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PHASE DIAGRAM

Glenn Mark S. Presores


Outline

01 Phase Diagram
02 One Component System

03 Binary Phase Diagram


04 Ternary Phase Diagram
05 Experiment Proper
Phase
• A phase can be defined as a physically
distinct, macroscopically uniform and
chemically homogeneous portion of a system
that has a particular chemical composition and
structure.
• Same thermodynamic properties
• Water in liquid or vapour state is single phase.
Ice floating on water is an example two phase
system.
Gibbs Phase rule
• The number of degrees of freedom, F (no. of
independently variable factors), number of
components, C, and number of phases in
equilibrium, P, are related by Gibbs phase rule
as
F=C–P+2
• Number of external factors = 2 (pressure and
temperature). For metallurgical system
pressure has no appreciable effect on phase
equilibrium and hence,
F=C–P+1
Phase Diagrams
• One Component System

• Binary Phase Diagram

• Ternary Phase Diagram


One Component System
• The simplest phase diagram is the water
which is a one component system. It is also
known as pressure-temperature or
P-T diagram.
• Two phases exist along each of the three
phase boundaries. At low pressure (0.006
atm) and temperature (0.01 °C) all the
three phases coexist at a point called
triple point.
One Component System

Water Phase
Diagram
Binary Phase diagrams
• A binary phase is a two component system.
Binary phase diagrams are most commonly
used in alloy designing.

• The simplest binary system is the Cu-Ni


which exhibits complete solubility in liquid
and solid state.
Binary Phase Diagram

Cu-Ni
equilibrium
phase
diagram
Ternary Phase diagram
• A ternary or three component phase
diagram has the form of an triangular
prism with an equilateral triangle as a base.
• Pure components are at each vertex, sides
are binary compositions and ternary
compositions are within the triangle.
• The composition lines on the triangle is
constructed from projections of surfaces.
Ternary Phase diagram
p l e
S a m n t
i m e
p e r
E x
Phase Diagram-Mutual
Solubility Curve for
Phenol and Water
Objective
• To determine the solubility of two partially
miscible liquid properties using phenol and
water
Chemicals and Materials
• Phenol
• Water
• Thermometer
• Boiling Tube
• Boiling tube rack
• Pipette
Methods
1. Mixture of phenol and water in boiling tubes
was prepared in the way that phenol was
added in water in various percentages from
8%, 11%, 20%, 50%, 60%, 63% and 80%.
2. The total amount of this 2 liquids in the
boiling tubes was fixed to be 30 mL and the
boiling tubes were labelled from A-G.
Methods
3. The boiling tube A was then heated in hot
water and mixture was stirred.
4. Then record the temperature at which the
turbid liquid becomes clear.
5. Allow the heated sample to cool and record
the temperature at which the clear solution
becomes turbid again.
6. Then, the boiling tube was heated again and
average temperature for heating and cooling
was recorded.
Data
Data
Data
Determination of Phase
Diagram for Ethanol-
Toluene-Water System
Objective
1. To determine the solubility limits in a
ternary system of water and two other
liquids.
2. Construct a solubility curve of the system
being studied on triangular diagram.
Chemicals and Materials
• Conical flask
• Iron stand and clamp
• Burette
• Pipette
• Dropper
• Graduated cylinder
• Ethanol
• Toluene
• Distilled water
Method
1. Mixture of ethanol and toluene in a sealed
container measuring 100 cm3 was prepared
containing the following percentage of
ethanol, 10,25.35,50, 65, 75, 90 and 95.
2.
Then 20 mL of each mixture was prepared
by filling a certain volume of toluene using
a pipette.
3.
Each mixture was titrated with water until
cloudiness is observed.
Method
4. The volume of distilled water used until the
mixture turned cloudy is measured and
recorded
5. Record the temperature at which the
solution become cloudy.
6. Repeat steps 1-5 for the other solution.
7. The points are then plotted onto a
triangular paper to give a triple phase
diagram at the recorded temperature.
Data
Percentage Volume of Distilled water used Average Volume of Distilled
of ethanol (mL) water used (mL)

10 Titration 1 Titration2

25
35
50
65
75
90
95
Calculation
Total Volume of % of Volume % of Volume % of
Volume Distilled water of Toluene of ethanol
(mL) water (mL) Toluene ethanol