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# 1 of 86

Hoon Hong

## Overconstrained system: Best approximate solution

Find the best approximate solution of A x = b using normal equation
4 K3 K1
A= K1 1 ,b= K3
K4 K3 4

-1
x = At A At b

K0.535
x=
K0.660

3. Error
0.839
e= 2.875
0.120
||e|| = 2.998
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2 3 3
A= 3 3 ,b= K4
1 K1 K3

-1
x = At A At b

K2.443
x=
1.800

3. Error
K2.486
e= 2.071
K1.243
||e|| = 3.466
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K2 K3 K2
K1 K4 K2
A= ,b=
K4 K1 2
K4 K1 4

-1
x = At A At b

K0.933
x=
0.919

3. Error
1.111
K0.741
e=
0.815
K1.185
||e|| = 1.963
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K3 4 1
1 4 4
A= ,b=
3 K1 K3
K2 K2 2

-1
x = At A At b

K0.388
x=
0.440

3. Error
1.924
K2.627
e=
1.397
K2.105
||e|| = 4.121
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K3 4 3 2
K3 K2 K4 K3
A= ,b=
4 2 K1 1
3 1 K3 1

-1
x = At A At b

0.239
x= 0.473
0.266

3. Error
K0.030
0.273
e=
0.637
K0.607
||e|| = 0.922
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K3 K1 2 K4
K1 2 K2 4
A= ,b=
4 K4 1 4
K1 K3 K3 K4

-1
x = At A At b

1.428
x= 0.831
K0.192

3. Error
K1.499
K3.381
e=
K1.806
0.653
||e|| = 4.168
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## Find the best approximate solution of A x = b using normal equation

3 K3 2 K3
4 K1 K1 K2
A= K2 K1 2 ,b= K1
4 K1 3 4
2 K1 K2 3

-1
x = At A At b

0.560
x= 1.318
0.327

3. Error
1.379
2.596
e= K0.785
K2.098
K3.851
||e|| = 5.337
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## Find the best approximate solution of A x = b using normal equation

3 K1 K1 3
K3 2 K3 3
A= 2 K4 K2 , b = 1
K4 K3 K1 1
3 1 K1 4

-1
x = At A At b

0.307
x= 0.232
K1.318

3. Error
K0.994
0.497
e= 1.319
K1.606
K1.530
||e|| = 2.810
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## Underconstrained system: Smallest solution

Find the smallest solution of A x = b
A= 4 K3 , b = K1

## 1. Formula for the smallest solution

-1
x = At A At b

2. Smallest solution
K0.160
x=
0.120
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4 K3 K1 K1
A= ,b=
1 K4 K3 K3

## 1. Formula for the smallest solution

-1
x = At A At b

2. Smallest solution
0.206
x= 0.454
0.463
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4 K3 K1 1 4
A= ,b=
K4 K3 K1 K3 2

## 1. Formula for the smallest solution

-1
x = At A At b

2. Smallest solution
0.315
K0.861
x=
K0.287
K0.130
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## Find the smallest solution of A x = b

4 K3 K1 1 3
A= K4 K3 K1 K3 , b = 1
4 2 3 3 K1

## 1. Formula for the smallest solution

-1
x = At A At b

2. Smallest solution
0.279
K0.555
x=
K0.277
K0.058
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## Overconstrained system: Best approximate solution using

Cholesky
Find the best approximate solution of A x = b using Cholesky
4 K3 K1
A= K1 1 ,b= K3
K4 K3 4

1. Compute S = At A
33 K1
S=
K1 19

2. Cholesky Decomposition
5.745 0
L=
K0.174 4.355

5.745 0 K17
. y=
K0.174 4.355 K12
5.745 K0.174
. x=y
0 4.355

K0.535
x=
K0.660
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## Find the best approximate solution of A x = b using Cholesky

2 3 3
A= 3 3 ,b= K4
1 K1 K3

1. Compute S = At A
14 14
S=
14 19

2. Cholesky Decomposition
3.742 0
L=
3.742 2.236

3.742 0 K9
. y=
3.742 2.236 0
3.742 3.742
. x=y
0 2.236

K2.443
x=
1.800
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## Find the best approximate solution of A x = b using Cholesky

K2 K3 K2
K1 K4 K2
A= ,b=
K4 K1 2
K4 K1 4

1. Compute S = At A
37 18
S=
18 27

2. Cholesky Decomposition
6.083 0
L=
2.959 4.271

6.083 0 K18
. y=
2.959 4.271 8
6.083 2.959
. x=y
0 4.271

K0.933
x=
0.919
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## Find the best approximate solution of A x = b using Cholesky

K3 4 1
1 4 4
A= ,b=
3 K1 K3
K2 K2 2

1. Compute S = At A
23 K7
S=
K7 37

2. Cholesky Decomposition
4.796 0
L=
K1.460 5.905

4.796 0 K12
. y=
K1.460 5.905 19
4.796 K1.460
. x=y
0 5.905

K0.388
x=
0.440
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## Find the best approximate solution of A x = b using Cholesky

K3 4 3 2
K3 K2 K4 K3
A= ,b=
4 2 K1 1
3 1 K3 1

1. Compute S = At A
43 5 K10
S= 5 25 15
K10 15 35

2. Cholesky Decomposition
6.557 0 0
L= 0.762 4.942 0
K1.525 3.271 4.688

## 3. Cholesky-based formula for the best approximate solution

6.557 0 0 10
0.762 4.942 0 . y= 17
K1.525 3.271 4.688 14
6.557 0.762 K1.525
0 4.942 3.271 . x=y
0 0 4.688

0.239
x= 0.473
0.266
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## Find the best approximate solution of A x = b using Cholesky

K3 K1 2 K4
K1 2 K2 4
A= ,b=
4 K4 1 4
K1 K3 K3 K4

1. Compute S = At A
27 K12 3
S= K12 30 K1
3 K1 18

2. Cholesky Decomposition
5.196 0 0
L= K2.309 4.967 0
0.577 0.067 4.203

## 3. Cholesky-based formula for the best approximate solution

5.196 0 0 28
K2.309 4.967 0 . y= 8
0.577 0.067 4.203 0
5.196 K2.309 0.577
0 4.967 0.067 . x=y
0 0 4.203

1.428
x= 0.831
K0.192
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## Find the best approximate solution of A x = b using Cholesky

3 K3 2 K3
4 K1 K1 K2
A= K2 K1 2 ,b= K1
4 K1 3 4
2 K1 K2 3

1. Compute S = At A
49 K17 6
S= K17 13 K8
6 K8 22

2. Cholesky Decomposition
7.000 0 0
L= K2.429 2.665 0
0.857 K2.221 4.041

## 3. Cholesky-based formula for the best approximate solution

7.000 0 0 7
K2.429 2.665 0 . y= 5
0.857 K2.221 4.041 0
7.000 K2.429 0.857
0 2.665 K2.221 . x=y
0 0 4.041

0.560
x= 1.318
0.327
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## Find the best approximate solution of A x = b using Cholesky

3 K1 K1 3
K3 2 K3 3
A= 2 K4 K2 , b = 1
K4 K3 K1 1
3 1 K1 4

1. Compute S = At A
47 K2 3
S= K2 31 5
3 5 16

2. Cholesky Decomposition
6.856 0 0
L= K0.292 5.560 0
0.438 0.922 3.868

## 3. Cholesky-based formula for the best approximate solution

6.856 0 0 10
K0.292 5.560 0 . y= 0
0.438 0.922 3.868 K19
6.856 K0.292 0.438
0 5.560 0.922 . x=y
0 0 3.868

0.307
x= 0.232
K1.318
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## Overconstrained system: Best approximate solution using

QR
Find the best approximate solution of A x = b using QRD
4 K3 K1
A= K1 1 ,b= K3
K4 K3 4

1. QR Decomposition
0.696 K0.661
5.745 K0.174
Q= K0.174 0.223 ,R=
0 4.355
K0.696 K0.717

## 2. QRD-based formula for the best approximate solution

5.745 K0.174 K2.959
. x=
0 4.355 K2.873

K0.535
x=
K0.660
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## Find the best approximate solution of A x = b using QRD

2 3 3
A= 3 3 ,b= K4
1 K1 K3

1. QR Decomposition
0.535 0.447
3.742 3.742
Q= 0.802 1.247 10-10 , R =
0 2.236
0.267 K0.894

## 2. QRD-based formula for the best approximate solution

3.742 3.742 K2.405
. x=
0 2.236 4.025

K2.443
x=
1.800
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## Find the best approximate solution of A x = b using QRD

K2 K3 K2
K1 K4 K2
A= ,b=
K4 K1 2
K4 K1 4

1. QR Decomposition
K0.329 K0.475
K0.164 K0.823 6.083 2.959
Q= ,R=
K0.658 0.221 0 4.271
K0.658 0.221

## 2. QRD-based formula for the best approximate solution

6.083 2.959 K2.959
. x=
0 4.271 3.923

K0.933
x=
0.919
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## Find the best approximate solution of A x = b using QRD

K3 4 1
1 4 4
A= ,b=
3 K1 K3
K2 K2 2

1. QR Decomposition
K0.626 0.523
0.209 0.729 4.796 K1.460
Q= ,R=
0.626 K0.015 0 5.905
K0.417 K0.442

## 2. QRD-based formula for the best approximate solution

4.796 K1.460 K2.502
. x=
0 5.905 2.599

K0.388
x=
0.440
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## Find the best approximate solution of A x = b using QRD

K3 4 3 2
K3 K2 K4 K3
A= ,b=
4 2 K1 1
3 1 K3 1

1. QR Decomposition
K0.457 0.880 K0.123
6.557 0.762 K1.525
K0.457 K0.334 K0.769
Q= ,R= 0 4.942 3.271
0.610 0.311 K0.232
0 0 4.688
0.457 0.132 K0.583

## 2. QRD-based formula for the best approximate solution

6.557 0.762 K1.525 1.525
0 4.942 3.271 . x= 3.205
0 0 4.688 1.246

0.239
x= 0.473
0.266
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## Find the best approximate solution of A x = b using QRD

K3 K1 2 K4
K1 2 K2 4
A= ,b=
4 K4 1 4
K1 K3 K3 K4

1. QR Decomposition
K0.577 K0.470 0.563
5.196 K2.309 0.577
K0.192 0.313 K0.454
Q= ,R= 0 4.967 0.067
0.770 K0.447 0.139
0 0 4.203
K0.192 K0.694 K0.676

## 2. QRD-based formula for the best approximate solution

5.196 K2.309 0.577 5.389
0 4.967 0.067 . x= 4.116
0 0 4.203 K0.806

1.428
x= 0.831
K0.192
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## Find the best approximate solution of A x = b using QRD

3 K3 2 K3
4 K1 K1 K2
A= K2 K1 2 ,b= K1
4 K1 3 4
2 K1 K2 3

1. QR Decomposition

## 0.429 K0.735 1.449 10-10

0.571 0.146 K0.289 7.000 K2.429 0.857
Q= K0.286 K0.636 0.206 ,R= 0 2.665 K2.221
0.571 0.146 0.701 0 0 4.041
0.286 K0.115 K0.619

## 2. QRD-based formula for the best approximate solution

7.000 K2.429 0.857 1.000
0 2.665 K2.221 . x= 2.787
0 0 4.041 1.320

0.560
x= 1.318
0.327
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## Find the best approximate solution of A x = b using QRD

3 K1 K1 3
K3 2 K3 3
A= 2 K4 K2 , b = 1
K4 K3 K1 1
3 1 K1 4

1. QR Decomposition
0.438 K0.157 K0.271
K0.438 0.337 K0.806 6.856 K0.292 0.438
Q= 0.292 K0.704 K0.382 , R = 0 5.560 0.922
K0.583 K0.570 K0.057 0 0 3.868
0.438 0.203 K0.356

## 2. QRD-based formula for the best approximate solution

6.856 K0.292 0.438 1.459
0 5.560 0.922 . x= 0.077
0 0 3.868 K5.096

0.307
x= 0.232
K1.318
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## Overconstrained system: Best approximate solution using

SVD
Find the best approximate solution of A x = b using SVD
4 K3 K1
A= K1 1 ,b= K3
K4 K3 4

1. SVD of A
K0.731 0.623
5.751 0.000 K0.997 K0.071
U= 0.186 K0.213 , Σ = ,V=
0.000 4.351 0.071 K0.997
0.657 0.753

-1
x = V Σ Ut b

K0.535
x=
K0.660
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## Find the best approximate solution of A x = b using SVD

2 3 3
A= 3 3 ,b= K4
1 K1 K3

1. SVD of A
K0.647 0.260
5.543 0.000 K0.642 K0.767
U= K0.762 K0.248 , Σ = ,V=
0.000 1.509 K0.767 0.642
0.023 K0.933

-1
x = V Σ Ut b

K2.443
x=
1.800
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## Find the best approximate solution of A x = b using SVD

K2 K3 K2
K1 K4 K2
A= ,b=
K4 K1 2
K4 K1 4

1. SVD of A
K0.479 K0.323
K0.452 K0.707 7.119 0.000 0.796 K0.605
U= ,Σ= ,V=
K0.532 0.445 0.000 3.649 0.605 0.796
K0.532 0.445

-1
x = V Σ Ut b

K0.933
x=
0.919
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## Find the best approximate solution of A x = b using SVD

K3 4 1
1 4 4
A= ,b=
3 K1 K3
K2 K2 2

1. SVD of A
K0.767 0.277
K0.524 K0.547 6.317 0.000 0.383 K0.924
U= ,Σ= ,V=
0.328 K0.533 0.000 4.483 K0.924 K0.383
0.171 0.583

-1
x = V Σ Ut b

K0.388
x=
0.440
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## Find the best approximate solution of A x = b using SVD

K3 4 3 2
K3 K2 K4 K3
A= ,b=
4 2 K1 1
3 1 K3 1

1. SVD of A
K0.719 K0.280 0.635
7.137 0.000 0.000
0.161 0.772 0.538
U= ,Σ= 0.000 6.405 0.000 , V
0.409 K0.534 0.264
0.000 0.000 3.323
0.538 K0.199 0.487
0.690 K0.658 K0.302
= K0.258 K0.614 0.746
K0.676 K0.437 K0.593

-1
x = V Σ Ut b

0.239
x= 0.473
0.266
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## Find the best approximate solution of A x = b using SVD

K3 K1 2 K4
K1 2 K2 4
A= ,b=
4 K4 1 4
K1 K3 K3 K4

1. SVD of A
K0.158 K0.033 K0.919
6.397 0.000 0.000
K0.372 0.254 0.372
U= ,Σ= 0.000 4.329 0.000 , V
0.895 K0.101 0.019
0.000 0.000 3.917
0.187 0.961 K0.128
0.663 K0.352 0.661
= K0.739 K0.448 0.503
0.119 K0.822 K0.557

-1
x = V Σ Ut b

1.428
x= 0.831
K0.192
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## Find the best approximate solution of A x = b using SVD

3 K3 2 K3
4 K1 K1 K2
A= K2 K1 2 ,b= K1
4 K1 3 4
2 K1 K2 3

1. SVD of A
K0.565 K0.316 0.552
K0.490 0.437 K0.001 7.604 0.000 0.000
U= 0.123 K0.582 0.417 ,Σ= 0.000 4.651 0.000 , V
K0.613 K0.355 K0.581 0.000 0.000 2.132
K0.224 0.494 0.429
K0.894 0.330 K0.303
= 0.381 0.205 K0.901
K0.235 K0.922 K0.309

-1
x = V Σ Ut b

0.560
x= 1.318
0.327
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## Find the best approximate solution of A x = b using SVD

3 K1 K1 3
K3 2 K3 3
A= 2 K4 K2 , b = 1
K4 K3 K1 1
3 1 K1 4

1. SVD of A
K0.435 K0.184 K0.258
0.495 0.139 K0.831 6.887 0.000 0.000
U= K0.321 K0.750 K0.248 , Σ = 0.000 5.696 0.000 , V
0.546 K0.602 0.093 0.000 0.000 3.758
K0.407 0.150 K0.414
K0.992 0.068 K0.105
= 0.097 0.951 K0.294
K0.079 0.302 0.950

-1
x = V Σ Ut b

0.307
x= 0.232
K1.318
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## Underconstrained system: Smallest solution using SVD

Find the smallest solution of A x = b using SVD
A= 4 K3 , b = K1

1. SVD of At
0.800
U= ,Σ= 5.000 , V = 1.000
K0.600

## 2. SVD-based formula for the smallest solution

-1
x = U Σ Vt b

3. Smallest solution
K0.160
x=
0.120
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## Find the smallest solution of A x = b using SVD

4 K3 K1 K1
A= ,b=
1 K4 K3 K3

1. SVD of At
K0.527 K0.802
6.708 0.000 K0.707 K0.707
U= 0.738 K0.267 , Σ = ,V=
0.000 2.646 K0.707 0.707
0.422 K0.535

## 2. SVD-based formula for the smallest solution

-1
x = U Σ Vt b

3. Smallest solution
0.206
x= 0.454
0.463
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## Find the smallest solution of A x = b using SVD

4 K3 K1 1 4
A= ,b=
K4 K3 K1 K3 2

1. SVD of At
K0.866 0.255
K0.138 K0.902 6.391 0.000 K0.545 0.838
U= ,Σ= ,V=
K0.046 K0.301 0.000 4.599 0.838 0.545
K0.479 K0.173

## 2. SVD-based formula for the smallest solution

-1
x = U Σ Vt b

3. Smallest solution
0.315
K0.861
x=
K0.287
K0.130
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## Find the smallest solution of A x = b using SVD

4 K3 K1 1 3
A= K4 K3 K1 K3 , b = 1
4 2 3 3 K1

1. SVD of At
K0.758 0.478 0.114
8.623 0.000 0.000
K0.297 K0.802 0.456
U= ,Σ= 0.000 4.815 0.000 , V
K0.288 K0.357 K0.880
0.000 0.000 1.568
K0.505 K0.041 0.062
K0.273 0.962 0.019
= 0.664 0.203 K0.720
K0.696 K0.184 K0.694

## 2. SVD-based formula for the smallest solution

-1
x = U Σ Vt b

3. Smallest solution
0.279
K0.555
x=
K0.277
K0.058
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## Functional model fit

Fit the functional model to the data:

Model
y = x c1 Cc2

Data
x y
1.000 4.950
2.000 6.440
3.000 9.450
4.000 10.450
5.000 13.650

13

11
y 9

5
1 2 3 4 5
x

1. Set up
1.000 1.000 4.950
2.000 1.000 6.440
A= 3.000 1.000 , b = 9.450
4.000 1.000 10.450
5.000 1.000 13.650

2. SVD of A
K0.160 K0.758
K0.285 K0.468
7.691 0.000 K0.964 0.267
U= K0.411 K0.177 , Σ = ,V=
0.000 0.919 K0.267 K0.964
K0.536 0.113
K0.661 0.403
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## 3. Best approximate solution for c

2.141
c=
2.565

4. Best Fit
y = 2.141 x C2.565

13

11
y 9

5
1 2 3 4 5
x
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## Fit the functional model to the data:

Model
y = x2 c1 Cx c2 Cc3

Data
x y
1.000 5.940
2.000 10.120
3.000 18.900
4.000 25.650
5.000 39.900

35
30
25
y
20
15
10
1 2 3 4 5
x

1. Set up
1.000 1.000 1.000 5.940
4.000 2.000 1.000 10.120
A= 9.000 3.000 1.000 , b = 18.900
16.000 4.000 1.000 25.650
25.000 5.000 1.000 39.900

2. SVD of A
K0.039 0.528 0.778
K0.137 0.589 K0.076 32.156 0.000 0.000
U= K0.295 0.457 K0.435 , Σ = 0.000 2.198 0.000 , V
K0.514 0.133 K0.300 0.000 0.000 0.374
K0.793 K0.384 0.331
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## K0.973 K0.212 0.093

= K0.224 0.770 K0.598
K0.055 0.602 0.796

## 3. Best approximate solution for c

1.294
c= 0.584
4.122

4. Best Fit
y = 1.294 x2 C0.584 x C4.122

35
30
25
y
20
15
10
1 2 3 4 5
x
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## Relational model fit

Fit the relational model to the data:

Model
x c1 Cy c2 Cc3 = 0

Data
x y
0.461 -1.783
0.526 -1.814
1.766 -2.453
-2.214 -0.437
1.397 -2.131
-0.475 -1.298
-1.352 -0.786
1.304 -2.045
-0.061 -1.419
-1.792 -0.611

K1.0
y
K2.0
K2 K1 0 1
x

1. Set up
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## 0.461 K1.784 1.000

0.527 K1.814 1.000
1.766 K2.453 1.000
K2.214 K0.437 1.000
1.397 K2.131 1.000
n=
K0.475 K1.298 1.000
K1.352 K0.786 1.000
1.304 K2.045 1.000
K0.061 K1.419 1.000
K1.792 K0.611 1.000

2. SVD of A
K0.342 0.057 K0.308
K0.350 0.043 K0.299
K0.503 K0.213 K0.453
K0.015 0.609 K0.150
6.094 0.000 0.000
K0.439 K0.141 0.320
U= ,Σ= 0.000 4.047 0.000 , V
K0.226 0.250 K0.173
0.000 0.000 0.097
K0.109 0.428 0.269
K0.423 K0.123 0.546
K0.264 0.161 0.290
K0.061 0.521 0.036
K0.325 K0.908 0.264
= 0.833 K0.143 0.535
K0.448 0.393 0.803

## 3. Best approximate solution for c

0.264
c= 0.535
0.803

4. Best Fit
0.535 y C0.264 x C0.803 = 0
47 of 86

K1
y
K2

K3 K2 K1 0 1 2 3
x
48 of 86

## Fit the relational model to the data:

Model
x2 c1 Cx y c3 Cy2 c2 Cx c4 Cy c5 Cc6 = 0

Data
x y
0.115 0.168
-0.221 0.802
-0.083 1.552
3.250 3.422
3.942 3.286
0.625 2.472
1.085 2.786
2.845 3.431
3.145 3.451
4.595 2.377
1.849 -0.174
3.209 0.329
4.228 1.130
3.756 0.639
0.462 2.189
0.351 2.190
-0.220 1.048
4.141 3.144
2.051 -0.162
0.865 -0.151

2
y
1

0
0 1 2 3 4
x

1. Set up
49 of 86

## 0.013 0.028 0.019 0.115 0.168 1.000

0.049 0.643 K0.177 K0.221 0.802 1.000
0.007 2.409 K0.129 K0.083 1.552 1.000
10.563 11.710 11.122 3.250 3.422 1.000
15.543 10.800 12.956 3.942 3.286 1.000
0.391 6.111 1.545 0.625 2.472 1.000
1.176 7.760 3.021 1.085 2.786 1.000
8.092 11.772 9.760 2.845 3.431 1.000
9.890 11.910 10.853 3.145 3.451 1.000
21.113 5.652 10.924 4.595 2.377 1.000
n=
3.418 0.030 K0.321 1.849 K0.174 1.000
10.296 0.108 1.056 3.209 0.329 1.000
17.872 1.276 4.775 4.228 1.130 1.000
14.108 0.409 2.401 3.756 0.639 1.000
0.213 4.791 1.011 0.462 2.189 1.000
0.123 4.795 0.769 0.351 2.190 1.000
0.048 1.097 K0.230 K0.220 1.048 1.000
17.150 9.886 13.021 4.141 3.144 1.000
4.206 0.026 K0.332 2.051 K0.162 1.000
0.749 0.023 K0.130 0.865 K0.151 1.000

2. SVD of A
57.674 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
20 x 6 Matrix 0.000 20.804 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Data Type: float8 0.000 0.000 6.703 0.000 0.000 0.000
U= ,Σ= ,V
Storage: rectangular 0.000 0.000 0.000 2.228 0.000 0.000
Order: Fortran_order 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.675 0.000
0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.128
K0.726 K0.607 0.139 K0.178 0.131 0.192
K0.423 0.708 0.345 0.138 0.260 0.340
K0.484 0.275 K0.744 0.021 K0.321 K0.182
=
K0.193 K0.112 0.241 0.758 0.006 K0.563
K0.141 0.206 0.315 K0.612 0.004 K0.681
K0.057 0.018 0.387 0.008 K0.901 0.184
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## 3. Best approximate solution for c

0.192
0.340
K0.182
c=
K0.563
K0.681
0.184

4. Best Fit
K0.182 x y C0.340 y2 C0.192 x2 K0.563 x K0.681 y C0.184 = 0

2
y
1

0
0 1 2 3 4
x
51 of 86

## Principal component analysis

Carry out PCA of A

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
K0.2
K0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
0.790 0.039
K0.140 0.556
A=
0.135 0.292
K0.221 0.545

## 1. Compute the average of each column of A

0.141
a=
0.358

2. Center A
0.649 K0.319
K0.281 0.198
A0 =
K0.005 K0.066
K0.362 0.187

3. SVD of A0
K0.805 K0.266
0.380 K0.564 0.898 0.000 K0.884 K0.467
U= ,S= ,V=
K0.029 0.780 0.000 0.078 0.467 K0.884
0.454 0.050

Compressing
52 of 86
53 of 86

## 1.183 K2.127 1.016

K0.995 K2.680 0.567
A=
K1.226 K1.412 2.123
K0.538 0.162 K0.251

K0.394
a= K1.514
0.864

2. Center A
54 of 86

## 1.577 K0.613 0.152

K0.601 K1.166 K0.297
A0 =
K0.832 0.102 1.259
K0.144 1.676 K1.114

3. SVD of A0
K0.359 K0.729 0.299
2.341 0.000 0.000
K0.332 0.187 K0.778
U= ,S= 0.000 1.950 0.000 , V
K0.166 0.650 0.548
0.000 0.000 1.332
0.856 K0.108 K0.070
K0.151 K0.917 0.370
= 0.865 0.059 0.498
K0.478 0.395 0.784

## 4. Using 1 singular values.

Compressing
K0.359
K0.151
K0.332
Uc = , Sc = 2.341 , Vc = 0.865
K0.166
K0.478
0.856

Decompressing
0.127 K0.728 0.402
0.117 K0.672 0.371
A0c = Uc Sc Vc_t =
0.058 K0.336 0.185
K0.302 1.735 K0.959

Decenter A0c
K0.267 K2.242 1.266
K0.277 K2.186 1.235
Ac =
K0.336 K1.850 1.049
K0.696 0.220 K0.095
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## Write down the linear model

x1 = K0.353 t1 K0.394
x2 = 2.026 t1 K1.514
x3 = K1.119 t1 C0.864

## 5. Using 2 singular values.

Compressing
K0.359 K0.729
K0.151 K0.917
K0.332 0.187 2.341 0.000
Uc = , Sc = , Vc = 0.865 0.059
K0.166 0.650 0.000 1.950
K0.478 0.395
0.856 K0.108

Decompressing
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## 1.430 K0.811 K0.160

K0.217 K0.650 0.515
A0c = Uc Sc Vc_t =
K1.102 K0.261 0.686
K0.110 1.722 K1.042

Decenter A0c
1.036 K2.325 0.704
K0.612 K2.165 1.379
Ac =
K1.496 K1.776 1.550
K0.504 0.208 K0.178

## Write down the linear model

x1 = K0.353 t1 K1.787 t2 K0.394
x2 = 2.026 t1 C0.114 t2 K1.514
x3 = K1.119 t1 C0.771 t2 C0.864
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58 of 86

Image Compression
Compress/Decompress the image A using 1 singular values
2 2
A=
2 4

1. SVD of A
0.526 0.851 5.236 0.000 0.526 0.851
U= ,Σ= ,V=
0.851 K0.526 0.000 0.764 0.851 K0.526

2. Compress
0.526 X 5.236 X 0.526 X
Uc = , Σc = , Vc =
X X X X X X

3. Decompressing
0.526 0.526
Uc = , Σc = 5.236 , Vc =
0.851 0.851
1.447 2.342
Ac =
2.342 3.789
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## Compress/Decompress the image A using 2 singular values

3 4 1
A= 4 3 1
2 2 1

1. SVD of A
0.653 K0.707 0.272 7.736 0.000 0.000
U= 0.653 0.707 0.272 ,Σ= 0.000 1.000 0.000 , V
0.385 0.000 K0.923 0.000 0.000 0.388
0.690 0.707 0.154
= 0.690 K0.707 0.154
0.218 0.000 K0.976

2. Compress
0.653 K0.707 X 7.736 X X 0.690 0.707 X
Uc = 0.653 X X , Σc = X 1.000 X , Vc = 0.690 X X
X X X X X X X X X

3. Decompressing
0.653 K0.707 0.690 0.707
7.736 0.000
Uc = 0.653 0.707 , Σc = , Vc = 0.690 K0.707
0.000 1.000
0.385 0.000 0.218 0.000
2.984 3.984 1.103
Ac = 3.984 2.984 1.103
2.055 2.055 0.651
60 of 86

## Compress/Decompress the image A using 2 singular values

4 3 2 3
4 3 3 2
A=
4 4 2 1
3 1 3 2

1. SVD of A
0.534 K0.058 0.840 K0.081 11.371 0.000 0.000 0.000
0.541 K0.068 K0.272 0.793 0.000 2.256 0.000 0.000
U= ,Σ= ,V
0.516 0.685 K0.320 K0.403 0.000 0.000 1.264 0.000
0.395 K0.723 K0.345 K0.450 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.154
0.664 0.028 K0.034 K0.747
0.500 0.725 0.063 0.469
=
0.432 K0.497 K0.641 0.394
0.351 K0.476 0.764 0.259

2. Compress
0.534 K0.058 X X 11.371 X X X 0.664 0.028 X X
0.541 K0.068 X X X 2.256 X X 0.500 0.725 X X
Uc = , Σc = , Vc =
0.516 X X X X X X X 0.432 X X X
X X X X X X X X X X X X

3. Decompressing
0.534 K0.058 0.664 0.028
0.541 K0.068 11.371 0.000 0.500 0.725
Uc = , Σc = , Vc =
0.516 0.685 0.000 2.256 0.432 K0.497
0.395 K0.723 0.351 K0.476
4.027 2.939 2.686 2.193
4.080 2.964 2.731 2.231
Ac =
3.940 4.054 1.765 1.325
2.933 1.060 2.748 2.351
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## Watermarking via SVD

Images: original A and watermark W
0.000 3.000 7.000 4.000
1.000 1.000 3.000 8.000
A=
0.000 8.000 6.000 3.000
3.000 9.000 8.000 1.000
0.000 2.000 4.000 6.000
2.000 4.000 6.000 4.000
W=
4.000 6.000 4.000 2.000
6.000 4.000 2.000 0.000

## 1. Embed the watermark

a. SVD of A
K0.435 K0.267 0.841 K0.179
K0.302 K0.838 K0.365 0.271
U=
K0.553 0.140 K0.395 K0.720
K0.643 0.455 K0.057 0.614
18.454 0.000 0.000 0.000
0.000 7.787 0.000 0.000
Σ=
0.000 0.000 2.662 0.000
0.000 0.000 0.000 2.178
K0.121 0.068 K0.202 0.970
K0.640 0.459 K0.571 K0.231
V=
K0.673 0.012 0.737 0.069
K0.350 K0.886 K0.301 K0.044

## b. Embed the watermark into the singular value matrix

k = 0.200
18.454 0.400 0.800 1.200
0.400 8.587 1.200 0.800
Σw =
0.800 1.200 3.462 0.400
1.200 0.800 0.400 2.178

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## K0.384 3.125 6.692 3.492

0.114 1.818 2.056 9.487
Aw =
K0.454 8.854 6.046 4.717
2.467 8.651 7.561 0.175

## 2. Bad person distorts the watermarked image

a. Filter
0 K1 0
filter = K1 100 K1
0 K1 0

b. Convolution
K0.425 3.138 6.810 3.398
0.107 1.747 1.891 9.675
Awd =
K0.586 9.055 6.056 4.701
2.433 8.724 7.641 0.053

## 3. Detect the watermark

a. Recover the watermarked singular values
18.546 0.279 0.793 1.336
0.296 8.810 1.300 0.775
Σwd =
0.773 1.301 3.635 0.448
1.283 0.745 0.435 2.282

## b. Recover the watermark

0.460 1.393 3.967 6.682
1.478 5.114 6.499 3.873
Wd =
3.866 6.503 4.867 2.242
6.414 3.726 2.174 0.520
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## Images: original A and watermark W

5.000 5.000 2.000 4.000
1.000 0.000 0.000 10.000
A=
10.000 6.000 3.000 8.000
4.000 9.000 6.000 7.000
0.000 2.000 4.000 6.000
2.000 4.000 6.000 4.000
W=
4.000 6.000 4.000 2.000
6.000 4.000 2.000 0.000

## 1. Embed the watermark

a. SVD of A
K0.375 0.192 K0.140 K0.896
K0.317 K0.932 0.150 K0.091
U=
K0.645 0.076 K0.654 0.388
K0.585 0.297 0.728 0.196
21.781 0.000 0.000 0.000
0.000 7.797 0.000 0.000
Σ=
0.000 0.000 5.133 0.000
0.000 0.000 0.000 0.678
K0.504 0.254 K0.813 0.143
K0.506 0.525 0.377 K0.572
V=
K0.285 0.307 0.415 0.808
K0.639 K0.752 0.158 K0.020

## b. Embed the watermark into the singular value matrix

k = 0.200
21.781 0.400 0.800 1.200
0.400 8.597 1.200 0.800
Σw =
0.800 1.200 5.933 0.400
1.200 0.800 0.400 0.678

64 of 86

## 5.725 5.097 1.537 5.294

1.883 K0.095 K1.527 10.624
Aw =
10.348 5.920 1.685 8.416
3.319 9.375 6.139 5.714

## 2. Bad person distorts the watermarked image

a. Filter
0 1 0
filter = 1 100 1
0 1 0

b. Convolution
5.681 5.018 1.578 5.309
1.983 0.018 K1.336 10.433
Awd =
10.154 5.897 1.802 8.346
3.447 9.252 6.123 5.745

## 3. Detect the watermark

a. Recover the watermarked singular values
21.711 0.346 0.757 1.042
0.449 8.303 1.164 0.742
Σwd =
0.697 1.188 5.698 0.408
1.211 0.819 0.419 0.650

## b. Recover the watermark

K0.351 1.729 3.783 5.210
2.245 2.533 5.822 3.709
Wd =
3.485 5.941 2.825 2.040
6.054 4.095 2.094 K0.139
65 of 86

## Images: original A and watermark W

0.000 2.000 5.000 6.000
3.000 8.000 8.000 5.000
A=
0.000 8.000 3.000 1.000
6.000 3.000 9.000 3.000
0.000 2.000 4.000 6.000
2.000 4.000 6.000 4.000
W=
4.000 6.000 4.000 2.000
6.000 4.000 2.000 0.000

## 1. Embed the watermark

a. SVD of A
K0.358 0.186 0.854 K0.327
K0.660 K0.192 0.043 0.725
U=
K0.357 K0.758 K0.182 K0.515
K0.556 0.595 K0.485 K0.320
19.169 0.000 0.000 0.000
0.000 6.791 0.000 0.000
Σ=
0.000 0.000 4.720 0.000
0.000 0.000 0.000 0.415
K0.277 0.441 K0.589 0.618
K0.549 K0.802 K0.182 0.152
V=
K0.686 0.364 K0.062 K0.627
K0.390 0.174 0.785 0.449

## b. Embed the watermark into the singular value matrix

k = 0.200
19.169 0.400 0.800 1.200
0.400 7.591 1.200 0.800
Σw =
0.800 1.200 5.520 0.400
1.200 0.800 0.400 0.415

66 of 86

## K0.013 1.103 4.961 6.403

2.547 7.313 8.120 3.956
Aw =
K0.085 9.804 4.020 K0.535
5.798 3.747 9.410 2.741

## 2. Bad person distorts the watermarked image

a. Filter
0 K1 0
filter = K1 100 K1
0 K1 0

b. Convolution
K0.050 1.011 4.953 6.442
2.551 7.393 8.248 3.934
Awd =
K0.275 10.056 3.908 K0.662
5.879 3.605 9.592 2.706

## 3. Detect the watermark

a. Recover the watermarked singular values
19.249 0.399 0.846 1.335
0.369 7.995 1.206 0.801
Σwd =
0.858 1.213 5.612 0.446
1.091 0.878 0.379 0.432

## b. Recover the watermark

0.403 1.993 4.229 6.673
1.846 6.022 6.028 4.005
Wd =
4.291 6.067 4.463 2.228
5.454 4.391 1.897 0.085
67 of 86

Rank the web pages with the following links:

4 2

1 1
0 0
2 2
1 1
0 1
3 2
T=
1 1
0 0
3 2
1
0 0 0
3

1 1
K1 0
2 2
1 1
K1 1
3 2
. P=0
1 1
K1 0
3 2
1
0 0 K1
3

68 of 86

0.300
0.333
P=
0.267
0.100

2
1
3
4
69 of 86

4 2

1
0 1 0
2
1 1 1
0
3 2 2
T=
1 1
0 0
3 2
1
0 0 0
3

1
K1 1 0
2
1 1 1
K1
3 2 2
. P=0
1 1
0 K1
3 2
1
0 0 K1
3

0.387
0.290
P=
0.194
0.129
70 of 86

1
2
3
4
71 of 86

## Graph partition (Facebook Community Identification)

Partition the graph into two subgraphs with minimum extra-cut size:

5 2

4 3

0 0 0 1 1
0 0 1 0 0
A= 0 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 1
1 0 0 1 0

2. Degrees
d = 2, 1, 2, 3, 2

## 3. Approximate Probability Matrix

2 1 2 3 2
5 5 5 5 5
1 1 1 3 1
5 10 5 10 5
2 1 2 3 2
P=
5 5 5 5 5
3 3 3 9 3
5 10 5 10 5
2 1 2 3 2
5 5 5 5 5

4. Modulation Matrix
72 of 86

2 1 2 2 3
K K K
5 5 5 5 5
1 1 4 3 1
K K K K
5 10 5 10 5
2 4 2 2 2
M= K K K
5 5 5 5 5
2 3 2 9 2
K K
5 10 5 10 5
3 1 2 2 2
K K K
5 5 5 5 5

5. Eigen decomposition of M
1.048 0 0 0 0
0 6.235 10-10 0 0 0
Λ= 0 0 K0.569 0 0
0 0 0 K1.000 0
0 0 0 0 K1.679
K0.450 0.447 0.217 0.707 0.225
0.555 0.447 0.602 8.188 10-10 K0.360
-10
V= 0.510 0.447 K0.460 3.462 10 0.573
K0.166 0.447 K0.576 1.111 10-9 K0.664
K0.450 0.447 0.217 K0.707 0.225

6. Partition
G1 = 2, 3 , G2 = 1, 4, 5
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Partition the graph into two subgraphs with minimum extra-cut size:

2 5

0 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 0 0
A= 0 1 0 1 0
0 0 1 0 0
1 0 0 0 0

2. Degrees
d = 2, 2, 2, 1, 1

## 3. Approximate Probability Matrix

1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 4 4
1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 4 4
1 1 1 1 1
P=
2 2 2 4 4
1 1 1 1 1
4 4 4 8 8
1 1 1 1 1
4 4 4 8 8

4. Modulation Matrix
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1 1 1 1 3
K K K
2 2 2 4 4
1 1 1 1 1
K K K
2 2 2 4 4
1 1 1 3 1
M= K K K
2 2 2 4 4
1 1 3 1 1
K K K K
4 4 4 8 8
3 1 1 1 1
K K K K
4 4 4 8 8

5. Eigen decomposition of M
1.000 0 0 0 0
0 K7.852 10-11 0 0 0
Λ= 0 0 K1.493 10-10 0 0
0 0 0 K1.000 0
0 0 0 0 K1.750
0.500 0.363 0.463 K0.500 K0.535
2.960 10-10 0.126 0.617 K9.789 10-11 0.535
V= K0.500 0.363 0.463 0.500 K0.535
K0.500 0.600 0.309 K0.500 0.267
0.500 0.600 0.309 0.500 0.267

6. Partition
G1 = 1, 2, 5 , G2 = 3, 4
75 of 86

Partition the graph into two subgraphs with minimum extra-cut size:

2 5 6

1 3 4 7

0 1 0 0 0 0 0
1 0 1 0 0 0 1
0 1 0 0 1 1 0
A= 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
0 0 1 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 0

2. Degrees
d = 1, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2, 1

## 3. Approximate Probability Matrix

76 of 86

1 3 3 1 1 1 1
14 14 14 7 7 7 14
3 9 9 3 3 3 3
14 14 14 7 7 7 14
3 9 9 3 3 3 3
14 14 14 7 7 7 14
1 3 3 2 2 2 1
P=
7 7 7 7 7 7 7
1 3 3 2 2 2 1
7 7 7 7 7 7 7
1 3 3 2 2 2 1
7 7 7 7 7 7 7
1 3 3 1 1 1 1
14 14 14 7 7 7 14

4. Modulation Matrix
1 11 3 1 1 1 1
K K K K K K
14 14 14 7 7 7 14
11 9 5 3 3 3 11
K K K K
14 14 14 7 7 7 14
3 5 9 3 4 4 3
K K K K
14 14 14 7 7 7 14
1 3 3 2 5 5 1
M= K K K K K
7 7 7 7 7 7 7
1 3 4 5 2 2 1
K K K K K
7 7 7 7 7 7 7
1 3 4 5 2 2 1
K K K K K
7 7 7 7 7 7 7
1 11 3 1 1 1 1
K K K K K K
14 14 14 7 7 7 14

5. Eigen decomposition of M
77 of 86

1.428 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 1.610 10-20 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 K7.800 10-11 0 0 0 0
Λ= 0 0 0 K1.088 10
-10
0 0 0
0 0 0 0 K3.562 10-10 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 K1.475 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 K2.238

## 0.372 2.466 10-9 0.835 K0.799 0.202 0.363 K0.182

0.507 3.795 10-10 0.145 K0.053 K0.310 K0.640 0.427
K0.088 K1.528 10-10 K0.036 0.273 K0.491 K0.095 K0.535
V= K0.460 9.193 10-10 0.327 K0.380 K0.129 K0.458 K0.353
K0.351 K0.707 0.145 K0.053 K0.310 0.233 0.413
K0.351 0.707 0.145 K0.053 K0.310 0.233 0.413
0.372 K1.200 10-9 K0.363 0.366 K0.642 0.363 K0.182

6. Partition
G1 = 1, 2, 7 , G2 = 3, 4, 5, 6
78 of 86

## Column space (Image)

Compute the column space of A
1 K3 K1 1 K8 K8 1 K3
0 0 1 1 2 K3 1 6
0 0 K1 0 K3 K1 K1 K7
A=
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
K1 3 1 1 6 0 1 9
K1 3 0 0 4 3 0 3

1 0 0 0 0 0
0 1 0 0 0 K1
0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 1
Rt =
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
CS = , , ,
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 1
0 K1 0 1
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## Compute the column space of A

1 K4 0 4 0 3 0 2
K1 4 1 K6 1 K3 K1 K1
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
A=
0 0 1 K2 0 2 K1 K3
1 K4 K1 6 0 1 0 3
K1 4 0 K4 0 K3 1 0

1 0 0 0 1 K1
0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 K1 1
0 0 0 1 K1 0
Rt =
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
CS = , , ,
0 0 0 1
1 0 K1 K1
K1 0 1 0
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## Compute the column space of A

K1 1 2 0 0 K2 0 K3
0 1 3 K1 K1 K7 K1 K6
1 0 1 K1 K1 K5 0 1
A=
K1 1 2 0 0 K2 1 1
0 K1 K3 1 1 7 1 6
0 1 3 1 3 K1 0 0

1 0 0 2 0 0
0 1 0 K1 K1 0
0 0 1 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
Rt =
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
CS = , , ,
2 K1 1 0
0 K1 0 0
0 0 0 1
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## Null space (Kernel)

Compute the null space of A
1 K3 K1 1 K8 K8 1 K3
0 0 1 1 2 K3 1 6
0 0 K1 0 K3 K1 K1 K7
A=
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
K1 3 1 1 6 0 1 9
K1 3 0 0 4 3 0 3

1. Compute a rref R of A
1 K3 0 0 K4 K3 0 K3
0 0 1 0 3 1 0 3
0 0 0 1 K1 K4 0 K1
R=
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

3 4 3 3
1 0 0 0
0 K3 K1 K3
0 1 4 1
NS = , , ,
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 K4
0 0 0 1
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## Compute the null space of A

1 K4 0 4 0 3 0 2
K1 4 1 K6 1 K3 K1 K1
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
A=
0 0 1 K2 0 2 K1 K3
1 K4 K1 6 0 1 0 3
K1 4 0 K4 0 K3 1 0

1. Compute a rref R of A
1 K4 0 4 0 3 0 2
0 0 1 K2 0 2 0 K1
0 0 0 0 1 K2 0 4
R=
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

4 K4 K3 K2
1 0 0 0
0 2 K2 1
0 1 0 0
NS = , , ,
0 0 2 K4
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 K2
0 0 0 1
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## Compute the null space of A

K1 1 2 0 0 K2 0 K3
0 1 3 K1 K1 K7 K1 K6
1 0 1 K1 K1 K5 0 1
A=
K1 1 2 0 0 K2 1 1
0 K1 K3 1 1 7 1 6
0 1 3 1 3 K1 0 0

1. Compute a rref R of A
1 0 1 0 1 K2 0 2
0 1 3 0 1 K4 0 K1
0 0 0 1 2 3 0 1
R=
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

K1 K1 2 K2
K3 K1 4 1
1 0 0 0
0 K2 K3 K1
NS = , , ,
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 K4
0 0 0 1
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## Row space (Factor)

Compute the row space of A
1 K3 K1 1 K8 K8 1 K3
0 0 1 1 2 K3 1 6
0 0 K1 0 K3 K1 K1 K7
A=
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
K1 3 1 1 6 0 1 9
K1 3 0 0 4 3 0 3

1. Compute a rref R of A
1 K3 0 0 K4 K3 0 K3
0 0 1 0 3 1 0 3
0 0 0 1 K1 K4 0 K1
R=
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

## 2. Construct a basis RS of the row space of A

RS = 1 K3 0 0 K4 K3 0 K3 , 0 0 1 0 3 1 0 3 ,
0 0 0 1 K1 K4 0 K1 , 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4
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## Compute the row space of A

1 K4 0 4 0 3 0 2
K1 4 1 K6 1 K3 K1 K1
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
A=
0 0 1 K2 0 2 K1 K3
1 K4 K1 6 0 1 0 3
K1 4 0 K4 0 K3 1 0

1. Compute a rref R of A
1 K4 0 4 0 3 0 2
0 0 1 K2 0 2 0 K1
0 0 0 0 1 K2 0 4
R=
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

## 2. Construct a basis RS of the row space of A

RS = 1 K4 0 4 0 3 0 2 , 0 0 1 K2 0 2 0 K1 ,
0 0 0 0 1 K2 0 4 , 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2
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## Compute the row space of A

K1 1 2 0 0 K2 0 K3
0 1 3 K1 K1 K7 K1 K6
1 0 1 K1 K1 K5 0 1
A=
K1 1 2 0 0 K2 1 1
0 K1 K3 1 1 7 1 6
0 1 3 1 3 K1 0 0

1. Compute a rref R of A
1 0 1 0 1 K2 0 2
0 1 3 0 1 K4 0 K1
0 0 0 1 2 3 0 1
R=
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

## 2. Construct a basis RS of the row space of A

RS = 1 0 1 0 1 K2 0 2 , 0 1 3 0 1 K4 0 K1 , 0 0 0 1 2 3 0 1 ,
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4