riwle, lovingly.). .Amaresfza, bitter-

Alternamen'te con a., grievingly.

(It.) Alternatively... ness, sadness ;
Alternantdo, alternating.
Amateur (Fr.) A
"lover" of art, who,
Alternative (It.) See Trio 2. while possessing an understanding for
Alt-horn* (Fr. saxhorn alto; Gen Atf- and a certain knowledge of it, does not
horn.) One of the Saxhorns. pursue it as a profession.
Altieramen'te (It.) In a lofty and ma- Ambitus (Lat,) Compass.
Ambrpsian chant. The style of church-
jestic style.
Alti natura'li (Lat.) Natural (male) music introduced by St Ambrose (d.
altos, or counter-tenors. (See Alto.) 397) from the Eastern Church, and
Altis'simo established by him in the cathedral at
(It.) Highest. (See/4#.)
Alti'sta An Milan, towards the end of the 4th cen-
(It.) alto or contralto
tury. It was based on the 4 authentic
Alfklausel (Ger.) The leading of the de fgabe d 1 1

alto part in a perfect close.

Alto. I. (Fr. haute-contre / Gen

Alfstimmcjlt. afto.) The deeper of
the two main divisions of women's or and was thus essentially diatonic, al-
boys' voices, the contralto Germany
; (in though embellished with occasional
a distinction is sometimes made be- chromatic graces; it was
tween^// and Kon'traalt% the probably
latter- rhythmical, in contrast to the later de-

velopment of Plain Chant. Nothing the first 2 short, the last long (^ ^ *^);
the reverse of the DactyL
positive is known
about these melodies
except that St. Ambrose introduced
the Anche (Fr.) Reed .A.
(of any instr.). .

antiphonal songs and hallelujahs -of libre, free reed.. ./<? d'atiche, Teed-
Eastern Church, and himself composed stop.
numerous hymns, (Comp* An'che (It.) Also, too, likewise ; even,
An'cia(It.) Reed.
Arabrosian hymn (kym'nus Amlrosia'-
nus). The "Tedeum laudamus,"oi Anco'ra (It.) Again,' also, yet, still,
even. . .Ancor* pifrmos'sQ, still faster.
which St. Ambrose is the reputed

AnMacht (Ger.) Devotion. .An'ddchtig, .

or mit Andac'ht9 devotional)y (It. de-

Ame(Fr.) Soundpost.
uo'tOi can devozio'ne).
American organ* See Reed-organ.
Amo're (It) Love...6? #., with de- Andamen^o (It.) i. Movement,, rate of
speed, 2. A passage, especially an
votion, fondly, devotedly ; tenderjy. . .

episode in a fugue. 3. Specifically, an

Amore'vole, amore-vohien'te^ lovingly, extended fugal theme, usually -consist-
fondly, etc.. .Amorosamen'te, amorous- of two distinct and contrasting
ly, lovingly, fondly. .Amoro'so, amor-
. '

members. (See Soggetto.)


ous, loving.
A'morschall, A'morsklang (Ger.-) A
Andante (It., lit. ", going, moving.")
? French horn with valves, 'invented by
* A tempo-mark indicating, in modern
Kdlbe'l, of St. Petersburg (1760); its usage, a moderately slow mpvement,

tone was lacking in purity, and the Between Adagio and 'Allegrettp ; often
valve-mechanism did not quite do away mocljfied by qualifying words, as A.
v with
maesto'sQ) A. sostenitfto, a stately and
A metrical foot of tranquil movement; J. con. moty, A.
3 un poco a comparatively ani-
^); opp. to amphim'acer.
syllables if-' mated movement'; A. cantafMle, a
Also amphibrafckys.
smoothly flowing and mejodious move-
Am'phichord. See Lira barberina. ment etc. In earlier usage often em-

Amphim'acer. A metrical foot of 3 ployed in its more literal sense, as 'A.
syllables { >> ) opp, to am'phibracJi.
; allegro, "moving rapidly ;"" me*no
[Also atnphimacrus^\ andante ("less moving "), slower.
Ampho'ter (Ger.) Amphoteric said^of Andantemen^e
(It.) Flowingly, unin-
. eft series of tones "conmioa to two"
registers of the same voice.
Andanti'no (It.) Dimin. of Andante;
Amplitude of vibration. ^Vibration. slower than andante, but; often
Amts'pfeiffer (Ger.) See Stadtpfeifer. used in the reverse sense.
Amusement (Fr.) See Divertissement.
Anda're (It.) To move on A dirit'to,. . . .

Anl(GerO On ; add (i.e. draw). go straight on,; a. in tempo, keep to the

Anacru'sis (Gk. ; Ger. Anakru'sis [A uf- tempo.
takt\ \ Fr. anacrouse.) An
up-beat An'derungsabsatz
(Ger.) Half-cadence,
beginning a
verse, containing- 1 or 2
unaccented syllables ; hence transferred encjing on the dominant triad.
to musical rhythms, for which, in
AnenVochord. (Fr. anJmocorde.) . A

lish usage, the term auftakt is often keyboard wind-instr. with, strings:, in-
met with. vented by J. J. Schnell, of Paris,- in'
1789, as an attempt to imitate the tone
-Analytical programs are an English of tie ^Eolian harp by means of small .
invention; analyses of the mus, form
bellows forcing a current of air against
of compositions on the concert-pro- the strings ; a pneumatic harpsichord.
gram, with quotations from the music,
The piano eolienne of Henri Here
ctate from 1845 (Ella, matinees of Mus.
(1851) was a similar instr. (Also
Union), The most ambitious attempts

of &is kind are probably H, v. Wolzo-
Ane'sis (Gk,) The passage from a high
.geu^ "Filkrtr* (Guides) "through" tone to one lower in pitch; also, the tun-
Wagner's mus. dramas.
ing of strings to a lower pitch, Opp.
Aasetricalfootof ssylkbles, to eptfasis* [STALER AKD

AirTang (Ger.) Beginning. Vom A. ing, stumbling manner; to read music

same as Da capo. haltingly.,

An'satz (Ger.) I. Lip, embouchures (in

An'geben (Ger.) To sound, to strike. . .

JDen Ton #,, to give the pitch (as for an *

playing wind-instr.s). 2. The-trtethod ,

of attacking a vocal phrase,

orchestra). .,

The hymn sung by the

Anxschlag (Ger.) I. Touch (on a key-
Angelic hymn. board instr^) 2. A kind -of double ap^
angels, upon* the announcement of :
Christ's birth ; sung in both the East- poggiatura
ern and Western Churches, extended in written: played:
" "
the latter to the Gloria in excelsis ;
also in the Anglican and Episcopal
Churches, as a song of thanksgiving
after communion.
An'schwellefl (Ger.) To increase -in

Angelica (Lat., "angelic.") See Vox a.

loudness, swell.
Angelique'. (Fr. angttique.) A key- Ansiosamen'te (It.) In $, style expres-
board instr. having 17 strings tuned-in sive of anxiety or hesitation.'.
chromatic order ; inv. early in the I7th
An'sprache~(Ger.) The ".'spe&jkfaig" -

century. Also, a kind of guitar. of

an-ofgan-pipe^wind-instr., s'tJring,
Angelophone. An earlier name for the etc. .
.An'sfrechen] to speak.
'harmonium or parlor-organ.
An'stimraen (Ger.) To intone,

An'gemessen (Ger.) Suitable, appro- up.. . -:,

Answer. (Lat. cp'mes; Gen Gefdhr'te,
Anglaise (Fr.) The English country- Anfwortj; i* rfyomk wtyiqve ; It.
dance (contredanse\ of lively character,
ripo'sta, comegUetfTe.\ -J-n- i' fugue,
sometimes in 2-4; at others in 3-4 or the taking-up of the subject, proposed
.time. It resembles the
5j-8 closely by the first part, by the second part, at
Ecossaise, and most probably took its a different- pitch.
(See Antecedent^
origin from the older form of the
Antecedent. (Ger. Ftth'rer; Fr. \hlme;
French Rigaudon. [GROVE.] It. antecedence^ fropd*sth, gui'<?&$
Angoscjosamen'te / (It.}. Expressive of The theme or subject of a fugue t)ij
Angoscio'so j anguish, agony. .
canon, as proposed by the first .part.'r
Angst'lich (Ger.) Fearfully (It. timida- Also, any theme or motive-proposecl for
men te\ 'wrongly tramidamentfy imitation, or imitated later..

Anyang "(Ger.) Appendix; coda, co- Antelu'dium (Lat.) Prelude, introdlic-

" ' " s '

detta. tion. * '.'t

i. Spirit ;", con a., with Anthem. A pi'ece of sacred music usual-
spirit, animation. 2*
Soundpost. ly founded on biblical' words, with .or
Animan'do With growing anima- without instrumental accomp./and of
.tion,; livelier.. .A nimato^ in an ani*
various forms, (i) : Anthems for double
choiry the, choirs frequently Answering
mated, spirited style. ,

each, other. .(2) Full anthems ^ consjst-

Animocor/ de (It.) See Anemockord,

ing whollyof chorus, accompanied ofn'ot

Animo'so (It.) Animated, spirited... (3) Pull anthems with versesjcertqin
part$ of which are sung by solo voi'ces,
with the utmost .animation, bold-
spirit> although beginning and close are 'cfo-
ruses(7W/?), and thd- chorus preSbmi,-
An'mut(h) (Ger.) Grace,, nates throughout. .'.(4) Verse ant'kenlj\
charm, suavity..-;\An mut(Ji)i^ grace- in which the verses (soli, duets; ''trios,
k fully, etc. . quartets) predominate over th'e -Io-
nises... (5) Solo anthems i in- -vtfiicfr a
Anomaly. The slight deviation from sola part predominate?, though :vf#ie
the exact pitch caused by
tempering chorus always comrades them ^ (6) : , . .

intervals on fixed-tone instr.s hence, ;

Instrumental anthems^ ..tnose.^accpjn-
.an anomalous chord is one containing

paniedvby instr.s other tjian the- orgaax ;

an interval rendered, by tempering, ex- forme.rlyj so Called.;themkn
tremely sharp or flat.
o the Anglican,:^
integral .part"
r.) To perform in a hesitat- servjice, i% essentially

duct, a motet developed on the lines

of phonal songs both in the mass and the
tocal variety and instrumental accomp., offices of the Latin Church ; but now,

approximating to the Ger.

Kantatt. by long-established custom, a separate
The book or col- book called the Gradual contains the
Antholo'gmm (Lat.)
lection of the hymns, etc., of the East-
mass) whereas the responsories of the
ern Church.
office, formerly relegated to the Re-
Autibac'clxius (Antibacchy}. A metrical
sponsorial, now form the Antiphonary,
foot of 3 syllables, 2 long and I short,
together with the antiphons proper (i.e.
with the ictus on the first (-* ^), the associated with tht
Anticipation. (Ger. AnMpatwn', Vor- psalms of the office). (Also Antiph'-
Fr. It.
awfnahme; anticipation; onaly Antiph'oner.)
antidfanVne.) The advancing of one The planchette-mechan-
or more of the parts constituting a Antiph'onel.
the which ism devised by Alexandre Debain, of
harmony before rest, part
or parts would, if all the parts pro- Paris, when attached to a pfte M organ,

enter later:
or harmonium ; hence Antiphonel-har-
gressed simultaneously,
Orgue-antiphonel^ etc.

Anti'phonon (Gk.) Antiphon, anthem.

Antiph'ony. Responsive singing by

two choirs (or divided choir) of alternate
verses of a psalm or anthem ; opp. to
responsoriaI singing and also to homo-

phony (see Homophonic i).

An'tispast. A metrical foot of four

syllables^ the first and last being short
and the two in the middle long
Anti'co (It) Antique, ancient. *AWan- . (-
tico, in the ancient style. Antis'trophe. See Strophe,
Antienne (Fr.) Antiphon. Ant xwort (Ger.) Answer.
Afttipken, or An'tiphone. (Gk. antf- AnVachsend (Ger.) Same as crescendo*
phona t antifphonon ; Ger. Antiphonie*; Aoli'ne, etc. (Ger.) See Molina.
Fr. vnfanne; It. anti'fona.) Origin-
A'olsharfe (Ger.) ^Eolian harp.
ally, a responsive system of singing by
two choirs (or a divided choir), one of A'olsklavier (Ger.) "^Eolian pfte. ;" a
th earliest features in the Catholic ser- keyboard instr. invented about 1825 by
vice of song hence;
to respon- Schortmann of Buttelstedt, resembling
sive or alternate singing, chanting, or the Physharmonica, but having, as
intonation in general, as practised in tone-producing bodies, wooden wands
the Greek, Roman, Anglican, and instead of steel bars.
Lutheran churches... Also, "a short " " Take the loud
Aper'to (It., open.")
sentence, generally from t Holy Scrip- Clear, dis-
pedal" (in pfte, -music).
ture, sung before and after the Psalms broad, ample; Allegro aperto %
for the day, or the Canticles, selected an allegro with broad, clear phrasing.
for its appropriateness to the church
season in which it is sung [STAINER Aper'tns (Lat ) i. Open; said of organ-
2, SssAperto.
AND BARRETT]. pipes.

A Ap'felrcgal (Ger.) An obsolete reed-

Antiph'pnaL i. book or collection
of antiphons or anthems. 2. (adj.) In stop in the organ, the narrow pipes of
which were furnished at the top with
the style of an antiphon, responsive,
hollow perforated globes or buttons
(hence also called Knopfregal),
Antiph'onary. (Lat antiphona'rium ;
Ger. Antiphmar*'; Fr. antiphonaire ; Aplomb (Fr.) Coolness, self-possession,
It. antifona'rio.)
Properly, a collec-
tion of antiphons, but extended to in- Apoggiatura, Apogiatura. Occasion*
clude the responsories, etc., sung at al spellings of Appoggiatttra (Fr. ap
ecclesiastical celebrations. The origi- pogiature).
nal collections embraced all the anti-
Apollo. (Fr* Apollon^ A large lute

(or theorbo) having 20 single strings, and part of the time-value of the latter,
invented in 1678 by Prompt of Paris. (a) The long appoggiatura t now obso-
often occurs in earlier music ; it
Apollo- Lyra. See Psalmmslodicon.

An was, in point of fact, a. suspension

instr. finished in
Apollonicon. written as a small note in order to evade,
by Flight and Robson of London. It as it were, the rule against the entrance
was a combined organ and orchestrion,
of unprepared dissonances. The dura-
containing about 1900 pipes in tion of the small note properly corre-
stops, with 5 manuals played
on by
sponds to" its time-value if written as a
different performers, and kettledrums
large note ; e. g.
operated by a special mechanism, so written :
that a full orchestral effect was obtain-
able ; it was likewise provided with
various barrels actuated by machinery,
for the automatic performance of sever-
al extended compositions. It was taken
to pieces in 1840.

Apollonion. An instr. consisting of a \J

pfte.with double keyboard, combined
though cases may occur in which the
with an organ flue-work containing
appoggiatura takes more than its ap-
pipes of 2, 4, and
8-foot pitch, together
with an parent value :

automatic player the size of a

boy ; inv. by J. H. Voller of Angers- written :

bach early in the igth century. te

Apostrophe ). Often employed as a
performed ; or (ace. to TURK):
Apo'tome (Gk.) In the Pythagorean
system, the chromatic semitone 2048:
2187 the limma, or diatonic semitone,

therefore being 243:256 (ff l^ff X

= = the greater
This tone). (b) The short appoggiatura is properly
chromatic semitone (obtained by sub- written as a small eighth-note or i6th-
tracting 2 whole tones 8:9 from a per- note with a slanting stroke through the
fect fourth 3:4) was therefore a wider hook ;
the general rule for its execution
interval than the diatonic ; whereas our to perform it it
very swiftly, giving
diatonic semitone is wider than the the accent of its principal note, and a
chromatic. portion of the latter's time- value differ-
&ppassiona'to,-a (It.) Impassioned, ing according to the speed of the move-
with passion. .
ment somewhat as follows :
.Appassionamen'to, pas-
sion, ardor, deep emotion... Appassio- :

Andante. Allegro. Presto.

natamen'te, passionately, ardently.
p Jf
r I_J__J? 3
Appel Appell' (Ger.) Assembly

signal to troops to fall in.
(It.) Distressed ; in a style

expressive of distress or suffering. performed :

Applica'tio (It.) Fingering.

Applikatur' (Ger,) Fingering (usually
(c) The double appoggiatura contains 2
Appoggian'do (It, 'Meaning on, sup-
or more small grace-notes (commonly
ported.") Said of a tone (note) gliding
written as i6th-notes) before a principal
over to the next without a break, as in .

note ; it is performed rapidly, its Dura-

appoggiaturas and the portamento. tion subtracted from the time-value of
(Also Appoggia'to.)'
the principal note, with tbe accent on
Appoggiatu'ra (It.; Fr. appogiatwe; the first small note (compare Anschlag t
r f
Ger, V or $Mag? Nachf$Mag!) i. The Slide}. 2. The unaccented appoggia*
accented appoggiatura (Ger. tur& (Ger. N&chschlag)\ a rapid single
isa grace-note preceding its main note or double grace-noteyb/^wzw^ a princi*
(melody-note), and taking the accent pal note, from the time-value of whici
con (It.) Boldly, spirited-
its duration must be subtracted, and Arditez'za,
with which it is connected by a slur : ly.,. .Ardi'to, bold, spirited.

written :
Aretin'ian syllables. (Ger. areti'nisch*
Sil'ben.) The syllables /, re, mi, fa,
sol^ la, first used as solmisation-sylla-
bles by Guido d'Arezzo.*
A'ria (It.; Ger. A'rie.) Primarily, an
air, or rhythmic melody. As a technical
term, an aria is an extended lyrical
vocal solo in various forms, with in-
strumental accompaniment. With the
To set tip and finish
Appresta're (It.) rise of homophonic music in the opera
aninstr. and oratorio, the aria developed, from
Appretie'ren (Ger.) Same as Affre- a mere plain-song melody with basso
siart^tAppretur*, the proper adjust- continue into the aria gran'de (the

ment of the parts of an instr. grand or da-capo aria in 3 divisions

Aqaivolcen (Ger., pi.) Meistersinger preceded by an instrumental ritornetta
melodies bearing like names. containing the principal melody ; divi-
An sion I being an elaborate development
Arabesque. (Ger. Arabes'ke.) i.
re- of a theme with frequent repetitions of
occasional title "for pfte. -pieces
the words; II, a more tranquil and
sembling a rondo in form. 2. Arabes-
ken (Ger. pi.) Ornamental passages richly harmonized section followed by

III, the repetition da capo of I, with

accompanying or varying a theme. still more florid ornamentation); the
Arbi'trio (It.) Free will, absolute power;
aria di bravu'ra, (similar to the fore-
a suoa.,& pleasure (equiv. to a placere).
going, but overloaded with difficult
Arca'to (It.) Bowed, played with the bow. passages and coloraturas for showing
off the singer's skill); the aria da chi/i
Ardieggia'reyt) To play with the bow.
sa (church-aria, differing from the sa-
Archet (Fr.) Bow.
/ / cred song chiefly in its greater breadth,
Ar/cM-[aryke](Lat), and Ar ci-[ar -tche] and in being accompanied by full or-
(It) (Engl. Arch-) Ger. jSrz-.) A
chestra); and the aria da concerto
prefix signifying "chief, preeminent/' (concert-aria, differing from the others,
formerly applied to names of instr.s in which are portions of operas, oratorios
the sense of "largest" (of the family
etc. ,
in being an independent composi-
in question), and to official titles in the
tion intended for the concert-hall).-^
sense of "head." E. g., Archchanter
The modern aria is freer in form than
(Fr. arcktchantre)) precentor; Arch-
lute (It ardtiu'to, Fr. archiluth, Ger,
the aria grande of the i8th century,
the. ritornello often being omitted,
Ersflaute), a variety of the bass lute ;
greater variety given to the da capo,
Ardccm'balo (It.; Fr. archicembalo,
f and the thematic construction made to
Ger. Arckicym bat) t a keyboard stringed
follow the sense of the, words, sathat it
instr. inv,by Niccold Vincentino (i6th sometimes assumes the form of a rondo,
century), with 6 keyboards, and keys or consists of 2 slow divisions separated
and strings for all the tones of the three
by an movement. .Aria par*
allegro .
ancient Greek modes (diatonic, chro-
a vocal style com-
lan'te (also ario'so),
matic, and enharmonic); Ardmo'la di
Kra (It), same as Lirone. bining the melody of an aria with the
distinct enunciation of a recitative, the
Ar'chi of Arco.)
(It., pi. Bows; gli vowels being thrown forward."
archi* "the bows/' L e. bow-instr.s in Smaller arias, nearly in song-form
the orchestra ; Engl. equivalent, "the and with slighter accompaniments, are
called ariettas or cavatinas.

(It) Bow; a pwfia, tfarco, or

Arietta (It.) A small aria,
(See Aria.) ,

coflapunta, dW7*<w#v with the point of Ariette (Fr.) Same

as aria grande, the
the bow ; col^arce, with the bow, i, e. original signification being completely
resume the bow after a pizzicato pas- reversed.
sage. ..Area ingik down-bow ; a. in Ario'so (It.) In vocal music, a style in*

jw, up-bow. termediate between aria and recitative

Arden'te (It) Ardent, fiery, passionate. farlantc}\ also, a short mdo.
dious strain interrupting or terminating the a. is written out in full. Obsolete,
a recitative. Also signifies an effective or unusual signs are as follows :
dramatic style suitable for the aria a. A. c. d. e. f.
grande.In instrumental music, same
as cantabik.
Armer la clef (Fr.) See CUf. Add sig,
Arm/geige (Ger.) Viola da braccio.

Armoni'a (It) Harmony . . Armenia

milita're, military band.
Armo'nica (It.) i. Harmonic. 2. Har-
monica. a, t>, r, d are equivalent to the modem
Armonie (Fr,) Probably same as Vielle. sign <?,
; g call for a reversed (de-
Arraoniosamen'te (It.) Harmoniously; scending) arpeggio h means either an ;

armonio'sOi harmonious. ascending arpeggio, or a combined a,

and acciaccatura ;
i and k signify a
Armure (Fr.) I. Mechanism, action, 2-
spreading in eighth-notes ; the appog-
giaturas at / and m delay the perform-
Ar'pa (It) Harp... ,4. do/fia, see
ance of the notes to which they are
Spitzharfe. attached by the time required for play-
Arpanet'ta, Arpanel'la (It.) A small
ing a long or short appogg. respectively.
(See Spitzharfe.)
Arpeggio'ne, An instr. like- a small
Arpfege (Fr.) Arpeggio. 'cello, with fretted fingerboard and 6
. .

playing arpeggio, breaking a chord. . ,

Arpe'ger, to arpeggio.
Arpeggian'do (It.) Playing arpeggio,
in harp-style, or in broken chords; Stauffer, of Vienna.
from arpeggia're^ to play on the harp. .
Arpicofdo (It.) Harpsichord.
Arpeggia'to, (a) arpeggiated, arpeg-
Arpo xie (It.) An instr, played like the
gio'd ; (b) as a noun, same as Arpeggio.
harp, but having the strings adjusted
Arpeggiatu'ra (It.) A series of arpeg- horizontally instead of vertically; inv.
gios. by Barbieri of Palermo, towards the end
of the 1 8th century.
Arpeggio arpeg*gi Engl. pi,
(It., pi. t

arpeg'gios.} "harping."] Playing

[Lit. Arrangement. (Ger. and Fr. ditto; It,
the tones of a chord in rapid and even riduzio'ne). The adaptation of a com-
succession ; playing broken chords. position for performance on an instr.,
Hence, a chord so played, or broken , or by any vocal or instrumental com-
a broken or spread chord, or chord - -
bination, for which it was not originally
passage. The modern sign for the a. intended hence, the composition as so

calls for adapted or arranged.

the follow.
Arrangie ren (Ger.) To

Arranger (Fr.),
ing execu-

arrange. (See Arrangement)
Ar'sis (Gk.) Up-beat.
i. e. thearpeggio-note falls on the

accent this is the rule for the accent,

Art (Ger.) Sort, kind ; manner, style!

tho* there are occasional exceptions Articola're (It.; Fr. articuler; Ger.
N.B. Pfte.-ar- 'artikulie ren^ To articulate, utter dis-

peggios are writ- tinctly.*.Articola't0 1 articulated. . .Ar~

ten in 2 ways: ticolazio'ne^ articulatipn.
(i) indicates that
Ar'tig(lich) (Ger.) Neatly, prettily,
the arpeggio is gracefully.
simultaneous in
As (Ger.) Ab.As'as, or As'es, Abb-
both hands; (2),
that all the notes are to be played in Aspirate (It.) To aspirate. Also, in

succession from lowest to highest. In singing, to quaver a vowel by audibly

earlier music (Bach, Handel) the same successive ^'s. Also,, td
take Breath.
sign calls for a more or less free spread-
ing of the chords, generally according Aspiration (Fr.) An obsolete grace
to a preceding pattern-chord, in which (comp. Grace).

Asprez'za (It,) Harshness, roughness; Aufhalten (Ger.) To suspend... A uf-

bitterness. haltung) suspension (usually Vot'halfy.
Assa'i (It.) used to intensify a Auf'losen (Ger,) To resolve. H Auf-
Very ;

tempo-mark, as assai, very

allegro losung* resolution also, the breaking ;

it has less force of a chord also, the solution of an ;

rapid ; intensifying
than malic* enigmatical canon uflosungszei^ . . . A
chen the natural (p),
Assembly. A signal by drum or bugle t

for soldiers to rally and fall in. Aufsatz (Ger.) Tube (of a reed-pipe in
Assez rather. the organ).
(Fr.) Enough ;
Assoln'to (It.) Absolute, positive \printo Aufschlag (Gen) Up-beat... Auf-
uom& assoluto* a male singer for lead- schlagende Zung'e^ beating reed.
ing roles. Aufschnitt (Gef.) Mouth (of an organ-
As'sonance* (Ger. Assonant \ Fr. pipe).
sonance; It. assonan'za.) Agreement Aufstrich (Ger.) Up-bow.
or resemblance in sound. Auftakt (Ger.) Up-beat, anacrusis a ;

A'them (Ger.} Breath. . .A'themlos, fractional measure beginning a move-

breathlessly). ment, piece, or theme (in this sense
Attac'ca Attack or begin what fol- often used by English writers without
lows without pausing, or with a very capital \auftakfy.
short pause; a. subito (or attaca'te Auftritt (Ger.) Scene.
subito), attack immediately. Aufzug (Ger., lit.
"raising [of the cur-
Attacca're (Tt.), Attaquer (Fr.) To tain]'*.) An act of a drama.
attack, or begin, at once.
Augmentation. (Ger. Vergro' sserung,
Attac'co (It.), Attaque (Fr.) A mo- Verlang'erungl) I. Doubling or in-
tive in fugal imitation ; formerly, a very creasing the time-value of the notes of
short fugue-theme. a theme or motive in imitative counter-
Attache du cordier point. 2. See Notation 3. Aug-
(Fr.) Loop. ,

mented intervals, see Interval.

Attack. The act or style of beginning
a phrase, passage, or piece ; said both Augmenter (Fr.) To increase (ia loud-
of vocalists or instrumentalists, either ness) en augmentant=crescendo. J

in solo or ensemble. Aule'tes (Gk.) Flute-player... A ulos,

Attendant keys of a given key are its flute.

relative major or minor, together with AumentatrMo (It.) Crescendo. >.Au~

the keys of the dominant and subdomi- menta'to> augmented.
nant and their relative major or minor Aus'arbeitung (Ger.) Working-out,
keys. (Comp. Phone, 4.) development.
At'to(It) Act of a drama. Aus'druck (Ger.) Expression. . .Au/-
Atto're, (Attri'ce) (It.) Actor (act- drucks-voll^ expressively.
ress). AusTiihrung (Ger.) Execution, perform-
An (Fr.) To the, in the, etc. ance ; exposition.
Anbade (Fr.) i. Morning-music, gen-
Aus'halten (Ger.) To sustain; sustain I

erally addressed to some particular per-

. . A us'haltung^ sustaining. . . A us'haU
son ; opp. to Serenade; specifically, a tungszeichen^ see Fermate*
morning-concert by a military band. 2. Aus^osung
(Ger.) Hopper, grasshopper,
Occasional title for short instrumental
pieces in lyric style. 3. calli- A
Au'ssere Stim'men (Ger.) Outer parts.
thumpian concert (ironical).
Audace (Fr.) Audacious, bold. Au^serst (Ger.) Extreme(ly),
Aus'stattung (Ger.) Mounting (of an
Anffassang (Ger.) Reading or con-
opera, etc.)
ception (of a work).
Aus'weichung (Ger.) Modulations
Aufffihrung (Ger.) Performance. transition.
Aufreregt (Ger.) Agitated(ly), excit- Authentic. (Ger. authen'tisch ; Fr.
autheniique ; It. auten'tico.) Within
AurVeweckt (Ger.) Lively, animat- the compass of an octave above the
cofy), briskOy), .keynote... ^4 . cadence; mode> see Co*

deuce, Mode...Au. melody, one whose or cancelling the sign \)

for B rotun'-

range extends through

or nearly through dum. .B quadra' turn,
BJJ. . .B is also
the octave-scale above its tonic or final ; an abbr. for Bass or Basso (c. B.=col
opp. to flagal.
.Au. fart of the scale,
. Basso ;
B. C.= basso continuo).
that lying between a given keynote and Baboracka, Baborak. Bohemian danc-
itshigher dominant, the part between es with changing rhythms.
the keynote and lower dominant being
Bac'chius (Bacchy). A metrical foot
I short and 2 long syllables",
Auto-harp. (Gen Akkord' zither.} A containing
with the ictus on the first long one
zither without fingerboard or accom-
the strings being
paniment-strings, Baccioco'lo (It.) A Tuscan instr. of
plucked or swept by the plectrum and the guitar family.
of from 4 to 8 com-
stopped by a series
Bachelor of Music. (Lat. baccalau'reus
pound dampers (called "manuals" or
of which when pressed mu'sica?) The lower of the 2 musical
pedals "), each
down damps all the strings except those degrees, Doctor of Music being the

forming one particular chord tie plec- ; higher.

trum, rasping across all the strings, Back. (Ger. Boden; Fr. dos; It. schiena^
sounds this cord as an arpeggio the ; The lower side of the body of a violin,
melody is brought out by special stress etc.; opp. to Belly.
on the highest (or any other) tone of the Back-block. Same as Wrest-block.
Backfall, i. An obsolete melodic or-
Au'tophon.. A
form of barrel-organ, nament in lute or harpischord-music ;

the tunes played being determined by \

in a sheet of mill-board nr
perforations written m m ; played
to correspond
[heavy pasteboard] cut
with the desired notes. (KNIGHT.) double A
(Also comp. Graced] 2.
Auxiliary note. (Ger. Hilf^note.) A lever in the organ-action, working be-
note not essential to the harmony or tween a sticker and a pull-down,
melody particularly, a grace-note or Backturn.
; See Turn.
added note a second above or below a
melody-note... A uxiliary Badinage (Fr.) raillery,
given scales,
those of attendant keys.
" " Bagana. The Abyssinian lyre, having
A've Mari'a (Lat.) Hail, Mary !

the salutation of the angel Gabriel at

10 strings tuned to 5 tones and their
the annunciation; followed by the
words of Elizabeth to Mary (Luke I, Bagatelle (Fr.) A trifle.

42), ithas been a favorite subject of Du'delsack, Sack'-

Bagpipe(s). (Ger.
sacred composition since the yth cen-
ffeife; Fr. cornemuse; It. cornamu'sa.)
tury concluded by a hymn of praise
; A very ancient wind-instr. of Eastern
or prayer to the Virgin.
origin, known to the Greeks and Ro-
A've ma'ris stella (Lat., "hail, star mans, in great vogue throughout Europe
of ocean!") Hymn of the Roman during the middle ages, and still popu-
Catholic Church. lar in many countries, especially Great
Britain. It consists of a leathern bag,
Avec (Fr.) With, filled with wind either from the mouth
Avici'nium (Lat.) An organ-stop imi- or from a small bellow? worked by the
tating the warbling of birds. player's arm, and of pipes inserted in
Avoided cadence. See Cadence. and receiving wind from the bag. The
Azio'ne sa'cra "sacred drama" commonest form has 4 pipes ; 3 drones
(It., ;

to the Spanish "auto sacra- (single-reed pipes tuned to a funda-

mental tone, its fifth and its octave, and
mentale ",) An oratorio or passion,
sounding on continuously), and I mel-
B. ody-pipe the chanter (a sort of shawm

or double-reed pipe with from 6, to 8

B. (Ger. H; Fr. and It. si.) The 7th finger-holes; compass approximately:
tone and degree in the typical diatonic
scale of C-major. . B caneella'tum, the
sharp (J), formed originally by crossing

PRAETORIUS enumerates several sizes bal'to, ballet?to.) I. A

spectacular dance,
used in the iyth century ; the "Grosser often one introduced in an opera or
JBock" (drone in contra- or great C), other stage-piece. 2. An
" ]

Schaperpfeif* (drones in tip

and / ) pantomimic representation, accompan-
"H&mmckhen." (drones /W 1

and ied by music and dances setting forth
the thread of the story. 3, compo- A
sition of a light character, but somewhat
Baguette (Fr.) Drumstick fiddlestick ;
in the madrigal style, frequently with, a
Baisser (Fr.) To lower (as a tone by a (7),
"fa la" burden which could "be both
See Bayadm.
Bajadere. sung and danced to these
" pieces,
c '
were ; ,

Balalaika (also Bahlelka, Balaleiga). commonly called Fa las [GROVE],

A rude stringed instr. of the guitar 4. The corps of ballet-dancers (corps de
family, having 2, 3, or -4 strings tuned ballet).
in minor. It is of Russo-Tartar origin, Ballet'to 2. Title em-
(It.) I. Ballet.
and now most often met with among
ployed by Bach for an Allegretto in
the Gypsies. common time.
Balancement (Fr.) See Bebung. Bal'lo A dance; 'a
Balance-rail. A strip of wood
running ingle'si, English dances balli ungare*si
; t

transversely beneath the middle of the Hungarian dances. Da ballo, in dance-

. .

piano-keys, which are balanced upon style, light and spirited,

it, ^Balance swell-pedal, see Pedal. Ballon'chio (It.) See Paspy. (Origin-
Balg (Ger.) Bellows. . .
Batgentreter ally, a round dance of the Italian
("belbws-treader"), calcant, a man peasantry.)
employed to tread or stand on the old- Ballonza're (It.) To dance wildly and
fashioned German organ-bellows to fill
recklessly, regardless of rule.
t^em with wind. ..Balg*'kla-vis, see
Claris. - - Balg'werk, bellows.
Band. x. An orchestra. 2 (most com-
monly). A
company of musicians play-
Balden (Ger.) i. Bass-bar. 2. The ing martial music (brass-band, military
thick line connecting the stems of band); 3. A
company of musicians, or
grouped hooked notes, substituted for section of the orchestra, playing instr.s
the hooks. belonging to the same family or class
Ballabile (It.) A composition intended (brass-band, string-band, wood-ba'iid,
for a dance-accomp. ; any piece of dance- wind-band). ..The 24 fiddlers of
music. Charles II. were called "the king's
Ballad. and Fr. Ballo/de; It. private band."
b&tta'ta.) Originally, a song intended
Band (Ger.) A volume.
for a dance-accomp.; hence, the air of Ban'da (It.) The brass wind-instr.s,
such a song. In modem usage, it is a and the instr.s of percussion, in the
simple narrative poem, a mixture of the Italian opera-orchestra. Also, an .or-
epic and lyric, generally meant to be chestra appearing on the stage.
song. As a purely musical term, it
was originally applied to a short, simple
Bandalore, Bandelore. See Bandore*
vocal melody, set to one or more stan- Bao'de(Ger.; usually Musitf- or Musi-
zas, and with a slight instrumental kan'tenbande.) A
company of strolling
aecomp. In an extended application, it musicians. (Fr ) In earlier usage, ,the

includes instrumental melodies of a 24 violins at the royal court (" lagrande

similar character; also bande").
compositions for
single instr.s, for orchestra, etc., sup- Band-master. The conductor of a milir
posed to embody the idea of a narrative. tary band. ..Bandsman, a member of
Ba2a deama$sig(Ger.) In ballad-style. such a band. X >

Ballad-opera, An opera chiefly com- Bandcrta (Span. dstoBandohn, Bahdora,


posed of ballads and folk-songs (e. g, Bandura.) Instr.s of the lute family,
Gay's "Beggar's Opera"). with a greater or smaller number of
Balla'ta (It.) A halkd. .A ballata, in steel or gut strings, and
. played with a
plectrum ; like the Pandora, Pandura^
Bafleri'na (It) A female ballet-dancer, Pandwina, Mcfndora, Mandola, Man-
doer, Mandura, Mandilrchen^ all es-
Ballet. (Ger. */&'/ Fr. laUet; It. sentially identical with the Mandolin

in vogue (see Mandolin and Lute}

still Venetian gondoliers), 2. vocal or A
instrumental solo, or concerted piece, in
[RlEMANN.] (Also comp. Citker.}
Bafido'nion. A
kind of Concertina with imitation of the Venetian boat-songs,
inv. by C. F. and in 6-8 time (though Chopin's for
square ends (keyboards),
pfte, is in 12-8 time).
Uhlig of Chemnitz, about 1830, and
since then much improved and enlarged. Bard* A
poet and singer among the
It takes its name from Heinrich Band ancient Celtic nations; one who 'com*
of Cref eld, a dealer in the instr. Comp. posed and sang, generally to the harp,
art Harmonicum. verses celebrating heroic achievements.
See Bandola and . . In earlier Scotch usage, a vagabond
Bandore. Cither.
Bandanna (Span.) A
variety of guitar
having wire strings instead of gut. Bardiet', Bardit' (Ger.) [A word coined
by Klopstock, who derived it from the
Banger. The
banjo. (" The Negroe- "barditus" (for baritus, a battle-song)
Banger" [ADAIR].) of Tacitus, whence the erroneous as-
Bania, Banja (African.) Parent instr.
sumption that the 'ancient Germans had
of the Banjo. (?)
bards.]. A bardic song.
Banjo. A variety of guitar ; its body is Bardo'ne. i (It,) A barytone 2. 2
formed by a circular hoop, over the (Ger.) Occasional spelling for Bourdon
-upper side of which is stretched parch-, (organ-stop); 'also Barduen.
ment or skin it has a long neck with Bare fifth. See Naked.

or without frets, and from 5 to 9 strings,

Obs. name for the very
the melody-string, which is the,shortest Ba'rem. (Ger.)
soft-toned organ-stop Stiffgedackt or
and played with the thumb of the right
' Musicir*gedackt.
hand, lying outside of and next to the
lowest bass string.
The other strings Bargaret, Barginet. Same as Bergeret,
ate plucked or struck with the right Baribas'so (It.) A low barytone voice,
hand, and all are stopped with the left. a bass-barytone.
It is variously tuned, the 5-stringed
Bariolage (Fr.) medley.A caden. A
banjo often as follows :
2a, or series of cadenzas, whose appear*
ance forms a design upon the music*
paper, a waistcoat pattern," as it is

calledby performers. [STAINER AND
Banlcelsanger (Ger. ; bench-singers," BARRETT.]
from their mounting on benches, the Bariteno're A low tenor voice, a
better to gain a hearing.) Strolling
tenor-barytone (second tenor)
singers of a low class, who frequent
and other places of public resort,
Ba'riton (Ger.), Bariton (Fr.), Ban7-
and recount, partly singing and' partly tono Barytone. [An attempt has
been made to confine the spelling bari*
.speaking, romantic tales taken from
tone to instruments, and barytone
to the
.history or adventure, stirring events of
voice ; the idea is not yet generally
the day, etc., usually explanatory of a
picture which they display.
Bar. (Ger. Takfstrich; ?T.barrej It.
Baroc'co (It.; Gen baroctf; Fr.. baroque.)
li nea> baSra, sba^ra.) i. vertical A Eccentric, odd, strange, whimsical,
line dividing measures on the staff, and "the deep and high-
Barox'yton (Gk.,
indicating that the strong beat falls on toned. ") A brass wind-in,
the note immediately following. 2.
str. of broad scale, inv. j__
Hence, the popular name for 'measure". ia 1853 by Cerveny of gjgj
. . .Bar-line, a barbarism evoked
by the Kbniggratz; compass from

familiar use of bar for measure.

contra-^) to a 1 :
Bar (Ger.) Compare Strophe 3.
BaVpfeife (Ger., also BaSffyt, Barpyp;
Bartaro (It.) Equiv. to Fence. Dutch Baar*pyp.) A reed-stop in old
Bartiton, Bartitos. An ancient organs, with pjpes nearly closed by
Greek variety of the lyre. caps of a peculiar shape, and emitting
a humming, growling" tone.
Barcarole'. >(Ger. ditto; Fr. barcarolle ;
It. barcaro'ta, barcaruo'la, "boatman's Barquarde (Fr.) Obs. for Barcarolle*
.Song.") i. A gondoliera (s^ng of the (It.) A bar (not measure).-

Barre (Fr.) A bar (not measure); also 3- The euphonium. 4 Prefixed to

barre de mesurf. Certain abbrevia- instr.-names, barytone denotes the pitch
tions are also termed barres. Also, the of an instr. intermediate between bass
low bridge of some stringed instr's... and tenor (or alto)j e. g. barytone
Also tlie accent mark ( } *.B. har- dzrm.&..*Barytone~clef> the (obsolete)
/"-clef on the 3rd line.
monie, bass-bar.. *B de rtpttition, a
dotted double-bar, indicating a repeat. Ba'rytonhorn (Ger.) The euphonium,. ,

Barre) (Fr.) In lute- or guitar-playing, Bofrytonsckliissel, barytone-clef.. .Ba'~

the stopping of several or all the strings rytonstimme, barytone voice or part.
by laying the left-hand forefinger across Bas-dessus (Fr.) Mezzo-soprano.
them, the next fret then acting as a ca- Base, Old
spelling of Bass.
potasto or temporary nut
to raise their
a stop of more Bas1cischeTrom'mel(Ger.) Tambour,
pitch.. .Grand barre,
than 3 strings. , C-barr^ see TranchL

Bass. (Ger. Bass; Fr. basse; It. bas**

Barrel-organ. (Ger. Drehorgel, Leier-
i. The lowest tone in a chord, or
hasten; Fr. orgue a cylindre (not/), so.)
lowest part in a composition. 2. The
orgue de Barbaric ; It. organetfto.) An
lowest male voice ordinary compass
instr. (often portable) consisting of a ;

case containing pipes, a bellows, and a from F to; 1

(or d l )i
cylinder (the barrel) turnedby a crank +.
and studded with pins or pegs ; when Cj*3 compass
the cylinder revolves, the pins open
from C
valves communicating with the bellows,
which is worked by the same motion, 3. A
prefix indicating
the lowest in
and wind is thus admitted to the pipes. various families of instr.s, as bass trom-
It generally plays a melody with an bone. 4. (Ger.) (a) Abbr, for Kontra-
harmonic accomp. Larger forms (see bass (double-bass)... (b) In earlier

Orchestrion) are used in dance-halls, usage, a bow-instr. intermediate in size

In between the 'cello and double-bass,
restaurants, or even in churches.
another variety, hammers striking wire having from 5 to 6 strings...^) As a
suffix to the name of an organ-pipe, lass
strings (as in the.pfte.) are similarly
denotes that it belongs on the pedal ;
actuatedby the revolving cylinder (pi-
e. g. Gemshornbass. Albertibass, a
ano-organ^ handle-piano)*
bass in brok-iiM. f m f ,


(Ger.) Ear (of organ-pipe). Also en chords likefE 'TTJ

the following:
~f l^ h W
jj 1

Barytone. . . Continued or figured bass,

* bass
Fr. baryton; It, bari'tono.) The male notes provided with figures indicat-
voice intermediate between bass and ing the chords to be performed above
tenor, andin quality partaking more or the notes (Basso continue)... Funda-
less of the characteristics of both ; thus mentalbass,$tt Fundamental. . Ground
theGermansdistinguish betweena JJtaj/- Bass; a continually repeated bass phrase
bariton and a Tenor*bariton^ ,and the of 4 or 8 measures (basso ostinatd)..*
French had (in earlier usage) basst-iail- Murky bass, see M
urky. . . Supposed
le^ seconds faille, and ttnor bass y a bass tone other than the root of
on4rdant. mean flfr"?/ a chord... Thorough-bass\ see that word.
compass is from G to
Bass-bar. (GecJBaTkn; Fr. barre d'har*
Hence, a singer having a barytone
voice. 2, A bow-instr. monte, ressort.) In violins and the like,
(It. vio'la di
fardtfm or fordone] resembling the
a long narrow strip of wooc^ glued to the
viola da gamba^ in great favor
inner surface of the belly parallel with
during and just
beneath the G-string, put in to
the i8th century, but now
obsolete ; it
had 6 or 7 gut strengthen the belly and equalize the
stopped by the
vibration. [The violin-maker Held, of
left hand, above the
fingerboard, and a
Beuel, Germany, gives the bass-bar a
widely varying number of brass or steel
to below which slight diagonal inclination, in accord-
strings (from 9 24) it,
ance with a suggestion by Ole Bull.]
acted as sympathetic strings,
sometimes plucked with the left thumb. Bass-clet /'-clef on the 4th line. (Set
The upper strings were tuned A BE
df &. It dates from the 1 7th
century. Basse (Fr.) Bass. (Also applied to tl
thick lower strings of an instr., as fa tante ( basso profon do)., .B. con-
basses dun piano).., B. chantante, the certan'te,the principal bass, as an ac-

high "singing'* (i.

e. flexible) bass comp. to soli and recitatives.. .B.con-
voice; a barytone.. .B. chiffrte, fig- ti'nuo (or continue' to), a continuous
ured bass. B. continue, basso con-
. . bass provided with figures indicating
tinuo. B. contrainte, basso ostinato.
. . . . the chords to be played above it also, ;

B. -centre, a deep bass voice. B. de . .

thorough-bass.. .B-figura'to, (a) basso
cornet, old term for the serpent, as the continue; (b) a figurate bass part...
natural bass for the cornet family... B.fondamenta'le, fundamental bass...
B. de cremone (cremorne, cromorne), the B. numera'to, figured bass... B. obbli-
Bassoon, or its precursor. .. J?. deflate ga'to, an indispensable bass part or
iraversiere, b. ahaulbois, same as pre- accomp...^. ostina'to, ground bass...
ceding. . . B. a* harmonic, the ophi- B. profon'do, a deep, heavy bass... 2?.
cleide. .-.-#. de mole, see Barytone 2.. . ripifno, see Ripieno.
B, de violon, b. double, double-bass, . .
Basson (Fr.) Bassoon... B. quinte, a
B. fgurje, figurate bass...^, fonda- tenor bassoon a fifth higher in pitch
mentale, (a) root of a cord, (b) a gener- than the ordinary one
Fundamental compass : ;
ator (see bass). . .B. guer-

riere; a species of bass clarinet. * . Basse-

I which is is
orgue, an instr. inv. by Sautermuiter of I
Lyons, in 1812... B. rfritante, see B.
chantante...Basse-taille, barytone voice.
Bassoon 7 . (Ger. Fagot?; Fr. basson;
Bas'set-horn. (Ger. Bassetfhorn ; Fr.
cor de basset ; It. cor'no di bassefto.)
fagotto.) A wood-wind instr. of the
An alto or tenor clarinet in F, no oboe family, serving as bass for the
It has a wood-wind. The tube is doubled upon
longer in use ; */
itself, forming 2 parallel air-chambers ;
compass from |g| Trt-r~~ single
the long, curving mouth-piece is of
F to t* : '
"y reed, and
a wooden tube bent at the mouthpiece metal, with a double reed ; compass
from B\\) to c*, on
and bell. Timbre mellow, though of a -& tf)
newer instr.s to IsB'
sombre quality, like the bass clarinet, ty, (jjpT"*"'""
especially in the lower register.
Bassett' (Ger., also Basset I, Bass'l.)
and extended by vir-
tuosito*2 oreven/ 2 :

The unwieldy length of the
I. Old term for the 'cello. 2. As a the bombardo, led in 1539 to the
prefix to the names of other instr.s, idea of bending the tube back upon
same as Tenor. 3. A 4-foot flute- and from the faggot-like appear-
stop on the organ-pedal. ance of the new instr. its Italian name
Basset'to (It.) I. small bass viol A is derived. The tone is far softer and
with three strings (obs.) 2. When mellower than that of the bombardo,
the bass rests, the lowest harmonic and its expression is entirely under the
Tenor violin
part. 3. (rarely). 4. player's control.
An 8 or i6-foot reed-stop in the organ.
Bass'pommer (Ger.) See Bomhart.
Bass'flote (Ger. "bass flute.") See
Bass'posaune (Ger.) A bass trombone.
(See Trombone?)
Bass'geige (Ger.) Familiar term for the
Bass'schliissel (Ger.) Bass-clef.
'cello; gro'sseBassgeige, the double-bass.
Bass'stimme (Ger.) Bass voice,
Bass'horn (Ger.) See APPENDIX. Bass'tuba (Ger.) See Tuba.
Bass'klausel The cadence-like
(Ger.) Bass viol. See Viol
leading of the bass at a close, from "the deep-toned.")
Ba'thyphon (Gk.;
dominant to tonic. A wood-wind instr.inv. in 1829 by
Bass'lade (Ger.) See Windlade. Wieprecht (or Skorra?) of ., .. to

Bas'so (It.) i. Bass, either as the Berlin, having a clarinet W$ / 'E

fundamental harmonic part, bass a mouthpiece, and a compass^ -J
voice,or a bass singer. 2. bass A from contra-Z) to small b\> toa :

instr., more especially the double-bass.

used for a short time in military bands.
B. buffo, see Buffo... B. cantan'te, Ba'ton. r. (Fr. bd ton de mesure -.&&.
(a) a vocal bass (b) comp. Basse chan-; Taktstock, Taktstab, Taktierstock, etc.;
^rjt bacchtfta[& diretto're].) The staff Bau (Ger.) Structure, construction.
vof wand with which the conductor of a
Bau'erlein (Ger.) Bauernjlote.
fliusical performance beats the time. "
2. A rest of 2 measures. Bau'ernflote,-pfeife (Ger.; rustic

Baton A flute"; lsz.t.ti'biarures'tns.) pedal- A

(Fr.) thick vertical stroke
register not uncommon in old organs,
traversing i or more spaces of the
consisting of stopped pipes of I or
and indicating, according to the number 2-foot pitch.
so traversed, a rest for an equal number
Baxoncil'lo r. An
of measures: . , .
(Span.) organ-stop
replaced in 3 like the open diapason. 2. small A
t-y-|-.-_ j |-
modern us- bassoon,
g I'l 1= 7
1 I
age by signs . East-Indian
Bayadere', Bayadeer
(see jfflwwr/-ra/,under fast)* . .gdton
de mesure, a Baton l . . ... de reprise a Ba'yla, Ba'yle (Span.) dance ; taykA
has the more comprehensive significa-
repeat tion.
Battante (Fr.) Beating.
(Ger.) Double-flat (see Doppel-b\bb
Battement (Fr.) i. An obsolete grace, B du'rura. See J? B
cancella'tum, f

consisting of a short trill preceding the

principal tone and beginning on the
Bear^beiten (Ger.) To revise, work
a semitone below it. It had no over, adapt, arrange, rearrange, touch
sign, being always written out in small up. .BeaSbeitung, an adaptation or re- .

vision, a working-over.
notes : played :

Bearing-notes, Bearings. The tones

first carefully tuned by the tuner of a

pfte. or organ, serving to regulate its

A 01*4. entire compass by.
Baftere(It) Down-beat. Beat. i. (Ger,; TakfsMag, Takfteil;
Batterie(Fr.) L, A general term for brok- Fr. battement de mesure, temps; It. bat-
en-chord figures on stringed instr.s; e.g. tu'ta?) The motion of the hand or foot
in marking time (the equal divisions of
the measure). 2. A
division of a mea-
sure so marked. 3. In a trill, a pulsation
distinguished from the arpeggio (ace. embracing 2 consecutive tones. 4. In
being played staccato acoustics, see Acoustics, 3. 5. An old *

instead of legato. 2.
Striking instead ,

grace, consisting of a short trill before

of plucking the strings of a the principal note ;
guitar. 3.
, A roll on a side-^drum.
4. Thepercus- written: played:
"skm-group in the orchestra.
Battery. An effect in harpsichord-music:

written: ;

played :

Beating. Same as Beat 4.

Battunen'to (It) Battement. Bebisa'tion. Compare Solmisation.
Battuyta(It) i. A beat. 2. A measure Be^ung (Ger.; Fr. Mancement; It.
or bar (battuta taken in the narrower tre'molo.) A
rapid pulsation or

sense of
" " tremulous effect, either vocal or instru-
down-beat ; see Rtfmo di
due battute\-^ In medieval counter- mental, given to a sustained tone for
point, the forbidden progression from the sake of expression. 2.
a tenth on the up-beat to an octave on the an effect obtained on the clavichord by
clown-beat, between 2 outer parts ; e. *e. holding down a key after striking it,
* i :- ,
and balancing the finger upon it in
such a way as to produce a prolonged,
tremulous tone. (On modern piano-
fortes having the Erard action, a stts-
tained tone can be produced in a some-
what similar manner.)
Bee (Fr., "beak.") A mouthpiece (of a
^>flageolet> clarinet).

Bcarre (Fr.) The natural (fl). Bell-harp. An old variety of harp with

Bec'co Same as Bee. Becco 8 or more steel strings and enclosed in

(It.) . .
a wooden box which the player
lac'co, a large species of bagpipe. swung
to and fro like a bell while twanging the
Bech'er (Ger., "beaker, cup.") i. Th<
bell various wind-instr.s ; also strings with the thumbs of both hands
inserted Inrough holes in the cover.
Schairtrichter}.2. The tube (of a reed
pipe in the organ; also Aufsatz Bellicosamen'te (It.) In a bellicose,
Schalfbecker). martial, warlike &y\t...Bellicoso, mar-
BecVen (Ger.) Cymbals. tial, warlike.

Bedeckt' (Ger.) Stopped, as strings Bell-met'ronome. A metronome with a

opp. to leer, open. bell-attachment which can be set so as
Bedon Old name for drum . .Be- to strike with every second, third,
(Fr.) .

don de Bisraye, a tambourine. fourth, or sixth beat of the pendulum.

Bee moll. (Obs., from Lat. molle, B Bello'nion. An instr. consisting of 24.
B.) Bemol, Bemol. trumpets and 2 drums played by a me-
Beffroi (Fr,) chanism 1812 at Dresden.
Gong (tam-tam)., .Also, ;

an alarm-bell, a tocsin.
Btll open diapason. Same as Bell-dia-
Befil'zen (Ger.) To felt (put felt on pason.
pfte.-hammers) . .
.BefFzung, felting. Bellows. Balg; Fr. soufflet ; It.
Begei'sterung(Ger.) Enthusiasm, spirit. soffit? to?) The mechanical contrivance
Beglei'teii (Ger.) To accompany... for gathering and propelling the wind
Begldt'stimmen, Beglei'tung, accompa- supplying the pipes or reeds of the
niment accompanying parts subordi-
; organ, harmonium, concertina, bagpipe,
nate to a principal melody. and the like. See Organ.
Bei'sser (Ger.) A mordent. Bell-piano. See Glockenspiel (2).

Bei'tb'ne (Ger.) Harmonic overtones or Belly, i. Deck'e; Fr. table; It.

undertones.. .Also, auxiliary tones. ta'vola, pan' da.) The face (upper side)
of the resonance-box of the violin etc.
BekielenXGer.) To furnish with quills,
2. (Ger. Resonant' boden; Fr. rhon~
as the jacks of ? harpsichord.
nance, table d'harmonie ; It, ta'wfa
Beklemmt' (Ger., properly beklom'men.)
anno'nica^ Soundboard of the pfte.
Anxious, oppressed [Beethoven],
Bemol. B-flat
Bele'bend (Ger.) Rawivando.
B&nol (Fr.), Berne-He The flat
Bele'dern (Ger.) To cover with leather.
BJmoliser (bemollizza're), to
. .
.Bele'derung, formerly, the leather,
(set a flat before a note).
now, the felt, used in covering pfte.-
hammers. ..Also, the strips of leather Ben, Be'ne (It,) Well as ben marcato, ;

well marked a bene placito, at pleasure,

covering the treble hammers. ;

ad libitum; ben ritmato, see Bien rythmfi

Belegt' (Ger.) Hoarse, not clear veiled ben tenuto, well sustained or held.

(of the voice).

Benedic'tus. See Mass.
Bell i. (Ger. Gbctfe; Fr. cloche; It.
A hollow Bequa'dro (It) The natural
campa'na.) metallic instr. of (|j).

percussion, set in vibrationby a, swing-

Berceuse (Fr.) A cradle-song, lullaby ;

ing clapper hung within, QF by hammers hence, a piece of instrumental music

actuated from without, 2. (Ger., imitating the eifect of a lullaby.
Schall'trichter; Fr. pavilion; It.
pavi- Ber'gamask. (Fr. bergamasquc; It.

g&o'ne.} The flaring end of various bergama'sca.} A

clownish dance in de-
wind-instr.s. risive imitation of the rustics of Ber-

gamasca in Northern (Also ber-

Bell-diapason. An organ-stop, usually Italy,

of 8-foot pitch, with open bell-mouthed gomask, bwgomask.}

pipes. Bergeret'. A pastoral or rustic song or

dance. (Also bargaret, bargeret.)
Bellez'zaXIt.) Beauty, grace.
Bergk'reyen, Berg^reihen (Ger/j
Bell-gamba. An organ-stop having "Dance-tunes from the mountains;"
conical pipes surmounted
by a bell; the title of various collections of dance-
also called cone-^amba. music.

Bes <Ger.) B double-flat; generally enharmonically chang

called**. written by Sterndale I
Besai'tea (Ger.) To string, nett in bracket-form :-
put strings ^^^
on. and by to distinguish it
Morley in : from the Slur).
Bestimmt' (Ger.) With decision, energy. :
2. The brace
1597 thus:
Beto'nen (Ger.) To accent, emphasize.
binding together the several staves of a
. .Betonf* accented. ..Btrfnung^ accent, score.

Bin'debogen (Ger.) A slur, or a tie.

stress, emphasis:
Bet'tlerleier (Ger.) Hurdy-gurdy... Bin'den (Ger.) ^ To bind, tie to con- ;
Beftkr&per, Beggar's Opera.
nect, play or sing smoothly and 'con-
Bewe'gfen (Ger.) To move, stir, agitate. nectedly (legato). . . Gebun'dtn, bound,
.'.jBrwtgtj moved ; con r?wto. . .Bevw'- tied; \s%pto...Gebun'dener Stil, strict
agitation (comp. Mo-

gunr, movement, , style of composition, in which disso-

i ti0n)...Bew gungsartJ see Movement I, nances are prepared (tied over). . .Also
see Gebundtn*
Beziffern (Ger.) To
figure (as a bass). A
BinMung (Ger.) ligature, bind, tie,
...Bezif'fert, figured ,.. Bezif'ferung, or slur hence, a suspension or synco-

figuring. pation ; also, the legato. . . Bin'dungs-

.Bezug' j(Ger.) All the strings of, or a zeichen, a sign used to express any of
,"' set of strings for,
any stringed instr. the above.
-Btan'ca "white.")
(It., A half-note .
BiquaMro (It.) Same, as Bequadro.
Voce bianca, see Vote,
Birn, Bir'ne (Ger.) Socket.
Bibi{Fr.) A pianette. Bis (Lat., "twice".) I. Signifies that a

Bibrev^s (Lat.) zt Pyrrhic. measure, passage, or section is to be re-

Bi'chord. i. Having 2 strings. 2. The peated ; often written over or undef : a
technical term for an instr. having a slur embracing the music to be repeated.
2. Used by the French as an excla-
pair of strings, tuned in unison, for
each tone (as the mandolin, and mation of applause ("again!"), like
lute, " "
certain pftes). the French word encore in English
usage. (See Bissare.) 3. The second
Bici'nipm (Lat.)
A 2-part composition,
part, or a continuation, of a scene on
especially a vocal one. the stage ; e. g., i6 bu i6 ter and i6i uatw

Bi'fara (also biffara, bi'fra, ftffara, then mean the third and fourth parts,
organ-stop, the pipes of
pifjero)* respectively, of such a scene.
which are either double-mouthed or
Bis'chero Peg (tuning-peg) of a
paired ; the two' members of each pair (It.)
violin, lute, etc.
being tuned at slightly different pitches,
the interference of the sound-waves Biscn/ma (It.), Biscrome (Fr.) A
produces' a gentle tremolo. (Also Ce- i6th-note.
Itstina, Unda marls, etc.)

The interval of a
Bisdiapa'son. fif-
Bifari'a. Title of a Presto in 3-mea- teenth, or double-octave.
snre rhythm, in an Invention or Suite
Biso'gtui(It.) "Is necessary," "must";
ascribed to J. S. Bach. as si bisogna da capo al segno, must be
; " "
BSn ga(Lat.) The 2-necked cither. repeated from the beginning to the sign.
Bimolle (It.) Sameas&maft. Bisqua'drd* (It.) Same as Bequadro.
W'na. ,See Vina. Bissa'xe (It.), Bisser (Fr.) To encore.
" "
Bi'nary, Dual; two-part... Binary form, Bisscx (Lat., twice six ; Ger. Zwolf-
a form of movement founded on 2 prin- sathr.) A kind of guitaV having.- 12
cipaJ themes (comp. Sonata), or divided strings, of which .the 6 highest ones
JBto 2 distinct or contrasted sections.. could be stopped on a fretted finger-

Binary measure^ that of common time, board ; compass 3^ octaves invented ;

the first of every 2 members taking the 1770.

accent ; i. e. the regular and equal alter- "
nation of the down-beat and up-beat.
Bits unca (Lat, twice hooked.'

) A
Bind. i. Properly, a tie (a curved line Bit. A short additional piece of tube
connecting 2 notes of like. pitch, orM used to lengthen a crook in the cornet a

pistons^ etc., for slightly modifying the mouth,'* the position necessary for the
pitch. production of beautiful tones.
Bizzarramen'te (It.) Bizarrely, whim- Bocchi'no (It) Mouthpiece of a wind*
sically, fantastically... Bizsarri'a, a instr.
freak, whim, fancy, extravagance... Bocedisa'tion. See Solmisation.
Bizzar'ro^-a^ bizarre, fantastic, etc.
Bock (Ger.; dsbpol'nischer Bock, Gross-
Blanche (Fr., "white".) A half-note. Bock.) The bagpipe.
Bla'ser (Ger., "blower.") A player on Bocks'triller (Ger., "goat's-trill"; Fr.
any wincUinstr. chevrotement ; It. tril'lo cafri'no.) A
Blas'instmment (or Bla'seimtrument) trill like a
goat's bleat ; the repeated
(Ger.) Wind-instrument. .Bla'sebalg, .
"interruption of one tone instead of the
bellows. alternation of two.
Blatt (Ger.) Reed a wind-instr.; also Bo'den (Ger.) Back (of violin,
(of etc.)
Rohr'blatt}.. .Dop'pelblatt, double reed. Body. i.
(Ger. Corpus, Schall'kasten;
Blech'instrument (Ger.) Brass instru- Fr. coffre, corps; It. cor*po.) The re-
ment, metal wind-instr. sonance-box of a stringed instr. 2.
" That part of a wind-instr. remaining
Blind (Ger.) Blind". .Blinde Pfeife,

afterremoving the mouthpiece, crooks,

dummy pipe (organ)... Blinder Doppel-
triller, a simulated r^ rl and bell. 3. The tube of an organ-
or imperfect double -Hi- etc. pipe above its mouth. 4. A tone is
said to have "body" when

trill ;e.g. -J$=*= and sonorous the resonance of a tone

it is full

Bloch'flote, Block'flote (Ger.) i. A is also called the body.


small kind oijldte a bee, in vogue in

the 1 6th century. 2. An organ-stop Boehm Flute. See Flute.

having pyramid-shaped flue-pipes of 2, Bo'gen (Ger.) r. A bow. 2. A slur

4, 8, or i6-foot pitch, and sometimes or tie
(Hal'tebogen, Lega' tobogen, Bin'-
stopped. debogen) . . Bo genfliigel,
Block. In the blocks are
violins, etc.,
(Bo genhammerklavier, Bo'genklamer\
small pieces of wood within the body, ...Bo'genfuhrungt see Bowing I...
glued vertically to the ribs between Bo'genstrich) stroke of the bow.
belly and back to strengthen the instr. Bois (Fr.) Wood. . . Les bois (pi.), wood-
Blower. wind.
(Ger. Bal'gentreter, Kalkant;
Fr. soujfleur ; It.
tiraman'tici.) A Bofte (Fr.) Box ; swell-box (botte tfex.
person working the bellows of an organ. presriori). . . Ouvrez la boitey or botte ou

B molle. See B. verti, open swell fermez ;
la botte, close
Boat-song, i. A song intentfed to be
Bole'ro (Span.) i. A Spanish national
sung in a boat, especially in time with
the oars. 2 A
vocal or instrumental dance in 3-4 time and* lively tempo (al*

composition imitative of I. (Barcarole^ legretto), in which the dancer accom-

Gondoliera.) panies his steps with castanets ; also
called Cachucha. The castanet-rhythm
Bob. A term in
change-ringing applied 1

to the various sets of runs as

changes which
may be rung on 6 bells (bob minor), 8 follows :

(bob major), ro bells (bob royal),

or 12 bells (bob maximus). alternating
Bobisa'tion. A collective term for the
dy-rhythm :
various methods proposed, during the 2, A composition in the style of a
i6th and I7th centuries, for
naming the bolero.
. ',tpnes of the scale by syllables. (See
BonVbard. (Ger. Bom'hart, Bom'mert<
Pom'mer; Fr. bombarde; It. bombar'do^
Bocal (Fr.) Mouthpiece of the horn,

A wind-instr. of the oboe family, with a

trombone, serpent, etc. Also, the crook wooden tube and double reed ; proper-
of the bassoon.
ly f the bass instr. of the shawms, though
Boc'ca Mouth... Conboccachiu'sa,
(It.) sometimes made as a smaller instr.
with closed mouth (comp. BrUmm- The unwieldy length of the larger
stimmen).. .Bocca riden'te, "smiling: sizes led to the invention of the bas*

soon, which is a bombard with the tub having stopped wooden pipes, some*
doubled upon and thusshortene
itself, times with metallic tops ; tone usually
by half. The bombardo'ne or contra hollow or fluty'," i. e. deficient in har-
bombard (Ger. Bass'bomkart) was th monics. The French also have open
deepest, followed by the bass bonibar bourdons of 8 and 4-foot pitch (bour-
(Bomhart), the tenor or basset-bombar dons de huit^ de quatre ouverts). 3,
(Bassettfbomharl), and the alto or bom In French usage, the lowest string of
bar'do piccolo. the 'cello and double-bass; also, a

Bombardc i. Bombard. 2. Po great bell, as the bourdon of Notre*

saune 2.
Dame. . .Faux-bourdon^ see Faburden*
Bombar'don. A Bounce (Fr.) i. A dance of either
I. large instr. of th
French or Spanish origin, from Au-
trumpet family, used as a bass in mill
tary music, and belonging, in its mod vergne or Biscaya, in rapid tempo, con-
ern forms, to the saxhorn group ; th< sisting of 2 parts of 8 measures each
usual sizes are in Ify, F, Cy and contra
and in 4-4 or 2-4 time. 2. A move-
ment in the earlier Suites, in alia brem
^j> ; but the bombardon
proper, old model, is in F, [g:
having 3 valves and a com-
Boutade (Fr.) I. A short ballet per-
formed, as it were, impromptu. 2.

pass from contra-/ to d l


It is non-transposing. 2. The bass o An instrumental impromptu or fantasia.

the saxhorns. 3. A 3. An old French spectacular dance.
deep-toned reed
stop in the organ. Bow. (Ger. Bo'gen; Fr. archet; It. ar'co^
Borneo (It.) A figure in repeated notes An implement originally curved out-
ward, though now slightly inward,
Bonr'byx (Gk.) An ancient Greek wind.
consisting of an elastic wooden rod
instr., presumably with a reed.
(the sticfy, and of from 175 to 250-horse-
Bon (Fr.) Good...0* temps de la hairs [GROVE] (the hair) attached to the
mesur^ strong beat. bent point or head, and drawn into
Bonacg-. A Javanese instr. consisting proper tension by the sliding nut, which
of gongs mounted on a frame. is actuated
by the sc'rew. (Schuster &
Bones. A set of 4 pieces of bone, wood, Otto, Markneukirchen, have recently
or Ivory, held pairwise between the [1893] manufactured bows with fint
fingers, and used to mark time as a rat- gut threads in lieu of hairs.) After
tling accompaniment to a dance, song, rubbing the hair with rosin, the bow is
or instrumental performance. drawn across the strings (of the violin,

bow-zither, etc.), setting them in vibra-

Book. I. (Ger. Fr. cahier; It.
Heft; tion ; the vibration is communicated to
R'br*.) A part of a series of songs, ex- the resonance-box, which latter reinfor-
ercises, etc., under a separate paper
ces the weak torie of the strings. . .Bow-
.cover. 2. The words (libretto) of an arm Gt-hand, the right arm or hand.. .
opera, oratorio, etc.
Bow-guitar (It. chitar'ra coll' arco)^
Boot. The foot of a reed-pipe (organ). a species of violin with a
Bordnn' (Ger.) Bourdon. (The 2 free body, . . Bow-clavier ) Bow-harp sichord^
strings on either side of the fingerboard see Piano-violin . . . Bow-instrument^
of the hurdy-gurdy, that one played with the aid of a bow, as
kept up a con-
tinual the violin or bow-zither... Bow-zither
humming, were called Bordune; ^
bordunus occurs as the name of the see Zither.
bass strings stretched beside the Bow
finger- (verb.) i. To execute with a bow.
board of the ancient viella.) 2. To mark (a
passage or. piece)
Boiiche (Fr,) Mouth ; 4 bouche fermte, with signs indicating the
witL closed mouth (comp. Brumm-
Bowing, i. (Ger. Bo'genfuhrung^
sfimmen). The artof handling the bow ; the
" style
BoncheXe) (Fr.) Muted (of wind-instr.s) ;
or method of a player, his bowing
stopped (of organ-pipes). as shown in his of the
bow." 2. (Ger. Strich'art^ The
Bouffe (Fr.) Same as Buffo... Optra
method and signs for, executing any
loujfe* comic opera.
given passage;' "the bowing of the
Bourdon. (Fr.) i. A drone bass. 2. passage."
An organ-stop of 16 or 32-foot pitch, Boyau Gut
(Fr.) ; hence, gut string.
Bozzetto (It.) Sketch. organs. 3. In an organ-stop, when
B quadra'tum, B qua'drum. playing up the scale, the sudden return
The Belgian national (caused by an incomplete number of
pipes) to the lower octave also, in com-;
pound stops, any point in their scale
Brac'cio (It.) The arm... Viola da where the relative pitch of the pipes is
braccio, see Viola.
Brace. I. (Ger. Klam'mer; Fr. ac-
colade; It; A bracket con-
Breakdown. A negro dance (U. S.) of
graf'pa.) a noisy, lively character.
necting the heads of 2 or more staves.
2. One of the leathern slides on the Breathing-mark. A sign set above a
cords of a side-drum. vocal part to show that the singer may

Branle, Bransle (Fr.) A brangle or (or must) take breath at that place ;
brawl; an old French dance in 4-4 written variously (', *, i/, V, //).
time, in which several persons joined Breit (Ger.) Broad, stately, slow.
hands and took the lead in turn. Branle
(Gen; also Sack'geige, Spitz*-
was the generic name of all dances in Brett'geige
violgeige Stoctfgeige, Tafschengtige.) t

which, like the Cotillon or Grossvater, A. Kit.

one or two dancers led the rest, who
imitated all the evolutions of their
Breve. I. (Lat. and Ger.
Brev'is; Fr.
leaders. breve; It. bre've.) A note equivalent
(Also Brantle.)
to 2 whole notes or semibreves the
Brass-band. See Band 2 ; distinguished long- ;

from full military band by omission of

est employed in modern -
music. It is written thus : -
bj ^ p-
M .O
reed-instr.s Brass-wind,
. . .collective 2. Iff medieval music, a note
term for the players on metal wind- having |
or J the time-value of the longa (comp.
instr.s in an orchestra.
Mensurable music)... Alia breve (It),
Bra'tsche (Ger.) The tenor violin (comp. (a) originally, a time of 4 minims (= I
Viola). breve) to the measure ; time-signature
Bra'vo (It., masc.bravi; fern.
adj., pi. this is 2-1 or
(jD > later C|0 9 great
brava, pi. brave.) Used as an inter- *
alia breve time, (b) Now, 4-4 time
jection, signifying "well done I" and with 2 beats instead of 4 to the measure,
the like superlative bravissimo^a^ etc.
and in quicker tempo time-signature;

Bravour' (Ger.) See Bravura... Bra- ; also called alia cafpellaj opp. to
vour'arie, aria di bravura... Bravour*-
Tempo ordinario I.
st&ck) a vocal or instrumental piece of
a brilliant and florid character. Brev'is(Lat) A breve.
Bravoure (Fr.) See Bravura. Valse de Bridge. (Ger. Steg; Fr. chevalet; It.
. .

ponticeflo.) r. In bow-instr.s, a thin,

bravoure, an instrumental waltz of a
arching piece of wood set upright on the
brilliant, showy character.
belly to raise and stretch the strings
Brayu'ra (It.) Boldness, spirit, dash, above the resonance-box, and to com-
brilliancy... A'ria di bravura, a vocal municate to it their vibrations, whict
solo consisting of difficult runs and pas- the bridge also cuts off from the rear
sages, designed to show off the singer's ends of the strings. 2. In the pfte,
voice or skill.,. Con bravura, with and other stringed instr.s, a strip or rail
boldness, etc.
of wood or metal over which the strings
Brawl. See Branle. are stretched,
Break, i. The point at which one Briei Obsolete for Breve.
register of a voice or instr. passes Brillant,-e (Fr.), Brillan'te Bril-
over into another ; in the voice, the
liant, showy, sparkling.
junction of the head- and
in the Brinenbasse(Ger.) "Spectacle-basses,"
chest-registers ;
familiar term for the abbreviated nota-
clarinet, between the notes :
tion of alternating
...Breaking of voice, see Mutation.
2. A false
or imperfect tone produced eighth-notes or i6th-
n6tes, e. g.
by incorrect lipping of a horn or trum-
BrinMisi Drinking-song, some*
pet ; or by some difficulty with the reed (It.)
of the clarinet (the "goose"); or, in times in style otjodler.
Singing, by some defect in the vocal Bifo (It.) Vivacity, spirit, fire...G?/f

brio, or brio'so, with fire and vivacity, Buffet (Fr.) Organ-case, or case of any
partial organ. . .Buffet d'orgues, smafi

Broken (as chords)... organ complete, its case and all within.
Brise>e (Fr.)
Cadence bris/e, a grace consisting of a Buf'fo,-a (It.) Comic, humorous ; hence
short trill beginning on the higher aux- Buffo, Bu/o-singer, the comic actor in*.
an opera ; a comic singer.. .Aria buffa,
iliary note
comic air or aria. . . Opera buffa, comic
opera.. .Buffone, comic opera-singer.
Buffone'scora (It.) Droll, ludicrous.. .

Buffonescamen'te, drolly, etc.

Broderies (Fr., pi.) Ornaments, embel-
lishments. Bugle, Bugle-horn. (Ger.) Bu'gelhorn,
Flil'gelhoni; Fr, bugle; It. trom'ba.)
Broken cadence. See Cadence. . Brok- .
I. Awind-instr. of brass or copper,
en chords, chords the tones of which with cupped mouthpiece, used for in-
are sounded in succession instead of
fantry calls and signals, having 7 har:
together (see Arpeggio). . . Broken music,
monic tones :

music for the harp, guitar, and other

instr.s on which the chords are generally

arpeggio'd or broken.. .Broken octaves,

series of octaves in which the higher
tones alternate with the lower, thus : and made in various pitches (2fy y C,
jt>). 2. The key-bugle (Kent bugle,
Regent's bugle) (Ger. Bugelhorn mil

B rotnn'dum.
iiil Klappen; Fr. bugle a eMs) ; it has 6
keys and jfc ;
inv. by Halli-
See B. a compass
[ ^ . / E
day ^ n I ^ I 5-

Brumm/eisett(Ger.) Ajew's-harp (usu-

, of over 2 W,
^ Jf
3. Valve-bugle
ally Maut trommel).
octaves: (see Saxhorn*).

Brum'mer (Ger.) Drone. Biih'nenweihfestspiel (Ger.) "Stage-

" "
Brumm'stimmen consecrating festival play the epithet
(Ger.) Humming ;

voices"; production of tone without bestowed by Wagner on Parsifal, his

last musical drama.
words, through the nose, with closed
mouth (a boSca chiu'sa) a not infre- ;
Bund (Ger.) A
space between frets, on
quent effect in male quartets, especially a fretted fingerboard. \Bund is used
as an accomp. to a solo part. as effectively synonymous with/rrfy e.
Brumm'toa (Ger.) Drone. g., Bund i. means ist fret, the string
Bruscanien'te being stopped on the fret by pressure
(It.) "Brusquely" or in the space just behind it],. .Bundfrei
forcibly accented.
(" unfretted," i. e. not spaced off by 2
Brust (Gen) Breast; chest.. Brustf- or more frets or tangents), a term desig-
stimme> chest-voice. .Brusfton> chest-
nating a clavichord in which each key

tone. . *Brus?'werk, (usually) the

pipes had its own string opp. to gebunden. ;
of the swell-organ or choir-organ as set
up together in the middle of the instr.
Buonaccor'do (It.) small spinet with A
narrow keys, for children.
Ba'ca (It.) Sound-hole of lute, mando-
Hn, etc, Buo'no,-a[boo-6'no] (It.) Good...Bu^na
nota, an accented note (one on a strong
Bucci'na(Lat) Either a curved trumpet,
beat); buon gusto, good taste... JBuo-
the horn of an ox; or a
origjnally namen'te, well, accurately.
straight trumpet (tuba), the prototype
of the trombone or posaune. Burden, i. A
refrain or chorus recur-
ring after each stanza of a song. 2.
Buccolfova (It), Bucoliqne (Fr.) The jdrone of' the bagpipe.3'. The
Bucdic, pastoral, rustic.

BSch'se Boot (of a small reed-

(Ger.) Bur'la (It) A joke, jest...
ppe in the organ) ;
also Hose.
joking, jesting, romping... Burls'sea,
Bncli'stabentonschrift (Gen) Alpha- a burlesque... Burlefsco,-a, burlesque,
betical notation.
farcical, comic*. -Burlescamen'te, in bur-
- (It.) To play the wag or buf- lesque style.
loon, to jest, trifle.
Burlesque. QLfarlfita.) A dramatic

extravaganza, or farcical travesty of Cache*e (Fr.) Hidden, concealed, cov-

some serious drama or subject, with ered ;
said of fifths and octaves.
more or less music. Cachu'cha A dance similar to the
Burlet'ta (It.) A comical operetta or Bolero.
musical farce.
Cacoph'ony, (Fr. cacophonie; It. caco.
Busain (Busaun, Buzain). A reed-stop foni'a.) Discord ;
harsh or discordant -

in the organ, generally of i6-foot tone, music.

and on the pedal. Cadence. (Ger. Kadentf; Fr. cadence;
Button, i. A
small round disk of leath- It caden'za.) I, See Cadenza. 2. The
er screwed on the tapped wire of a measure or pulsation of a rhythmical
tracker to keep it in place. 2. key A movement. 3. (a) In general, the
of the accordion, etc. 3. The round closing strains of a melody or harmon-
knob it the base of the violin, etc. ic movement, (b) Specifically, an har-
Bux'eatib'ia, Bux us(Lat.) An ancient nlonic formula (i. e. succession of chords)
Dox-wood flute with 3 finger-holes, re- leading t6 a momentary of complete
musical repose ; the close or ending 6f
sembling the Phrygian flute.
a phrase, section, or movement. . .Amen
c., popular term for plagal ,
to which
c. the word amen is often sung. , .Authen-
C. (Ger. C; Fr. ut; It. do.) ,The
tic c., see Perfectt... voided, Broken, A
firsttone, ist degree, or key-note of the Deceptive, or False c., see Interrupted
of C-major. (Com- c... Complete c., a perfect c>. .Haffaa-
typical diatonic scale
dence (half-close), or Imperfect c r \ the
pare Alphabetical notation, and Sol-
on the chord of the tonic followed by that
misation.}.. . .
-- of the dominant.. .Interrupted*., an
keyboard; Ten-
Middle- C, the [(fry--
note c l > ^f &- or C is small c. unexpected progression avoiding some
Abbr. for Capo (D. C.=da capo);
2. regular cadence.. .Irregular ., an in-
Cantus, Canto (c. f. cantus firmus or = terrupted c... Medial c., in ancient
canto fermo); Col (c.B.=col basso, c. .
church-music, one in which the mediant
8va =
coll'ottava); C.-B. (Cb.) ;= con-
was peculiarly prominent... Mixed c.,.
that formed by the succession of the
subdominant, -dominant, and teriic
Cabalet'ta (It.) A song in
rondo-form, tf
mixture" of
chords, it thus being 'a
with variations, often having a triplet
the authentic and plagal cadences...
accomp. imitating the hoofbeats of a
Perfect c., the dominant triad or chord
cantering horse. of the 7th followed by the tonic chord ;
Cabinet d'orgue (Fr.) Organ-case. the, authentic cadence of, the ecclesias-
Cabinet organ. See Reed-organ. tical modes. . .
Plagal c., that formed by
An the chord of the subdominant followed
Cabinet pianoforte. style of old
by the tonic chord ; opp. to authentic c+ .

upright pfte.; a grand pfte. set on end.

Surprise c., an interrupted c.. .Radical
Cabis'cola (Lat.) Precentor, of a choir, either partial or complete,/
c., a close,
Cac'cla (It.) The chase ;
a hunt.. .Alia , formed with two fundamental chords: . .

c., in the hunting style (i.

e. accompan- j Whole a perfect
c., c. A few examples
ied are given below :
by horns).

Authentic. Plagal. Interrupted, Mixed.

Cadence (Fr.) I. A cadence 2 and 3, interrupted cadence,., C.

2, A trill c. brillante. c.perlte). C. half-cadence... C. parfaite (or sur la
tonique)^ perfect cadence.
.. C. plagale^
briste, see Brisk,.. C. tvitee, avoided
plagal cadence... C. pkine, (a\ a
cadence. , . C, imparfaite (or sur la domi-
as a
nante], half-cadence. . C, i .
preceded 'by the higher auxiliary ;

long appoggiatura ; (ft)

the progression Cala'ta (It.) A lively Italian dance in
from a dissonant chord to a consonan 2-4 time.
one.. .C. romput, broken cadence. Calcan'do (It.) Hastening the tempo,
Cadent. An obsolete grace (see Grace] Calichon (Fr.) Calascione.
Cadenz (Ger.) See Kadenz* Calisonci'no (It.) Calascione.
Caden'za. I. A brilliant passage in Call. A
signal given by the fife >
vocal solo, usually at its conclusion or drum, calling soldiers to some spe-
having the effect of an 'extemporiza cial duty.
tion, but commonly prepared before steam- A
Calli'ope (also Kalli'ope).
hand. As an interpolation on the
c. s are no longer in
organ ; a species of pipe-organ having
singer's part, such a harsh tone produced by steam under
vogue. 2. An elaborate and florid pas
pressure instead of wind.
sage or fantasia introduced in, 'and in
terrupting, the closing cadence of the
Callithum'pian concert. (Ger. Jfatz'-
first or last movement of a concerto enmusik; Fr. charivari; It. chias'so^
the orchestral accomp. generally pauses scampana'ta?) boisterous serenade A
after a hold on the \ chord of the tonic given to some person who has become
an object of popular hostility or ridi-
leaving the field clear for the perform-
cule ; characterized by the blowing of
ance, by the solo instr., of the cadenza
This is either a more or less original horns, beating on tin pans, derisive
effort of the soloist, or a supplementary cries, groans, hoots, cat-calls, etc.

passage written out by the composer Cal'ma (It) Calm, tranquillity... CW.
himself or some other musician. Such man''do , calm, growing quieter. . . Csl-
cadenzas are for the most part built up ma'to, calmed, tranquilized.
of themes or reminiscences from the
Calo're (It,) Warmth, passion ; con c.,
work to which they are appended, an<i
with warmth, etc. Caloro'so, warmly, . .

are always calculated to display the

soloist's proficiency in the most brilliant passionately.

Cambia're (It.) To alter, change...
Nota camlia'ta, changing-note.
Caden'za (It) A cadence. . .
C.fin'ta or amera (It.) Chamber, room. Mu'sica .
a deceptive cadence...
d'injran'no^ C.
die., chamber-music... Sonata di c^
fantu'ra, an ornamented cadence. chamber-sonata.. .Alia in the style of
Caesura. See Cesura* chamber-music.
Caisse (Fr.) A drum,.. flate, the Camminan'do "
(It.) Walking," mov-
shallower side-drum... Croulante,
ing, flowing. (See Andante.)
drum with wooden cylinder, that of the
Campa'na(It) A bell; in eccles. usage,
ordinary caisse being of copper.. . Grosse
c. t bass drum
a church-belL. Campanel'lo,-a, a small

(also Gros-tambour).
a very small belL
Calamellus. See Calamus. . .
Campani'sta, a bell-ringer.
Calamus (Lat) A
reed-flute or reed- Campanefta (It.) See Glockenspiel.
pipe (chalumeau ; shawm). . C.pastoraf- .
Campanology. Theory of the con-
Ks, or tibia'Us, a very ancient wood- struction and use of bells.
wind instr., a reed with 3 or 4 finger- "
Canarder (Fr.) To produce a * l
on the clarinet or oboe.
Calan'do (It.) Decreasing. An expres- , Canary /It Cana'rio).
sion-mark denoting a decrease in loud- A livelydance of French or English
ness, usually coupled with a slackening origin, the melody being in 6-8 or 4-4
of the tempo. time and having 2 phrases.
Caiandro'ne (It.) A small variety of Cancel. See Natural i.
chalumeau or clarinet, a favorite among Cancrizans '

(Lat.) Retrogressive/ (It

the Italian peasantry.
cancrizzamen'U^ cancrizzan'te^
Calascio'ne (It) A
variety of lute or
Can'na (It) or pipe...Gwww
guitar with fretted fingerboard, and 2 d'a'niniat flue-pipes ; canne a lin'gua^
gut strings, tuned a fifth apart and reed-pipes.
twanged with a plectrum; found in Canon. (Ger. Xa'non; Fr. canon; It
Jpwer Italy. ca'none.\ i. The strictest form of
mus. imitation, in which two or more the leading
melody should stand out
in succession exactly the
parts take up well from the
accorap., and the general
same subject. The part taking the effect should be free and
lead is called the antecedent^ and the
Cantamen'to (It.) Same as Cantilena,
following part the consequent.. Canons Canto,
are now usually written out in full, but Cantan'do (It.) See Cantabik.
during the high tide of medieval counter-
Cantan'te A singer
point it was customary to write only the
(It.) ; also, singing-,

antecedent; and to mark the successive ^y.

entrances of the other parts by signs or Canta're (It.) To sing. ..C.a atria, to
merely by mysterious superscriptions sing with more or less improvisation.. .
C. a oreSchiO) to
(enigma tical canons) ; the superscription f
sing by ear. . . C. di
was then called the canon (i. e. rule, di- manie ra or maniera'ta, to
sing in a
florid or ornamental
rection), while the composition was style.
called the fu'ga, or conseguen'za.Az- Cantata (It.) Originally, a vocal piece,
cording to the interval from the ante- as opp. to an instrumental
one, or
cedent at which the consequent enters, sonata. But cantata has come, like
the canon is called a C. in unison (the sonata, to mean a definite form of com-
consequent taking the very same notes position, with the difference, that all
as the antecedent, but of course enter- earlier forms once called cantate must
C. at the octave (the conse- be taken into account in
ing later) ; still
quent entering an octave above or be- the word cantata, whereas no one
low); C. at the fifth, fourth, etc. The would now think of calling a short and
c. could also be varied, like the
fugue, simple prelude a sonata. In modern
by the diminution or augmentation of usage, a cantata is a more or less ex-
the theme, by in version or retrogression, tended vocal work with instrumental
etc. (Comp. Fugue.) When the parts accomp., consisting of chorus and solos,
entered at the time-interval of a minim recitative, duets, etc.; distinguished
one after the other, the canon was from the oratorio and opera by the ex-
called a fuga adminimam. 2. Ancient elusion of scenic effects and the
Greek name for the Monochord. and dramatic element though the lat-

Ca'none (It) A canon.. . C. aper'to, an ter can, of course, not be

entirely ex-
open" canon, i. e. one written out in cluded, as even the purest lyrical
full. C. cancrizzan'te,
. . canon by retro- emotion may often be intensified to
" " dramatic pathos. In the sacred cantata.
gression.. , C. chiu'so, a close canon,
in which only the leading part is written this form of composition finds its finest
out in full ; an enigmatical canon. . . C. and most unequivocal expression.
enigma'tico, Cantatil'la, Cantati'na (It.) A short
enigmatical canon (see
Canon), . . C. an
infini'to or perpe'tuo,
cantata. (Fr. cantatille.)
infinite canon ; one which, without a
Cantato're (It.) A male singer; Canto,
specially added close, can be sung on tri'ce, a female singer.
for ever. . C* sdolfto^ a canon in free

Cantato'rium (Lat.) A music-book,
book of song ; a service-book of the R.
Canonical hours. The canonical
7 C. Church containing the music of the
hours of the R. C.- Church are the
Antiphonary and Gradual.
established times for daily prayer;
Canterellan'do (It.) Singing softly;
"called matins (incl. nocturns and lauds) ,

trilling, warbling from canterella're* to

prime, terce, sextt nones, vespers, and ;

Those from prime to nones hum, etc.

are named after the hours of the day, Canticle (Lat. can'ticum; Ger. Lob'ge-
prime (the first hour) being at or about sang; Fr. cantique ; It. can*tico,) I.
6 A. ML, terce (the third) at 9, sext (the One of the non-metrical hymns of
sixth) at noon, and n'ones (the ninth) at praise and jubilation in the Bible, 2

3P.M. A sacred chant based on or similar to

I. The Evangelical canticles (Cantica
Cano'nici. See ffarmonici.
majora) of both the Catholic and An-
Canonic imitation, strict imitation of
glican church are taken from the Gos-
one part by another (see Canon). and embrace the Magnificat
Cantat>ile In a singing or vocal
(It.) (" Magnificat anima mea"), the Bene-
style. Where a passage is so marked, ^ dictus *" lenedictus doininus deus Is-
reel "), and tihe Nunc dimittis ( Nunc see Dur. C. ecclesiastuus^ (a) church-
. .

dimittisservumtuum"). The 7 Cantica music in general (b) plain song (c) ; ;

minora are taken from various parts of the musical rendering of a liturgy, opp.
the Old Testament, to merely reading 1t...C. fgura'lis,
mensurable music. C. figura'tus, a . .

Cantico (It) See Canticum.

melody with a florid or figurate contra-
Can'ticam (Lat) r. In the ancient puntal accomp. C. fir*mus, a fixed or . .

Roman drama, any passage sung by ;

given melody song (b) in ; (a) plain ;

the actors, 2. A canticle. Can'tica modern counterpoint, a given melody,

gra'duum, the Gradual. . . Canticum Can- usually in imitation of a, to which other
tico'rum, Solomon's Song. parts are to be set according to rule. . .

Cfrac'tus, a broken melody; a term
Canttle'aa (It, little
song' ;
applied to a tune which proceeded
Cantilene; Fr. cantilene.) I, In me-
either by perfect or imperfect conso-
dieval music, a solfeggio ; also, a can-
nances. When accomp. by a faux bour-
tus firmus as used in church-music,
don, it was
called Cantus corona' tus.
2. Formerly, the higher or solo part of
a madrigal a small cantata or [STAINER AND BARRETT.]... C. Grego-
; also,
ria'nuS) Gregorian chant. C. mensura- . .
short vocal solo. In modern usage,
bilis, see Notation, 3 . . . C. mol'lis, see
a ballad or light popular song ; also, in
Moll . . C. natura'lis, see Mutation. . .
instrumental music, a flowing melodious
C. pla'nus^
plain song.
phrase of a vocal character ; often used
to define a smooth and voice-like ren- Canun 7 ,

dering of slow melodic passages.

Canzone (It., also Canzcfna.) Origi-
Cantiienac'cia (It) A vile song. nally, a folk-song (Fr. chanson] ; later,
Cantitena're(It) To sing in a low voice. a secular part-song in popular style,
Cantilla'tio (Lat) See Intonation i. hence the Canzo'ni Napolita'ni, Sid-

Canti'no Same as Chanterelle. liofni, etc. many such songs closely re-
semble the. madrigal. The name was
Caa'tio (Lat) A song, an air.
sometimes applied - to instrumental

Cantique (Fr.) canticle; A also, a pieces in madrigal style. Camonac'eia,

choral, or hymn-tune, a vulgar song. . Canzond-na, Canzonet- .

Can'to lit.) i. The soprano

the high- ta, a little song, a canzonet. Canzonie*- . .

est vocal or instrumental re, a collection of lyric poems or

part.. . Col c. songs.
sameas0IfaJ>arte.-~2. See Cantino. A air or
Canzonet(te). t
song; a
3. A' melody, song, chant. C. a cap-
short part-song ;
a madrigal.
fella, same as Cappella, a...C. Ambro-
sia'no, Ambrosian chant. . . Capelle (Ger,) See K.
a part-song. , .
cromqftico^ a melody
Caxpo (It.) The
head; beginning, .Da .

. m chromatic style... C. fer'mo, see capo, from the beginning.. Capolavoro, .

Cantus firmus... C. figura'to, figurate

master-work. Capo-orchestra^ conduc-
. .

melody. , . C. Gregoria'no t tor.

chant... C. pkfno, chant..
plain Capodastre (Fr.) See Capotasto.
pri'mo, first
soprano... recitati'w,
Capota'sto (It.; also capo di lash,
recitative or
declamatory singing. . . C. "
head of the fingerboard.") I. The nut
riptfno, see Ripieno. 'C. secon'do, sec- of stringed instr.s
ond soprano. having a fingerboard.
2. A
piece of wood or ivory which can
Can'tor I. (Lat.) A singer, a precentor. be fastened across a fretted
. C. choraflis,
chorus-master. 2. like that of the
(Ger.) guitar, to raise the pitch
See Kanior (on p. 238). of all the strings at once. Sometimes
Ganto're (It) A singer ; a chorister. written, in Engl. usage, astro.
" Capo
of the cantor.") Term "
Caatp'ris (Lat, Cappel'la (It, chapel") i. A choir.
otesignating the side of a cathedral choir An orchestra.
-which the precentor (Incorrectly
(cantor) sits, i, ten #<?/&.)... X
cappella, vocal chorus
e., on the left or north side of a without instrumental
person accomp.. .Alia c.,
feeing the altar ; to the decaf ni opp. (a) same as a cappella; (b) see AB&
("of the dean") side. breve... Da c., in
church-style, i. e. ia
Canons (Lat) A song, a melody, . . C.
a solemn and devotional manner.
c*rona'tu$> see frartus...C. dzS Capricciet'to (It.) A little capriccio.

Capric'cio (It.) Title frequently given Ca'rynx (Gk.) An ancient Greek trumpet
to instrumental pieces of free, uncon- Cas'sa (It.) A bass drum, (Also cassa
ventional form, and distinguished by armonica^ body (of
gran'de.)...C. ,

originality in harmony and rhythm, violin, etc.)

(Compare Scherzo.)... A
capricdo, at
Cassation' SeeJT.
pleasure, ad libitum. .. Capricciosamen'te,
Castanets. (It. castagnefte; Fr. casta-
capriciously, fantastically.. , Capriccio'so, '

capricious, fantastic ; a capriccio. gnettes; Ger. Kastagnetten; from Span,

eostanetas^ A
pair of small concave
Caprice (Fr.) Capriccio.
pieces of hard wood or ivory, each havT
Carat'tere (It.) Character, dignity; ing a projection on one side, by means
style, quality. of which they are fastened 'together
Caressant (Fr.) \ with a cord long enough also to pass
sooth- over the performer's thumb, or thumb
Carezzan'do(It) Care^ngly,
* y* and Generally used (espe-
Carezze'vole (It.) )
cially inSpain) by dancers as a dan,ce-
Carica'to (It.) Overloaded as to graces,
accomp. They yield no mus. tone,
chromatics, peculiarities of instrumen- but merely a hollow click or rattle.
tation, or other means of mus, expres-
Castra'to (It.) A
eunuch (adult male
Carillon (Fr.) i. A set of bells differing singer with soprano or alto voice).
from those of a chime in being fixed, Catalectic. Lacking part of the last
foot e. g. the second of the
and in their greater number ; played following

either by hand (on a keyboard) or lines is catalectic :

Lives of great men all remind us

machinery (on the principle of the
in the
cylinder 2. A
We can make our lives sublime.


bell-piano, with pfte. -keyboard, and (_w|_w|-^l-w|j_w|~^I-w]-.A)

bells instead of strings. 3. melody A Catch. Originally, an unaccomp. round
to be played on I. 4. An instrumental for 3 or more voices, written as a con-
piece imitating the peculiar character tinuous melody, and not in score the ;

of carillon-music. The "clashing" ' ' "

5. catch was for each succeeding singer
(ringing al! atonce) of several large to take up or catch his part at the right
bells. 6. See Glockenspiel. 7. A mix- time. new element was intro--
Later, a
ture-stop yielding the 3rd, 5th, and 8th duced, and words were selected in such
partials of the fundamental represented sequence that it was possible, either by
by the digital pressed fc g*-e*-c*). mispronunciation or by interweaving
Carillonneur (Fr.) A performer on the the words and phrases apportioned to
carillon. the different voices, to produce the
Carita' (It.) Lit. "charity."' Same as most ludicrous and comical effects.
Afetto. Catena di tril'li (It) A chain of trills. .

Carmagnole (Fr.) A
dance and song
Catgut, Popular term forGutsfringsfa.v.)
in great vogue during the Reign of
Terror ; it dates from the taking (1792) Catlings. Lute-strings of the smallest size,
of Carmagnola, a town in Piedmont, Catti'vo (It, "bad.") Cattivo tempo,
the weak beat,
though the connection between the town "
and the air is not clearly established. Cau'da (Lat, tail.") The stem of a
Carol I. A circle-dance (obs.) 2. A note.
joyous song or ballad, particularly one Cavallet'to little horse.")
1. A..

celebrating Christmas. bridge (usually ponticello}. 2. The

Caro'la (It.) A circle-dance similar to break in the voice.
the carmagnole. Cavalquet (Fr.) A piece played by a
Carrie (Fr.) A breve. cavalry trumpeter-corps when approach-
ing or marching through a town.
Cartelle (Fr.) A large leaf (for writing)
of prepared ass's-skin, on which the Cava'ta (It.) I. Production of tone.
lines of the staff are traced to jot down 2. Cavatina 3, Stroke (of a bow).
notes while composing, the notes being Cavati'na (It.) i. A short song of any
afterwards erased with a sponge. All description. 2. A vocal air, shorter
cartelles come from Rome or Naples. and simpler than the aria, and in one

[ROUSSEAU.] division, without La capo.-~$. Title


given by Beethoven to the 2nd move- Cembanel'la, Cennamel'la (It) A

ment of his By Quartet. pipe or flute.

C barre* (Fr.) The "barred 0" jj) f

Cen'to (It.), Centon (Fr.) i. The anti-

indicating alia breve time. phonary of Pope Gregory the Great. 2.

(Also cento'ne, "a patchwork".) A
C-de See Or/ medley of extracts from the works of one
CebelL A theme for variation on the composer, worked up into an opera or
lute or violin, in 4-4 time and 4-measure similar composition. (Pasticcio.) Hence
the verb centoniza're (Fr,
phrases, characterized by the alternation *'
of very high and low notes in the suc- meaning to put together."
cessive- strains. (Obs.) Cereal (It.) To seek the note ;
la no'ta
C6diium (Fr.) A free-reed keyboard i. to sing in the same breath the tone
instr. inv. by Quantin de Crousard, ex- belonging to the next syllable like a
hibited at Paris in 1867. It has the light grace-note, before its proper time
shape and nearly the size of the 'cello, of entrance, in portamento
style ; e. g,
and is held in the same way. The keys written : sung :
are pressed By the left hand, while the
right operates the bellows by means of
a handle like a bow. Compass about 5
octaves ;
tone sweet and sonorous.
Ce*dez (Fr.) Go slower ; rallentate. Cervalet', Cenrelat'. Species of clari.
net with bassoon-like tone
Cclamustel (Fr.) A kind of reed-organ (obs.)
Ces (Ger.) Cb-.-Cr/w, Cbb-
having fundamental stops similar to
those of the harmonium, and various Cesu'ra, Ca&su'ra. A term in prosody
additional effects, such as bells,
harp, sometimes used in music to designate
echo, thunder, dove- and cuckoo-notes, the dividing line between two melodic
etc. tnd rhythmic phrases within a period ;
Celere called masculine or
(It) Rapid, swift... CihriW, feminine according
as it occurs after a
celerity, rapidity; con celerita, with strong or a weak
celerity, etc.
Celeste " Ce'tera or Ce'tra A cither... C.
(Fr., celestial, divine".)/** (It.)

&, /&& organ-stops producing a

c.j tedefscaS German cither,"
instr. of the lute class.
a 10-stringed
sweet, veiled tone ; Piddle c. is also a
pedal-mechanism on the pfte. for ob- Chaconne', Chacone'. (It.ciacco'na ;
taining a sweet, veiled tone.. ,
Voixc., Span, chaco'na; Fr. chaconne.) i.
the organ-stop vox
angelica* Originally, a Spanish or Moorish (pos-
*Cello,-i Abbr. of tfWfoi/&,-i sibly Italian) dance or sarabande. 2.

Cembal d'amour An instrumental composition

(Fr.) species of A of a series of variations, above
clavichord, twice as long as the ordi- aground
bass not over 8 measures in
nary mstr.s, the^ strings of which were length, in '

struck in the middle 3-4 time and slow (See Pass*.

by the tangents,
the vibration of both sections of the caglia.)

string thus yielding a double volume Chair-organ. Variant of

of tone ; inv.
by G. Silbermann, 1st Chalameau. Variant of Ckalumeau.
half of i8th
ceatury. Chalil. Ancient Hebrew instr., either I
Cembalist. (It cmta&sfo.) A flute (flageolet) or
player reed-pipe.
on the cembalo (either
harpsichord or Chalumeau (Fr.;
Engl. chalameau;
pfte.) Ger. Chalumau, Ckalamaus
; It scia.
CenVbalo (It) i. a dul- lumb, salmfo i. 'See Shawm, Clari-
cimer; a general, name for various net.- 2. The "chalumeau"
instr.s register
having several wire strings struck is the lowest
register of the clarinet
by hammers. 2. A harpsichord. 3. A
and^ basset-horn ; as a direction in
pianoforte.. .A cembalo, for harpsichord chalumeau
clarinet-playing, signifies
(or pfte.).. . T-utto il an
cembalo, see Tutte play octave
lower/ '3. (In
cordf^ , Cembalo French usage.) The chanter of the
onnicor'do, a keyboard
stringed mstr. inv, by Nigetti about pipe ; also, occasional for
1650; also called Proteus,
Chamber-music. Vopal or instrumental
and has no plural form simili; the Lat
term is similiter.]

Simple. (Of tones and intervals.) Not

compound. (Of counterpoint, imita-
tion, rhythm etc.)
s Not compound or
complex, undeveloped, not varied.
Sin* (It) Abbr.of5fow.
Sinfoni'a (It.) i. A symphony. 2. An
overture (to the earlier Italian operas).
In organ-music,
" Sinfonie (Ger,) Symphony (usually
signifies change
hands on chord ". Symptoms').
Sing'akademie (Ger.) A choral sing-

Sing'bar (Ger.) Singable ;

cantabile . . .

Sehr singbar vo^zutragen, perform in

a very singing style.
Sing^end (Ger.) Singing, melodious

Sing'etanz (Ger.) Dance accomp. with

" hold song.
In pfte.-music, signifies chord
with pedal". Sing'fuge (Ger.) Vocal fugue.

SignaThorn (Ger.) A bugle. Singhiozzau'do (It.) Sobbingly, catch-

The ing the breath,
Signature. signs set at the head of
the staff at the beginning of' a piece or Sing'manieren (Ger,, pl.) Vocal graces.
movement, indicating the key and
Sing'schule (Ger.) Singing-school,
measure in which it is written. The
chromatic sign or signs are termed the Sing'spiel (Ger.)
The German national
form of the opera, established during
key-signature; the figures or signs in-
the 2nd half of the i8th century by J.
dicating the measure, the time~signa-
or A. Killer, whose guiding rule was ta
ture^ rhythmical signature.
give simple, folksonglike melodies to
Signatu'ren (Ger., pi.) The figures and plain characters,
singers representing
signs employed in thorough-bass nota- whereas to gentlefolk" he gave arias;
the instrumental accomp. is also kept*
Signe(Fr.). Sign. subordinate to the vocal parts. The
term is also used for any light opera ot
Sig'aum (Lat) Sign. . ,
Signa impli'cita,
indicicflia, intrin'seca^ see Notation^ operetta with spoken interludes ; like-
3, Modus. wise, by extension, for more preten-
See Seguidilla. tious operas and mus. dramas.
Sigttidilla (Span.)
The singing-voice,
Slurring a sylla- Sing'stimme (Ger.)
the voice.
ble, L e. singing it to more than one
tone, Sifli'stra (It.) Left mam j., left hand; ;

Silence (Fr.), Silea'zio rest.

(It.) A
cotta s., with the left hand.

(Comp. Pause, Soupir.) Sink-a-pace. See Cinque-pace.

Sillet (Fr.) Nut; specifically, petit sil- Si'no (It.) To, up to, as far
as, till ; sino
nut at upper end of neck ; grand
let, (or sin ) aljine, to the end.
dllet^ nut at tailpiece.
Si'ren. (Ger. Sire*ne; Fr. tirene.) An
Similar motion, acoustical apparatus for determining the
Si'miie (It/' similarly, in like manner.") vibration-number of a given tone.
A direction to perform the following
Sir Roger de Coverley. An ancient
passage or passages in the same style as English dance-tune in 9-4 time, still in
a preceding similar passage ; used to save
vogue as a country-dance.
the trouble of repeating phrase-marks
and other signs., . The simile-mark is Siste'maflt.) Staff.
(see Abbreviation), [Simile, be- Sis'trum (Lat.) An ancient mus. instr
ing an adverb, is indeclinable, of Egypt and the East : a sort of rattle

ing the fiat keys (rendering them darker Chevrotement (Fr.) See Boekstrilkr. . .

or, as it were,, lendingthem a minor Chevroteri to execute a che-urotement.

character). Theoreticians seem dis- Chiari'na
A clarion.
posed to deny in toto the possibility oi 6?Vmz-
Chia'roya (It.) Clear, pure.
while many
. .

characteristic differences ;
menfte, clearly, limpidly, distinctly...
highly cultivated practical musicians
Chiaresfza, clearness, etc.
(not to speak of aesthetic enthusiasts of
all stripes) are equally positive that
Chia've (It.) I. A clef. 2.
Key of an
instr. 3. Tuning-key.
such differences exist.
Chiavet'te, or Chiavi trasporta'ti
Characteristic; piece. A character-
(It, "transposed clefs.") system of
piece one depicting a definite mood,
transposing clefs, freely used in the
scene, or event T Character-
impression, i6th century. As it was then a rule,
istic tone, (i) the leading-tone (2) that
but seldom infringed, that no vocal part
tone in any key which specially distin-
should overstep the limits of the 5-line
gu:shes it from nearly related keys, as
staff, and the modern system of chro-
y$ in the key of , distinguishing it matic transposition being undeveloped,
from C-major.
composers often employed, in the nota-
Characters* See Signs. tion of the various parts, clefs differing
Charak'terstinime (Ger,) Solo-stop (or- from those customarily used for the
<gan),. Characterstiick a characteristic >
several voices, these unusual clefs indi-

piece, cating to the practised singers a trans-

Charivari (Fr.) A position of their respective parts to a
callithumpian con-
cert. higher or lower pitch :

Chasse, a la (Fr,) Alia cacda. I.

High chiavette.
Chef d'attaque (Fr.) The leader of an Discant. Alto, Tenor,
orchestra, or of any division of a chorus.
. .
Chef tForchestre^ conductor of an
orchestra. . . Ch. du chant, see Rtfetitor.

The lyre 2. Ordinary clefs.

Chelys (Gk., "tortoise.") I.
of Mercury, fabled to have been a tor-
toise-shell with strings stretched over
its hollow. 2. Name for both the
Ijass viol and division viol in the 1 6th Low chiavette.
and I yth centuries.

Cheng. The Chinese mouth-organ, the

'wind-chest of which is formed
by a
gourd into which the air is blown The high chiavette had the effect of
through a curving tube, and bears on transposing the parts (and consequently

its tipper side from 12 to

24 free-reed the entire composition) into a key a
pipes. Its introduction into
Europe major or minor third higher, i. e. their
led to effect was equivalent to
the invention of the accordion writing 3 flats
and harmonium. or 4 sharps in a signature headed
'the ordinary clef ; the low chiavette had
Chest 6f viols. A set of
viols, i. e. 2 a precisely opposite effect, as if j
trebles, 2 tenors, and 2 basses, which
sharps or 4 flats had been written after
formed the nucleus of the i;th
century the ordinary clef.
Though not recog-
orchestra. (Also Consort of viols.) nized as such, this system was tanta-
Chest-register. The lower register of ^ :
mount to a pretty free use of the trans-
Jhe male or female voice, the tones of
, posing scales.
wjMch produce sympathetic vibration in Circa, An old Spanish dance, modifi-

fte daGpL..Ctet-tou, 'chest-wue, a cations of which are the

vocal tone possessing the
quality of the Chaconne, Cachucha, Bolero, and pos-
chest-register; opp. to
Head-register, sibly the English Jig.
Chie/sa (It.) Church. Concerto da ch.,
. .
Cbevalet (Fr.) Bridge. a sacred concert. ., Sonata da ch., a
Cheville (Fr.) 'Peg... QumUtr, peg- sacred sonata... to chiesa, for the
church, in church-style.

Chiffre (Fr.) A figure, as in thorough- a church ; hence, the part of the church
which they occupy. 2. A choral sod*
Chifonie (Fr.) Old name of 'the hurdy- t
y- 3- (In the Anglican Church.) A
body of whose function is the
Chikar a. A Hindu violin having 4 or 5
sitting divided on the decani and can-
horsehair strings. toris sides of the chancel, 4, sub- A
Chime. I. A set of from 5 to 12 bells division of a chorus, e. g. the ist and
tuned to the tones of the scale, and em- 2nd^ choirs (coro primo e secondo} in 8-
the chimes by swing-
ployed in playing part music. 5. Same as Band$.
or clap-
ing either the bells themselves,
pers hung
within them. 2. set of A Choir-organ. (Se"e Organ.} . . . Choir-

bells and strikers (hammers) in a mus- fitch, (see Chorton}.

ical box, organ, etc. (See Carillon?) Chor (Ger.) i. Chorus; choir. 2. On
Chiming-machine. A
revolving drum the pfte., a unison (the 2 or 3 strings
with pins so set as to pull the ropes of belonging to one tone), 3. On the
a chime of bells and ring the chime organ, those pipes belonging to a mix-
ture which are sounded by one key. 4.
An apparatus for A combination of instr.s of the same
Chirogym'nast. Trom-
family, but different pitch, e. g*
exercising the hands of players on the '

of a *set of petenchor.
pfte. or organ, consisting
rings attached by springs to a cross-bar. Chora'gus, Chore'gus (Gk.) The lead-
Hand*leitir, i. e.
er or superintendent of the ancient
Chi'roplast. (Ger.
An inv,
dramatic chorus. Hence, in Oxford

hand-guide.) apparatus by
(England), the title of a functionary
about 1814, consisting of 2
smooth wooden rails attached in front
who has charge of the' mus. services in
of and parallel with the pfte. -keyboard,
and a pair of open gloves, the whole Cho'ral (adj} Relating or pertaining to
a chorus or vocal concerted music.'..
serving to hold both hands in the proper
the Choral notes, see Note. .'.Chora I service
position for playing, by hindering

wrist from sinking and obliging the a church-service consisting chiefly of

music by the choir.
fingers to strike vertically. Simplified
later Kalkbrenner. Termed by Cho'ral (noun} Chora?; Fr.
I. (Ger.
Liszt ass's guide (guide-fine) for the cantique, plain-chant; It. can'tico, can-
French "hand-guide" (guide-main). zo'ne sa'cra} A
hymn-tune of the
German Protestant Church; also,
Chitar'ra (It.) A guitar. The Italian early
a hymn-tune similar in 'style to the
guitar, the English cither, was
above. (Sometimes spelled Chorale^
strung with wire instead
of gut strings,
2. (In the K,. C. Church.) Any part
. . Ch. coWarco^ a bow-guitar. . Chitar- .

of the service sung by the choir.

ri'na, a small Neapolitan guitar. .'Chi- .

tarro'ne, "great guitar;

a kind of Choraleon. See Molomekdicon.
) In the
theorbo differing from the arciliuto in Chora'liter (Lat.) style of a
having a longer neck, a wider space be- ChoraTmassig (Ger.) ) choral.
tween the 2 sets of pegs, and a smaller
ChoraTnote (Ger.) A choral note.
body. It had 20 wire strings/
12 being
over the fingerboard. (See Lute.} Chor1>uch (Ger.) See Part-book 2.
Chord. l.(Ger. Akkord'; Fr. owrrf/lt
Chiu'so,-a (It.) Closed ; hidden. . . /-
accor'do} In a^g^neral sense, the har-

none chiuso, see Canone. Con focca . .

with closed mouth mony of 2 or more tones of different

chiusa, (comp.
pitch produced simultaneously. As a
technical term, a combination of from
Choeur (Fr. \ch like .]) Choir, chorus.
3 to 5 different tones, formed by erect-
. .A
grand chvur^ for full chorus, ing, upon a fundamental tone^
or root,
Choice-note. An alternative note written an ascending series of diatonifc tirJ-ds.
above or below another in a vocal part, A 3-tone chord is called a triad, a 4-
which the singer may take in preference tone chord a chord of the jth, and a
if he choose.
5-lone chord a chord of the^th.
Fr. It. term chord is often applied specifically
Chqir. (Ger. Chor,- thceur; co'ro}
I* A companydf in to the triads, as majo* ;Hordt minor
singers, especially

chord\ fundamental'chord ,etc. A View The Arabic numerals over

of the fundamental diatonic chords fol- the bass form what is called thorough-
lows, with the ordinary figuring in bass figuring ; each figure marks the
thorough-bass and theory : interval of some tone above the bass (or
lowest tone), the order of the figures
Triads in Major.
depending, not upon the order of the
notes, butupon the width of the inter-
vals, the widest interval, always being
written at the top. The simple figures
C\ I ii HI IV V vi vii
invariably call for the diatonic intervals
Triads in Minor. as established by the key-signature. O
calls for tasto solo (see Tasto) ; 2 or f

or 4, for the chord of the second (in full,

chord of the second, fourth and sixth) ;
3 or or I, (a) for the simple triad, (b)

3 alone over the first bass note signifies

that the soprano takes the third of the
root ; I or calls for the chord of the
third and fourth (and sixth) ; 5, for the
fifthin the soprano ; J, for the simple
C: I7 ii, m r IV7 V7 VI T vn? triad ; 6, for the chord of the sixth ; f ,

for the chord of the fourth and sixth ;

Chords of the Seventh in Minor.
\ ,
or for that of the fifth and sixth ;

7 (|), for the chord of the seventh ; 8,

for the octave in the soprano, i for the ,

c: IT II?
III 7 IV 7 V7 VI 7 vii? simple triad ; 9, (? or a, according as
Chords of the Ninth the fifth or seventh is dropped), for the
chord of the ninth. 8 } J were for- V
merly used to show that the tenth and
octave, eleventh and ninth, etc. of the
bass note were to be taken instead of
the third and prime," fourth and second,
etc. Where there is a choice, the
simpler figuring is preferable, unless
some interval is chromatically altered.
When the root of a chord is the lowest A M* *
ft> b or bb ah** over a bass

tone, the chord is said to be in the note signifies that the third'in the 'chord
fundamentalposition; when some other is
correspondingly altered chromatic-
tone is the lowest, the chord A
Each triad has 2
is inverted.
and each
ally. crossed figure (^ etc.) &#
indicates that. the interval is
chord of the 7th has sharped.
3. The inversions A dash (-) after a figure
prolongs the
are limited neither to the
given number tone into the next chord. The Roman
of tones, nor to
any particular order of ,

numerals tinder the bass form no part

the intervals above the bass e.
g. a ; of the thorough-bass
figuring ; they in-
chord of the sixth may be written
dicate on what degree of the scale the
given chord (i. e. the root of the chord)
has its seat, the key or scale itself
marked by a capital letter for
major and
a small letter for minor.
large A
numeral indicates a triad with
third ; a small
numeral, a triad with

C:_:I IT 1 I I
minor third with an accent (III 7 the

augmented fifth ; with a cipher (vn),


that remains a chord of fae sixth

is, it
the diminished fifth ; with a
so long as the third of the triad 7 (V 7 ), the
remains chord of the seventh.
the lowest tone Y above which the [This is the
(octave system generally accepted ; its prime
of the) root forms the interval of
a defect (clumsiness in
following chro-

matic alterations, and consequent in- Chords essentiofles, the key-note with
ability to cope with the exigencies
of free its third and fifth, the tonic triad.
tonality) is felt by all theorists; Ja- Chordaulo'dion, or Chordomelo'dion.
dassohn solves the problem empirically A kind of automatic barrel-organ hav-
his highly elas-
by stretching r-f J ing pipes and strings combined inv. ;

tic theory of altered chords to Ife^i

1 ^ by Kaufmann of Dresden, in 1812.
the utmost ; e. g. he writes C: IV v Chordom'eter. A string-gauge.
as the major triad on the
(=f$-dp-c Cho'ree, Chore'us. A metrical foot
4th degree of C-major \)Riemann, on identical with the trochee.
the other hand, has devised an entirely
new system, explained under art. Cho'riamb,
Choriara'bus. metrical A
foot having 2 short syllables between 2
Phone.] (Alsocomp. Thorough-bass.)
Altered chord, a chord chromatically long ones, the ictus being on either of
but not a modula- the latter (-* ~>-> or ^-**). ,
changed, effecting
tion the commonest altered chords Chorister, i. A singer in a choir. 2.

are the triads on the 1st, 2nd, 4th and precentor. A

5th degrees in major and on the 4th Chor'ton (Ger.)
Choir-pitch," i. e. the

and 6th degrees in minor (with al- at which church-choirs formerly

tered fifth); on the 2nd degree in
sang in Germany, as set by the organs.
major and 6th in minor (with altered (See Pitch> absolute?)
root) ; the chords of the 7th on the same
Cho'rus. (Ger. Chor; Fr. chceur; It.
the 6th in minor
i. A company of singers.
degrees, excepting 2.
(with altered fifth), and on the 7th de- In an opera, oratorio, etc., the main
gree in major and 2nd in minor (with
altered root). .Anomalous ch., see Ano- body of singers, as distinguished from

the soloists and orchestra. 3. refrain. A
maly.. .Augmented ch., having
4. A composition, or any part of one,
jor third and augm. fifth. .Broken ch., .

oftenest in 4 parts, intended to be sung

an arpeggio. . Chromatic ch. one chro-
. ,
in chorus a double chorus has 8 parts.
matically altered. Common ch.,& triad. .

5. The compound stops of an organ.

peculiar to any given scale.. .Deriva- 6 (obs.) The bagpipe ; the drone of
tive ch. one derived by inversion from
the bagpipe, or the free sympathetic
another. . .Diatonic a common ch.,
strings of the crowd.
chord. .Diminished ch., one having

both 5th and 7th diminished. Domi- Chorus-master. The leading singer in
. .

nant ch., (rt)the dom. triad, (b) thedom. a chorus.

ch. of the >]tii... Doubtful ex Equivocal Chri'ste ele'ison (Gk.) Part of the
ch.i a dissonant chord of uncertain reso- Kyrie in the Mass (see Mass).
lution, like that of the dimin. 7th, Chro'ma I. In Greek
(Gk., "color".)
which belongs to various keys, and may
music, a chromatic modification of the
resolve to any one of them.. .Funda- A
tetrachord 2. sign altering the
mental chord, (a) one in the funda-
pitch of a note by a semitone (jf or |>) ;
mental position, i. e. with the root low-
also, a chromatic semitone. =-3. An
est the tonic triad ; (c) one of the
eighth-note or quaver (J^); ch. simplex*

3 principal triads of a key (tonic, domi-

(a) an eighth-note, (b) a # or b
nant, and subdominant) ,(d) a common

duplex, (a) a i6th-note ( J\), (b)

a x or
chord.. .Imperfect or incomplete ch., a
chord, one of whose tones Is omitted, bb-~~4 A
.Inverted ch., see Inversion.. .Lead- (Ger. chrwia ti$ch> Fr.
ing ch., the dominant ch. of the 7th. chromatique; It.
croma'tico.) Relating
.Major, minor ch., see Major, Minor. to tones foreign to a given key or chord ;
. .Related or relative ch., see Relation.
opp. to diatonic. . Chr. alteration, rais-

Seventh-chord, ch. of the 7th.. . Solid

. .
ing or lowering the pitch of a note by
ch., one whose tones are produced means of a chromatic sign ; of a chord^
simultaneously ; opp. to broken. . Tran- . or melody, the introduction into it of
sient ch., one used in modulating from one or more tones foreign to the ruling
one key to another, and foreign to both. diatonic key, but not effecting a modu-
2. A string. lation (then sometimes called a chro-
ChorMa (LatJ- i. string. 2. tone A A matic chord or melody). . Chr. harmony. .

or chord. . . Ch. character?stica, a chord a succession of chromatically altered

of the 7th containing a leading-note.. chords. Chr, instrument, one produc-
. ,

scale. . Chr. in- Ciacco'na (It.) Chaconne.

ing the tones of the chr.

tirval, an interval chromatically aug- Cico'gna (It., stork.") The mouth-

mented or diminished, . Chr. scale, see .

piece of a wind-instr.
Scale. ..Chr. semitone, an interval
sort of flute, or Pan's-
Cicu'ta (Lat.)
formed by altering a note of the natural
scale by a sharp or flat, or by further
such a sharped or flatted inter- Cifra'to (It.) Figured.
val by a x or bb- ( See Semitone.}.
Cim'bal. See Cymbal.
Chromatic signs, the characters used in CinVbalo (It.) i. A cymbal. 2. A
mus. notation for raising or lowering the harpsichord. 3. A tambourine.

"pitchof (a) natural notes, (b) notes Ciml>alon. Same as Zimbalon.

already raised or lowered (comp. Table, Cim'bel-
Cim'bel (Ger.) See Cymbal 2. . .

art Those now in use are

Flat Natural stern, see Zimbelstern.
the Sharp (#), (b), (fl),

Double-sharp (x), Double-flat (bb) J Cinel'le(It., pi.) Cymbals.

the Great Flat (j?) is obsolete; the Cink (Ger.), Cinq (Fr.) See Zink 2.

combined sign tftf (or Bb) signifies that Cheque (It.) A fifth part in concerted
.A cinque\
music. for or in 5 parts.
a note previously sharped (or flatted) is .

first restored to its natural pitch on the Cinque-pace. An old (presumably

staff and then sharped (or flatted) ;
French) dance, with a 5-step movement.
Double-natural (t]t!) is superfluous and
Cipher. A tone is said to cipher" on
incorrect. The chromatic signs at the the organ when, owing to some de-
head of the staff are called the key-sig- in the action, it persists in
nature (see Key i) such as occur;
irregularly in the course
of a composi-
tion are called accidentals. An acci- Circle-(orcircular)canon. See Canon. . .

as a general rule, affects its

Circle offifths, see Temperament.
note only during the measure in which Cir'colo mez'zo (It.) A turn, (Now
it is written, unless the note be tied into Grupfetto.)
the next measure or measures: Cir'culus (Lat., circle".) A time-sig
g. ..
nature in medieval music. (See Nota.
tion, 3.)
Cis (Ger.) C#. Cis'is, Cx.
higher or lower octaves of the note are Cistella A dulci,
(Lat., "little box.")
not affected, and must therefore like-
'wise take an accidental.
Cistole, Cistre, Citole. See Zither.
Chromatic (noun.) A chromatically al-
tered note. Cistrum. See Sutrum.

Ghronom'eter, Occasional for Metro- Ci'thara (Lat. ; It. ei'tara.) An ancient

nome? !
instr. of the lyre family, from which

Chrcnometre A species of mono- many medieval and several modern

(Fr.) instr.s (guitar, derive their
chord, made to sound by means of a
names and, in part at least, their con-
keyboard like that of the pfte. to teach ,
struction. See Cither. C. biju'ga, a
f .

, the.tuning of the latter; inv, in 1827 two-necked cither.

by Raller, pfte. -maker in Paris.
Cith'er (also cithern^ cittern; Fr. cistre,
Chrot'ta, See Crowd.
sistre; It. ce'tera, ce'tra). An instr.
^Church-modes. See Mode.
strung with wire and played with a
Chute (Fr.) A
grace-note or appoggia- plectrum a variety of lute or guitar,

tura either above or below the melody- in vogue during the i6th and zyth cen*

note ; (es
,turies. Zither.)
Citole. A small dulcimer.
Civetteri'a (It.) Coquetry. . . Con c t
played: a coquettish, trifling style.
Clairon (Fr.) i. A
clarion (either the
^Also, a slide instr.or the organ-stop) . . Cl. chro- .

descending by a matique, a species of valve-trumpet

third: made in 6 different pitches, (as a con-

trabass, bass, barytone, tenor, alto, and holes, and a beating reed; its entire
soprano.) 2. Clarinetto register of the scale
clarinet. 3. Bugler (for infantry).

Clang. See Klang. I


J J atafc
j *
Clang-color, Timbre,

^ "5 7 8 9

tone-color ;" the quality of a tone, was composed of the prime tones pro-
dependent on the number and intensity duced by successively opening the
of its harmonics. holes. The modern clarinet differs
from the chalumeau chiefly in its abili-
Claquebois (Fr.) Xylophone. .
ty to reproduce the prime tones of its
Clarabella. An organ-stoj) having open scale (or rather their third partials) a
wooden pipes of 8-foot pitch and soft, twelfth higher; this result is due to the
mellow tone. addition of a small hole, covered by an
extra key, at the nodal point dividing
Claribel-flute. A 4-foot Clarabetta,
the air-column into 3 equal portions,
Clarichord. An instr. of the late middle an improvement attributed to Joh. Chr.
ages, apparently a variety of harp, Denner of Nuremberg about 1 700. The
though thought by some to have been higher scale or register thus obtained
identical with the clavichord. was termed, by reason of its bright and
Clarin See Clarion. piercing qualify, darinetto (whence the
(Fr.) name of the modern instr.); the origin-
.Clarinet', i. (Ger. Klarinette; Fr. al lower scale retained the name of the

clarinette; It. clarinet'to.) The parent old chalumeau. The soprano clarinet
instr. of the clarinet family was the in Cis the typical instr. of the family;
chalumeau, a primitive wind-instr. hav- compass 3 octaves and a sixth (with
ing a cylindrical tube with 9 finger- chromatic intermediate tones):

It has a cylindrical wooden tube pierced the soprano instr.s of the symphony-
by 1 8 holes, 13 of which are closed by orchestra). The cL is a transposing
keys, yielding a chromatic series of 19 instr., and its music is written in the C-
clef. The fingering is very complicated
prime tones \e to b^)\ it is composed

of 5 pieces of joints, namely, the and the reed difficult to manage, a

mouthpiece with the reed, the socket slight error of judgment sufficing to pro-
(Ger. Birne)^ the "right-hand" and duce the fatal couac." 2. See Clar-
"left-hand" joints of the tube proper, ionet 2.
and the bell; its higher registers are
Clarinet-stop. See Krwnm'horn.
simply the third, and fifth or ninth, Clarinetto See Clarinet.
b l (It.)
partials of the prime tones (from |J
The 'quality of the Clari'no i. Clarion r and 2. 2.
/ , and/^Jto <*.)
name loosely applied to the trumpet
tone differs greatly in the four registers,
" and bugle. 3< Used for tromba^ in -

the chalumeau" and "clarinetto"

the female con-
some old scores.
being comparable
tralto and soprano respectively, while Clarion, i. A small, shrill-toned trum-
the medium is weak and veiled, and the pet. 2. In the organ, a 4-foot reed-

highest shrill and 'piercing. Several stop of a shrill, piercing tone.

sizes are made (i) The large soprano
Clarionet. I. clarinet. 2. A
In the
cL in C, J&Q, and A, and (2) the small
clarinets in and organ, an 8-foot reed-stop of soft tone.
soprano D, E> A]), . .
Clarionet-flute, a flue-stop with per-
these last being mostly used in military
forated cover.
music, in which their position is similar
to that held by the violins in the or- Classic. In a restricted sense, a com-
chestra. There are also alto (or bary- position is called classic when it be-
tone) clarinets in F
and Ify, and bass longs to an acknowledged style in art,
clarinets in C, Jfy t or A
(octave below and is by an acknowledged master of

that style. In a broader sense, any of strings, which were pressed against
ompositioa may be termed, classic the revolving cylinder on touching the
which, in its kind, might be taken as a digitals, and thus made to sound com- ;

model for imitation, and in which the pass 4j octaves,

form Id in perfect harmony with the 7
Clavier [veer'}. (Ger. Wavier*.) i. A
spirit or Classic is
also often used as a distinctive epithet keyboard (Klaviatur).~2. (Ger.) Gen-
eric name for all keyboard instns except
for the works of the earlier masters,
organs ; especially (formerly) for the
including Beethoven, and their imita-
clavichord, and (at present) for the
tors, in contrast to those of the roman- See Klavier.
tic school ; classic forms being the
aria, rondo, sonata, symphony, etc. Clavier (Fr.) I. A
keyboard. .Post/- .

Clau'sula (Lat.) A cadence. der son cL, to know one's keyboard...

CL de r/di, Re*dt expressif^ swell-man-
Clavecin (Fr.) A harpsichord..CL t

ual (organ). 2. The range or scale of

atoustique, a French invention of the
notes comprised on the grand staff
l8th century, imitating several stringed
without leger-lines.
and wind-instruments.
< /
Claviatur (Ger.) Keyboard (JClawatur). Claviglissan'do.
A keyboard instr.
of a combination of mechan-
Clavicembalo (It.) Harpsichord. isms for producing various harmonium
Clavichord. (Gtt.Kla'vichord,IClavier'; effects, and also the portamento of the
Fr. clavicorde; It. clavicor'do.) One violin ; inv. by Le Jeune.
of the precursors of the pfte. (see Pi- Cla'vis A
(Lat,) I. key (digital), clef, or
anoforte\ differing in action from the note. 2, Bellows-handle.
latter in having, instead of hammers,
Clef (Fr.) I. Clef ; armer la
upright metal wedges called tangents
on the rear end of the digitals; on de- clef, to furnish the clef with the key-

pressing a digital the tangent struck signatures. 2. Key (of a wind-instr.)

the wire and remained pressed against Clef. (Ger. Schl&s'sel: Fr. cU, clef; It
it till the finger was lifted,
causing only chia've?) A
character set at the head
one section of the string to vibrate. of the staff to fix the pitch or position
(Compare Gebunden.) of one note, and thus of the rest. The
3 now in use are the /'-clef, C-clef , and
Clavicithe'rium^cythVrium.) An ob-
solete instr., supposed to have been a -clef; theJF-clefand -clef are also

kind of harpsichord, but with the called the Aw-clef and Treble-dti re-

strings stretched in a vertical frame in- spectively, because they fix the position
stead of horizontally. of the bass and treble notes. The C-
clef is
variously called the Tenor-, Alto-,
Clavicor (Fr,) A kind of cor a pistons. and Soprano-dei) according as it is set
Ckvicylin'der(Ger.) A keyboard instr. on Lhe 4th, 3d, or 1st line of the staff ;
inv. by Chladni about 1800,
containing a wherever placed, it marks the
glass cylinder caused to revolve by a of Middle-C* A view of the
treadle, and steel wands or bars instead clefs used at present is appended.
Bass-clefs. C-clefs. Treble-clef. Tenor-clef (recent).

The on the 3rd line (Barytone*

.F-clef the letters/, c> and^, formerly plainly
clef), the C-clef on the 2nd written.
Soprano<\&i), the -clef on the ist line
Cliquette (Fr.) The bones.
(French wV&Vf-clef), or on the 3rd line,
are no longer used (the C-clef on the Close (noun; Ger. Schluss). See Gz-
snd line occa- -ft 3. dence
fl is

sionally). The mfo: used in vocal Close harmony or position. See Har*
double 'G-clef : \} \j music as a ten- monytt Close play, a style of lute-

or-clef, signifying that the part lies an playing in which the fingers were Kept
octave lower than written, Our modern on the strings as much as
forms of the clefs are Co'da "
corruptions of (It., tall.") Specifically, a pas-

sage finishing a movement, and begin- first, as before. . . C.

sopra, as above.. .

ning where the repetition of the first C, sto, as it stands, as written.

subject ends. Originally, it was a few
chords (or a short passage) intended
Co'mes (Lat.) Answer (in a fugue);
as a winding-tip ; it became of growing consequent (in a canon).

importance in the canon, sonata, rondo, Comma. I. A

comma (,) is often used
etc., and is frequently developed into an as a breathing-mark. 2. (a) Didymic
almost independent concluding division. or syntonic c. : The difference between
Also, the stem or tail of a note the greater and lesser whole tone, or
(cauda).. .Codetta, a short coda. (See 8 0:8 1
Pythagorean c., or c. maxi-
; (b)
Fugue.) ma : The between the octave
of a given tone and a tone 6 whole
Ccelestina (or -o). A name bestowed
tones higher than the given tone, or
in the l8th century on several modifica-
tions of keyboard stringed instr.s, in 524288:531441.
which alterations of the tone could be Com'modo (It. ; also co'modo.) Easy,
produced by mechanisms under the leisurely, ata convenient pace as al- ;

player's control* legro commodo., Commodamen'te, easily,


Coffre (Fr.) Case (of a pfte.) ; body (of quietly, leisurely.., Commode? to, rather
a violin). easy or leisurely.

Co'gli stromenti (It.) With the instru- Common chord. A major or minor
ments. Common hallelujah metre, or
Common long metre, a 6-line stanza
Coi, col, coll', colla, col'le, col'lo (It.)
formed of a common-metre stanza with
With the.
halfa long-metre stanza added ; thus,
Colascio'ne (It.) See Calascione. 868688... Common measure, see
Collet de violon (Fr.) Neck of a violin. time. . . Common metre, a form of iambic
Collinet (Fr.) A flageolet named after ;
stanza, of 4 lines containing alternately
a celebrated player. 8 and 6 syllables ; thus, 8686.. .Double
common metre, a stanza formed of 2
Corophony. Kolophon' ; Fr.
common-metre stanzas. . . Common par-
colophane ; eolofJnia; from Lat.
ticular metre, a 6-line stanza, the 3rd
colopho'nium.) Resin or rosin.
and 6th lines having 6 syllables, and
Color, i. Timbre (tone-color). 2. The the others 8 each ; thus, 886866...
characteristic rhythms, harmonies, and
Common time, a measure containing 2
melodies of a composition. 3. (Lat.)
(or 4) half-notes or 4 quarter-notes,
See Notation, 3. with 2 or 4 beats respectively duple ;

Colorado (It.) Florid, figurate. or quadruple time- (Ordinarily > com-

Coloratura (It.) Colorature, i. e. vocal mon time is understood to mean 4

runs, passages, trills, etc., enhancing quarter-notes [and as many beats] to a

the brilliancy of a composition and dis- measure.)
playing the vocalist's skill. Also ap- Compass. (Ger. Urn'fang; Fr. diapa-
plied to similar instrumental music. son; It, estensio'ne) The range of a
voice or instr., i. e. the scale of all the
Coloris (Fr.; Ger. C(K)olorif [Far'ben-
The tonal color-scheme, 11 tones it can produce, from the lowest
gebung. to the highest.
vocal or instrumental, of a composition,
movement, or scene ; i. e. the modifica- Compiace'vole (It.) Pleasing, delightful.
tions in vocal or instrumental timbre, Complement. An interval which, added
or in the instrumentation, employed for to any given not wider than
obtaining special effects. an octave, completes the octave thus ;

a fourth is the c. of a fifth, a minor

Col'po (It, "blow".) Di colpo, at a
sixth of a major third, etc. Also com-
blow, suddenly, at once.
plementary interval.
Combination pedal. See Pedal . . Com-
Comple'tory, (Lat. complete*'rium.) I.
bination tones (combinational tones), An anthem supplementary to an anti-
see Acoustics.
phon in the lauds and vespers of the
Combined mode. See Dur Moll- Ambrosian rite, 2. See Complin.
Tonart. The last of the 7 canon*
Co'me (It.) As, like. , . C. prima, as at ical hours.

Componi'sta Composer.
out and on pushing in the bellows.
In the organ, Tenor, bass, and double-bass concertinas
Composition pedal. A
are also made. great variety of music
pedal which draws out or pushes i
can be played, and the literature is quite
several stops at once. (Comp. combina
tim pedal.) extensive; the instr. is, likewise capable
of great expression, and the tone is sus-
Composizio'ne (It.) Composition..
ceptible of considerable modification.
C di tavoli'no, table-music. A
Concertino (It.) i. small concert.
Compound interval. See Interval, .
2. Equiv. to concertan'te, i. e. lead-
Cl measure, rhythm, time^ see Time..
ing, principal ; as violino concertino,
stop, an organ-stop having more than here opp. to rifie'no.
principal violin ;
one rank of pipes,
Concerti'sta (It.) Concert-player, solo
Con (It.) With.
performer, virtuoso.
Concave pedals. See Radiating.
Concert-master. See Konzert'meister.
Concen'to Concord, harmony
(It.) i.
Komert ^) An ex- f
Concerto. (Ger.
2. The simultaneous sounding of a]
tended composition for a solo instr. ,
the tones of a chord ; opp. to arpeggio,
commonly with orchestral accomp., in
Concensus (Lat.) i. Concord, har sonata-form modified to suit the char- ,

mony, 2, Part-music. 3. See Ac acter of the solo instr. (e. g. the cadenza);
pfte. -concertos in which the pfte.-part
Con'cert. i, A set of instr.s of the same is comparatively inconspicuous are jocu-
family but different in size (see Chest larly called symphonies with pfte.-
Consort]. .2. concerto. A
3. (Ger. Kon accomp," The earlier concertos were
zerf; Fr. concert; It conce/to^ in concertante style, 2 or more instr.s or
public mus. performance... Dutch con voices bearing leading parts ; Viadana's
cert, the singing of an entire company concer'ti ecclesia'stici, or da chiefsa,
in which each person
sings whatever he were simply motets with organ-accomp:;
pleases ; or the persons present sing in Torelli was the first (1686) to write
alternation any verse that comes into concerti da ca'mera (for 2 violins and
their heads, the refrain by the whole double-bass).
company being a regular repetition of Concert-pitch, See Pitch.
some popular verse.. Concert sfirituel .
Concert/stiick (Ger.) A concert-piece ;
(Fr.), sacred concert.
a concerto.
Concertan'te (!t.) Concordant, har- Concitaxto
monious. Hence: r.
Moved, excited, agi-
A concert-piece.
2. A
composition for two or more
solo voices or instr.s with
Concord, i.
Harmony; opp. to dis-
accpmp. by cord, 2. See Consonance.
organ or orchestra, in which each solo
part is in rum brought into prominence. Concordant, i. Consonant. -2, (Fr.)
3- A
composition for 2 or more
A barytone voice.
solo instr.s without orchestra.. . Cancer- Conductor. (Ger. Kapellmeister, Diri-
tante parts, parts for solo instr.s in
gent ; Fr, chef d'orchestrej It. capo
orchestral music... Cancertante
style , a

orchestra, mae'stro di cappel'la.) The

style of composition admitting of a director of an orchestra or chorus.
display of skill on the soloist's Conduc'tus (Lat.)' A form of polyphp-
part. . .
Concerta'to, concerted. nous composition (i2th
century) in which
Concerted music. Music written in the tenor to the
contrapuntal variations
parts, for several instr,s or
voices, as was not borrowed from plain
song (as
in the
trios, quartets, etc. (

o/ganum and dzscan'tus), but,

like the counterpoint, was
Concert-grand. $*& Pianoforte. original
with the composer.. .
Concertina* The improved accordion du'phx, 3-part
inv. by Wheatstone in counterpoint ; C. sim'plex, 2~part coun-
1829. The key-
boards are hexagonal ; the terpoint.
compass of
the treble c. %va a double-ac- Conduit (Fr.) r. Conductus. 2, 4
is4 octaves: wind-trunk (organ).
tion instr.,
producing ione-gamba. Bell-gumba.
chromatic [fo J/T" _ thesametone Conunct7 .
(Fr. conjoint; It. congiun*.
Jones ;
it is 5 g? on. drawing A degree of the s^ale immediately

succeeding another is called a conjunct voice, having a com-

degree ; opp. to disjunct. pass from about
to f , the extremes
Consecutive intervals. Intervals of
the same kind following each other in being ejf :

" " (Also Alto.) Male voices were exclu

immediate succession ; consecutives
are progressions of parallel fifths or sively employed in the old church*
music, the tenor being called altus;
octaves, forbidden in strict harmony.
hence the term "contr'alto", i.e. op-
See Parallel
posed to or contrasted with the altus.
Conseguen'te (It.) Consequent. . . Con-
Contrappunti'sta A contrapuntist.
seguen'za, a canon,

See Contrappun'to (It.) Counterpoint. . , C.

Consequent. (It. conseguen'te!)
alia men'te, see Chant surle livre. * . .
alia top*pa, "limping", i. e. syncopa-
Conservatory. (Ger. Konservato'rium; ted, counterpoint. C. dop'pio^ double
. .

Fr. conservatoire; It. conservato'rio!) or invertible counterpoint. . , C. synco-

A public institution for providing prac- pa'to, syncopated counterpoint, . . C.
tical and theoretical instruction in
so'pra (softo) il soggefto, counterpoint
music, above (below) the theme. .

Consolah'te (It.) Consoling, soothing. Contrapunc'tus (Lat.) Counterpoint. . .

C. ad mden dum^ counterpoint written
Consonance. (Ger/ Konsonanz'; Fr.
out ; opp. to conirappun'toallamen'tei
consonance; It. consonantal] com- A
improvised counterpoint. C. gqua'lis, .
bination of 2 or more tones, harmonious

and pleasing in itself, and requiring equal counterpoint. . C. diminu'tus or


florid or figurate counter-

no further progression to make it satis- florjidus,
point. . C. in&qua'liS) unequal coun-

factory opp. to dissonance. (Comp.

Acoustics, 3.). .
.Imperfect consonances,
the majorand minor thirds and sixths.
Contrapuntal. Pertaining to the art
..Perfect consonances, the octave, or practice of counterpoint.
fifth, and fourth.
Contrapuntist. One versed jn the
Consonant chord. One containing no practice and theory of counterpoint,
interval, a con-
dissonant interval.. . C.
Contr'arto (It) "Against the bow,
up-bow for down -bow, or nice versa.
Con'sort. I. See Chest (of viols). 2. Contrary motion. See Motion.. , .

A band, or company of musicians.

Contrasogget/to (It.) Countersubject
Con'tano "they count.") Direc- Contra-tenor. Countertenor.
tion in scores, that parts so marked are
to pause.
Contrattem'po (It.) i. A tone enters
ing on a weak beat and ending on a
Continual (It.) Continued (see Basso a 2. -A strong beat; syncopation.
-continue} ; held, sustained. sustained melody, as contrasted with Its
Continued bass. See Boss. figurate accomp.

Cqnti'nuo. A BZSSQ continue. Contravioli'no, -violo'ne (It.) A doable^

Contra (^At. % It.) Compounded with bas,s.

names of instr.s, it signifies an octave Contre-(Fr.) Contra-, counter-?., '.Coo*
below ; e. g. contrabbas'so, a double- ire-bam, double-bass. . Contrfdqnse, j .

bass. . * Contra-octav69 see Pitch. French dance deriving its name^from

Contrabass, (It. contrabbas'so} i. the position of the dancers opposite to A
double-bass.- -^, The lowest bass
1 or facing each other. Originally 'there

instr. in a family of instr.s. Contra- were but 2 dancers there are ilow 8','
. . ;

and the dance is known in English as

bassist, a player on the double-bass.-
the @wfldh7&. Also, dance-music for
Qontraddan'za (It.) Contra-dance or
a quadrille. . Contre-tdisses, linings . , .

Contre-partie> a mus. part opp. to- ,p|
Contraffagot'to (It.) I. A double-bas- contrasted with another, as bags,.snd
spon. 2. A reed-stop in the organ soprano; said especially of .either. of
^ imitative of i. the parts in a duet.*
Contral'to (It) The .lowest female t$rpoint ;

. . Con- and a wooden tube furnished with

..Conire-sujet, countersubject.
There were two classes,
tre-tentpSy see Contratiemfo. fingerholes.
the straight cornet (in 3 varieties, cor-
Conver'sio (Lat) Inversion. *

" netto dirt?to, c. muto, compass a cP ;

Covered/' muffled as
Coper'to (It.) 2&&cornetti'no, compass d
g*), and

muffled kettledrums.
tom'pani coper's,, the bent cornet (cornetto cu/vo, com-

Co'pula {Lat.) I. (also Fr.) A coupler pass a a? ; and c. tor'to [or corno, cor
(organ). 2. A name for certain flue- non], compass dd*). The cornon
stops ; (a) the 8-foot open diapason ; (cornetto basso) was the prototype of the
(t) the 8-foot Hohfjiote or Kop'pel- Serpent* 2. A
reed-stop in the organ,
fiote. imitating the blaring tone of I (see 4),

Cor A and of dimensions: 8-foot

(Fr.) horn,..(V-d#, cor-basse, varying^
see Corno alto (basso). . . C. anglais, see pitch, (or 2' or 4'), also called Cornet*
tino\ l6-foot pitch (Grand cornet)...
Oboe. . . de basset, basset-horn.. . C.
de chasse, a hunting-horn ; in particu- Bass cornet, a large deep-toned brass
lar, the large horn, whose tube is bent
instr. (obs.) 3. (Kornett*.} A com-
to form a circle of about i-J turns. . . C. pound organ-stop of from 3 to 5 ranks
de signal^ a signal-horn or bugle... C and 8-foot or 4-foot pitch, differing
de vaches, a cow-horn, used by herds- from the Mixture in producing the Third
men. . . C. omnitonique, a chromatic among the harmonics. * .Echo cornet, a
valve-horn inv. by Sax. soft-toned cornet-stop enclosed in s
wooden box,. .Mounted cornet, a cornet
Corale(It) A choral.
stop mounted on a separate soundboard
Coran'to (It.) i. A courante. 2. A to render its tone more prominent. 4
country-dance. A reed-stop of 2 or 4-foot pitch, on the
Cor'da (It.) A string. .. Sopra una c., pedal.
direction play a passage on one
to Cornet a bouquin (Fr,) See Cornet i,
string. . . Una Corda, direction to use ..Cornet & pistons (Fr.; Ger. Ventil'*
the soft pedal of the pfte. . .Due corde,
kornctt), a brass instr. of the trumpet
(a) -release soft pedal ; or, when the
family, having a conical tube and
soft pedal shifts the keyboard, "play
cupped mouthpiece ; improved from
with the pedal pressed halfway down" the old post-horn by the addition
[RIEMANN] violin-playing, a
; (&) in of 3 valves; tone apt to be loud
a note by playing it
direction to double and "brassy" medium * /*

simultaneously on 2 strings. . Tutte .

compass 2 octaves and 3 \Jf.
corde the strings), release the /' zir
(le) (all tones. It is a transposing
soft Uy- __[/
pedal instr. noted in the -clef ; g5
Cordatu'ra (It.) Same as Accordatu'ra. this being for the
Corde (Fr.) A string. . . a jour, or a actual comet in the
fzifc, an open
string. .. fausse, a pitch: one most in use.
string out of tune. . . C. sourde, a mute In rapidity and
string.. *Sur une- corde* Sopra una lightness of execution, the cornet almost
corda. vies with the flute and clarinet ; a certain
lack of refinement in its tone alone pre-
Cordicr(Fr.) Tailpiece.
vents its entrance into the symphony-
Cordomfetre (Fr.) String-gauge.
orchestra. .. Cornet d'/cho or de r/citt
Corife'o(It) See Corypheus.
Ceri'sta. (It.) I. Chorister, either
male or female.
Cornet-stop. See Cornet 2, 3, 4.
2. Tuning-fork; Cornet'to
(It, dimin. cornetti'no^ i. A
small horn. 2. A cornet I.
Cormorae (Fr.) Ss&Cromorne.
Cor'no (It) A horn. alto, high horn . .

Cornamn'sa(It), Cornemuse (Fr.) A in Bj basso, low horn in J3 [STAINER

bagpipe in which the wind is.
supplied AND BARKETT]. alto (basso) also
by the lungs (see Musette).
signify, respectively, one of the two
Cor'net. [See Comet a pistons, in fol-
horn-players, in the orchestral group of
lowing art.] I. (Ger. Zin'ke*} ob- An four, who take the highest (lowest)
solete wind-instr. much used
during the horn-parts. , . di bassetto, basset-horn.
I5th and 16th centuries, with a narrow . . da caccia, hunting-horn. . . in*
cupped mouthpiece pf ivory or wopcl, gtfse, English horn.

Cornon (Fr.) i. comet. 2. A

brass A higher octave as a high soprano. . Bass .

wind-instr. of broad scale, inv. in 1844. counter, a second bass part, either
/ vocal or instrumental. . . Counter-exposi-
Corno pean. i. Cornet a pistons. 2.

An tion, re-entrance of the subject or sub-

organ-stop on the swell-manual.
jects of a fugue, either directly follow-
Co'ro (It.) Chorus choir.. C.favori'to, .

ing the exposition, or after the first epi-

; \

a selected chorus, as opp. to the full sodes. . Counter -subject, a fugal theme

chorus. . . C. spezza'to, a divided chorus

following the subject in the same part,
(sung by several choirs in different as a contrapuntal accomp. to the an-
parts of the church). . .A cori batten'ti^ swer ; often used independently as an
for divided chorus, one half imitating, in

what episodal theme. . Counter-tenor; a high


parallel or reverse progression, tenor or alto voice ; hence, the part sung
the other half sings.
by such a voice, or the
Corona (It.) A hold (O). singer. It is the highest

Cor'onach (Gaelic.) A funeral lament ;

adult male voice; compass: I
a dirge. being nearly the same as that of the
contralto. ..Counter* tenor clef, the
Corps (Fr.) Body (of a tone). ..C.f kar~ C-cIef on the 3rd line ; used for the
monie, a fundamental chord*.. C. de
counter- tenor or alto voice, the viola, etc.
musique, a wind-band.. C. de rechange, .

a crook. . C. de uoix, the range and Counterpoint.

. (Ger. Kon'trapunkt;
volume of a voice, taken collectively. Fr. contrepoint; It. contrappun' to.)
[From the Latin punctus contra punc-
Correcto'riiim (Lat.) "Tuning-cone. tum (point against point), i. e. note
Corren'te (It) Courante. i. In a wider sense,
against note.]
Coryphaeus (Lat.) (Engl. coryphe*us ; the art of polyphonic composition; opp.
Ger. Korypha'e; Fr. coryphee; It. co- to homophony. The canon and fugue
rif^o.} In the ancient Greek drama, are the most highly developed contra-
the leader of the chorus ; hence, in 2. In a restricted sense,
puntal forms.
modern usage, the leader of an opera- the art of adding one or more melodies
chorus or other company of singers. to a given melody (cantus firmus}

Cotillion. (Fr. cotillon.} A French according to certain rules ; hence, one

the same as the german, to of, or ail, the parts so added. The
quadrille-music. Theory of Counterpoint generally rec-
The ognizes 5 species, which, in practical
Cottage organ. ordinary portable
instruction, are variously combined : (i)
parlor organ (reed-organ). . . Cottage Note against note, whole notes in the
piano, i. A small style of upright pfte.
2. A
small grand pfte. in upright cpunterpoint against whole notes in the
c.f. (cantus firm%is)\ (2) 2 against I,
form, inv. by Wilhelm Kress of Vienna half-notes in the counterpoint against
in 1891.
whole notes in the c, /./ (3) 4 against
Couac(Fr.) The "goose." I, quarter-notes in the counterpoint
Couched harp. A spinet. against whole notes in c. /./ (4) with
Coul(Fr.) I. Legato. 2. (Also Dash.} syncopation, syncopated half-notes
A harpsichord-grace ;
counterpoint against whole notes in the
* // (5) florid, figurate,
or figured,
written :
played :

the counterpoint written in irregular

rhythms... Double c., that in which 2
parts are so written as to be capable of
mutual inversion by an interval (octave,
tenth, etc.) determined beforehand...
Coulisse (Fr.) Slide (of trombone or
Quadruple c., that written in 4 mutually
exchangeable or invertible parts. . . Sin*
Count. An accent, beat, or pulse of a gk c,, that in which the parts are not in-
measure... Counting, the marking of tended to be mutually invertible...
the successive beats of the measure by Strict c,, that in which the entrance oi
counting aloud. (most) unprepared dissonances is for-
Counter. vocal part set to con-
Any bidden. [The correctness of this defi-
trast with the principal part or melody ; nition largely depends
upon what is

specifically, the counter-tenor (high meant by preparation". The disso-

tenor, or alto), sometimes sung in the nant intervals included in the chord of

the dimin, 7th dimin. 7th and 5th, a machine with spiral turns of fine sil-
and also the dom- ver or copper wire, the process being
augm. 2nd and 4th "
inant 7th, are now allowed to enter termed string-spinning."
even in "strict" counterpoint; Crackle. In
freely lute-playing, to play the
and preparation is often effected by a chords brokenly (en batterie) instead of
tone in a different part and octave from
the one in which the following disso-
Cracovienne (Fr.) Polish dance for A
nance enters.]. TripUc.,.counterpoint

a large company hence, the music or

in 3 mutually invertible parts. . . Two-

counter- an imitation of the music employed,

pari* Thm-part, Four-pan which is in duple time with frequent
or 4 parts are
point, that in which 2, 3,
syncopations (rhythm
9 J j*^
Country-dance, A dance in which the
form two opposing lines,
partners Also JCrakowiak, craeomak.
which advance and retreat, the couples
also dancing down the lines and re- Cre'do. The third main division of the
to their The time Mass.
turning places.
varies, some tunes being
in 2-4, others Crem'balum (Lat.) Jew's-harp,
in 3-4 time-; the essential thing is, for Cremo'na. I. A name ordinarily ap-
the strains to be in phrases of 4 or 8
plied to any old Italian violin made by
measures, to accompany the several the Amatis, Stradivarius, or Guarneri-
evolutions. . Cremona. 2. See Krwnmhom.
us, at
Coup d'arcnet (Fr.) A stroke of the Crescen'do
(It.) Swelling, increasing
bow. . Coup de (la} glotte, see Kehl-
in loudness. , Cr. -pedal, see Pedal. .

scklag. .
. de ktngue, a thrust or
r. Crescendo-
stroke of the tongue, tonguing ; double Crescen'dozug (Ger.)
pedal. 2. A kind of organ-swell with
coup de langue, double-tonguing. a contrivance
shutters, inv. by Abbe
Couper le sujet (Fr,) To cut or cur- Vogler.
tail the subject
Crescent ;
also Chinese crescent, or
Coupler* (Ger. Kopptl; Fr. copula; It.
pavilion. (Ger. HaWmond; Fr.
unione.) See Organ.
chapeau chinois; It. cappel'lo 'chine*se.)
Couplet. I. Two successive lines form- An instr, of Turkish origin used in
ing a pair, generally rhymed. 2. In military music, consisting of several
triple times, 2 equal notes occupying crescent-shaped brass plates hung
the time of 3 such notes in the regular around a staff and surmounted by a cap
or pavilion; around the plates little
rhythm ;

thus: bells are hung, which are jingled in

f time with the music.
[Koo'-]. (Fr. courantt; It.
Cre'ticus (Lat.) A metrical foot con-
ccrrttfte.) An
old French dance in
sisting of a short syllable between 2

5-2 time; hence, the instrumental ^^

long ones ( ).
piece called courwte, forming a part of
the Suite, ia which it follows the Alk- Cri'brum (Lat,). Soundboard (organ).
mandt. Though the
Croche (Fr,) An
eighth-note. . . Crocfas
calls for 3-2 time, measures in 6-4 time lUes, eighth-notes having the hooks
often occur, especially at the close ; the joined (J73).
tempo is moderately rapid, and dotted Crochet (Fr.) The stroke of abbrevia-
rhythms abound. The Italian corrente
tion across the
is quite different from the above,
its stems of notes \
f ^\
chief feature being swift
'passages of A crotchet, or quarter-
equal notes, whence the name torrents note
1 ,

("running* ). The (j). .

tempo rapid;
time 3-8 or 3-4. Croisement (Fr.) Crossing (of parts).
Conronne (Fr.) A hole ^). Cro'ma (It.) An eighth-note.
Course, A group or set of strings tuned Croma'tico (It.) Chromatic.
in unison. Cromor'na. (Ff.cromorne.)
Covered. See Octave. ...Covered'strings\ korn t

strings of silk, wire, or gut, covered by Crook, .1. {Gsr.

Fr, corps de rechange^ ton; It. tone by half-stopping the bell of the
reserva.) A
supplementary tube, which French horn with the right hand.
can be rapidly fitted to the main tube Cum sancto spi'ritu (Lat.) Part of the
(or body) of a horn or trumpet, for the Gloria.
purpose of lowering the pitch. Each
crook is named after the fundamental Cu'po (It.) Dark, deep, obscure;
tone to which it lowers the pitch of the
tube ; e. g. the -crook of an instr. in Curran'to. See Courant.
jj>. 2. The S-shaped tube forming Cushion-dance. A Scotch and English
the mouthpiece of a bassoon, and con- round dance, in triple time, and per-

taining the reed. 3. In the old harp- formed in single file; each dancer in
action, a crotchet engaging a string turn drops a cushion before one of the
and raising its pitch by a semitone. opposite sex, at a regularly recurring
strain of the music, whereupon the two
Croque-note (Fr.) A player of facile kneel and kiss each other, after which
execution, but little taste and judgment.
the dance proceeds as before.
Cross-relation. See False relation,
Cus'tos (Lat.) A direct
Cro'talum (Lat.) A kind of clapper
Cuvette (Fr.) Pedestal (of a harp).
used by the ancient Greeks to mark the
time of a dance. Cyclical forms. (Ger. cyclischt For-
men.} Forms of composition embrac-
Crotchet, i. A quarter-note ; cr. -rest,
ing a cycle or series of movements,
a quarter-rest, 2. See Crook 3. such as the old suite or partita, or the
Crowd sonata, symphony, and concerto.
also Croud, Crouth. (Welsh
crwth; Lat, chrofta.) An ancient Cylinder (Ger.) Valve (in horns, etc.;
bow-instr., apparently of Welsh or usually Veniil).
Irish origin, and regarded as the oldest
Cymbale (Fr.) i. Cymbal. 2. A steel
European instr. of the class ; still found
rod bent to a triangle, and bearing a
early in
the igth century among the number of rings, which are struck by
peasantry of Wales, Ireland and Brit- a steel wand, the cymbale itself being
Its body was square, and termin-
any. dangled on a cord.
ated, instead of by a neck, by 2 parallel
arms connected at the end by a cross- Cymbals, i. (Ger. BecKen; Fr. cyin-
bar, the centre of which supported the
hales ; It. piafti, dnel'li.) A
pair of
end of the narrow fingerboard ; it had concave plates of brass or bronze, varying
in sizefrom finger-cymbals something
originally 3, in modern times 6, strings,
over an inch in diameter to the large
4 lying over the unfretted fingerboard
and 2 beside it. The strings passed orchestral cymbals, which have broad,
over a bridge, whica rested on the flat rims, and holes toward the middle

for the insertion of the straps by which

.belly between 2 sound-holes; the ac-
cordatura [GROVE] was as follows : they are held ; used in orchestral music
to mark time strongly, or to produce
peculiar often weird and thrilling
effects. One
of the cymbals is oftea
attached on top of the bass drum, so
de over fingerboard, that one player can manipulate both
fingerb. drum and cymbals. 2, In the organ,
Crucifixus (Lat.) Part of the Credo. a mixture-stop of very high pitch.
See Cymbale 2.
Crush-note. An acciaccatura. 3.

Crwth. See Crowd. Cymljalum (Lat.), i.

CymbaL 2. A.

small drum of the medieval monks;

C-Schliissel (Ger.) C-clef.
several such drums were tuned to form
Cue* A
phrase, from a vocal or instru- a scale of an octave, and played like a
mental part, occurring near the end of a
long pause in another part, and inserted
See Cymbal
in small notes in the latter to serve as a Cym'bel.
guide in timing its re-entrance. Czakan (Bohemian.) A flute of cane or
" bamboo.
Cuivre (Fr., copper/') Brass; Its v
cuivres (pi), the brass-wind. .Fairs Czardas (Hung.; pron. tchar'dask.)
. A
cuivrer, to obtain a metallic, ringing
national Hungarian dance, distin*,

guished by its passionate character am ply repeated over and over in the above
changing tempo. order, whatever may be the notes sung.

Czimbal (Hung.) A dulcimer. Damper. I. (Ger.Fr. tiouf-

Czimken A dance similar to the foir ; It. sordi'no.) de- A mechanical
vice for checking the vibration of a
country-dance. [STAINER. AND BAR
pfte.-string(see^'0w0/i7r&). . .Damper-
pedal, the right or loud pedal of the
D. pfte. 2. The mute of a brass instr.,
e. g. a horn.
D. i. (Ger. D; Fr. re*; It re.) The Dam'pfer (Ger.)
A damper or mute. . .
2nd tone and degree in the typical dia- Ddm'pfung ("damping"), the damp,
tonic scale of C-major.
(Comp.^ Alpha- ing-mechanism of the pfte.
betical notation, and Solmisation^ 2. Dance. (Ger. Tanz; Fr. danse; It.
Abbr. of Da (D. C.=da capo), and Da dan'za.) A succession of rhythmical
(D.S,=dal segno). steps, skips, or leaps, accompanied by
Da (It.) By, for, from, ol...Da ca/fo varying movements of the body, and

as an ex- generally timed by music (in primitive,

(a) from the beginning (ff) ;
encore ".. .D. C. nations, simply by beating on a drum
clamation, !
or the like).
(repeat) from the beginning to the enc
(i, e. to the word Fine or to a hold T*).
Darm'saite (Ger.) Gut string.
..D.C. alse'gno, (repeat) from the be- A
Dash. i. staccato-mark (J or f). 2,
ginning to the sign (ft $, T). ..D.C. In thorough-bass, a stroke'through a
al segno, poi (se gue) la coda, (repeat]
figure, indicating the raising of the in-
from the beginning to the sign, then
terval by a semitone (jl tL etc.) 3. Same
(follows) the coda.. .D. C. dal'segno\ re- ' f
as Coult 2.
peat from the sign.. .D.C. sen'za re*-
fKca(oi senza ripetizio'ne), play through Dasian'-Notie'rung (Ger.) Hucbald's
from the beginning without noticing the system of noting a scale of 18 tones by
repeats. ..Da eseguir'si^ to be executed. twisting and turning the letter F into
..Da iira/si ("for drawing out"), 14 different positions and shapes, with
means "with slide"; as tromba da 4 additional signs.

tirarsi^ slide-trumpet. Dau'men (Ger.) Thumb.. .Dau'menauf-

D'accord (Fr.) In tune. satz, thumb-positions (in 'cello-playing).

Dach The belly of a Dead-march. A funeral march.

(Ger., "roof.")
violin(usually Decke).. .Dach'schweller, Decile, Deljole (It.) Feeble, weak.
see Crescendozug 2.
D6but (Fr.) A first appearance. . . DS&u-
Dac/tyl(e). (Lat. daStylw, a finger.) tant(e)> a male (female) performer or
A metrical foot of 3 syllables
arranged singer appearing for the first time.
like the
finger-joints, one long and two Decachord. 10 A
(Fr.d&acorde.) 1.
short, with the ictus on the first an ancient species of
stringed instr.,
(-*w~). harp or lyre. 2. An obsolete French
Dactyl'ion, An apparatus inv. by Henri instr. of the guitar kind, 1 *
iQ^r JQ
Herz in 1835,
consisting of 10 rings strings.
hanging over the keyboard and at- Oec'adfc). See Duodene.
tached to steel springs ; used
by pianists Deca'ni.
for finger-gymnastics. Comp. Cantoris.
De'cem See Dedma
Daddy-mammy. A familiar name for
(Ger. ) 2
the roll on the side-drum. Wchant (Fr.) Discant.

DaVH, dai, dal, dall', dalla, dal'le, D6cid(Fr.) See Deciso.

daTlo (It) To the, by the, for the, De'cima (Lat and It.) i. The interval
from the, etc. of a tenth. 2. An
organ-stop pitched
Dal se'gno (It.) See Segno. a tenth higher than the 8-fco
also called Tenth, or Double % *.
Damenisa'tion. (See Sotmisation.)
Graun's system of De'cime. See Deztme.
sol-faing with the
syjables da, me, ni, fo, tu, la, be, Decimo'le (Ger.) See Dccuph t
winch are not (like do, re,
mi, etc,) at- Deci'so (It.) Decided, enera* * with
fc?>ed to special scale-degrees, but sim- decision.

Deck'e (Ger.) Belly (of the violin, etc.) (metre) into a musical one a song is ;

belly or soundboard (of the pfte.) badly deklamiertf when an unaccented

' l

Declaman'do receives a strong musical

(It.) Declaiming "; in syllable
accent or a long note ; or when an
declamatory style,
accented syllable, or a word rendered
Declamation. In vocal music, the cor
rect enunciation of the words, especially prominent by the sense, receives a sub-
ordinate position in the melody on a
in recitative and dramatic music. (Comp.
weak beat or in short notes." [RIEMANN.]
Decompose" (Fr.) Unconnected, Del, dell', del'la, del'le, dello at.) Of
To the than the.
sing with a porta-
De*corapter (Fr.)
mento. D&assement (Fr.) A piece or perform-
Dekouplez In organ-music, " un-
ance of a light and trifling character.

couple," "coupler off. Deliberatamen'te (It.) Deliberately...

Decrescen'do (It) Growing softer; Delibera'to, deliberate.

diminishing in force. Sign m=a- Delicatamen'te, con delicatez'za (It)

Dec'uplet. A
group of 10 equal notes Delicately. ..Delica'to, delicate; in a
executed in the time proper to 8 notes delicate, refined style.
of like value, or to 4 notes of the next Delie" (Fr.) Non legato; leggero*
highest value ; marked by a slur over Deli'rio (It) con d. with fren-
or under which a figure 10 is set. (Also
Frenzy ; ,

zied passion.
De.cimole, Dezimole.)
Delivery, Style (method and manner of
Deduc'tio (Lat.) i. The ascending
singing); restrictedly, the enunciation
series of syllables or tones in the hexa- of a singer.
chords of Guido d'Arezzo. 2. Ace. to
later theoreticians, the resolution of a De'manche',
Demanchement (Fr.) "Off
the neck"; the thumb-positions in
dissonance to a consonance.
'cello-playing.. .D/manchcr, to quit the
Defective. Same as Diminished.
neck of the 'cello.
Defiden'do (It.) Dying away. Demande (Fr.) "Question," L e. the
De'gli Of the; than the.
(It.) subject of a fugue. (Usually sujet.)
(Ger. Stuffe, Ton'stufe; Fr. Demi (Fr., "half".) DemMton, 2-
degre ; It. gra'do.) i. One of the 8 measure rest... Demi-cadence, half-ca-
consecutive tones in a major or minor dence... Demi-croche, a i6th-note...
diatonic scale. Degrees are counted A demi-jeu (a direction found mostly in
from below upward, the key-note being
reed-organ or harmonium-music), with
the first degree. 2. A
line or space of half the power of the instr. mezzo
the staff. 3. A
step. (The prevailing .
.Demi-mesure, half-measure. .Demi-

confusion of the terms degree and step

pause, half-rest. .Demi-quartdesoupir,
might be obviated by applying degree a 32nd rest,. Demi-soupir, an eighth-
only to the tones, and step only to pro- rest,. Demi-temps, a half-beat... Demi-
gression between conjunct tones, of the ton, a semitone.
scale ; the expressions whole step, half-
Demiquaver. A i6th-note.. .Demise-
step, and step and a half, are quite super-
a of a m'iquaver^ a 32nd-note. ..Demitone*
fluous.). ..Scale-degree, degree rare for Semitone.
scale.. Staff-degree, a degree on the staff.

Demoiselle (Fr.) Tracker.

Deh'nen (Ger.) To
expand, extend ; to
prolong, .
expansion, ex- Dependent chord, harmony,
One -which is dissonant, requiring reso-
tension, prolongation Deh'nungs-
lution to a consonant one ; opp. to In-
strich, in vocal music, a line of contin-
uation after a syllable, indicating that it dependent.
is to be
sung to all notes over the line ; Depress. To lower (as by ajj or [?|j)...Zfc-
dots are sometimes used instead pression, chromatic lowering of a tone.
. . .

Gedehnf, extended, prolonged ; hence, Derivative. I. Same as derivative chord,

slow, stately. i/ e. the inversion of a fundamental
Dei (It.) Of the ;
than the. chord. 2. The root of a chord,

Deklamation' Musico-poetical DenveXe) "derived,

" (Ger.) (Fr., derivative".)
scansion. In vocal composition, the , Accord derive*, chord (also
transformation of the poetic rhythm simply dirvvl> an inversion).. .Mesure
2 ordinarily applied to formal composi*
e> any measure indicated by
tions like the fugue or sonata.. (See
figures (2-4, 3-8.
etc;) as being derived
a fractional part of, a whole Form*)
from, L e,
Devo xto (It.) In a devotional style (con

, . Jfc/tf, devozio'nt).
Des(Ger,) Dfc
Dex'tra (Lat.) Right . . . Manus d. % right
Des'cant. See Discant.
hand. . .Manu d< t with the right hand.
Descend. To pass from
a higher to a
lower pitch. . .Descent, descending pro-
De'zem (Ger.) See Dedma.
De^ime (Ger,) The interval of a tenth.
Deside'rio (It.) Desire, longing. . .Con Di (It.) Of, from, to, etc.
</., in
a style expressive of longing >
Diagram'ma (Gk.) diagram, i. The A
yearning. Greek written scale of 15 notes, divided
See Disin- into the various tetrachords. In
De*sinvoltnre, avec (Fr.) 2.

volto. old music, the staff and the scale writ-

ten on it ; also, a score or partition.
design, plan, or
Dessin The struc-
ture of a composition. Dia'logo (It.), Dialogue (Fr.)
duet A
for 2 solo voices or divided chorus ; or
Dessus (Fr.) I. Soprano or treble, i. e.
a similar instrumental piece*
highest vocal part.
the 2.
name Diapa'sort (Gk.) An octave (in ancient
for the violin (dessus de vide}.
Greek and in medieval music). .Dia- .

De'sto(iy Sprightly.
con dia-
Met no fason diafentf, or diapason
De'stra (It)* Right... .destra,
an octave plus a fifth, a twelfth.
colla de- fente,
right hand (also
dtstra mano>
iDiap. diatessaron (diap.
con diates- .

stra) ; a direction in pfte.-playing, sig-


saron)t an octave plus a major fourth, a

major eleventh Diap. ditone, an oc- . . .

with the right hand. (Abbr. m. d., or

tave plus a major third, a major tenth.
.Diap. semi-ditone^ an octave plus a .

D&acHe" (Fr.) In violin-playing, de- minor third, a minor tenth.

tached, i. e. playing successive notes
with alternate down-bow and up-bow, Diapa'son (EngL) I.
^An octave,--2.
Either of the 2 principal foundation-
but not staccato... Grand detackf, a

whole (stroke of the) bow to each note. stops of the organ, the open diapason
and the stopped diapason, both com-
Detennina'to(It) Determined, resolute.
monly of 8-foot pitch; if there are 2 op.
Detonation (Ger.), D&onnation (Fr.) diap.s on a manual, one is sometimes of
False intonation, singing out of tune. . . 1 6' pitch pedal-diapasons are generally

Detonieren (dttonner), to sing false ; 1 6' stops. The open d. has metal pipes
lower the
especially, to flat (gradually open at the top, and usually of large
pitch) in a cappella, singing. scale, though the scale differs when 2

Dtet'to (It) Aforesaid the same. or more diapasons are on one manual ;
the tone is bright, full, and sonorous.
Detttsch (Ger.) German . . . Deu'tsche
..The stopped d. has wooden pipes of
Fl$te^ the orchestral flute. . .Deuftscher
large scale, closed at the top by wooden
Bass, an obsolete kind of double-bass, and yielding a powerful fluty,
saving from 5 to 6 gut strings. .Deu- .
and somewhat hollow, tone. 3. Com-
tscke Tabulatur', see Tablaiure*.*
Deutsche Ttin'ze^ German dances, i. e. pass of a voice of instr. ; chiefly poetical.
the old-fashioned slow waltzes, Diapason (Fr.) 1. Compass of a voice
Deux Two... .4 deux mains, for
or .instr, 2. A rule or scale, ace. to
which makers of various instr.s regu-
'2 1naabds.. jDeux*2uafre, 2-4 (see Me-

late the size of the latter, and that of

3urt)*..Dtux-UmpSt or Valse a deux their An
a quick waltz, with 6 steps to parts. 3. organ-stop (dia-
pason). 4. A tuning-fork or pitch-pipe.
every 2 of the ordinary waltz (trois
5. Absolute pitch... Diapason nor-
mal, the standard pitch ori
Deuxieme position (Fr.) Half-shift. scale adopted in 1859 by the

Development. (Ger. DurcKfUhrung,} French Academy, in which a 1

The working-out or evolution of a has 870 single or 435 double vibrations
theme by presenting it in varied melo- per second of time (so-called "inter-
dic, harmonic, or rhythmic treatment j national pitch ").

Diapen'te (Gk. and Lat.) The interval Diesa're (It.) To sharp... Die'sis, a
of a fifth. .D. cum
. ditono, a major 7th. sharp.
. .D. cum semiditono, minor 7th. ,D. Die*ser
(Fr.) To sharp. . . Diese, a sharp.

cum semitonio, minor 6th... D. cum ' '

a 6th.
Dies ira (Lat. day of wrath ".) The ,

tono, major Missa pro defunciis ;

sequence of the
Diapenter (Fr.), Diapentisa're (It.) it now forms the 2nd division of the
To progress by skips of a fifth.
i. A dis- Di'esis (Gk.) I. The Pythagorean
Diaph'ony. (Gk. diaphoni'a.)
sonance. 2. See Organum. semitone (later Limma), which is the
difference between a fourth and 2
Diaschis'ma (Gk.) The difference be- In
greater whole tones, =256:243. 2.
tween the second below the 4th
tierce . modern theory, the difference between
quint in the descending" circle of fifths, an octave and 3 major thirds, the mod-
and the 3rd octave below the given tone ern enharmonic diesis (128:125),
(c:d\)\> 1:2025: 2048).
Diezeug'meflon (Gk.) Disjoined (see
Diaste'ma (Gk.) An interval. Greek music, i).

Diates'saron (Gk.) The interval of a Difference-tone* See Acoustics.

fourth. Differentia The differen'tia
Diatonic, i. See Greek music, 2. tono'rum in the medieval Gregorian
2. (In modern usage.) By, through, chants were the different forms of the
with, within, or embracing the tones of cadences or tropes to the Seculo rum
the standard major or minor scale a'men, according to the tone to which
. . .

Diatonic instr., one yielding only the transition was to be effected. (Also
tones of that scale of which its funda- disiinctio^)
mental tone is the key-note. .Diatonic Diffi'cile
(It.), Difficile (Fr.) Difficult

interval, one formed by 2 tones of the


same standard scale.. .Diatonic har- Digital.

A key on the keyboard of the
pfte., organ,. etc.; opp. to pedal (fin*
monyor melody',' that employing the
tones of but one scale. . .Diatonic mod- ger-\Aj opp. to foo /-key).

ulation^ see Modulation. ..Diatonic Digito'rium, A small portable appara-

tus for exercising the fingers, resem-
progression, stepwise progression within
one scale., Diatonic scale see Scale.
, bling a diminutive piano in shape, and

having 5 keys set on strong springs ;

Diau'los (Gk.) A double aulos, the
sometimes called Dumb piano.
tubes meeting in an acute angle, and
connected by and blown through a com- Di gra'do (It.) (Progression) by de-
mon mouthpiece. grees, step-wise.

Diazeuc'tic (Gk.) Disjoined (see Greek Diiamb',

Diiam bus. double iam-
bus a metrical foot consisting of 2
music, i). . .Diazeu'xis, the separation ;

of 2 neighboring tetrachords by the in- short and 2 long syllables in alternation

terval of a tone ; alsp, the tone itself,

metrical foot
An amateur. .

Di^brach, Di'brachys.
consisting of 2 short syllables (^ ~) ; a Diligen'za (It) Diligence, care.
pyrrhic. Dilli'diura (Lat.) An interlude, espe-
Di'chord. I. An ancient species of cially that between the separate lines
harp or lute having 2 strings. 2. Any chorals.
instr. having 2 strings to each note, Diluen'do (It.) Decreasing in loudness,
Dicho'ree, Dichore'us. A double cho- dying away.
ree or trochee ; a metrical foot consist- Dim/eter. i.
Consisting of 2 measures ;
ing of 2 long and 2 short syllables in al- divisible into 2 feet. 2. A verse or
ternation ( ^ ~).
period consisting of two feet
Dicte"e musicale (Fr:, "musical dicta- Diminished.
(Ger. verkld'nert; Fr. di-
tion".) A
modern method of training f
It, diminu to.) Dim. inter-
minu/(e) ;

the faculty of musical apprehension, in

val, a perfect or minor interval con-
which the teacher plays or sings short tracted by a chromatic semitone. .Dim. ,

phrases which the pupils take down on chord, a chord, the highest and lowest

paper. tones of which form a dimin. interval.

Diecet'to (It.) A piece for 10 instr.s. ..Dim. subject or tJieme-, one repeated

or imitated in diminution. .Dim. triad, . which parallel motion was the rule.
a root with minor third and dimin. fifth. 2. (Fr. dessus.) Treble or soprano
voice; the highest part in part-music.
Diminuendo (It) Diminishing in loud-
ness, . .Dim. pedal, see Pedal Discord, r. A dissonance. 2. Caco-
Diminner (Fr.) To diminish (in loud- Discrete
(It.) Discreet ;
ness}...^ diminuant beaucoup, ?=.&.- comparatively
subdued... Discrezio'ne, discretion; con
minuendo molto.
discrezione, with discretion or due re-
Diminution. (Ger. Verklei'nerung ; Fr. serve ; with judicious subordination to
diminution; It. diminuzio'ne.) I. The a leading part or parts.
repetition or imitation of a theme in Disdiapa'son (Gk., Lat.) In medieval
notes of smaller time-value (}, ^, or
music, the interval of a double octave.
% that of the original). 2. See Nota-
Dis'dis (Ger.) Dx (usually Disis).
tion, 2.
Disinvol'to Free, easy, graceful.
Dioxia (Gk.) Less common term for . Con
disinvoUu'ra, with ease, grace ;
Dis'is (Ger.) x. D [flowingly!
Dip. The vertical fall of a digital or pedal
when depressed to the full extent
Disjunct'. (Fr. disjoint,-*^ See Motion,
: also
Tetrachord (disjoined).
Diskant x i. Discant, treble.
Dipho'nium (Lat) A composition for

2 voices. Diskant'geige, the violin (the treble

instr. of its class). .
.Diskantisf, treble
Diphtho'nia. A vocal anomaly produced singer, . . Diskanf register, Diskanf,
67 inflammatory nodules seated on the stimmt, in the organ, a half-stop (also
vocal cords, which on closure of the
HaVbestimme). , .Diskanfschlussel, so-
latter divide the
glottis into an anterior prano-clef.
and a posterior half, so that 2 tones are
sounded on singing, instead of one. Disparate, in (It.) Aside.

Diplas'ic. Two-fold... A
foottx rhythm,
Dispera'to (It.) Desperate, hopeless. . .
Disperazio'ne, con, in a style expres-
that in which the thesis has twice the
sive of desperation or
length of the arsis, despair.
A Dispersed. See Harmony.
Dip'ody. group of 2 similar metrical r
feet, ^or
double foot, especially when DisponMee, Disponde us. A double
constituting a single measure. spondee; a compound metrical foot
Direct. I. (Ger. and Lat. Cus'tos ;
containing 2 spondees.
Fr. guidon ; It. gui'da,
mo'stra) The Disposition (Ger.) The D. of an organ
sign /w or </ set at the end of a staff to is
properly the preliminary estimate of
show the position of the first note on itscost, fixing the varieties of
the text (N. B. The Germans number of manuals, etc.; but also
often use it as a mere mark of continu- signifies a concise description of the
ation equivalent to
"etc.", without working parts of a finished organ,
reference to the pitch of
any note.) 2 especially an enumeration of the stops,
See Motion and Turn. couplers, combination-stops, etc.
Directeur (Fr.) Conductor, director Disposition (Fr,) Gift, talent, genius.
Dirge. A funeral hymn, or similar
Dissonance. (Ger.
Dissonant*; Fr.
dissonance; It. dissonan'za.) i. In
Diriment' (Ger.) Conductor, director. the
theory, simultaneous sounding of
Dinger (Fr.), Dirigie'ren (Ger.) .To tones so Temotely related that their
direct, conduct. combination produces beats. 2. In
Dirit'to ra (It.) .Alia a combination of 2 or more
Direct, straight, ,

(hrtffa, in direct motion. tones requiring resolution; opp. to

Consonance.. .Dissonant,
Dis(Ger,) T>$...Disis, Dx. consisting of
tones forming a dissonance 2
Dis'cant i. (Lat. discan'tus ; Ger.
; opp. to
consonant. . .Dissonant
Diskanfj Fr. dechant.) interval, 2 tones
The first at-
forming a dissonance. The dissonant
tempts at polyphony with contrary mo- intervals are the seconds and their in*
tion in the
parts; beginning in the I2th
versions, the sevenths, also all dimin-
century; opp. to the in organum. ished and augmented intervals.. .

sonant chord, a chord containing one cassation, 4. An entr'acte in an opera,

or more diss. intervals. or between compositions of consider-
Dissona're (It.) To be dissonant, to able length, in the form of a short
form a dissonance. ballet or other entertainment. 5. Epi-
sode in a fugue ; development of a
Distance. Interval. [Seldom used.]
principal theme.
Distan'za (It) An interval distance.,.
In disianza, a distance, marking
To play divisions.
music to be performed as if far away. Divi'si (It.) Divided. A
direction in
scores signifying that 2 parts appearing
Dis'tich. A group of 2 lines or verses ;
on one and the same staff are not to be
usually called couplet in modern rhym- as double-stops, but by the
ing versification. division into two bodies of the instr.s
Distinc'tio (Lat.) I. In Gregorian music,
playing from that staff. The return to
the pauses or breaks dividing vocal the unison is marked by the direction
melodies into convenient phrases. 2. a due, (or by #.,or a 2).
See Differentia. " "
Division. A dividing-up of a mel-
Distin'to (It.) Distinct, clear. ..Di- odic series of tones, vocal or instru-
stintamen'te, distinctly. mental, into a rapid coloratura pas-
Distona're (It.) To sing or play out of sage ; if
for voice, the passage was to
tune ; also sionarc. be sung in one breath. (Obsolete.) * . .

7!? run a division, to execute such a

Dit'al. A
key which, on pressure with
the finger or thumb, raises the pitch of passage... Division-viol, the Viola da
a guitar-string or lute-string by a semi- gamba.
tone; opp. to pedal. ..Dital harp, a
Division-mark. A slur connecting a
chromatic lute shaped like a guitar, group of notes, and provided with a
having from 12 to 18 strings, each con- figure indicating their number, show-
trolled by a dital to raise its pitch by a ing that their rhythm differs from the
semitone; inv, by Light in 1798, and ruling rhythm of. the piece ; as for a
later improved by him. (Comp. Klavier- quintuplet, triplet, etc.
Harfe.) Divo'to, Divotamen'te. See Devoto.
Diteggiatu'ra (It.) Fingering. Dixieme (Fr.) The interval of a tenth.
Dith'yranib, Dithyrara'bus. A form Do. The Italian name for C; supposed
of Greek lyric composition, originally to have been introduced by BononcinJ
a hymn in praise of Dionysus later ;
in" 1673. It is now also generally

greatly modified. Its leading char- adopted in -France instead of the

acteristics were a lofty enthusiasm, Aretinian Ut.
frequently degenerating into bacchantic Do. In solmisation, the usual syllable-
wildness (whence the adj. dithyram'bic\ name for the ist degree of the scale.
and the irregular form of its strophes, In the^r/-/?<7inetho/i of instruction,
no two of which were identical. Do is the name for all notes bearing the
letter-name C, whether key-notes or
Di'to(It) Finger./
not. In the movable-Do method, Do
Ditone, (Lat. di'tonns; Fr. diton.) A is always the key-note, whatever key is
Pythagorean major third of 2 greater
whole tones (81 : 64) ; wider by a sung in or modulation reached. In the
Tonic Sol-fa system, spelled Doh.
comma than a true major third (5 ' 4).
A compound' Doch'mius. A metrical foot consisting
Ditro'chee, Ditrocha'us. of 5 syllables (*-
~* ^ ).
metrical foot consisting of 2 trochees
-^^ -
^) ; also Dichoree.
Doctor of Music. See Bachelor.

Ditty. A short, simple song.

Dodecachor'don (Gk.) i. See Bisstx.
2. A treatise
Divertimen'to by Glareanus (1547) on
(It.) j x- A slaort poem the theory of the 12 keys or modes.
Divertissement (Fr.) J set to music,
di cro'rne (It) 12-8 time
and interspersed with songs and dances, Dode'cupla

di semitrome, 12-16 time,

for some special occasion. 2.
Light and
easy pieces of instrumental music, such
Dodec'uplet, A group of 1 2 equal notes
to be performed in, the time of 8 in the
as variations, potpourris, etc. 3. An
instrumental composition in 6 or 7 regular rhythm.
movements, similar to a serenade or Doh. See Do

Do'i(It.) Same as Due. fora but at exactly the same height, so


that the tone does not beat, but is

Doigt (Fr.) Finger... Doigt/^ fingered
merely reinforced . . .
Dop'pelflilgel) see
.*Doigte\ or doigter, fingering; doig
Vis-h-ms..*Dop'pelfuge, a double fugue
Us fourchits ^ cross-fingerings.
or canon. .Dop'pelgeige, viola d'amore.

Doi'can. See Dukia'na. -.

.Dop'pdgriff, double-stop (on the vio-
lin), paired notes (on keyboard-instr.s ;
Dorce (It.) i. Sweet, soft, suave ; dol e. and octaves)...
g. thirds, sixths,
cemen'it, sweetly, softly. 2. A
toned organ-stop, Dop'peloktaw, double octave. .Dop'- .

pelpunki, double dot (&>)... Dop'pel


Dolcez'za (It.) Sweetness, softness quintpommer, a large variety of \x>m-

con \svx&. .Dop'pelschlafr a
</., softly, gently. turn....A^'-
Dolcian' (Ger.), Dolcla'na, Dolcia'no pehunge, double-tongning. .

(It.) I. A species of bassoon in vogue D op'pio (It.) Double D. movimenfto, . . .

during the i6th and lyth centimes. 2, twice as fast...Z>.

d. valo're,
In the organ, a reed-stop of 8 or 16- twice as slow (absolute time-value of
foot pitch a fagotto. ; notes is doubled). .D.peda'le (in organ- .

Dolcia'to (It.) See Raddoldato. playing), the pedal-part in octaves...

Doppio signifies, with names of instr.s,
Dolcis'simo (It.) Very sweetly, softly.
larger in size and consequently deeper
..Also, a very soft-toned 8-foot flute-
in tone.
stop in the organ.
Do'rian or Dor'ic mode. See Mode.
Dplen'do, Deleave (It.) Doleful, plaint-
Dot. (Ger. Punkt; ^. point;
ive, sad. .
.Dolentemen'te, dolefully, etc.
It. fun'-
Dolo're (It.) Pain, grief ; con dolore, in io.) i. A dot set after a note prolongs
a style expressive of pain or grief; its time-value by half (d* = d J) ;
pathetically (also dolorosamen'te, dolo-
second dot or third dot prolongs the
time-value of the dot immediately pre-
Dolz'fiote (Ger.; Fr. flute douce; It.

fla'uto dol'ce.) i. An obsolete trans- ceding it

by half (J.. . ^J J J"A
verse flute, having a
half-plug within
the embouchure. 2. In the organ, an (The dot after ^.noteupon
line is pre- a
ferably written above the line when the
open flute-stop of rather narrow scale next note is higher, below the line when
and 8-foot pitch.
it is lower ;
Dom'chor (Ger.) Cathedral-choir.
Dominant, i. (Ger., Fr., and It.

Dominan'te.) The fifth ^>ne in the

major or minor scale.. *D. chord, (a)
The dot of
prolongation was formerly

the dominant triad ; (b) the dom. chord often set in the next
measure, quite
of the 7th. ,>. section^ of a movement,
. away from the note ; e. g.
a section written in the key of the domi- -
x X
nant, lying between and contrasting
with two others in the key of the tonic. |S
..D. triad) that having the dominant as which we now write :
root. 2. The
reciting-tone in the Gre-
gorian modes.
Dona nobis pacem. See Mass.
Doodlesack. See Ger. Dudelsack. 2. A dot set over or under a note in-
dicates that it is to be executed staccato:
Do'po(It.) After.
a slur
Dop'pel- (Ger.) Double,.. Dop'pd-B, (J p ;
connecting several such
the double-flat. dots calls for the mezzo-staccato.
Dop'ptlbe, ..Dop'pel- (Some-
blatt, double reed. . -Dop'pelchor, double times, especially in earlier authors, the
chorus staccato-dot calls rather for a
Dop'pelfagott, double-bassoon.
. . .
. sforzando
' than a stacfato ) 3. In old musio, sev-
(Dmfidte\ (It.fla'uto eral dots set above a note indicate that
doppia\ an organ-register of 8- foot
it is to be subdivided into so
stopped pipes, each pipe having 2
= many short
mouths, 2 windways, etc, one on either
side (behind and

in front) like the .#/-

notes ( f Hyp ; now used over a
tremolo-sign in violin-music to mark

the exact subdivision of the large note

). 4. Two
or four dots (the German tuning).
set in the spaces of the staff, before or
after a double-bar, form a Repeat. Double-stop. Dop'pelgriff; Fr.
double-corde; It. dop'pia ferma'ta.) In
Double, i. A variation. 2. A repetition
violin-playing, to stop 2 strings to-
of words in a song. 3. In organ-play-
gether, thus obtaining 2-part harmony.
ing, a 1 6-foot stop (as accompanying or
Double-tongue. (Ger. Dop'pekunge;
doubling the 8-foot stops in the lower Fr. double coup de langue.) In play-
octave). 4. a sub-
In the opera, etc.,
ing the flute, and certain brass instr.s,
stitute singer. 5. (Also Grandsire) In
applying the tongue in rapid alterna-
change-ringing, changes on 5 bells. 6. tion to the upper front teeth and the
As an adjective with names of mus.
hard palate, to obtain a clear-cut and
instr.s, double signifies "producing a
" brilliant staccato. (Also
tone an octave lower ; e. g. doitbk- '

bassoon^ double-botirdon, etc. 7. The

verb double signifies, to add (to any Double-trouble. A step peculiar to the
tone or tones of a melody or harmony) "breakdown."
the higher or lower octave. Doublette (Fr.) A 2-foot organ-stop,
octave of the principal.
Double (Fr.) i
(pi. doubles). See
Variation. The
2. in a Doublophone. A combined Euphoni-
minuet, when merely a variation of
um and Valve-trombone, with one com- '

the principal thems and retaining the mon mouthpiece a valve operated by

harmonic basis of the latter. 3. As an the left thumb throws the current of
double ; as double-ban*<?, air from the mouthpiece into the tube
of either instr. at will. Inv. by Fon-
double-bar ; coup de langue, double-
taine Besson of Paris in 1891.
tonguing ; double-croche^ a l6th-note ;
etc ... Double - corde^ double-stop Doublure (Fr.) See Double 4 (Engl.)
. . .

Double-main, an octave-coupler (organ). Doucement. (Fr.) Gently, softly. . .

..Double-octave, double octave.. Don- Deux, douce soft, gentle, sweet. >

ble-touche, a mechanism in the keyboard

Douzieme (Fr.) The interval of a
of harmoniums, etc., for adjusting the
key-fall at 2 different levels, with corre-
Down-beat. \. The downward stroke
sponding differences in the degree of
loudness of tone produced... Double- of the hand in beating time, which
marks the primary or first accent in
triple, 3-2 time.
each measure. 2. Plence, the accent
Double* (Fr.) A turn. itself (thesis, strong beat).
Double-bar. (Ger. Dop'peltaktstrich, Down-bow. (Ger. Herunterstrich; Fr.
Schluss'striche; Fr. doubh-barre; It. tirez; It. arco in giu.) In violin-play-
dop'pio bar'ra.) I. The two thick ing, the downward stroke of the bow
vertical strokes drawn across the staff from nut to point ; on the 'cello and
to mark the end of a division, (repeat), double-bass, the stroke from nut to
movement, or entire piece. 2. Two point ; usual sign p|.
thin vertical lines
Doxology A psalm or hymn of"
(bars) dividing one w (
2) (Gk.)
praise to God ; especially the Greater
section of a move--
u__ D. (Gloria in excelsis Deo), and the
ment from the next =flg Lesser D. (Gloria Patri, etc.)
Drag. I. A rallentando. 2. A de-
Double-bass. (Ger. Kon'trabass; Fr. scending portamento in lute-playing.
contre-basse; violonar; It. contrabbas''-
Draht'saite (Ger.) Wire string.
so.) The largest and deepest-toned
instr. ofthe violin family (with the ex- Dramatic music, i. Same as Program-
music. 2. Music accompanying and
ception of the rare contrabbasso doppio
illustrating an actual drama
on the
and the Octobass), with either 3 strings
(Gi'D-A being the Italian,^] -D- 6- the stage,

English accordatura), or 4 strings Dram'ma (It.) Drama. D. li'rico^ a

(tuned Ei-Ai-D-G). Compass: lyric drama. . .D. musica'le^ a music-
cord leathern
mu'sica, a endless tightened by
drama > opera... D. per a of rods and
byor system
musical drama, opera.. .Drammatica- braces,
. .Drammaftico, screws. The two chief classes of drums
mtnftt, -dramatically.
are the rhythmical (those employed to
the rhythm), and
vary and emphasize
Drang'end (Ger.J Pressing, hastening, the muncal (those capable of produc-
distinct in pitch). The
hurrying. ing a mus. tone
of the commonest forms of the first class in
Draw-stop. In the organ, One
within easy reach of modern use' are (i) The side-drum

projecting knobs Fr. tambour; It, tarn*

the organist, which, when drawn out, (Ger. Trommel;
it has a cylindrical body
shift the corresponding slides so as to buro)\
admit wind to the grooves communicat- wood or metal, and 2 heads, is slung
or a combination across the left thigh, and only the up-
ing with a set of pipes
of or else effect a coupling.- per head is beaten with the 2 drumsticks;
when gut are stretched
Draw-stop the entire mechan-
action, strings (snares)
across the lower head, the instr. is
ism controlled and set in operation by
called a snare-drum. (2) The bass
the draw-stops.
drum (Ger.grosse Trommel; Jr. gross*
Dreh'er (Ger.) An obsolete variety of
caisse; It. gran cassa, gran tamburo),
waltz resembling the Landler, of Bo-
similar in form to I, but much larger,
hemian or Austrian origin, in 3-8 or
and beaten on one or both heads with
3-4 time. a stick having a soft round knob at the
Dreh'orgel (Ger.) A barrel-organ. end. (3) See Tambourine, .The sole .

Drei (Ger.) Three... Dreifchorig, (a) representative

of the second class is the
for 3 choirs ; (b) trichord (said of a Kettledrum (which see).
pfte.), ..Drti'gcstrichen, 3-Iined, Duc'tus (Lat.) A series of tones in
accented. .
.Drti'klang, a triad. . .

progression as d. rec'tu$
three-r>art, in 3 parts, stepwise ; l

for 3 voices.
ascending d. rever'tens^ descending ;

d. tircumcur'rtns^ first ascending and

Drit'ta (It.) See Uiritto. then descending.
Driving-note, Syncopated note. (Ob- Du'delsack (Ger.) Bagpipe.
Du'e (It.) Two...X^w, signifies (i)
Drpit(e) <Fr.) Right... Main droite, for two ;
as a due voci, for 2 parts or
hand ;//.
right (abbr. d.) voices ; (2) both together (see Divisi).
Drone. (Ger. Stim'mert Bordwi'; Fr. ..Due corde, "two strings"; se
bourdon; It. fordo* ml) In the bag- Cor da.,. Dm volte, twice, . ./ due jpt-

pipe, one of the continuously sounding dali, both pedals at once.

pipes- of constant pitch. (Also see Duet'. (Ger. Duetf; Fr. dm; It. duef-
Drone-bass.)... Drone-bass^ a bass on to.) I. A composition for 2 voices or
the tonic, or tonic and dominant, which instns. 2. A
composition for 2 per-
is persistent throughout a movement formers on one instr,, as the pfte, 3.
or piece, as in the Musette 2. .Drone* A composition for the organ, in 2

fipe, same
as Drone. on a separate
parts, each to be played
Drfick'balg (Ger.) Concussion-bellows. manual.
Druck'er (Ger.) A specially brilliant Duettftio (It., dimiri. of duetto.) A
(sometimes a forced) effect; einen short and simple duet.
Drucker aufsetsen^ to bring out such Dulcian' (Ger,) See Dolcum.
an effect.
Dulcian^a. I. An organ-stop having
Drfi'cker (Ger.) See Steelier. metal pipes of narrow scale and yield-
Druck'werk (Ger.) An organ-action ing a somewhat sharp, thin tone. 2. A
operating by the pressure of stickers on reed-stop of delicate tone. 3. small A
the remoter parts of the mechanism, bassoon.
(See Zugwerk.) Dulcimer. (Ger. ffatWrett; Fr. (rw-
Drum. An of percussion, consist-
paiwn ; It. cem'balo.) A very ancient
ing of a hollow body of wood or metal, stringed instr., greatly varying in con-
over one or both ends of which a mem- struction and form ; typical character-
brane (the head) is stretched tightly by the wire strings stretched over a
means of a kwp< to which is attached an soundboard or resonance-box and struck

with mallets or hammers. In the modern Dur (Ger.) Major.

forms the string-tension is regulated by Our,-e (Fr.) Harsh, unpleasing in tone.
and the mallet-heads have
wrest-pins, Duramen'te (It.) Sternly, harshly.
one soft and one hard face, which pro-
duce different effects - (& Durch'fiihrung (Ger.) In a general sense,
fl LJE. the mus. construction or working-out of
of tone. Compass 2 a movement specifically, the develop-

to 3 octaves, g to g*: ment of a theme, as in the fugue or

The dulcimer was the
sonata. (See Development, Form.)
and is often called the proto-
precursor, tran'situs.) The
of the pianoforte. See Pantalon.
passage or progression of
one prin-
Dumb piano. An instr. like a small cipal tone to another through a tone or
piano in form, having
a keyboard of tones foreign to the harmony or key. . .

narrow compass, but neither hammers Durch'gangston, passing-tone, chang-

nor strings intended for silent finger-
; ing-tone; re*gelmassiger D.ton, one

e. merely for increasing the falling on a weak

beat wtregelmas-
practice, i. ;

mechanical dexterity of the fingers siger Durchgangston,

one falling on a
Prac- called a
(Comp. Digitorium, and Virgil strong beat, also
tice-Clavier) . . .Dumb spinet, see Hani- Durchgang, "heavy passing tone,"

or free
chord* though properly an anticipation
Dummy pipes. Pipes which do not suspension.
in the front of an i. Passing, as
speak, displayed Durch'gehend (Ger.)
Durch'gehender Akkerd', passing-
chord. 2. Transitional, as durchge-
Dump. An obsolete dance in slow tempo
hende Au/weichungen, the transitional
and common time.
or continuous modulations necessary in
Du'o (It.
and Fr.) A duet. (In English
passing to a key harmonically
usage, duo is sometimes distinguished 3. Complete; as durch'gehettfe
from duet by applying the former term Stim'men, complete (organ-) stops.
to a 2-part composition for 2 voices or
Durable omponieren (Ger.} In song-
instr.s of different kinds, and the latter to differ-
writing, to set each strophe
to such a composition for 2 voices or
ent music, thus following the changing'
instr.s of the same kind.)
mood more than in the ballad or
The interval of a
Duode'cima (It.) i.
folk-song, where melody and harmony
'twelfth. 2. A Twelfth (organ-stop). are generally the same for each verse.
Duodecimo'le (Ger.) Dodecuplet, .Durchkompoftitrt, through-corn-

Du'odene. A 12-tone group composed of posed," progressively composed.

4 trines, applied to the solution and Dttrch'schlagende Zung'e (Ger.)
correction of problems in temperament reed.
and harmony. A
duodefnal is the sym- Durch'stecnen (Ger.) Running (of
bol of the root-tone of a duodene. The wind in an organ). Also said of a pip
term (as also Trine, Decad, Heptad, which, when facing another, causes
Heptadecad, etc.) is the invention of
A. latter to speak' by the wind issuing from
of whose
J. Ellis, a full explanation its mouth. Dunk'stickcr, tones pro-
system of acoustics will be found in his duced by the above defects.
original Appendices to the Second Eng-
" a
lish Edition of Helmholtz's work On Duree (Fr.) Duration, Jime-value (of
the Sensations of Tone," (1885, trans-
lated Ellis himself). Durez'za (It.) Sternness, harshness.
by "
Duodra'ma, duodram'ma) A kind of Dur MoH'-Tonart (Ger., major-minor
mode".) The "combined" mode de-
melodrama, or spoken dialogue accom-
rived theoretically from the resolution
panied by the orchestra. '

df the dominant chord in minor to the

Duo'i (It.) Same as Due. tonic in major (mode with major third
Duole (Ger.) Couplet 2. and minor sixth); 'expressed by the
Duo'lo (It.) Grief, sadness, melancholy. Hauptmann formula
Du'pla (proportio). See Notation, 3-
Stern, harsh.
Double... D. rhythm, rhythm Du'rOj-a (It.) 1
Duple. "hard* Equl.
of 2 beats to a measure. Du'rusra.-uxn (Lat., .)

valent to major in the phrases cantus Eclisses (Fr,) Ribs (of a violin)..
a Contre-tclisscs, linings.
{turns, hexachor'dttiti durum; i.e.^
chant (vocal music) and hexachord with Eclogue. See glogue.
major third ; opp. to Mottis.B durum, Ec'lysis (Gk.) The flatting or depression
B natural, of a tone ; opp. to EC' bolt.
Gloomy, mournful.
Dii'ster (Ger.) E'co (It.) Echo.
Dutch concert. See Concert. Ecossaise (Fr.) Originally, a Scotch
Dux (Lat., leader, guide".) Subject round dance in 3-2 or 3-4 time now, a ;

in 2-4 time. (Com-

or theme of a fugue. lively contredanse
The pare Schottische.)
Dynamics, theory of mus. dyna-
mics is the scientific explanation of the Ecu (Fr.) Shield (on face of lute, man-
of in-
varying and contrasting degrees dolin, etc.)

tensity or loudness in mus.

tones. Ed (It) And.
E'del (Ger.) Noble ; refined, chaste.
Effekt' (Ger.) Effect. ..Effekt'piano,
the effect of the forte-piano (/.
E. (Ger. Ej Fr. and It. mi.) The 3d Effet (Fr.), Effet'to (It.) Effect, im-
tone or degree in the typical diatonic pression.
scale of C-major. (Compare Alphabet- In singing, a rough and
Effort (Fr.)
ical Notation, and So Imitation.)
guttural attack.
E (It) And ; (before a vowel, ed\
Egalite* (Fr.) Evenness,
Ear. I. (Ger. Ohr, Gehor*; Fr. ordttej
Eglogue (Fr.) A pastoral, or idyl,
It orec'chio!) A mus. ear is one im-
though in somewhat more animated
pressionable to mus. tones, thus afford- style than the latter,
ing to its possessor, after more or less
Egua'le (It.) Equal ; even, smooth. . .

practice, the capability of accurately

Egualmen'tet evenly, smoothly.
reproducing them, and of appreciating
and correctly analyzing compositions Eidomu^ikon. See Melograph.
performed by others. 2. One of the Ei'gentlich (Ger.) Proper, actual, true,
2 projecting plates of metal on either real . a strict fugue.
. .
Ei'geniliche Fuge,
side of the mouth of an organ-pipe. . Kaden&\ perfect ca-
Ebollimen'to, Ebollizio'ne (It) Ebul- dence. .Ei'gentlicher Drei'klang,
. com-
lition; a sudden and passionate ex- mon chord.
pression of feeling. Ei'genton Natural tone (of a
itcart (Fr,) A
wide stretch on the pfte.' wind-instr.) tone proper to, or pro-

Ec1>ole (Gk.) The duced by, a sonorous body or hollow

raising or sharping
of a tone ; opp. to EC*lysis. space.

Ecceden'te Eighteenth. An interval of 2 octaves

(It,) Augmented (of inter-
and a fourth.
Ecclesiastical modes. See Modes- Eighth, i. An octave. 2. An eighth-
Ec/co (It) Echo.
note, Eighth-note a note representing
. . ',

one-eighth of the time-value of a whole

chappement (Fr.) The hopper or es- note ; a quaver (5 j ) .Eighth-rest^ a .

capement in a double-action pfte. rest equal in time-value to an eighth-

fechelette (Fr.) Xylophone. note.
chelle (Fr.) Scale. Ei'len (Ger.) To hasten, accelerate, go
Echo. I. A subdued repetition of a faster. .
.Ei'lend> hastening ; acceleran-

strain or phrase, 2. An do, stringendo. .

.Ei'lig, hasty, in a hur-
3. A harpsichord-stop Echo-organ
. . .
ried style; rapid, swift.
a separate set of pipes, either enclosed Ein, Eins (Ger.) One Ein'Mrig, (a) . . .

in a box within the organ, or placed at a having one string to each note ; for
distance from the latter, to
produce the single (or undivided) chorus (choir) , . .

effect of an echo ; it has separate

stops, Ein'fach, simple, plain . .Ein'gang, in- .

and often a special manual.., Echo- troduction, . .EingestricJien, one-lined.

stop^ one producing an echo-like effect, .
.Ein'grtifen, (a) to touch or sound'
either by itself or in an echo-organ. (strings) ; (t>) in pfte. -playing, to inter-
lace the fingers. .Ein'klang, unison. . , .
shading timbre like that of the string-

Ein'lage, a short piece introduced (V- orchestra the ordinary hammer-action


gelegi] between 2 compositions or in the may be employed alone, or in combina-

midst of a long one, .Ein'kitung, in-
. tion with the above. A
peculiar (sus-
troduction Ein'mal,
. once . Ein -
. . . .
taining) pedal-mechanism permits a
sailer monochord. .Ein'satz, entrance
i .
given tone, a full chord, or any har-
(of a vocal or instrumental part) ; attack. mony, to sound on as long as desired,
Ein fsatzstiick, a crook (usually Bogeti). even after lifting the fingers. Numer-
Ein'satzzeichen, in a canon, the presa. ous combined effects of tone are pos-
. .Ein'schnitt, a
pause at the end of a sible.
melodic phrase or section Ein'setzen, . . .

to enter (as a part) to attack to strike

Elegamment (Fr.) Elegantly.
; ;

or fall
in; Hornist', a Elegan'te (It.)
eiri'setzender Elegant, graceful...
who sets the mouthpiece Elega.ntemen'te) elegantly, etc.
rather within than against his lips ; a
(Ger.) See Zither.
lipping sometimes necessitated thick Elegie'zither by
El'egy. (Fr. Mgie; It. ekgi'a.)
lips. .Ein'ringen, (a) to sing to sleep

composition of a mournful cast, either

to until confidence
(b) practise singing
is attained to on vocal or instrumental ; a dirge. .-//- .

Ein'spielen, (a)
. . .
a new instr. till it works smoothly ; (t>) to giac, a pentameter, i.e.
a verse com-
practise a part or piece until confidence posed of 2 dactylic penthemims
is attained Ein stimmen, to tune (in
. . .
written in elegiac metre. .Elegiac verse, .

concert with other instr.s). .Ein'stim- that in which elegiac poems or verses

for one or voice. . .Ein'iritt,

are written, consisting of elegiac dis-
mig, part
tiches ; an elegiac distich being one in
entrance ; beginning.
hexa- which the first line is a dactylic
Els (Ger.) EJ...'mV, Ex. meter, and the second a pentameter,
Ei'senvioline (Ger.) See Nagdgelge. thus:

Eklo'g(u)e, Ger. spelling of tiglogue.

Ela. Name of the highest
note in the Aretinian scale :
Electric Organ. See Organ. . . Electric Element (Fr.) The entire range of
Piatioforte (Ger. elektropho nisches Kla- tones embraced in the mus. scale...
vier*), inv. in 1891 by Dr. Eisenmann ,Ument m^trig^ue^ a measure-note.
of Berlin. Over each unison of strings
Eleva^io (Lat.) i. Up-beat unac- ;
an electro-magnet is fixed ; on closing
cented count. 2. The rising of a mel-
the circuit (by depressing a digital) each
attracts and ody over the ambitus of the mode. 3,
magnet its strings, (the A mus. composition accpmpanying the
magnetic action being duly controlled elevation of the Host.
and limited by a set of microphones)
causes their continuous vibration. Elevation. See Elevatio. . .Also, the
Tone (of the improved instr.) full, sweet, name of 2 obsolete graces, the elevation
capable of the most various dynamic and skaked elevation :
Elevation. Shaked Elevation.

written :
played :

Iil6vation (Fr.) I.
Up-beat or weak Embouchure (Fr.) i. The mouthpiece
beat (also lev/) ; opp. to Frappe*. 2. of a wind-instr., or the oval orifice of
Same as Ehvatio 2 and 3. a flute. 2. See Lip.
Eleva'to Elevated, lofty, sublime.
Empater les sons (Fr.) To produce a
.Elevazio'ne^ see Elevation, -
very smooth and suave legato. . .Ex/-
Embellir (Fr.) To embellish, orna- cution (yoix) empdtfe, an instrumental
(vocal) style lacking in neatness and
Embellishment. See Grace. j distinctness.

Empfin'dunglCer.) Feeling, emotion.. ,

quarter-tones, and the third step a
Eaipjin'dungwoll, full of feeling ; feel- major third. In modern music, enhar-
ingly, with emotion. monic tones are tones derived from dif-
and Fr.) ferent degrees, but practically identical
Empha'se, (Ger. Emphasis,
in pitch, as c$ and d\) on the pfte. or

Carried organ. .Enharmonic change, a change


Emporte>e (Fr.) away by feel- effected in the harmonic relations of a

ing or passion, tone or chord by treating it as identical
Empresse>e (Fr.) Urgent, eager ;
in in pitch with another i

haste. tone or chord of dif- [

Enarmo'nico (It.) Enharmonic. ferent notation ;

thus: v
En badlnant See Schersando. where the enharm, change of /^ to aft
Enclavure du manche brings about a different resolution of
(Fr.) Space cut the diminished seventh-chord by chang-
in belly (of violin) for insertion of neck.
ing its tonality:
Encore (Fr.) "Again!" (in English ^-minor.
(i) (2) taninor.
usage; the French use the word "for"
when recalling an actor or performer).
Also used for recall (noun and verb),
and for the piece or performance re-
. . Enharmonic chords, chords (like -i
peated. and 2 above) alike .in pitch but unlike
" 1
End-man. In the negro minstrels ', in notation and derivation Enharm. . . .

a man who sits at the end of the semi- see Diesis .Enharm.
di'esis, .
circle formed by the
company on com- one derived from an enharm. change. . .

mencing the performance. There are Enharm. modulation, an enharm.

2 or 4 such end-men, who provide a
change of chords, as above, . .Enharm.
good part of the fun apart from the organ, pianoforte, scale, one in which
songs, and likewise perform on the the identity of the enharmonic tones is
11 "
bones and the tambourine.
denied, and an attempt made to realize
Energi'a (It.), Energie(Fn) Energy. . . practically the minute differences in
Energicamen' te (It), or con energia, between such tones, e. g. by add-
with energy and decision,
energetically. ing an extra digital for d\) as distinct
from <$ etc.
Ener'gico (It.), Ener'gisch (Ger.) En- ;

ergetic, vigorous; indicates that the Ensemble Concert, in the sense

passage so marked is to be vigorously of agreement of 2 or more in a de-
accented and distinctly phrased. sign or plan". i. The unity of a
Enfent de chceur A choir-boy. composition ; the harmonious agree-
ment of parts which forms a well-bal-
En'fasi, con (It.) With emphasis, em-
anced whole. 2. The harmonious co-
phatically. .Enfa'tico, emphatic.
operation -of the various factors in a
Eng (Ger.) Narrow, close.,.* performance'; of the actors, singers,
Harmonic* (Lags], close harmony. musicians, or instruments, taken in
Eng'elstimme (Ger.) Vox angelica. groups or together. . .Morceaux d' en~
The stretto in stmble, concerted music.
Eng'fuhrung (Ger.) a
fugue. En serrant (Fr.) Stringendo.
Eng'Hsch (Ger.)
English. . .Englisch Entr'acte (Fr., interval between acts".)
Horn, cor anglais... Eng'lische Me- A instrumental composition or
cha'nik, English action (pfte.). . .Eng*- short ballet, intended or
adapted for
Uscher Tanz, anglaise. , . performance between
Englisck Vio- acts.
let, (a) an obsolete bow-instr. re- Entrayta (It.) See Entrti, and Intrada.
sembling the viola d'amore, with 14
Entr6e (Fr.) i. See Intrada; also,
sympathetic strings stretched below
the fingerboard ; specifically, the orchestral prelude to -a
(b) a former tuning
of the violin (f^a-^a ). 1 ballet, following the overture. 2. En-

trance (of a part or
actor). 3. division A
(Ger. enkarmo'nisch; of a ballet '* "
corresponding to a stene
Fr. enharmoniqut ; It.
tnarmo'nico.) in a dramatic
In Greek music, the tnh. performance ; also, the
genus was dance-music
accompanying it. 4. An
distinguished by a tetrachord, the first old dance
2 steps in which were resembling the Polonaise in
(approximately) character, usually in 4*4 time; often
occurs as first movement in the Sere- (or boys') voices (contralto and soprano),
or men's voices (tenor, bass) ;
nata. opp. to

Entry. Anact of an opera, burletta, etc. unequal voices," a term equivalent to
mixed chorus.
Entschlos'sen E'quisonance. In medieval music, the
(Ger.) Resolute(ly), de-
unison (of primes or octaves).
termined, in a determined manner. ^
Entwurf (Ger.) Sketch, plan t design. Equisonnance (Fr.) The unison (of
octaves, double octaves, etc.)
Eo'lian. See Molian.
Equi'sono (It.) In unison or octaves.
Ep-icede. (Lat. epicJdium; Fr. epi-
It. A funeral song, Equivocal or doubtful chord. See
cede; epice'dio.)

Epigo'nion (Gk.) The ancient Greek Ergrif'fen (Ger.) Affected, stirred, mov-
lyre with 40 strings, named after its re- e&...Ergrif'fenheit, emotion, agita-
puted inventor Epigonos.
Erha'ben (Ger.) Lofty, exalted, sub-
lipinette (Fr.) Spinet.
lime. .
.Erhafbenheit^ sublimity, etc.
Epini'cion (Gk.) i.
triumphal songA
in celebration of a victory. 2. In the Erhoh'ung (Ger.) Raising (the pitch of);
Greek Church, the triumphal hymn, the sharping. , .Erhdk'ungszeichen, sign of
Sanctus. raising, as the J, or a |J after a [7.

Epio'dion (Gk.) A funeral song. Ermat'tet (Ger.) Exhausted, wearied.

Episode. (Ger. Zwisch'ensatz; Fr. Epi- Ernie'drigung Lowering (the

sode; Ittdivertimenfto.} An intermedi- pitch of) ; flatting. . . Ernie 'drigungs-

ate or incidental section ; a digression zeichen, sign of lowering, as the fr, or
from and interpolation between the the fl after a J.

repetitions or developments of the prin- Ernst (Ger.) Earnest, serious, grave.

cipal theme or themes of a composition ; (Also adverb.}
specifically, in the fugue, a passage of Ero'ico,-a and
(It.) Heroic; strong
the above character ordinarily formed of
motives taken from the subject or coun-
Erotic, (ItM&V0.) i. Amatory. 2.

An amatory poem, a love-song.
That on the
Epistle side (of the altar).
priest's left, when he is facing the con- Er'st err e,-es (Ger.) First ...Et ste

gregation ; the south side ; opp, to the Stim'me^ the highest part or voice.
gospel or north side. Erwertern (Ger.) To extend, expand.
Epis'trophe (Gk.) In a cyclic composi- Erwei'terte Harmonie', see Lags, write*
tion, a refrain. ..Erwei'terter Satz a movement in y

Epit'asis (Gk.) The raising of the voice, which there is a full exposition of the
or the strings of an instr., from a lower subject by development, repetition, etc.
to a higher pitch. (See Anesis.) .
.Erwei'terung (of a fugal theme), the
Epithala'mium (Lat.), Epithala'mion widening of any of its intervals,
A nuptial song or poem.
(Gk.) ErzaMer (Ger.) The Evangelist or
Epito'nion (Gk.) A tuning-wrench ;
a Narrator in a Ptoion-play.
pitch-pipe. Erz'laute (Ger.) Archlute.

Ep'itrite. Same as ffippius.

Es (Ger.) Efr. . ./&, [>[?.
Ep'ode (Gk M "after-song".) i. A re- EsacorMo i. Hexachord. 2. The
2. The concluding stanza of an (It.)
interval of a sixth.
ode, following the strophe and anti-
Esat'to (It.) Exact, true,
Eptacorde (Fr.), EptacorMo (It.) I. Esecuzlo'ne (It.) Execution.
Heptachord.- 2. A scale of 7 notes.
Eserc^zio Exercise
(It.) ; practice.
3. The interval of a seventh.
Espace (Fr.) Space (in staff).
Equa'bile (It.) Equable, even, uniform,
similar. .Equabilmmte, equably, etc. EspiranMo
. (It.) Expiring, dying away.

Equal counterpoint, temperament. Espressio'ne, con (It.) "With expres-

See the nouns. .Equal voices, voices
. sion, expressively. ..Espressi'vo, ex-
of the same class, i. e. either women's pressive.

Essential harmony. See Harmony.. Evening-song, Even-song. In the

Ess. notes, chord-notes. ..Ess. 'jth, (CL Anglican Church, a form of worship
the leading-note; (b) the dominan appointed to be said or sung at eve-
chord of the 7th: ning,;known as Vespers in the R. C.
Estensio'ne (It.) Compass . . . Esteso,-
(pi. estesi^e), extended. Ever'sio, Evolu'tio (Lat.) The inver-
sion of the parts in double counter*
Estinguen'do (It.) Extinguishing, dy
ing away.
Estin'to (It) Barely audible the ex Evira'to (It) See Castrate.

treme of pianissimo. Evolution (Fr.) See Rendersement.

Estravagan'za (It) Extravaganza, EVOVAE. The vowels
of Seculortttn
litalon (Fr.) Scale 0m*n, the last two words
in the Gloria
Patri. In Gregorian music, the
Istendue trope
(Fr.) Compass.
" closing the Lesser Doxology; in a wider
toffe"(e) (Fr.) Having body". . . Vmx sense, any trope.
a full, sonorous voice.
Jtojf/e, Exercise. (Ger. G'bung, tt'bungsstuek;
touff,-e (Fr.) Stifled, damped, muf Fr. exerdce; It. eserci'zio.) A short
fled. .touffoir, damper technical study, often
consisting of but

EttacorMo See Eptacordo. one repeated measure, for training the

fingers (or vocal organs) to overcome
Iitude A
study; especially, one some
^Fr.) ^
also, a short
special difficulty
affording practice in some particular
study in composition, consisting of an
technical difficulty. . .tude de concert,
outline (e. g. a figured bass, or a cantus
an etude designed for public perform-
ance ; a species of characteristic piece. firmus} to be filled out harmonically or
contrapuntally by the student.
EtVas (Ger.) Rather, somewhat. A valve
Exhaust-pallet or -valve.
Enharmonic, Producing harmonies opened by a draw-stop, to let off the
to wind in the bellows after
perfectly pure; opp. tempered... playing ; an
Euharmonic organ, one having a suf- evacuant.
ficient number of keys to
produce all Exposition, i. (Ger. er'ste
the fundamental and the chief deriva- Durch'fuh-
rung.) See Fugue. 2. (Ger., [-tion'].)
tive tones.
EUOUAE. Expression (Fr.) i. Expression. 2.
Eupho'ne. i. (Also Euphon) See The vibrato effect on bow-instr.s.
Euphonium. -2. In the organ, a 16-
Expression. (Ger. Awfdruck; Fr. ex.
foot free-reed stop, with a soft sweet
fression; It. The clear
tone like that of the clarinet. and effective presentation of the emo-
Eupho'nia (It) Euphony. tional and intellectual content of a
work proper reading and interpre-
Eupho'niad. A kind of orchestrion. ; its

tation, rendering and execution. .Ex- .

Eupho'nium. r. An instr. inv. by a written direction

Chladni in 1790, consisting of
gradu- (either a sign, word, or phrase) for the
ated glass tubes set in vibration with
performance of a piece. .Expression- .

the moistened
fingers, and connected stop, in the harmonium, a stop which
with steel rods.
(Also Euphon.)z. closes the
escape-valve of the bellows,
The bass Saxhorn, so that the
wind-pressure, and conse-
Euter'pe. One of the nine Muses, the quently the intensity of the tone, is
inventress of the double flute, and
pa- partly under the control of the pedals.
troness of
flute-players and of primitive Expressive organ.
and simple melody. (Ger. Expressii/-
orgel; Fr. orgue exprcssif.) The har-
Evacua'tio (Lat.) In mensurable nota- monium.
tion, writing only the outlines of solid
xtem'pore. Without previous prepar-
notes, thus reducing their value one- ation ; on the
by spur of the moment off- ;
Evakuant' (Ger.) The exhaust-valve

or exhaust-pallet in the xtem'porize. (Ger. extemporie'ren.)

organ ; (Engl. ' To improvise. . . Extemporizing-ma*
also evacuant). \

Mne t an apparatus for


recording improvisations on the pfte. Extraneous chromatic signs. Those

or organ by means of a mechanism not proper to the key. .Extraneous .

placed in communication with

the key- modulation, one to a remote key.
board. See Melograph. A
Extravagan'za. composition of an
Extended compass, harmony) inter- extravagant, whimsical, or fantastic
val. See the nouns. character; a burlesque.
Extension (Fr.) i. On the pfte., a Extreme, Of intervals, augmented.
stretch on the violin, the extension of
; The chord of the extreme sixth has a
the little finger or forefinger of the left
major third and sharp sixth, and oc-
hand. 2. Same as tendue. curs on the 6th degree in minor in 3
Extension-pedal. See Pedal principal forms :
i. 2. 3-

i TBjg

A A ~
or with progression to major (-fib). improvised. 3. A
drone-bass, a bur*
The first form is called the Italian den. 4. The intonation of the Psalms,
sixth; the second, the French^ sixth; Face (Fr.) The position of a chord, either
and the third, the German sixth. 2 as a fundamental chord or inversion ;
In part-music, the outer parts.
(pi.) e. g. a triad has 3 faces.
3. Extreme kty, a" remote key. u
-fach (Ger., -fold ".) When compounded
with a numeral, equivalent to ranks, i.e.
F. in a mixture-stop zwei'fack=wth 2

ranks, drei'fach^vntii 3 ranks, etc.

F. (Gen F; Fr. and It.
fa.) The fourth
tone and degree in the typical diatonic Fach'erformiges Pedal' (Ger.) A
scale of C-major. (Gorap. Alphabeti- "fan-shaped" or radiating pedal-key-
cal notation, Solmisation.) f-=.forte; board.
ff or fff (seldom ffff) , fortissimo. Faci le (Fr.), FVcile (It.) Facile, easy,
fluent... Fadlement facilmen'te\
Fa, I. The fourth of the Aretinian
syllables. 2. Name of the tone in- F easily, fluently. .
ease, easiness, facility, fluency ; facili*
Italy,France, etc. . .Fa feint (Fr.), fa
il(e} also signifies made easy, as
an easy
ficftum (Lat.), former term for any
arrangement of a difficult piece or
flatted note... /fa mi>m solmisation,
the descending step of a semitone; passage.

originally that from Fto E, thereafter Fack'eltanz (Ger., "torch-dance".) A

from j#b to -<4 ^b to A etc - torch-light procession arranged at some
German courts at the marriage of a
Fabliau (Fr.) A versified tale or ro- member of the reigning family; the
mance of the trouveres, in vogue chief- music a polonaise in march-time, for

ly during the 1 2th and I3th centuries. military band, and in minuet-form.
..Fablier (Provenjal), a Trouvere.
Facture (Fr.; Gtx.Faktur'; It/atiS-i
Fa'burden. (Fr. faux bourdon; It. ra.) I. The plan, build, structure,
In medieval music, construction of a composition. 2.
fal so lordo'ne^) I. (Fr.
the primitive harmonization of a <:./. and It.) Scale (of organ-pipes),
by adding the third and the sixth above, -fa/dig (Ger.) Equivalent to threads (of
and progressing in parallel motion violin-strings), as ^fadig, having 4
throughout, only the first and last threads.
chords having key-note, fifth, and oc-
tave. 2. Later, the setting of a simple
Fading. An Irish dance; also, the
burden of a song.
(note against note) counterpoint to the
Fagott' (Ger.) Bassoon... Fagotfzug
c. /., strict parallel motion being given

to some extent dissonances were (or simply Fagott) , a reed-stop in the

up ;

avoided, various embellishments added, organ.

and the whole counterpoint frequently Fagot'to (It.) Bassoon. .Fagotti'no > a
"small bassoon pitched a fifth highe dance in dancers of
triple time, for 2
than the ordinary one (Ger* Quint different sex, who accompany
it with

fagott, Tenor'fagott)*.* Fagotti'sta, a castanets, or sometimes '(in the case

bassoonist, bassoon-player. . Fagotto' ne . of the man) with a tambourine. The
double-bassoon. dance alternates with vocal couplets,
Fak For fa, in Tonic Sol-fa.
both dance and song having a guitar-

Faible (Fr.) Weak. accomp.; the following is the castanet-

. .
JVw/r faibh
weak beat rhythm :
J* J|33J J353J I J*
Faktur' See Facture.
(Ger.) Fanfa'ra (It), Fanfare (Fr.) i. A
Fa-la. See Ballet 3. . .Also, in Italy, a brass-band. 2. ,
A fanfare,
kind of arietta ending with a burden of
Fan'fare. A flourish of trumpets or
trumpet-call, either in the orchestra,
Fall i. Same as Fly. A cadence -2.
on a hunt, or at warlike gatherings.
, or close. 3. A lowering of the voice.* Phan-
Fantasi'a (It.; Ger. Fantasie',
Fall (Ger.) See Ton'fall An
tasie'; Fr. fantaisie.) I. impro-
Falling .rhythm. A descending rhythm. visation or impromptu. 2. In the i yth

Fal'sa (Lat. and It; Gtt.falscL) False, and 1 8th centuries, an instrumental
wrong. .Mufsica, falsa, see Pitta. .
. . composition in free imitation, as con-
trasting with one in strict imitation.
Quiiftd falsa (Ger. faFschc Quin'te),
diminished fifth. 3. Later, a composition free 'in form
and more or less fantastic in character.
False. (Ger. falsch ; Fr, faux, fausse;
4. Aterm loosely applied to pot-
It. falso,-a.) Wrong; not true to
out of tune. ..False cadence\ pourris and paraphrases. ..Free fa n-
tasia, that part of the first movement of
chord, fifth, harmony> see the nouns.. .
a symphony or sonata which follows the
False relation, also inharmonic rel.,
an double-bar (repeat of first part) and
cross-rel., harmonic discrepancy
precedes the reintroduction of the prin-
arising from the chromatic contradiction
of a tone in one part by another part. cipal theme ; it consists chiefly of a free
In equal counterpoint it is apt to occur development of motives taken from the
at a modulation, and consists in sound- part,
either simultaneously or success- Fantasie'rea (Ger.) StePhantasieren.
' ing,
a tone and its
. .Fantasie'stuck, see Phantasiestuck.
ively, chromatically al-
tered octave. The former .case is Fanta'stico (It), Fantastique (Fr.),
generally confined to passing-notes in Fantas^isch (Ger.) Fantastic, giving
figuration, and then has no ill effect ;
free rein to the
the latter case- occurs ? an'tasy. when a chromatic-
See Fantasia.
ally changed tone, which might have A circle,
Farando'la, Farando'le.
been reached in one part by the step of
dance of southern France and the ad-
a chromatic semitone, enters in another
joining Italian provinces, in 6-8 time
octave in another part ; the effect is
and very rapid tempo.
harshest in passing from a major chord 7 arce.
toaparal- J
i. (It
far'sa.) one-act opera A
1*1 J
& /)
i ,

J \
or operetta of ultra-comical or

mmor|^zrz,,'>s | J_Jg_j A
chord, or 1(0) L >' I
character. 2.
in the vernacular
(Itfarsia.) canticle

vice versa: v 1
P intermingled witli
Latin, formerly sung at the principal
Falsetto (It ; Ger. Fahttt; Fr. mix festivals of rteR. C. Church, and later

defavsset,fausset) The highest of the 3 finding ludicrous imitation in the farsa

vocal registers (chest-voice, or farce.
so named from its forced or
unnatural character ; often reckoned to
Fa'scia(It) i. A tie. 2 (pL,fasde).
the head-register. . . a falset- Fastosamen'te
to singer. (It.) Pompously, in
a stately style... Fas to'so, pompous,
Fal'so,-a (It.) False... Fabo oordone,
see Faburden;
(of) (6) the reciting-note. 'atigue-call. A
signal to soldiers, call-
Fancy, A short piece of an
impromptu ing them to, fatigue-duty.
character ;
a fantasy. ^attuVa See Factor*.
Fandango. (Spaa.) A lively Spanish Fausse (Fr. f masc. False... J?

dhnin. fifth* . . F. relation, false Festivamen'te (It) In a gay, festive

quinte, r
relation. manner Festivita
. .
festivity, mirth y

See Falsetto. conf., in a gay and festive style. ,/Vj- .

Fausset (Fr.)
ti'vo (Ger./w/'AVA), festive,- festal (also
Faux (Fr.) False. . .Faux-bourdon^ see
Feu'er (Ger.) Fire, ardor, passion...
F-clef. F-schlUml / Fr. clef de
(Ger. .
Feu'erig, fiery ; fire, ardently, pas-
fa; It. chime di basso.) See Clef. sionately.
Fe'derklavier (Ger.) Spinet. F-holes. (Ger. F'-tocher; Fr. les JF.)
Feeder. In the organ, see Organ^ (i)
The 2 /-shaped soundholes cut in the
Wind-supply. belly of the violin, etc.

Fei'erlich Festive; solemn,

Fiasco (It.) Languishing.
grave, serious. (Also adverb) Fia'sco(It)
Fei'len (Gen) To file, polish, refine, Fia'to (It.) Breath, breeze, wind...
Strumen'to daf^ wind-instr.
put the finishing touches

Fein Fine, delicate, refined. Fic'tarum (Lat., feigned ".) Fa //-

turn-) see Fa. . .Mufsicafata^ see J^fu-
Feint,-e (Fr.) See Ficta.
sica, in APPENDIX*
Feld'flote,-pfeife (Ger.) i. SttBawrn- See Vio-
Fiddle. (Ger. Fi'del, Fiifcl)
j^# _2.
t A fife. 3. See Schweizer-
..Fiddle-bow\ fiddlestick^ see Bow.
fidte & Fi'des (Lat.) I. The string of a mus.
Feld'stiick (Ger.) A cavalry-call or
instr. 2. A lute, lyre, cithara,
Fi'dicen (Lat; Itm.fidieina^ A player
Female or feminine rhyme. A rhyme on a stringed instr.

ending with an unaccented syllable, as Fidic'ula (Lat.) Dimin. of Fides.

fate'ful ungrateful.
Fidu'cia (It.) Confidence, boldness.
Fermamen'te (It.) Firmly, with de-
cision. Fie'del (Ger.) Fiddle... Stroh'fadel,

Ferma're il tuono. See Messa di wee, xylophone.

Ferraa'ta Ferma'te
i. A Fier, Fiere (Fr.) Proud, haughty.
(It.), (Ger.)
Wild, fierce
pause, stop, or interruption, as that be- Fie'ro,-a (It.) ; bold, vig-
fore the cadenza of a concerto. 2. A orous. <, Fieramen'te, wildly, boldly. . .

hold (>r\). 3. A stop (on the violin). Fieretfza, fierceness, boldness, vigor.

Ferraez'za, con (It.) In a firm, de- Fife. (Ger. Quer'ffeife; Fr. Jtfrtj It.
cided, energetic style (deciso). tiffi") I- An octave 8w
cross-flute with 6 holes anq JL
Fer'mo (It.) Firm, decided ; fixed, un-
without keys (thus differ- i

changed (as canto fermo).

ing from the Piccolo) ; 1

Ferine- (Ger.) Distance. Wie aus der . .

compass about >
Feme, as if from a distance. used chiefly as a march-accomp. with
Fern'flote (Gen) A covered 8' organ- the drum. 2. An organ-stop of 2-foot
stop of very soft tone. pitch; a piccolo-stop.
Fern'werk Echo-organ*
(Ger.) Fifteenth, i. (Ger. Quint'dezime; JY.

Fero'ce (It.) fierce, vehement.. .

Wild, quinzilme y It quindicSsirrw^ ,A
double octave. 2. An organ-stop .of 2-
Ferodta') wildness. vehemence. . Con .

foot pitch.
ferocita^ wildly, vehemently.
Fifth. (Ger. Quin'tt;"$r. qwnte;\\..
Fer'tig (Ger.) Ready; done, finished ;

quin'ta) An interval of 5 diatonic de^

prompt, skilful, dexterous... Fer'tigkeit,
readiness, skill, dexterity; technical grees (see Interval) ; also, the 5th de-
finish. gree in the diatonic scale, the dominant.
. .The
typical or standard interval ,of
Ferven'te (tt.) Fervent, ardent, pas- thisname is the perfect (or major) fifth,
equal to the interval between 'the key-
Fes (Ger.) ty . .
.Fes'es, fy\>. note and the fifth tone of
Fest(Ger.) i. A festival.,. Musitffest, the diatonic scale e. g. ;

mus. festival* 2. Firm, steady. (Also (^), the vibrational ratio being :
. .IHminisked (imperfect, defective >

minor, or false) fifth, an interval nar- Filar' il tuo'ao, la voce (It.) In the
rower by a semitone than a perfect fifth. Italian method of singing, to produce
..Augmented (pluperfect, superfluous, an even, sustained tone, without cre-
or extreme) fifth, one wider by a chro- scendo or diminuendo. (Also aj/fHar*
matic semitone than a perfect. fifth. . . iltuono; Fr. filer un son, la voix.)
Cometutive(vt parallel) fifths, see Con- See Fistulieren.
secutive. . Covered (concealed or hidden)
Fil'pen (Ger,)

see 0rto<r. . . Circle of fifths, Fi'lum (Lat.) Stem (of a note).
see Temperament.
Fin (Fr.) End, close.
Fifthy. Having the second harmonic
(fifth above the octave
of the generator) Final. In Gregorian music, that tone
(in any mode) on .which the melody
specially prominent.
/ must end (equiv. to key-note or tonic);
Figur (Gen) See Figure 2.
in the authentic modes it was the low-
Figu'ra mu'ta (Lat. and It.) A rest. est tone in the modes, the ; plagal 4th
Figu'ra obli'qua (Lat.) The "oblique tone from below. Irregular final tones
figure" of Plain chant and mensurable were called confinals. . .Final close,
music wlis a simple ligature formed by closing cadence.
uniting 2 notes ; (a) in Plain chant, it A final
was written in 2
Fina'le (It.) i. 2. The con-
ways :
movement of a
I. 2. cluding sym- sonata,
or the closing number of
phony^ etc.,
sung ; an act in an opera. An operatic finale
is generally an ensemble for soloists
(b) in mensurable notation thus :

and chorus, and intended to have a

highly dramatic or otherwise striking

Fina'lis (Lat.) See Accentus.

ends of the figure marked the seats of
the 2 notes. In the midst of a ligature
Fi'ne (It.) End, close ; indicates either
the end of a repeated section (after the
it possessed no special but
significance ;
at the termination it denoted the imper-
da capo or dal segno), or the end of a
of the piece in several divisions.
fection final note.
Fig'ural. See Figurate...Figural'ge- Fing'er (Ger.) Finger, . .Fing^erbildner,
ttgr(Ger.), cantus figuralis. ..FiguraP- (" finger-developer"), see Dactylion.
musik, unequal or figurate counterpoint. An apparatus of this name was also in-
vented by Seeber, and consists of a
Figurate. (Ger. figurier?; Fr. figure;
It figura'to) Having, or consisting separate attachment for each finger,
of, figurations, (Also Figurative) whereby the bad habit of bending the
last joint inwards is corrected. .
In counterpoint, the
i. " .Ping'-
erfertigkeit, finger-dexterity", agility
introduction of comparatively rapid
fig- and readiness of the fingers. . .Finder-
tires or phrases, containing
passing and letter, see
into the CMroplast. .
changing-notes, counterpoint,
2. The variation of a theme Fing'ersetzung, fingering; eng'er P.,
by accom- close fingering ; gedehnter P., spread
panying it with florid runs and pas- stretches.
sages, or
fingering, . .
Pinker wechsel,
substituting for its own
change of fingers.
melody-notes more or less florid varia-
tions. 3. The writing-out of a figured Fingerboard, i. (Ger. Griff'brett; Fr.
bass, touche, manche: It. tastiera.) In the
violin, guitar, etc., the thin, narrow
Figure, i. {Ger. Figures Jr. figure;
It figura.) A distinct group of notes, strip of wood glued upon the neck,
above which the strings are stretched,
a motive. 2, (Ger. Zi/er; Fr. chifre; and on which they are stopped with the
It. d'fra.) A numeral, as used in
fingers of the left hand. 2. See Key-
Figured, i,
bedffert; Fr. Mf- Finger-cymbals.
Very small cymbals,
frt\e); It. dfra'to.) Provided with fig- held in pairs on the thumb and fore-
ures, as a bass (see Thorough-bass).
finger of both \axite.., Finger-hole
(Ger. Ton'loch), in the flute, clarinet,
Fil (Fr.) Thread (of a etc., a hole in the tube, to be closed
violin-string). by

a finger or by a lever operated

by a syllables are then termed fixed syllable*.
finger, thus changing the pitch. .Fixed-tone instr., (or instr.
of fixed
Fingering. (Ger. Fingersatz, Appli- intonation), one (like the pfte, or or-
katur*; Fr. doigter; It. ditteggiatu'ra^ gan) the pitch of whose tones cannot
i. The method of be modified at the
applying the fingers player's pleasure
to the keys, holes, strings, etc., of mus. like,for
example, the tones of the
instr.s. 2. The marks guiding the violin,

performer in placing his fingers. . .

Eng- Flag, r, A hook (Nt,). -2. Abbr. for
lish (or American .?)
fingering (for the flageolet (-tones).
pfte,), that in which notes taken the by
thumb are marked x (or +) with I 2 Flageolet, i. (Ger. Flageoletf ; Fr.

3 4 for the fingers German (or conti-

flageolet; It.
flagiolet'ta) modern- A
nental) fingering, that in which the ized^^ a bee, a small wind-instr. of
the whistle family. There are 2
thumb is marked fingers 2 3
r, and the species
in use, the
4 5. (An earlier German system re-
English and the French ;
the latter is the more complicated, hav-
sembled the English, merely
using a o
instead of the x for tie thumb.) ing 4 holes above and 2 below, various

Finite il tuono. See Mcssa di voce.

auxiliary keys,
and a compass
It is not fl ^
^ j^.
used in the
'Fini'to(It.) Finished. of 2 1/1 orchestra...
octavespAn *
Fi'no as far
and 3 semi-lfrl) DauAIjf
(It.) Till, up to, as.
to: tJ
Fin'to,-a (It.) Feigned. Caden'za fin- . .
instr. inv. by Bainbridge about 1800
ta, deceptive cadence., .Fa fin to, see
consisting of 2 flageolets of different
Fa feint. size placed side by side and
having a
Fiochet'to (It.) Somewhat hoarse; common mouthpiece; simple duets
faint, veiled.., Fiochesfza, hoarseness. could be played on it, but it is no longer
.Fio'co,-a, hoarse, faint, veiled. in use. . Flageolet-tones , see Harmonic

Fioreggia're (It.) To figurate.

2. 2. A
small flute-stop in the organ,
Fioret'to (It.) Any melodic embellish- of i or 2-foot pitch.
ment. Flageolet^ i.
(Ger.) Flageolet 2.
embellished... General term for the hamonics"(^z?w-
Fiori'tp (It,) Florid,
Fiorittfra, an embellishment, an orna- leftone) produced on the violin, etc.
mental turn, flourish, or phrase intro- Flaschinet' (Ger.) Obs. spelling of
duced into a melody (commonly used Flageoktt.
in pL, fioriture).
Flat, (Ger. Be; Fr. b/mol; It. A) Jw/7
First, i. Of
voices or instr.s of the The character (?, which lowers the pitch <

same class, the highest; e. g. first so* of a note before which it is set by a semi-
prano, first violin,-2. In the staff, the tone, and, when set in the signature,
lowest ; as first line, first space. 3, has a like effect on notes occurring on
The first string of an instr. is the high- -its line or space (and every octave of
est. 4. As the name of an interval, such line or space) unless cancelled.
the prime or unison. Some earlier composers used the [7 in-
Fis(Ger,) Eft... #'/*>, Fx. stead of a R whenever a note was to be
Fis'telstimme Falsetto.
lowered by ,a semitone. The double
(Ger.) (Also
FisteL) fiat fy lowers a note by 2 chromatic
Fis'tula (Lat.) Pipe. semitones ; for it the great flat 7 was

Fistulie'ren (Ger.) i. To sometimes written. Flatfifth, a dimin-

. .
sing falsetto.
Of an ished fifth.,. Flat tuning, a method of
organ-pipe, to overblow in
such wise as to sound (unintentionally) tuning the lute (also called French flat
some harmonic tone instead of the tuning, by reason of the comparative
fundamental. lowness of the earlier French pitch).
* l

Fixed The fixed-Do system of Flatter la corde (Fr. ) To

caress the
Dp. i. e. to play (on bow-instr,s)
solraisation is that in which the tone C, string,"
and all its chromatic derivatives (CJ, with graceful and tender expression.

expand fy\>) are called Do,

C\>, D Flautan^o, FUuta'to (It.) In violin
and its derivatives Re, etc. , in whatever music, to play over the fingerboard
key or harmony they may appear ; the near middle of string and thus pro-

duce a somewhat flute-like tone. . . Also wind-pressure, the second an3 third by
occasional lot flageolet. augmenting and forcing it, thus causing
the tone to change (by to
Fla'uto (It.) Flute.../ /, a becco, fluti overblowing)
the higher octave. It is anon-trans-
a bee.../ /, pic? cob, see Piccolo... Fl
trover*so, cross or transverse flute. . . posing instr., and its musiq is therefore
? a name
also frequently occurs as
written at the pitch at which it is to be
for organ-stops, e. g. flauto ama'bik played. Together with the octave-flute
a smal or piccolo it forms an incomplete family,
flauto dol'ce, ete...Flauti'no,
flute.. .Flauti'sta, a flute-player, flutist
made in 6 sizes :

. .Flanto'ne, a large or bass flute. (inC (inC

Flute {
Piccolo < in Db
Fle'bile (It.) Tearful ; plaintive, mourn- [
in b \
in \?

the typical member of which is -the C-
Flessi'bile (It) Flexible. fiute. Its powerful and mellow tone
Flick/oper (Ger.) See Pasticcio. (more reedy than that of the old flute) v
A spirited Scotch and extraordinary and agility, flexibility
Fling, dance, resem-
render it the leader of the wood-wind.
bling the Reel, and in quadruple time.
The piccolos in D\) and Jfy are chiefly
FMocher (Ger.) /-holes. used in military music. In the I5th and
Florid. Embellished with figures, runs, 1 6th centuries complete families of flutes

passages, etc. were constructed, embracing bass, alto,

Flo'te (Ger,) Flute. .Flo'tenlass, bass
. and treble instr.s, 2. Direct Flute ,

flute. * * Flo tenstimme, a fltite-stop (or- the flageolet and^& & bee, having a
gan).. .Flo'tenwerki a small organ hav- mouthpiece at the end*
ing only flue-pipes (opp. to Schnarr- Flute (Fr.) Flute.../ /, h lee, a direct

Zungmwerk> Rohriverk, and flute... FL allemande, a German flute,

../?/. & pavilion^ an 8-foot
Fffich'tig (Ger.) Lightly, nimbly, airily ; . .FL d* amour, (a) a flute in j?b; (6) a

fugitively, hastily, superficially. (Also soft-toned organ-stop.../ /, d Angle-

.FL douce, flautodolce.
terre, flageolet.
.FL du Poitou, bagpipe (cornemuse).

Flue-pipe. (Ger. LaMafpfrife-j Fr.

.-FL harmonique, fl. octaviante, -see
tuyau k louche ; It. tan'na cTa'mma.)
also Stop 2. Harmonic stop. .FL traversiere^ trans-
verse flute.
Flu'gel (Ger,, "wing".) i. Formerly,
a wing-shaped clavier (clavichord); Flute-work. In the organ, the flute-
work includes all flue-stops not belong-
now, 'a grand $te...Fl'gelkarfe, see
Spitzharfe...Flu'gelh0rn, bugle, key- ing to the principal-work and gedact-
bugle.~2. BtQjBart. work, as well as various modifications
of these two groups.
Flute. (Ger. Plo'te; Fr. flute ; It.
fla'vio^ i,/ The orchestral flute (also Fly. The hinged board or flap used as
called German flute, and D-
a cover for the keyboard of the pfte.
from its origin, the position in and organ.
which it is held, and its former low- Fo'co (It.) See Fuoco.
est tone respectively), in its In orchestral music, the
present Foglie^to (It.)
form as improved by'Boehm, has a
part for the leader ;
it contains cues for,
wooden tube of cylindrical bore, pro- or the obbligato
passages of, the other
vided with 14 ventages closed
by keys, instr.s, and can therefore be used by the
and caused to sound by a current of air conductor in lieu of a score.
projected from the player's mouth Foire des
enfants (Fr.) See Toy Sym-
against the feather-edge of an oval
orifice near, the
upper end of the
tube the air-column Within the tube ois (Fr.) Time premise fois, ; first

Is set in *vibration in the same time seconde fois, second time.


'that within a *oIi'a{Span.; It.folli'a; usually in the
Sva "
ein theor- plural, as Fr. folks d'spagne'\} A
from Spanish dance for one person, in slow
(rare __
ex-ESE tempo and 3-4 time.
- >-,
the first octave
Folk-song. (Ger. Volktfacl) A song
is obtained by moderate of the
people, tinged by the musical

of the nation, and generally cated by the

notes), while the piccolo
of a simple, unaffected character, and is a 4-foot (or
octave) instr. The
in ballad-form. Also, a song imitative derivation of the term is as follows : The

of the above, velocity of sound-waves is estimated

at 1056 feet per second by dividing this
Fondamcntal,-e (Fr.), Fondamenta'le

Son fondamental, velocity by the vibration-number of the

Fundamental. . .
given tone, we obtain the length of
Basse fondamentale,
.one sound-wave of that tone; for in-
stance, the tone 6~i having 33 vibrations
Fondamen'to (It.) Fundament, funda- per second, 1056 -* 33 =
32 feet, the
mental part. length of one sound-wave, and likewise
the length of an
Fonds d'orgue The foundation- open flue-pipe capable
(Fr,) of producing the tone Ci
stops of the organ.
Foot-key. Pedal-key (of an organ).
Foot. I. (Ger. Fttss ; Vr.pied; It.
Foreign chords or tones are such as
In prosody, a group of syl- do not belong to a given key.
lables, one of which is rendered special-
ly prominent by
an ictus (accent) ; it Forla'na (It,), Forlane (Fr.)" A lively
Italian dance in 6-8 or 6-4 time.
corresponds to the measure in music.
2.(Ger. Stiefel.) That part of
an or- Form. Form in music is that element,
gan-pipe below the mouth. 3. (Obs.) A or combination, of elements, which, by

drone-bass; a refrain or burden. 4, The securing a proper balance between con-

unit of measure in designating the pitch trasting parts, produces finish of effect,
of organ-stops, and (by extension) that or Unity. What are called the musical

of other instr. s, and of the several oc- forms depend, fa varying degree, for
taves of the musical scale f
thus an 8-
on rhyth-
their 'distinctive features, (i)

foot is one whose longest mical and metrical grouping ; (2) on the-
(8') stop
and is about 8 feet matic construction (3) on melodic and
pipe pro- p^ :

ducestheF^ in length, i.e. a harmonic contrast; (4) on contrasting

tone C: ^ stop whose pipes
in pitch to
tempi ; and (5) on contrasting moods.
Points I and 2 cover the ground of (I)
produce tones corresponding
the keys depressed a 4-foot (4') stop is
mechanical symmetry ; the contrasts of
an octave-stop a i6-foot (to" ) stop
melody, harmony, tempo, and mood
yields tones an octave
below those postulate a more highly developed sense
the for (II) cesthetic symmetry.
indicated by keysrfi
touched. The 8 -foot octave l-
w ,

I. The element of metrical


embraces the 7 tones from C & grouping eminently characteristic of


upwards (comp. Pitch, i); 'the flute ordinary dance-airs and simple songs ;

is an 8-foot instr. (because the pitch the following example exhibits its sim-
of its tones is the -same as that indi- plest form ;


Phrase /.J |



of which embraces 2 Sections format in

Analysis of this Sentence (compound "

of 16 measures), Measures each* [The term

-turn, of 2
period, here a period
which contains a musical thought com- motive for measure is to be rejected as

plete in itself, shows it to

be composed misleading and unnecessarily confusing,
of 2 simple 8*measure Periods^ each except in the qualified shape of measure-
2 each The funcfyatiw of such ft
period being formed by JPtirvses ,

musical sentence presents a striking hibits the peculiar feature of the song

analogy to that of the grammatical with refrain j once repeated, after any
sentence from which its terminology is in digression (interlude, or second theme),
part borrowed Phrase I
subject and it
produces the "so-called Song-form
predicate [commaV^ Phrase 2 limiting = (Liedform, A+B+A), or that of the
clause \semuolon\ Phrase 3, further
Minuet with Alternativo. With 2 dis-
modification \CQmmd\, Phrase 4, second tinct themes alternating as follows:
limiting clause and conclusion of sen- (|:
A+B [A]
:| + B B [i n +A+
tence [ptriod~\ The exact symmetrical the key of A]), it has the
balance here observable, of 2+2, 4+4, Sonata-form, or First-movement Form;
and 8 + 8, though of very common oc- while the Rondo-form has the following
currence, is not the general rule, and alternations :
( A+B+B
[A] A B + +
would engender wearisome monotony [62 in same key as A
development- ;

(especially in extended compositions) if section in the middle]); or (A + B A : +

regularly adhered to; the variety of [in same key as B] B [same key +
changes caused by triple time, com- as A] + A). It must be added, how-
pound measures, the opposition of un- ever, that the Song-form, Sonata-form,
equal phrases, the expansion or con- and Rondo-form, as carried out in
traction of periods, etc., etc., is
prac- practice, present frequent deviations
tically limitless. But in all the musical from the above formulas. A theme re-
forms in which metrical symmetry is peated or imitated while still progress-
observed, the simple period is, in one ing, produces the form of the Canon ,

shape or another, the form-element or Catch^ or Round ; one or more themes

so to speak, on which their repeated in conjunction or alternation
germ-cell^ *
construction is founded. with an accompanying or contrasting
I* (2.) A theme or melody-dimply counterpoint, according to a more or
repeated, (formula A + A, or |:
A :|), less regular formula, the Fugue. The
presents no distinctive departure from following is a fairly exhaustive formula
the simplest form ; for the construction of a simple 2 part
repeated in alterna-
tion 'with another
|:A+B:| it ex- fugue:
I. Exposition: Theme on ist dileg. (tonic) Answer on 5th (dominant)
zst Episode : 6th
" " " d
(in augment.) 3 (in diminut.)
II. First Development: ist
ad .Episode : ad
" "
A -

(inverted) th (inverted)
u " 7
. .
III. Second
:ond Development " "
Development:: ist
Stretto;; Theme brought out on the 4th
(with modulation to the subdominant)
II, (i.) The element of harmonic con- + S + F) or, in 5 movements, (F -f S
trast is derived in from part
contrasting '+ F + S + F) etc. a slow closing
; ;

themes, in part from the deliberate movement rarely occurs.

choice of keys
directly or remotely re- II. (3.) The
foregoing formal schemes
lated to that of the
leading theme in ; are a product of the slow evolution of
part, also,from the harmonies accom- centuries. First, dance-
th^ primitive
panying or varying the theme or themes. song develops into lync and epic song
Dependence on the harmonic variation love-ditties, ballads, and into instru-
of repetitions of a mental dance-tunes differently
single theme, to- named
gether wjth the light and shade of vary- according to their character or origin ;
ing tempi, is an important principle of while a parallel progress is seen in the
the Theme with Variations. rise of church-music from the severe
II, (2.) In cyclic
compositions (the Gregorian Chant to the stupendous
Cyclical Forms), contrasting tempi (S = contrapuntal works of the late middle
slow, F =fast) in the successive
ages and the chaste style of Palestrina.
movements are a prominent feature. Instrumental art-music now borrows
The old Suite originally had the for- and develops its forms from the vocal
mula (S + + +
F S F) ; later a fifth style the forms of imitative music (can-

movement, either slow or fast, was in- on and fugue) gradually near
serted after (seldom
before) the 2nd slow finally attained by J. S. Bach
one. The Sonata and through ;

Symphony the adoption
by artists of the rhythmic
essentially alike in plan ; either +
(F melody and monodic style of the hitherto
S+ F), or more commonly (F + S +F despised natural music (folk-music),
), or (S + F + S + F) or (F +F and the recognition of its harmonic

basis, the two currents

of art-music and ed abbr. fa... Also
; Forza'to, Sfor-
folk-music are slowly merged in one zan'do (sfz).
broad stream the popular dance-tunes
; Forzar' la vo'ce (It.) To force the voice.
are transformed into art-forms, and Foundation-stops. See Stop.
combined in the Suite; the rondo- Fourchette tonique (Fr.) Tuning-fork.
form and the first-movement (sonata-) Fourniture (Fr.) A mixture-stop.
form are evolved step*by step, and their 1

combination produces the Sonata and Four-part. (Ger. vier 'stimmig ; Fr. a
quatre wix ; It. a quat'tro vo'd.) Set
Symphony; which latter, discarding the
for, or performed by, 4 parts in har-
scheme of 4 formal movements, and
flow and mony.
aspiring to the uninterrupted
Fourth. (Ger. Quar'te; Hr.quarte; It.
sweep of an epico-lyrical drama without
words, becomes the Symphonic Poem. quanta) i The fourth degree in the dia- .

also Passion, Oratorio, Op* tonic scale the subdominant. 2. An

[Compare ;

era,Overture^ interval embracing 4 degrees (see In-

Forma're il tuono. See Messa di voce. terval). The typical or standard fourth
is the per-feet (or major) fourth, equal
Fort (Ger.) Off; as Plots fort (organ-
to the interval between the key-note and
the 4th tone of . its vibrational
Fort (Fr.) I. Skilful, emi-
Forte. 2.
the diatonic re? g ratio being
nent. .
Temps fort, strong beat., .Four- scale, as -f :
t==== :f 1:3:4.. .

niturt. 3 tuyaux forte, a mixture-stop of Diminished (imperfect, defective, mi-

3 ranks. nor, or fake) fourth, an interval nar-
Fortbien. A keyboard stringed instr. rower by a chromatic semitone -than a
inv. by Friederici in 1758, having a fourth.
.Augmented (pluper- ,
softer tone and lighter touch than the ,
feet, superfluous, one
or extreme)fourth,
fortepiano then in vogue. wider by a chromatic semitone than a
For'te I (adjective). Loud, strong fourth.
(It.) perfect
(abbr. /) ; pik forte (pf), louder po- ;
Franchise (Fr.) A dance in triple time,
co forte (also pf), rather loud ; forte resembling the country-dance.
piano (fp), accent strongly, diminish- Francamen'te (It.) Freely, with free-
ing instantly to piano ; fortemtn'te,
f dom (of delivery), boldly ; frankly, in-
loudly, forcibly \ forte possi bile, as loud
A genuously.
as possible. 2 (noun), (a) passage Franchez'za (It.), Franchise (Fr.)
to be executed loudly or forcibly ; (b)
Freedom, confidence, boldness. Con . .

in the harmonium, a slide within the

chest containing one or more sets of fr., see Francamente.
Franz'ton (Ger.) French pitch "; it is
reeds, opened by a stop or knee-lever to
lower than the mAwsxy^Kammerton.
produce a forte effect sometimes di- ;
vided, one section affecting the treble Frapp6 (Fr., beaten",) The down-
side and the other the bass side. beat opp. to Leve ;

Fortepia'no (It.) Same

as Pianoforte. Fra'se (It.) ; frase larga Phrase
Fortissimo (It., superl. of forte.) Very largamente...Fraseggia're, to phrase.
loud, or extremely loud or forcible Fred'do ra (It.) ColA...Frea'damen'te,
(abbr.//; or ff/for the extreme) ; also coldly.
forte possi'bile (ffff). Fredon (Fr.) An obsolete term for a
Fort'riicken (Ger., noun.) The ad- roulade, trill, or tremolo also, a sign ;

vance of the hand on a keyboard or fin- calling for a florid extension of

a single
gerboard, as caused by the repetition of written note. .Fredonnement, trilling, .

a figure with the same fingering but at warbling humming. .Fredonner, to ;


a different pitch. trill, warble to hum, sing to oneself. ;

Fort'schreiten (Ger.) To progress... Free chant. A form of recitative music

Forfschreitung, progression Forf- for the Psalms and Canticles, in which

sehreitung einer Dissonanz', resolution. a phrase, consisting of 2 chords only, is

For'za (It.) Force, vigor ; con /,, for-
applied to each hemistich of the
cibly, etc. [STAINEKAND BARRETT.]. .Free fugue,
Forzan'do (It, "forcing, straining".) see Fugue. .Free part, an independent

With force, energy indicates that a part added to a canon

or fugue to com-

note or chord is to be strongly accent- plete or enrich the .harmony, . .Free


at the unison.../
impro'pria (Lat.),
reed, see Reed., .Free style (of compo-

which the rules of strict see F, irregula'ris* .F. inaqua'lis .

sition), that in
counterpoint are relaxed. (Lat.), see F. contraria. .F. incompo'- .

slta (Lat.), a fugue whose subject pro-

Fregiatu'ra (It.) A grace, an ornament.
gresses by disjunct degrees. ../I in
Frei (Ger.) Free... /><'*, a license
conseguen za (It.), a canon. F. in con- . .

or liberty. tra'rio temfpore(L&\.!), se&F.jfer ar*sin

French Horn, Sixth, Violin-clef. See et the'sin, . .Fuga in no' mine a "fugue ,

the nouns. in name," i. e. a nominal or free fugue.

Fret. (Ger. [equiv.] Bund; Jr.touche; . .F. inveSsa (Lat.), a fugue worked
It. ta'sto.) One of
the narrow ridges of throughout in double reversible coun-
wood, metal, or ivory crossing the fin- terpoint, so that the inversions of the

gerboard of the mandolin, guitar, zither, parts may appear in contrary motion.
etc.,' against which the strings are
. ./.
irregula'ris (Lat,), a fugue irregu-
lar in form. .F. li'bera (Lat and It),
pressed by the fingers to shorten their

a fugue with free episodes. . .F. liga'ta

vibrating length and thus raise the tone.
A (Lat. and It.), a fugue without free
Fretel, Fretele (Fr.) sylvan pipe ;

the Pan's-pipe with 7 reeds. Some- episodes, strictly developed from its

times called sifflet des chaudronniers. subject andcountersubject. .F. mix'ta .

(Lat.), a fugue varied in development

(Also fretetel, freteau, fretiau, fresteL) different contrapuntal de-
by employing
Fret'ta, con (It) With haste, celerity ; vices (augmentation, diminution, inver-
hurriedly. sion, etc.). .F. obbliga'ta (It), see F.

Fricassee (Fr.) i. A
sort of popular Hgata...F. partia'lis (Lat), a fugue
dance interspersed with pantomime, in proper, in contradistinction to a canon,
vogue in the i8th century in the tkM- .
.F.per augmentatio'nem \diminutio -
tres des boulevards at Paris. 2. A kind nem\ (Lat.), a fugue in which the answer
of part-song of the i6th century, each is in augmentation
[diminution] either
part having different words. throughout, or as a rule. . F. per the'sin, .

Fries (Ger.) Purfling. etar'sin (Lat.), a fugue whose subject

Fnscfa (Gen) Brisk, begins on the strong beat, and the

lively, vigorous answer on the weak beat, thus shifting
the accents throughout.../'.^?' zW-
Froh'lich (Ger.) Glad, joyous, gay tatio'nem interrup'tam (Lat.), a fugue
(also adverb). in which the answer is
interrupted by
Front'pfeife (Ger.) See Prospekt. breaks or rests. . '/. per mo'tum con~
Nut a bow). 'tra'rium (Lat), see F, contraria*..F.
Frosch(Ger.) (of
Frot'tola (It, " comic ditty ".) A pop- ^perio'dica (Lat.), see F.partialis. . .F.
ular ballad or song intermediate between perpt'tua (Lat.), a canon. .F.plaga'Iis .

the vUlanella and the madrigal; in (Lat.), a fugue with subject descending
below the key-note..'pria (Lat.),
great vogue during the i6th century.
see F. regularis. ../. rea'le (It.), a real
F'-Schlussel (Ger.) F-clef.
fugue. .!/. re<fta (Lat), see F. csquafis
Fu'ga and It)
(Lat. A fugue.. ./". ad motu$..,F. redi'ta or redditaQt.), a
eetafvam [guin^am] fugue at the middle or end of which
(Lat.), fugue at
the octave [fifth].. ./. aqua'lis mo'tiis
allor some of the parts progress in .

(Lat.),fugue in similar motion, the canon.../, regula'ris (Lat), a fugue

answer ascending and descending like in regular form.. ./.
retrogra da (Lat.),
the subject. . ./. alcontrafrio ever' a fugue having the answer in
[r so, retrograde
rovefsdo\ (It), see /. contraria, F. . .
progression or/, retrogra'dapermo'-

authen'tica (Lat), turn 'cmtra'rium, when the answer is in

fugue with a subject
ascending above the key-note.. ./. ca- retrograde progression and contrary
ntfnica. \iotaflis]
(Lat), a canon.../. motion . /. ricerca'ta (It.), a fugue in
. .

composite (Lat.), a fugue whose subject whose working-out the rarer and more
progresses by conjunct degrees.../. elaborate contrapuntal devices are
contra'ria (Lat.), a
" "
fugue having, the sought out for display; a long and
answer in
contrary motion to the sub- elaborate master-fugue . F. sdalfta . .

ject.../, del Wiw(It.) f tonal fugue. (It), or solu'ta (Lat.), see F. li'bera. . .

..F. dop'pia (It.V double /! totaflis a canon.

fugue..,/. (Lat.),
bmopho'w (Lat.), fugue with answer Fuga ra. (Ger. JFqafra, An

organ -stop having metal flue-pipes gen- ing counterpoint, the countersubject, in
erally of
small scale and 8 or 4-foot the first
part ; if there are 3 parts, the
of a sharp,
pitch; tone stringy" 3rd resumes the subject at the octave of
original pitch, followed (if there are
4 parts) by the answer in the 4th, This
Fuga'to(It., "in fugue style

'.) A pas- first enunciation of the

movement subject by all
sage or consisting of fugal the parts in turn, with
imitations, but not worked out as a contrapuntal
accomp. in the rest, is called the Expo-
regular fugue. sition ; this is
commonly succeeded by
Fu'ge (Ger.) Fugue. an Episode, which is generally construct-
To ed (for the preservation of unity of
Fuggi're la cadenza (It.) avoid
the cadence (by interrupting it).
effect) of motives from the subject and
countersubject, with modulation into re-
Fughet'ta (It., dimin, of Fuga.) A short lated keys ; then comes the First De-
fugue, usually only,* fugue-exposition, velopment, or Repercussion, in which
Fugue. (Ger. Fu'ge; Fn fugue; & subject and answer are taken up by the
fu'ga.} The most highly developed several parts in a different order, fol-

form of contrapuntal imitation, based lowed by a second and variously modi-

on the principle of the equality of- the fied episode. Further developments
parts, a theme proposed by
one part and episodes follow at the composer's
being taken up successively by all par- pleasure, varied by the contrapuntal de-
ticipating parts, thus bringing each in vices enumerated above, and generally
turn into special prominence. The in freer form, the subject and answer
word fugue is presumably derived from appearing in new keys and at a differ-
the Latin fuga> a flight, which aptly ent interval. The fugue may be con-
characterizes the chasing and changing cluded by a Stretto or Final Develop-
of the subject through the several parts. ment, in which the subject and answer
The elements essential to every fugue overlap each other in consequence of
are 00 Subject, (2) Answer, (3) Counter- following in closer succession ; the
subject (4) Stretto; to these are common-
stretto is frequently above an organ-
ly added (5) Episod^ (6) Organ-pint, point; or the organ-point is used to
support the freer contrapuntal combina-
itous appendage to the actual subject, tions of the coda, a general finale or

bridging over the interval sometimes winding-up or stretto and coda are

left between the true end of the latter identical; etc., etc. The modern fugue
and the entrance of the Answer. Ths has 2 principal varieties (i) The Real :

subject is usually short and suggestive ; Fugue, in which the original form of
after its proposition by the part taking the subject is in the answer
the lead, it is taken up by the part next (i. e. the latter is an exact transposition

following as the answer, and at a differ- of the former) and (2) the Tonal

ent interval (usually a fifth higher or a Fugue, in which the subject is modified
fourth lower than the original one), in the answer in order to return to the

being then accompanied by a contrast- original key ; e.


Answar (Tonal).
Subject. Not;

Further varieties are the Double Fugue Fuga). Fugues may be written for

(with 2 subjects,' the exposition of the voices or instr.s, or for solo instr.s
1st being followed by that of the* 2nd, (pfte., organ). (Compare Form I, 2.)
and finally by the combination of both) ;
Fugued, Fuguing. See Fuga'to. Writ-
the Triple Fugue (with 3 subjects) ;
ten in either strict or free fugal style.
etc.; a fugue with 2 or more subjects is "
sometimes called a Manifold Fugue. Fiih'rer (Ger.) Leader, dux", subject
A fugue in which the countersubject is (of a fugue.), .Fiih'rung, leading.
retained and developed together with Full anthem. See Anthem. Fullband, . ,

the subject throughout, is also called a a military band, or an orchestra, having

double fugue. The most elaborate all the customary instr.s. .Full cadence^ ,

fugal form is the Fuga ricercata (comp. close, -see the nouns,. .Full Choir (di-

rection in organ-playing), draw all stop Furla'na (It.) See Forlana.

of the choir-organ . . . Full chord, on A mixture-stop.
represented by all its tones ; also (in Furo're A rage, mania, passionate
concerted music), one in 'which all th
fondness (for anything).. .Also, fury,
parts unite. . . Full Great(in organ-play
passion,vehemence ; con /., passion-
ing), draw all stops of great organ..
Full orchestra, see Full band..,Ful ately.

organ, with all stops and couplers Fu'sa(Lat.), Fuse(Fr.y

An eighth note,
drawn... Full score, see Score... Ful or quaver.

stop (in lute-playing), a full chord fol- Fuse (Fr.) An ornament consisting of
lowed by a pause also, a chord in
; a rapid ascending or descending dia-
which all available fingers are occupiec tonic series of notes ; a slide.
in stopping the strings... Full Swell
Fusel (Ger.) Same &s-Fusa.
(organ), draw all stops of swell-organ,
. .Full to fifteenth (in
Fusel'la (Lat.) 32nd-note.^. .Fuse^lala,
draw 64th-note.
stops but mixtures and reeds.
Fuss (Ger.) Foot \-fusstg, the adjective-
Fiill'pfeife (Ger.) A dummy pipe...
ending corresponding to -foot, as<P/#,r-
F&Hfquinte, a very sharp-toned organ-

sig (achffussig), 8-foot. .Fuss'klavier,


stop of 5}-foot pitch, to be drawn only

with a strong combination of founda- pedals (of an organ). . . Fuss' ton, equiv-
alent to "-foot pitch", e. g. an organ-
tion-stops. .. Futfstelk, a passage put
" pipe of 4-foot pitch is said to be of 4-
in to fill
out"; padding. ..FM'stimme,
(a) a part reinforcing a principal part at
the octave or unison ; (b) a mutation- Fut'terung (Ger.) Linings (of a violin),
stop a third or a fifth above the normal
pitch (c) //., in polyphonic composi-
; G.
tion, accessory parts not treated melodi-
G. The fifth tone and degree in the
cally like the principal
parts, but brought
in occasionally to typical diatonic scale of C-major. . G. .

complete the harmony =

mark the rhythm.
abbr. i<xgauche(m.g. main gauche) ;
G. 0. (or simply G),
Fundamental, i. The root of a chord.
Galjelklavier (Ger.) A keyboard instr.
2. A generator (in this sense also inv. in 1882 by Fischer and Fritzsch of
fundamental bass, note and tone)...
Fund, chord, Leipzig, in which steel tuning-forks are
triad, see Chord, Triad.
..Fund, position, any arrangement of
substituted for strings. The some-
what dull timbre, due to the lack of
the toaes of a chord in which the root
remains the lowest harmonics, has been brightened by
adding, for each key, a second fork
Fundamental1)ass (Ger,) Fundamen- tuned an octave higher than the first.. .
tal bass.. .Fundamental'ton, root 1
; key- Ga'belton, fork-tone," i.e. the tone a
note, tonic (Grund'ton, To'nika). pitched for tuning. . Ga'belgriffe (pi.),

Fnnfebre (Fr.), Fu'nebre, Funera'le cross-fingerings. -See Stimmgabel.

(It.) Funereal, mournful. GagliarMa (It.), .Gagliar/de (Ger.) A
Fiinf'fech (Ger.) See -faeh...F*nf- galliard.
stimmig, 5-part ; for 5 parts or voices. Gai (Fr.) Gay, lively, brisk, * .
..Funf'stufigc Ton'leiter, pentatonic wgaiment, gaily, briskly.
Gaillarde (Fr.) Agalliard.
Fuo'co [foo-6'-co] (It.) Fire, spirit; con
Gajamen'te (It) Gaily, lively.. .
f., orfuoto'so, with fire, fiery, spirited.
Fu'ria (It.) Fury, passion; con /.,
' Ga'la (It.) In the phrase di gala,
wildly, passionately.
gaily t
Furiant, Furie. A rapid Bohemian Galamment
dance with (Fr.), Galantemen'te (It.)
alternating rhythms and
Gallantly, gracefully, prettily.
changing accentuation.
Galant' (Ger.) Free; e. g. galan'te
Furibon'do (It.) Furious, frenzied.
Fu'ge, free fugue; galan'ter Stilt ga-
Furio'sOj-a (It.) Furious, passionate lan'te Schreib'art, free
style, the homo-
furiosamen'te, passionately ; furiosis'- phonous style of composition for the
o, with extreme passion. clavichord or harpsichord, in
vogue in

the 1 8th century ;
to gebun'dcner dence. . . Ganz ton, or gan'zer Ton,
Stil, strict which a certain
style, in
whole tone. 2. Very.
number of contrapuntal parts was ad- Gar'bo (It.) Grace, elegance.
hered to throughout.
Gas'senhauer (Ger.) In the i6th cen-
Galant,-e (Fr.), Galan'te (It.) Gallant, a designation for popular songs or
graceful, pretty. foik-songs
(Gasfsenhawerliri) ; the word
Gal'liard. (Ger. Gagliar^de; Fr. gait- now signifies a trite and threadbare
larde; It. gagliar'da.) An old French tune, and at the same time something
dance for 2 dancers (also called Roma- vulgar and unworthy of art. [RIEMANN. J
ne*$ca\ of a gay and spirited character, Gathering-note. In chanting, an irreg-
though not rapid, and in 3-4 time like ;
ular fermata on the last syllable of the
the Pavan, it had 3 reprises of 4, 8, or to enable the
recitation, body of the
12 measures. It was the precursor of
singers to catch up and begin the ca-
the Minuet. dence together.
Gal'op. (Fr. galop, gabpade ; Gr. Gauche (Fr.) Left; maing. (abbr. m.
Galopp') A
very lively and spirited g), left hand.
round dance in 2-4 time ; supposed to
have been derived from the old German Gaudio'so (It.) Joyous, jubilant."
Hop'ser or Rutschfer (names descrip- Gau'menton (Ger.) A guttural tone.
tive of the step). Introduced into Gavot'. (fv. gavotte; iLgavofta) An
France early in the igth century. old French dance-form in strongly
Galoub6, Galoubet (Fr.) A land of marked duple time ((J} alia breve), be-
small fife, the shrillest of all wind-in-
ginning with an auftakt, of a lively
str.s, with 3 holes and a compass of 17
though dignified character, and resem-
notes ; found only in Provence.
bling the Minuet. (See Suite.) The
GanVba. i. See Viola da gamba. 2. Gavot has latterly been revived as an
An organ-stop similar in tone to the instrumental piece.
viola da gamba. Gaz'el. A
piece with a short and oft-rt-
Gam'be (Ger.) Viola da
gamba. Gam'* curring theme or refrain. . .

benstimme, a gamba-stop. Gam'ben- G-clef. (Ger. G'-Schliissel; Fr. clef de

. .

werk, piano-violin. sol; It. chiave di soprano.) The sign

Gamiest. A player on the viola da determining the position of the
gamba. note /on
the staff. (See Clef)

Gam'ma. The Greek

val music from the loth century on-
G (r). In medie- f a'se (Ger.) Bellows (of an organ ;

usually Balg)*
ward, the lowest tone of the mus. sys-
Gebroch'en (Ger.) Broken.
tem then obtaining was called F ; the
letter was together with the F-
Gebun'den (Ger.) i. Tied. 2. Legato,
^ n1<f H"<an/A its
ite IICA

as gebun'dene Dissonant\ pre-

also used clef. Hence, use tied;
[^ r
as a clef to name the entire pared dissonance; gebun'denes Spiel,
scale (see Gamme and Gamut). . . Gam- legato playing ; gebun'dener Stil, strict
ma ut, - style. 3, Having 2 or more digitals to
n the old system of
n am e j.^.
one string (said of clavichords) opp.
1^, J
" solmisation.

u- .*
to un'gebunden or bund'frei (i. e.
"fretted" or "fret-free" [GROVE]).
Gamme (Fr.) A
scale (see Gamma) .. .
G. diatonique (ckromatique\ diatonic (Comp, Bundfrei.)
(chromatic) scale.
Gedackt/ (Ger.) Stopped (of organ-

Gam'ut See Gam- pipes) ; opp. to offen. (Also gedact,

(from gamma ut). I.
ma. 2. A scale. 3. The staff. 4. In gedakt)
old English church-music, the key of G. GedampfV (Ger.) .
Damped; muffled;
Gang (Ger.) Passage. (Plural G&nge.)
See Gc-
(Ger., "covered".)
Ganz (Ger.) Whole. .. Gan'zc Note
(gan'ze Takfnote), whole note
(^)... See Dehnen.
Gan*'instrument, a metal wind-instr., Gedehnt' 7

the lowest natural tone of whose tube Gedicht (Ger.) Poem.

can be made to speak opp. to Halb' in- Gefahr'te (Ger.) Answer (in fugal com-

strument. Ganz'sMuss
, . whole ca- position).

Gefallen (Ger.) Pleasure ;

nach G., a Ge'nera. Plural of Genus.

piacere. GeneraHtess (Ger.) Thorough-bass;

Gefel'lig (Ger.) Pleasing, attractive, GeneraVbassschrift, thorough-bass no-
tation. . General'
graceful. pause, a pause for all

instr.sor parts in the midst of a com-

Gefiihl' (Ger.) Feeling, emotion... Mit
G. t with feeling, expression (also ge- position, particularly when so intro-
duced as to produce a effect.
f&hlvoll\ 'striking
A hold ^
over the rest for such a
Ge'gen Against, contrary to...
pause renders its duration indetermin-
Gfgenbewegung, contrary motion. . .
ate i. e. robs it of
Ge'genfuge, a fugue in which the an-
rhythmic value, as
if the beats or counts were
swer is an inversion of the subject. . . suspended
f for the time
Ge genharmonie J counter-subject a being. . General'probe, full

iugit)...Ge'gensatz, (a) contrast; (b)
contrasting movement or effect. . . Ge'- Generator. (Fr. [son] gMrateur.} j.
genstimme^ contrapuntal part ; counter- A fundamental torie. 2. A
root, or
subject. tone which produces a series of har-

Gegit'tertes B (Ger.) cancellatum. B monics.

Gehal'ten (Ger.) Held, sustained. Ge'nere (It.) A mode or key ;

a genus.
Geh'end (Ger.) Andante. Genero'sora (It.) Generous, free, ample.
Gei'ge (Ger.)
Geniar (Ger.) Relating to or
^K>\m...Gei'genclamcym exhibiting
beliGei'genklawer y bow-piano. .. Get genius; talented, gifted, ingenious,
genharz, rosin . Gei' clever spirited.
. ;

Gei'genprindpal, violi G6nie (Fr.), Genie' (Ger.) Genius.
diapason (organ-stop). . Gei'genwer .

Genouilliere (Fr.) Knee-lever

piano-violin.. .Geigenzettel, the maker formerly ;
label "or used in German grand pftes. as a sub-
on a violin
stitute for the earlier
Geist (Ger.) draw-stops, before
Spirit, soul ; mind, inte the general introduction of
lect essence.
genius ;

Genre (Fr.) Genus, as g. diatonique,

Gei'sterharfe (Ger.) ^Eolian harp.
chromatique, enharmonique.k 1 s o ,
Geistlich Sacred
(Ger.) ; opp. to welt style.
Uck, secular.
Gentil rle (Fr.) Genttte (It.) Grace-
Gelas'sen (Ger.) Calm, composed ful, delicate, yc&ty.Gentilment (gen-
placid ; easy. (Also adverb^ tilmen'te), gracefully, etc. . .
Gelau'fig (Ger.) con (It.), with
Fluent, voluble ; easy dignity, refinement, grace.
.Gelau'figkeit, fluency, celer Ge xnus (Lat) I. In ancient music, a
ity, velocity; ease, familiarity. system of arranging the notes of a tetra-
Gemach'Hdi(Ger,) chord for diatonic, enharm.
Comfortable, easy ;
commodious, convenient ; slow, gentle genus, see Greek Music, 2,~2. A
mode or octave-scale.
modetto. Gera'de
Bewe'gung (Ger.) Similar
Gema'ssigt Moderate. or parallel motion. .. Gera'de
(Ger.) (See Takfart
M&ssig. (gerader Takt\ duple or quadruple time.
Gemisch'te Stim'men
(Ger.) i. Mixed German flute, the cross-flute. . . German
voices. 2. In the organ, the mixtures sixth, see Extreme.
mixture-stops, Ges(Ger.) -

Gems'hom " /
(Ger., chamois-horn/') In Gesang Singing, song ; a song,
the organ, a metal vocd composition
flue-stop having ta- melody, air...<?-

pering pipes of 8, 4, or 2-foot pitch on sang'buch, a song-book, hymn-book. . .

the manuals and of i6-foot
pitch on the Gesangs kunst, the art of singing, vocal
pedaF, with mellow, horn-like timbre art. ..
Gesang'(s)massig, melodious ;
..Gems hornquinU, a
5}ffoot stop of adapted for singing, for the voice. . .
the above
type. Gesang'vtrein> singing society, choral
Gemiit'(h) (Ger.) Soul, heart, society.
mind; disposition, temperament, na- eschlecht' (Ger.) Genus ; mode.
eschleift'(Ger.) Slurred; legato.

Geschmack' (Gen) Taste., . Geschmack'- Giuocan'te (It.) Playful, bantering.

voll, tasteful(ly). .
GiuoMvolt) playfully, etc.
Geschwaazt' (Ger,, "tailed".) Having Giu'sto,-a (It.) Appropriate, strict,
a hook or hooks ( h t). moderate (as tempo giusto), exact, pre-
cise, correct. ..Allegro giusto (all*
Geschwind' (Ger.) Swift, rapid, quick.
(Also adverb.) modify^ moderately fast . .
correctly, exactly. . , Givstexfsta 9 c0tt,mth
Ges'es (Ger.) See Ges.
Gesicht' (Ger.) Front (of organ). . . Ge-
Glas'Tiarmonika (Ger.) Harmonica i.
sichts'pftifen, front pipes.
Glee. A secular composition for 3 or
Gespon'nen (Ger. "spun".) Gesponnene more
"covered "string. Gesponnener unaccompanied solo voices, of
Saite, , .
and less contrapuntal inge-
later origin
Ton, "son file" (see Filar), an even,
nuity than the Madrigal, and peculiar
sustained tone (voice or violin).
to England. It is of modern character,
Gestei'gert (Ger.) Intensified; rinforzato. both with regard to tonality and to its
Gestrich'en (Ger.) i.
Having hooks. employment of harmonic masses and
2. In compound words, equivalent to the perfect cadence. The name glee is

-lined) -accented, as eiri'gestrichene Ok- not properly descriptive of nature, its

ta've, one-lined (once-accented) octave. as serious glees are written as we A as

3. Crossed ,
or jf #- 4. Cut merry ones.
with a stroke or[_ (m ~(as a scene in f
Equal. .. GM'cfor Kon
Gleich -
line across, as \j an opera).
trafunkt, equal counterpoint. . - Gld'cht
Get(h)eilt' (Ger.) Divided, separated.. .
Stimmen, equal voices. . . Gidch'sckwe-
Geteil'te Violi'nen^ violini divisi. Ge- . . bende Temperatur', equal temperament.
tetfteStim'men, partial stops (organ). Gli (It.) The (masc. pi.).
Getra'gen(Ger.) Sostenuto. See Tragen. Glicibarifo'na (It.) A wind-instr. inv.
Geworfener Strich (Ger.) Thrown in Italy about 1827 by Catterini a ;
stroke ; in violin-technics, a form of small 4-octav expressive organ.
the saltato* Glide. The smooth connection of 2 tones
Ghaz'al, Ghaz'el (Arabic.) See Gaul by slurring.
Ghiribiz'zo (It.) Whim, 'fancy, caprice. Glissan'do (also glissa'to, glissican'do^
* forms imitated
. .
Ghiribizzo'so, whimsical, etc. glissica'to ; spurious It.

See Gfgw. from the Fr. glister.) I. bowed On

Gi'ga (It.)
instr.s, (a) calls for a flowing, unac-
Gigeli'ra (It.) Xylophone.
cented, execution of a passage (b) ;

Gigue (Fr.j Early name for the old

r. same as Portamento. 2. On the pfte.,
form of viol,
which nearlyresembled that a rapid scale-effect obtained by sliding
of a ham (gigue) hence German Geige.
; the thtmb, or thumb and one finger,
2. Ordinary title in the Suite for the Jig, over the white keys, producing either
Gioche'vole (It.) Playfully, merrily. the simple scale, or thirds, sixths, etc,

Giocon'do,-a (It,) Jocund, gay, playful. (easier and more effective on the Jank6
. . Giocondamen'te^ joyously, merrily. keyboard).

Gioco'so,-a (It.) Playful, sportive, ban- liss^'(Fr.)

r. Glissando 2. 2. A di-
rection* indicating that a passage is to
tering; humorous. Giocosawn'te, play- , :

be executed smoothly and flowingly.

fully, etc.

Gio'ja (It.) Joy, delight, pleasure...

Glock e(Ger.; dimin. Gloctfchen) Bell.
:.Glockenislf, same as Carillonneur. . k
Giojan'te> joyfully, mirthfully...6*0-
Gfatfenspiel, a carillon an
jo'so^a, joyful, mirthful. . .-Giojosamen'- (a) ; (b)

te, joyfully, etc.

consisting of bells or (more re-
Giavia'le cently) of steel bars, tuned diatonically
(It.) Jovial, cheerful. and struck with a small hammer ;
Giraffe. An old-style upright grand pfte.
casionally used in the orchestra (c) an ;

Gi'ro (It.) A turn. organ-stop which causes a set of small

bells to be sounded
Gis (Ger,) Gft . . (S/fr, Gx . by the manual.
GmbtH'o also Glt/ria. See Doxology, Mass.
'(It., gMUlo. giubilaaw'-
reJQicing, jubilation.
'Gnac'care (It.) Same as Castagnette.
, jubilant. Goathorn. See Gemshom.

Gon'dellied (Ger.) Gondoliera. re? to.) A vocal or instrumental orna-

ment or embellishment not essential to
Gondol^ra (It) See Barcarole. the melody or harmony of a composi-
Gong. (Tam-tam in Fr. and Ger. use.) tion. (The long appoggiatura'is an ex-
An instr. of percussion in the form of
ception it was formerly written as a

a large round concave plate or

slightly small note grace-note because care-
basin of metal (alloy of 4 parts copper to ful composers could thus nominally
I part tin), with a raised rim. It is struck evade the rule prohibiting the entrance
with a stick having a padded leather of unprepared dissonances. )... Grace-
head, and is used in the orchestra to in- note, a note of embellishment, usually
tensify melodramatic effects. distinguished by its smaller comparative
Goose. (Fr. couac^ A
harsh break in size.

the tone of the clarinet, oboe, or bas- The graces for^ harpsichord, clavichord^
pianoforte and voice, enumerated t below in
soon, caused by a defective reed or im- alphabetical order, are given according to the
proper manipulation. owmgai
following J. H. d'Anglebert, 1689
authorities : v .

(d'A.) ; J. S. Bach, 1720 (B.) ; C. Pli. E. Bach,

Gorgheggia're (It) To execute florid 1787 (Em. B.) ;
Dr. John Blow, 1700 (Bl.) Dr.'
Dr. j

vocal music; also see Fredonner... Ihomas Busby, 1786 (Bu.); Francois Co up erin,
17*3 (C.)l ] W. Callcott, i8i7(Ca.)j Etienne
GorghtggiamenftO) art of singing florid Loulitf, 1696 (L.) ; N.
de S. Lambert, 1607 (La.);
passages, ttz.*.Gorgheg'gio t a florid F. W. Marpurg, 1762 (M,) ; PJ.
passage. 1797 (Mi.); J. S. Petri, 1782 (P.); Fr.Pomni,

See Epistle
1711 (Po, st>. Rameau, i Christ-
Gospel side. side. opher Simpson, 1659(8.); G. olf, 1783-89
(W.) ; and J. G. Walther, 1732 (Wa.).
Gout (Fr.) Taste. In every case, the special article in the
of the book should also be consulted, the pri-
Grace. (Ger. Verzie'rung; Fr. orne- mary intention of this article being to give a
t) agrtment; It. adbellimen'to, fa- list of signs for ready reference.

Acciaccatura. Anschlag. Appoggiatura.

(Bl.) (C.) (C.)


Double Backfall. Shaked B

+ (Bu.)



MI ir I
Shaked Beat. Bebung. Beisser. Brechung.

(d'A.) ^ (B.)


(N (B.)

Doppelt-Cadence. Doppelt-Cadence
and Mordant.

Cadent. Shaked Cadent.

(d'A.) (d'A.) (d'A.)

Chute. Chute et Pince. Chute.

(d'A.) (d'A.)
_^ (d'A.)

Doppel- Geschnellter Doppelschlag. Prs

schlag. Doppelschlag.

^ (d A.) ^ (d'A.)

Umgekehrter Doppelvorschlag.

D. sur une tierce. Elevation.


Hement M. double, M, triple. Mordant

(M.) (M.) (M.)
AV A^r __

Springender Nachschlag, Nachschlag Nachschlag.


Pince* double.


Pince continu.

(R.) (R.)

Pince et Port de voix.

(La) (La)

double. 6touff^


or (Q A
Port de voix.


Port de v. simple. Port de voix double.

PraUtiiUer. Single Relish-


f Double Relish.
'I II jvyII
[Code.] [Slide.]

(S.) ^ ^ (Bu.)

Springer. Passing


Suspen- Trem- Tremblem. appuye. Tremblement.

coupe. sion. blement.

fiv~(C.) (P.)

Tremblem. continu. Turn. Doppeltriller mit Nachschlag.

(1 g (BL) tf (BL)_

Mit Vor- und Nachschlag. Trill without Trill with

after-beat. appogg*.

Gracieux, Gracieuse (Fr.) Graceful. (a) full organ ; (b] an harmonium-stop

Gra'cile Graceful and delicate; which brings into action the full power
of the instr.../i grand orchesty for
thin, slender (w'eegracile),
full orchestra. .. Grand-argue^ (a) fuH
Grad (Ger.) Degree.
organ ; (b) great organ; (c) pipe-organ,
Gradation. An 1

ascending or descend- Grandeur

(Fr.) Width (of intervals).
ing series of diatonic chords. "
Grandez^a (It.) Grandeur, majesty,
Grade'vole (It.) Pleasing, agreeable. . .

Gradevolmen'te, pleasingly.