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Sudhir Memorial Institute

Doltala, Madhyamnagar



AISSCE TERM:-2018-2019



It would be my utmost pleasure to express my sincere thanks to my

physical education teacher for his invaluable guidance, constant
encouragement, constructive comments, and immense motivation,
which has sustained my efforts at all stages of this project work. His
valuable advice and corrections, modifications, improvements are
responsible for this project attaining its present form. I would also like to
thank my parents as they encouraged me to put forward this project.

I have also got help from the books and the internet. By the process I
have learnt a lot which would help me in future a lot.



It is hereby to certify that, the original and genuine project work has been
carried out to investigate about the subject matter and the related data
collection and investigation has been completed solely, sincerely and
INSTITUTE, regarding his project titled “ A Project On Football”.


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History of Football

Rules and Regulations

Measurement of Play Field

Equipments Required

Basic Skills


Important Tournaments

Important Venues

Important Personalities

Important Awards

Basic First-Aid Techniques Related to Football


The contemporary history of the world's favorites game spans more

than100years. It all began in 1863 in England, when rugby football and
association football branched off on their different courses and the
Football Association in England was formed - becoming the sport's first
governing body. Both codes stemmed from a common root and both
have a long and
Intricately branched ancestral tree. A search down the centuries reveals
least half a dozen different games, varying to different degrees, and to
which the historical development of football has been traced back.
Whether this can be justified in some instances is disputable.
Nevertheless, the fact
remains that people have enjoyed kicking a ball about for thousands of
years and there is absolutely no reason to consider it an aberration of
the more 'natural' form of playing a ball with the hands. On the contrary,
apart from the need to employ the legs and feet in tough tussles for the
ball, often without any laws for protection, it was recognized right at the
outset that the art of controlling the ball with the feet was not easy and,
as such, required no small measure of skill. The very earliest form of the
game for which there is scientific evidence was an exercise from a
military manual dating back to the second and third centuries BC in

This Han Dynasty forebear of football was called Tsu' Chu and it
consisted of kicking a leather ball filled with feathers and hair through an
measuring only 30-40cm in width, into a small net fixed onto long
canes. According to one variation of this exercise, the player was not
permitted to aim at his target unimpeded, but had to use his feet, chest,
back and shoulders while trying to withstand the attacks of his

Use of the hands was not permitted. Another form of the game, also
originating from the Far East, was the Japanese Kemari, which began
some 500-600 years later and is still played today. This is a sport lacking
the competitive element of Tsu' Chu with no struggle for possession
involved. Standing in a circle, the players had to pass the ball to each
other, in a relatively small space, trying not to let it touch the ground.
The Greek 'Episkyros' - of which few concrete details survive - was
livelier, as was the Roman 'Harpastum'. The latter was played out with
smaller ball by two teams on a rectangular field marked by boundary
lines and a centre line. The objective was to get the ball over the
opposition's boundary lines and as players passed it between
themselves, trickery was the order of the day. The game remained
popular for 700-800 years, but, although the Romans took it to Britain
with them, the use of feet was so small as to scarcely be of

Ball in and out of Play: The soccer ball is out of bounds when it
has crossed the goal line or touchline whether on the ground or in air.
If it rebounds off the referee, an assistant referee, a goal post,
crossbar, or corner flag post and remains inside the field, then it is still
in play.

Method of scoring: A goal is scored in football if the ball crosses
the goal line between the two goalposts and under the crossbar, as
long as no violation of the rules has taken place. The side that scores
the most goals wins. If both teams have the same number of goals at
the end of the match, it is considered a draw even if neither of them
scored a goal.

Offside: A player is in offside position if there are fewer than two
defenders (including the goalie) between him and the goal line. A
violation of the offside rule in football occurs if he is in that position
and the ball is played to him. A free kick is awarded to the opposition if
a player is caught offside.

Fouls and misconducts: The following are the most common fouls
in football: kicking, tripping, pushing, or charging another player
recklessly; striking or attempting to strike an opponent or any member
of the opposing side. A foul is called if a player: makes a tackle but hits
the player before the ball; deliberately handles the ball (except the
goalkeeper in his proper area); or if he uses excessive force in
defending an opponent.

Free kicks: A restarts a play after a foul or rule infringement is
committed and is usually taken from the spot where the violation was
committed. A free-kick can either be “direct”, in which a kicker may
score directly, or “indirect”, in which another player must touch the ball
before a goal can be scored.

Penalty kick: A penalty kick in football is awarded if a defender
commits a foul inside its own penalty area. The kick is taken from the
penalty spot and all the players (except the kicker and the goalkeeper)
must be outside the penalty area and penalty arc.

Throw-in: A throw-in in football is awarded to a team if the ball goes
over the touchline. It is awarded to the team opposing the side that
touched the ball last. The throw is taken from the spot where the ball
goes out of bounds. The taker must throw the ball with both hands,
both feet on the ground, and facing the field of play.

Goal kick: A goal-kick in football is awarded to the defending team
if the opposing team causes the ball to go over the goal-line. Any
player from the defending side is allowed to take the goal kick. It must
Measurements of Play Field and

Length of field: 120 yards (including 10 yards of end zone at each end).

Width of field: 53 1/3 yards (160 feet).

Height of goal posts: At least 30 feet.

Height of crossbar: 10 feet.

Width of goal posts (above crossbar): 18 feet 6 inches, inside to


Length of ball: 10 7/8 to 11 7/16 inches (long axis).

Circumference of ball: 20 3/4 to 21 1/4 inches (middle); 27 3/4 to 28

1/2 inches (long axis).

Advantage: decision made by the referee during a game, where
a player is fouled, but play is allowed to continue because the team
that suffered the foul is in better position than they would have been
had the referee stopped the game.

Against the run of play: describes a goal scored, or a win or
achieved, by a side that was being clearly outplayed.

Assist: pass that leads to a goal being scored

Back heel: pass between team-mates, in which one player uses
their heel to propel the ball backwards to another player

Brace: when a player scores two goals in a single match.

Clean-sheet: When a goalkeeper or team does not concede a
single goal during a match.

Counter-attack: kick taken from within a one-yard radius of the
corner flag.

Diving: form of cheating, sometimes employed by an attacking
player to win a free kick or penalty.

Dribbling: when a player runs with the ball at their feet under

Dummy: skill move performed by a player receiving a pass from
teammate; the player receiving the ball will angle their body in such a
way that the opponent thinks that they are going to play the ball.

Extra Time: additional period, normally two halves of 15 minutes,
used to determine the winner in some tied cup matches.
False Nine: a centre forward who regularly drops back into
midfield to disrupt opposition marking.

Flick-On: when a player receives a pass from a teammate and,
instead of controlling it, touches the ball with their head or foot while it
is moving past them, with the intent of helping the ball reach another

Free Kick: the result of a foul outside the penalty area, given
against the offending team.

Ghost goal: situation where a ball fairly crossed the goal line but
did not result in a goal, or a goal was awarded despite the ball not
crossing the line.

Howler: glaring and possibly amusing error made by a player or
referee during a match.

Jew Goal: term used to describe a goal scored when a player
“passes the ball when two-on-one with the keeper in order to provide
the receiver with an open goal”.

Kick-Off: method of starting a match.

Lay-Off Pass: short pass, usually lateral, played delicately into
the space immediately in front of a teammate who is arriving at speed
from behind the player making the pass.

Man On: warning shout uttered by players to a teammate with the
ball to alert him of the presence of an opposing player behind him.

Man-To-Man Marking: system of marking in which each player is
responsible for an opposing player rather than an area of the pitch.

Nutmeg: when a player intentionally plays the ball between an
opponent’s legs, runs past the opponent, and collects their own pass.

Offside: law relating to the positioning of defending players in
relation to attacking players when the ball is played to an attacking
player by a teammate.

Open Goal: where no player is defending the goal.

Overlap: move between two teammates.

Shielding: defensive technique in which a defensive player
positions their body between the ball and an attacking opponent, in
order to prevent that opponent from reaching the ball.

Subbed: a player who is withdrawn from the field of play.

Sweeper: defender whose role is to protect the space between
goalkeeper and the rest of the defence

Throw-In: method of restarting play. Involves a player throwing
the ball from behind a touchline after it has been kicked out by an
Important Tournaments:

FIFA: There is no greater competition than the World Cup. The
European Championship may have a greater variety of winners. The
Champions League may provide better football. However, nothing
matches the prestige of lifting the FIFA World Cup. The World Cup pips
the Champions League to the No. 1 spot because of the enormous
cultural impact that a victory can have. Nothing unites a nation like being
crowned the best in the world.

The UEFA Champions League: It is the most glamorous club
competition in world football. This tournament brings together the
greatest teams in the world. As the financial clout of club football has
grown, it has managed to supersede international football. In terms of
the quality of play on the field, the Champions League is now the best
tournament there is. Although the pure knockout form of the original
European Cup is still missed, the re-branding as the Champions League
has helped turn Europe into football's most financially powerful
continent. There is no club
competition to match the Champions League.

The UEFA European Championship: The first pan-European
international tournament was held in 1958 in France. In the intervening
55 years, the European Championship has established itself as one of
world football's most exciting competitions. The European Championship
is characterised by its unusually competitive nature: The 14 tournaments
to date have produced nine different winners. Germany and Spain
currently lead the field with three triumphs each. In 2014, the competition
expanded from 16 to 24 teams, prompting concerns that the increase in
size may precipitate a drop in quality.
The Copa America: It is the oldest existing continental football
competition. The first formal Copa America was held in Argentina in
1916 to commemorate the first century of Argentina's independence.
The competition involves the teams associated with CONMEBOL as well
as two other nations, frequently Mexico, Costa Rica or the United States.
Although Brazil and Argentina are regularly referred to as South
American football's "Big Two," current holders Uruguay are in fact the
competition's most successful team with 15 wins to date.

The Copa Libertadores: It is the South American equivalent of the
Champions League. The Libertadores trophy is the most coveted prize
in South American club football, and the competition's final is broadcast
in an incredible 135 countries across the globe. The Copa has
extraordinary cultural currency in South America. It has spawned the
Spanish phrase "El Sueno Libertador," referring to the dream of lifting
the historic prize aloft. Since the competition's inception in 1960, many
have chased that dream. Argentine club Independiente are the most
successful team in the competition's history, having claimed the Copa a
phenomenal seven times.

The UEFA Europa League: It is the much-maligned successor to
the UEFA Cup. As the Champions League's younger and less
glamorous sibling, the Europa League is vulnerable to snipers who
criticise the competition's enormous fixture list and plethora of dead-
rubber ties. However, a glance at the recent list of winners suggests that
European football's major clubs still take the competition seriously.
Chelsea, Atletico Madrid and Porto have all experienced the joy of
Europa League triumph in the last few seasons.In 2003, Porto were
Europa League Champions. A year later, they lifted the Champions

Africa Cup of Nations: Africa is a continent that is seemingly in

love with football. This tournament pits Africa's greatest international
sides against each other in a fascinating battle for supremacy. The
continent's most successful side is Egypt. They have won the
tournament a record seven times, although they have not yet managed
to transfer this continental success to the global stage. The competition
is not without its flaws. The Africa Cup of Nations generally takes place
in January, meaning that many European-based players are forced to
abandon their clubs to take part. This has led to the withdrawal of some
of Africa's major stars. If the tournament is to retain its status, it may
need to move in line with the European calendar.

FA Cup:It is arguably the most famous domestic competition in the
world. Established in July 1871, it is the oldest association football
competition in the world. The FA Cup has produced some of English
football's most iconic moments and is partly responsible for Wembley's
status as "The Home of Football." English clubs from the Premier
League right down to the fifth tier of the FA National League are invited
to compete. The tournament has subsequently become known for "giant
killings": occasions when minnows overcome the odds to defeat a club
with far greater resources. The 2013 final was a case in point, as
Roberto Martinez's gutsy Wigan side showed remarkable bravery and
discipline to beat the financial superpower that is Manchester City.

The Confederations Cup: It rose to prominence in 2005 when it
was established as a vital forerunner to the World Cup. Since that
auspicious summer, the tournament has been held in the same country
that will host the World Cup the following year. The Confederations Cup
has subsequently become a vital part of preparation for global football's
most celebrated tournament. The Confederations Cup allows FIFA to
assess a nation's preparations for the arrival of their most prestigious
tournament. More importantly, it is a chance for the host nation to pit
against some of the world's best ahead of the real thing. The excitement
around the current tournament in Brazil is indicative of the
Confederations Cup's rising profile.
Important Venues (Stadiums)

 Estadio Aztec
Tenants:Club America
Opened in: 29 May 1966
City:Mexico City

 Wembley
Tenants: England National Team
Opened in: 1923
Capacity: 82,000
City: London

 Estadio Do Maracana
Tenants: None
Opened in: 16 June 1950
Capacity: 82,238
City: Madrid

 Santiago Bernabeu
Tenants: Real Madrid
Opened in: 14 Dec 1947
Capacity: 85,454
City: Rio de Janeiro

 Estadio Monumental
Tenants: River Plate:
Opened in: 25 May 1938
Capacity: 67,664
City: Buenos Aires

 Olmpiastadion
Tenants: FC Bayern Munich
Opened in: 26 May 1972
Capacity: 69,250
City: Munich
Important Personalities

David Beckham: David Robert Joseph Beckham, he is an English

former professional footballer. He played for Manchester United, Preston
North End, Real Madrid, Milan, LA Galaxy, Paris Saint-Germain.

Lionel Messi: Lionel Andrés "Leo" Messi is an Argentine professional

Footballer who plays as a forward for Spanish club FC Barcelona and
Argentina national team.

Wayne Rooney: Wayne Mark Rooney is an English professional

who plays for and captains both Manchester United and the England
national team. He has played much of his career as a forward, but he
also been used in various midfield roles.

Cristiano Ronaldo: Cristiano Ronaldo dos Santos Aveiro, ComM,

GOIH is a Portuguese professional footballer who plays for Spanish
club Real Madrid and the Portugal national team. He is a forward and
serves as captain for Portugal.

Maradona: Diego Armando Maradona is a retired Argentine

professional footballer. He has served as a manager and coach at other
clubs as well as
the national team of Argentina.

Ryan Giggs: Ryan Joseph Giggs, OBE is a Welsh football coach and
former player who is the co-owner of Salford City. He played his entire
professional career for Manchester United

Thierry Henry: Thierry Daniel Henry is a French retired professional

footballer who played as a forward, and the current second assistant
manager of the Belgium national team.

Kaka: Ricardo Izecson dos Santos Leite, commonly known as Kaká or

Ricardo Kaká, is a Brazilian professional footballer who plays as an
attacking midfielder for Orlando City SC in Major League Soccer and the
Brazil national team.
Important Awards

Ballon d’Or: It was first awarded in 1956 by the France Football

Magazine. The award was the brain child of Gabriel Hanot - his
vision was to have an award for the best European footballer of the
season as voted on by a selectpanel of European journalists. The
Ballo d'Or was quickly established as one of the most prestigious
awards a European footballer could win.

FIFPro Player of the Year: It is a newcomer on the international

awards front having first been awarded in 2005. The awarded is
voted on by players from the various player associations across
the world. As such the award shot to prominance quickly, to be
voted as the best player in the world by your fellow professionals is
seen as one of the highest forms of recognition a player can

FIFA Team of the Year: It was first awarded in 1991 and was
always destined to become arguably the pinnacle achievement for
an individual in Football. Since it's inception the award has been
seen to be provide the definitive answer to the question who is the
best team in the world.

PFA Player of the Year Award: The Professional Footballer's

Association award is consider by many to be the most prestigious
award a player can receive due to the fact that it is voted on by
fellow Footballers. Each member of the association votes for two
players. The award was first given in 1974.

FWA Player of the Year: Along with the PFA Award, the Football
Writer's Association award is considered as the premier individual
award in England. It is awarded to the best player in the English
Premier League and is voted on by approximately 400 English
journalists. Sir Stanley Matthews was the award's first recipient
after the 1947/48 award.

World Soccer Magazine Player of the Year: Yet another

magazine award. Originally started in 1982, WSM readers from
across the global cast their votes on whom they believe as been
the player of the year. Obviously the player with the highest
percentage of votes wins. The current holder is Christiano Ronaldo
who amassed 48% of the votes. Votes came from over 40 different
countries from around the world.

FIFA Golden Ball/ Golden Shoe: The Golden ball is presented to

the best player of a World Cup, whilst the Golden shoe is
presented to the highest goal scorer in the tournament. The
awards have been presented since the first world cup in 1930. The
Golden Ball is voted on by the world's media, who select their vote
from shortlist put together by the FIFA technical committee. The
current holder(from the 2006 World Cup) of the Golden Ball is
Zinidine Zidane, whilst the Golden shoe was awarded to Miroslav
Basic First-Aid Techniques

Bruises – To treat bruising and swelling, the first aider will need to apply
ice on the affected area for about 15 minutes at a time every two hours
making sure to put a cloth or towel between the ice and the skin. A day
or two after the bruising or swelling develops; you should apply a heat
pack or warm cloth to the affected area.

Bleeding (cut, graze or scratch wounds) – These could be minor, here

the first aider will need to put on disposable gloves, clean the cuts with a
dry sterile dressing or clean lint-free material, apply pressure to stop the
bleeding then dab with ointment or gel and protect with a sterile
bandage. A deep wound will have to be referred to a hospital after
following the minor injury procedure.

Head & Face injuries – These injuries could be serious and are
associated with concussion (impaired consciousness), cuts, skull
fractures, neck or spinal break. The First Aider’s immediate aim is to let
the player lie down gently whilst avoiding turning the player’s head- this
is to maintain an open airway, check for pulse & breathing and record all
vital signals of response. If the player is unconscious, the airway should
be opened with a jaw thrust technique in order to feel breathing then
proceed by calling out to the player if they can hear you or open their
eyes but if no response, the coach then need to carry out chest
compression also known as the CPR [ placing one or
two hands in the centre of the chest using the heel of the hands with
arms straight to press down about 30 times at the rate of 100-120 p/min]
then perform the rescue breath method [make sure the airway is open,
seal your lips around the child’s mouth and blow gently into their lungs. If
the chest rises, stop blowing to allow it to fall then repeat this 5 times
until they show signs of recovery or until proper medical assistance

Asthma Attack – Asthma is a medical condition that attacks the

muscles of the air passages when the tubes that carry air in and out of
the lungs become narrowed thereby making it difficult to breathe. To
administer firstaid, help the player to sit in a comfortable position to ease
breathing and reassure them. If they have their inhaler let them take 3-5
puffs according to the asthma plan given to them by their doctor but if
the player has none, then the coach need to reach for one from the first-
aid kit. The coach should or would have known about the player’s
condition from the medical information submitted in their registration.

Ankle, Foot or Toe injuries – when injuries to these areas are minor,
they are usually treated at home to relieve symptoms and promote
healing but in case they are serious, the first-aider or the coach will need
to take the appropriate measures in dealing with the affected areas
using any of the following first-aid techniques.

 With a broken bone, it is not advisable to push the bone back into
the skin if it is sticking out but to leave it as it is by carefully
covering the affected area with a clean bandage or hold together
with a splint.

 With sprained ankle or toe injury, the first thing to do is to use the
P.R.I.C.E method (Protect, Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation)
to reduce the swelling and pain, also use soft padding bandage. If
pain persists then an assessment need to made to ascertain
whether a visit to the specialist is warranted however if it is pain
free, try massaging gently to allow the flow of blood whilst avoiding
hot substances such as hot water or heat gels until 48-72hrs and
then start gentle exercises of movement & strength without too
much strain.

Back Pain – Mostly, footballers feel pain in the lower back. If this
happens, there are various types of simple treatments that can be

 Walking- Taking a brisk walk for about 10-20mins every 2hrs

might do the trick.

 Heat Therapy- Hot pool bath could be useful for some players
whilst cold compression therapy (ice pack) may be suited to

 Exercises like flexible stretching could be effective in relieving pain

however this should be done with due care so as not to aggravate
the pain.

 Massage Therapy, massaging may be more appropriate remedy,

visiting an experienced massage therapist could be the answer to
ending the back pain problems.
 Medicines, using simple pain relieving medicines like Ibuprofen or
Paracetamol, might just be the solution.

Muscle Pulls – The initial first-aid treatment is to protect the affected

area by applying soft padding and then resume the P.R.I.C.E method
which will accelerate healing, reduce swelling and keep the blood from
clotting in the injured area but if there is a severe pain then a visit to a
medical expert is advisable as this might be a sign of broken bone,
sprain or muscle tear.

Shoulder, joint and all other dislocations would be the job for the
expert medical professional, any attempt to try reducing or replacing the
joint must be avoided.

Shin Splints, examination of the cause of pain is absolutely necessary

in order to choose the right treatments. If it is certain that it is stress
fracture, then a rest is usually the best treatment by taking a break from
training for about 6-7 weeks to help the bone heal.

The First Aid Kit essentials:

1. Tweezers
2. Hand Sanitizers
3. Gauge and Tapes,
4. Disposable Gloves
5. Wipes, Cleaning Solutions
6. Antibiotic Cream
7. Ointments
8. Pain relieve gels
9. Adhesive Bandages
10. Elastic Plasters
11. Thermometers
12. Inhalers for Asthma,
13. Disinfectants
14. Instant Cold Packs,
15. Scissors
16. Cotton Swabs
17. Heat & Cold Sprays
18. Pain Killers
19. Smelling Salt

Now-a-days in changing social environment physical education is an

essential phenomenon of our educational arenas. Today, physical
training via physical education is a dire need of the society. Physical
Education like football, yoga, etc. also keep us healthy. Outdoor games
should be an essential part of our life and should be practiced regularly
to maintain a healthy body and a healthy mind leading to a healthy

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The information required for this project were collected from the
following sources:

 Saraswati publication physical education