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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apm

genetic algorithm for double inverted pendulum

Zhe Sun a, Ning Wang a,⇑, Yunrui Bi b

a

National Laboratory of Industrial Control Technology, Institute of Cyber-Systems and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, PR China

b

School of Automation, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, PR China

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: This paper proposes a hybrid type-2 fuzzy logic system architecture with the aid of RNA

Received 14 June 2012 genetic algorithm for a double inverted pendulum system. As an extension of type-1 fuzzy

Received in revised form 17 December 2013 logic system, type-2 fuzzy logic system can effectively improve the control performance by

Accepted 15 April 2014

uncertainty of membership function especially when we have to confront with corrupted

Available online xxxx

data or unpredicted external disturbances. In this proposed method, the related parame-

ters of type-1 and type-2 fuzzy logic systems are respectively optimized by using RNA

Keywords:

genetic algorithm. Through computer simulation and comparisons, the better performance

Type-2 fuzzy logic system

RNA genetic algorithm

can be achieved by using optimized type-2 fuzzy logic system with RNA genetic algorithm.

Control systems Ó 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Double inverted pendulum

1. Introduction

With the advantages of treating ambiguous or vague aspects of human perception and judgment, fuzzy logic system (FLS)

which is based on ‘‘if-then’’ fuzzy rule expert system has been widely used in various applications. However, recent research

has shown the limitations of traditional type-1 FLS (T1FLS) in treating large uncertainty factors [1] and unexpected distur-

bances. As an extension of type-1 fuzzy set theory, type-2 fuzzy sets theory [2,3] can well compensate these limitations

when there are too many uncertainties to determine exact membership grade. Therefore, type-2 fuzzy logic system

(T2FLS) theory and its application attract researchers’ attention in the last few years. For example, Mendel et al. particularly

proposed the design interval type-2 FLS method in literatures [4,5]; a stock index forecasting and stock price analysis model

by using type-2 fuzzy theory were proposed in [6,7]; Hagras presented a type-2 fuzzy logic system controller for autono-

mous mobile robots [8]; the interval type-2 fuzzy sets were adopted to construct a type-2 support vector machines fusion

classiﬁers [9]; the interval type-2 T–S fuzzy impulsive controller and indirect adaptive fuzzy controller were respectively

addressed by Li et al. for nonlinear systems [10,11]. A Fuzzy Lyapunov Synthesis method was proposed to design type-1

and type-2 fuzzy controller for nonsmooth mechanical systems [12].

Moreover, the ongoing challenge for T2FLS is how to come up with suitable parameters in controlling complex systems. In

this sense, the use of intelligent methods demonstrates the usefulness in optimizing FLS. On basis of the type-1 FLS optimi-

zation approaches [13–17], recent literature has focused the type-2 FLS optimization approaches and shows the advantages

of optimized type-2 FLS especially in control performance, corrupted data processing, noise disturbance and knowledge

uncertainty aspect. An interval type-2 neural network was depicted for position control using ultrasonic motor [18]. In

[18], Lin et al. employed supervised gradient descent learning method to optimize interval type-2 fuzzy neural network

⇑ Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: nwang@iipc.zju.edu.cn, nwang126@126.com (N. Wang).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2014.04.035

0307-904X/Ó 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Please cite this article in press as: Z. Sun et al., Type-1/type-2 fuzzy logic systems optimization with RNA genetic algorithm for double

inverted pendulum, Appl. Math. Modell. (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2014.04.035

2 Z. Sun et al. / Applied Mathematical Modelling xxx (2014) xxx–xxx

(IT2FNN) system parameters and has shown the superior control performance and robust ability of IT2FNN control system;

Lin et al. described an adaptive hybrid interval type-2 fuzzy neural network controller for uncertain nonlinear multi-

variables dynamic systems [19], which was incorporated sliding mode and Lyapunov synthesis approaches to deal with

the corrupted data by noise or knowledge uncertainty and got better results than adaptive hybrid type-1 FNN control

system; Wu and Tan presented an optimized interval type-2 controller with genetic algorithm for coupled-tank liquid-level

control system [20]. Compared with another GA evolved type-1 fuzzy controller, the optimized type-2 FLC can well eliminate

persistent oscillations; In literature [21–25], involving optimization of type-1 and type-2 fuzzy controllers were proposed by

Castillo et al. The type-2 fuzzy controller incorporating evolutionary algorithm for autonomous wheeled mobile robot, DC

motor and non-linear plant were respectively proposed in [21–23]; In the work [24], Castillo et al. utilize swarm intelligence

to optimize the type-1 and type-2 controller parameters and got better results; Finally, in [25], an overview is presented

summarizing various optimization method related to type-2 fuzzy systems.

Since Adleman ﬁrst developed based on DNA biological computing method for solving a computationally hard problem of

the directed Hamiltonian path problem [26], researchers begin to devote to the research and applications of RNA and DNA

genetic algorithm. Tao and Wang proposed a DNA computing based RNA-genetic algorithm for chemical engineering process

parameter estimation problems [27]; Two kinds of novel RNA genetic algorithms were presented respectively by Wang and

Wang for the hydrocracking of heavy oil and the dynamic systems parameter estimation problems [28,29]. The adaptive RNA

genetic algorithm and a modiﬁed DNA genetic algorithm were presented respectively by Zhang and Wang for modeling of

proton exchange membrane fuel cells and the 2-chlorophenol oxidation in supercritical water [30,31]. Chen and Wang pro-

posed the two DNA genetic algorithms were for the parameter estimation in the reaction hydrogenation and the gasoline

blending scheduling problem respectively [32,33]; The literature [34] described a evolutionary neural network with DNA

computing for the dual-axis motion control of a multi-variables system. As an evolutionary algorithm, RNA genetic algorithm

can overcome the drawbacks of traditional genetic algorithm, such as weak local search capability and premature conver-

gence [27–30]. Owing to advantages of RNA genetic algorithm, in this work, RNA–GA is used to optimize T2FLS. Moreover,

the T2FLS with RNA genetic algorithm can well eliminate persistent oscillations in the double inverted pendulum system. So

it demonstrates that the T2FLS with RNA genetic algorithm can show better system’s stability and robustness.

This paper is organized as follows: interval type-2 fuzzy logic system design method is introduced in Section 2. RNA

genetic algorithm is described in Section 3. Section 4 addresses the optimization method of type-1 and type-2 FLSs with

RNA genetic algorithm. The experimental simulation results with different FLSs for double inverted pendulum are given

in Section 5. The conclusions are summarized in the ﬁnal section.

General T2FLS are computationally intensive because its inference and type-reduction are very intensive. To simplify,

type-2 fuzzy set can be amended to interval type-2 fuzzy set [4] if the secondary memberships are either zero or one as

shown in Fig. 1. The structure of interval type-2FLS consists of fuzziﬁer, inference engine, rule base, type-reducer and defuzz-

iﬁer, which is shown in Fig. 2.

2.1. Fuzziﬁer

The fuzziﬁer part is used for mapping the crisp inputs x ¼ ðx1 ; . . . ; xn Þ into different kinds of fuzzy sets. It includes single-

ton, type-1 fuzzy set and interval type-2 fuzzy set and so on. Here, singleton fuzziﬁcation method is adopted to map the

input variable.

1

0.9

0.8

σ2

0.7

0.6 σ1

UMF

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2 Primary MF

LMF

0.1

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Please cite this article in press as: Z. Sun et al., Type-1/type-2 fuzzy logic systems optimization with RNA genetic algorithm for double

inverted pendulum, Appl. Math. Modell. (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2014.04.035

Z. Sun et al. / Applied Mathematical Modelling xxx (2014) xxx–xxx 3

Crisp

Defuzzifier Output

Rule base

Crisp

Inputs Fuzzifier Type-reducer

Fuzzy set Fuzzy set

Rule base is expressed with the form of ‘‘if-then’’ which represents expert knowledge. By considering MISO interval type-

2FLS, the two kinds of ‘‘if-then’’ expressions can be depicted as followed:

~l.

if x1 is F~l1 and x2 is F~l2 ; . . . ; xp is F~lp , then yl is G

if x1 is F~l1 and x2 is F~l2 ; . . . ; xp is F~lp , then yl ¼ f ðx1 ; x2 ; . . . ; xn Þ.

The inference is the key process in fuzzy system. Considering MISO interval type-2FLS, each rule is set up p antecedents.

The expression of lth rule is listed bellow:

~l.

Rl : if x1 is F~l1 and x2 is F~l2 ; . . . ; xp is F~lp , then yl is G

~ l ~ l

Where F i and G are the fuzzy language partition of the input variable and output variable. In additions, the ith input var-

iable and output variable membership functions (MF) are expressed by the way of lF~l ðxi Þ and lG~ l ðyÞ. The inference results [4]

i

of lth ﬁred rule depicted as:

n o

lB~l ðyÞ ¼ lG~ l ðyÞ u tx2X f½lX~ 1 ðx1 Þ u lF~l1 ðx1 Þ u u ½lX~ p ðxp Þ u lF~lp ðxp Þg ð1Þ

By using the singleton fuzziﬁcation, the lth ﬁred rule result can be simpliﬁed as:

n o

lB~l ðyÞ ¼ lG~ l ðyÞ u tx2X flF~l1 ðx1 Þ u u lF~lp ðxp Þg ð2Þ

Because the fuzzy sets are interval type-2 fuzzy sets, the inference of antecedents can be addressed as:

1

1

After fuzzy inference, an interval type-2 fuzzy set output can be acquired. Type-reducer is the way to convert interval

type-2 fuzzy set into type-1 fuzzy set. Type-reduction methods have been developed by Karnik and Mendel and the cen-

ter-of-set type-reduction is one of the most popular methods in type-reduction approaches. The center-of-set type-reduction

method [3] can be expressed as:

Z Z Z Z PM i

i¼1 f

Y cos ðY 1 ; . . . ; Y M :F 1 ; . . . ; F M Þ ¼ PM ð5Þ

i i

y1 yM f1 fM i¼1 f y

PM PM i i

fli yil fr yr

yl ¼ Pi¼1

M

yr ¼ Pi¼1

M

ð6Þ

i i

i¼1 fl i¼1 fr

In order to compute yl and yr we need to compute ffli ; i ¼ 1; 2; . . . ; Mg and ffri ; i ¼ 1; 2; . . . ; Mg. According to literature [4],

K-M iteration procedure was shown as followed. Without lost of generality, the yir s are arranged in ascending order, i.e.,

y1r 6 y2r 6 . . . 6 yM

r .

(1) Compute yr in Eq. (6) by initially setting fri ¼ ððf i f i Þ=2Þ for i ¼ 1; 2; . . . ; M, where f i and f i have already compute in

Eq. (3) and (4) and let y0r , yr ;

(2) Find Rð1 < R < M 1Þ such that yRr 6 y0r 6 yRþ1

r ;

Please cite this article in press as: Z. Sun et al., Type-1/type-2 fuzzy logic systems optimization with RNA genetic algorithm for double

inverted pendulum, Appl. Math. Modell. (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2014.04.035

4 Z. Sun et al. / Applied Mathematical Modelling xxx (2014) xxx–xxx

(3) Compute yr in Eq. (6) with fri ¼ f i for i 6 R and fri ¼ f i for i > R and let y00r , yr ;

(4) If y0r – y00r then go to step (5). If y0r ¼ y00r , then stop and set yr , y00r ;

(5) Set y0r equal to y00r and return to step (2);

By using this procedure yr can be obtained. It is the same way for computing yl . Just replaced yir by yil and, in step (2), ﬁnd

Lð1 6 L 6 M 1Þ such that yLl 6 y0l 6 yLþ1

l and, in step 3), let fli ¼ f i for i 6 L, and let fli ¼ f i for i > L.

Because Y cos is an interval set, we defuzzify it using the average of yl and yr . Therefore,the the crisp output can be obtained

as:

yl þ yr

f ðxÞ ¼ ð7Þ

2

In the view of modern biology, RNA is one of the genetic materials for life and contains plentiful genetic information. A

RNA chromosome is composed of four kinds of nucleotides namely adenine (A), uracil (U), guanine (G) and cytosine (C).

Based on the biological RNA structures, the RNA encoding method is designed for practical optimization problems.

minf ðx1 ; x2 ; . . . ; xn Þ

ð8Þ

xmin 6 xi 6 xmax ; i ¼ 1; . . . ; n

Considering the optimization problem Eq. (8), f ðx1 ; x2 ; . . . ; xn Þ is the objective function and xi is the variable with the

bounds ½xmin ; xmax . Every variable xi is represented by the combination of four nucleotide bases. For better processing in sim-

ulation, integer 0, 1, 2 and 3 are adopted to encode the RNA nucleotide bases with the mapping principle AUGC=0123, that

states A accords with 0, U with 1, G with 2 and C with 3.

The purpose of selection operation is to decide which individuals are kept to next generation and how many individuals

are replicated to offspring. Generally, those individuals with higher ﬁtness value have a greater opportunity to survival or

reproduce. Among the various selection methods like roulette wheel selection, tournament selection, ranking selection

and Boltzmann selection, roulette wheel selection is more popular and efﬁcient. But the roulette wheel selection method

may cause the higher ﬁtness values individuals to dominate all the offspring individuals, which may lead to premature con-

vergence easily. Therefore, a roulette wheel selection with balance way is used in RNA genetic algorithm. In this method a

group of deleterious individuals are allowed to be picked out for the genetic operation and the elitism is adopted to guar-

antee the best individual to be reserved for the next generation. Further details of this selection operation is described in

Section 3.6.

Crossover operation simulates the process of reproduction where the offspring individuals inherit information from their

respective parents. In GAs, crossover operator is the most important operator, which can exchange information from differ-

ent chromosomes. However, the traditional crossover operators in GAs, such as single-point, multi-point and arithmetic

crossover operators, are based on simple abstraction of biological concepts, which weakens the searching performance. In

order to improve the searching ability and exploit more useful information of individuals, three main operators namely

translocation operator, transformation operator and permutation operator [27] are adopted to replace traditional crossover

operator.

(1) Translocation operator: Make subsequence RNA sequence transfer to the new location. For example, in the original

RNA sequence X ¼ X 5 X 4 X 3 X 2 X 1 , X i ði ¼ 1; . . . ; 5Þ is the subsequence of the RNA sequence (X), and the new chromosome

after translocation operation becomes X ¼ X 5 X 2 X 4 X 3 X 1 . The mathematical expression of the translocation operation is

shown as follows:

X i ðn1 þ k 1Þ; k 6 np n1 þ 1

X i ðkÞ ¼ ð9Þ

X i ðn1 np 1 þ kÞ; np n1 þ 1 < k 6 np

(2) Transformation operator: Let the segments of RNA sequence to exchange their locations. For example, the sequence X

becomes X ¼ X 5 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 1 after their transformation operation of X 4 and X 2 . The formula of transformation operator is

described in Eq. (10).

Please cite this article in press as: Z. Sun et al., Type-1/type-2 fuzzy logic systems optimization with RNA genetic algorithm for double

inverted pendulum, Appl. Math. Modell. (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2014.04.035

Z. Sun et al. / Applied Mathematical Modelling xxx (2014) xxx–xxx 5

X i ðn2 þ n1 kÞ; n1 6 k 6 n2

X i ðkÞ ¼ ð10Þ

X i ðkÞ; otherwise

(3) Permutation operator: One subsequence of RNA sequence is permutated by the other subsequence. For example,

when X 02 subsequence from the same or other RNA sequence is selected to replace X 2 , the new sequence is

X ¼ X 5 X 4 X 3 X 02 X 1 . The new sequence is formed by using the formula given in Eq. (11):

X j ðkÞ; k 2 ½n1 ; n2

X i ðkÞ ¼ ð11Þ

X i ðkÞ; otherwise

where, X i and X j are the ith and jth RNA sequence, k ¼ ð1; 2; 3; . . . ; np Þ is the position of RNA sequence, n1 and n2

(n1 < n2 6 np ) are the random insert points and np is the size of population.

Mutation operator plays a signiﬁcant role when the algorithm traps into local optimum. It can guide the algorithm to

come out of the local optimum when most individuals in the population become similar. According to [35], there exists

‘‘hot spots’’ and ‘‘cold spots’’ in the DNA sequence model and the nucleotide bases in the ‘‘cold spots’’ mutate more slowly

than those in the ‘‘hot spots’’, which accords with the fact that the spots in different bit positions have different effects on the

solutions to the problem. Hence, the shift probability in different evolution stages is employed. For example, at the beginning

of the evolution stage we employ large probability in the high bit position to obtain large searching space and at the end of

evolution stage the large probability in the low bit position is necessary for accurate results. Thus, the two kinds of mutation

probability P mh and P ml , are described as follows:

b1

Pmh ¼ a1 þ ð12Þ

1 þ exp½aaðg g 0 Þ

b1

Pml ¼ a1 þ ð13Þ

1 þ exp½aaðg g 0 Þ

where a1 is denoted as the initial mutation probability, b1 is the range of mutation probability, g is the evolution generation,

g 0 is denoted as the generation where great change of mutation probability occurs and aa is the speed of change.

In order to improve the diversity of population, inspired by DNA double helix complementary principle, reconstruction

operator is introduced for producing new complementary individuals. The reconstruction operation follows the principle

where A complements with U and C complements with G. An example of reconstruction operator is shown in Fig. 3. Each

sequence represents one of the candidate solutions, and then the corresponding complementary sequence is formed auto-

matically after the mutation operation.

Based on the RNA encoding method and the RNA genetic operations mentioned above, the procedure of RNA–GA is sum-

marized below and shown in Fig. 4.

Step 2: Calculate the ﬁtness value of each individual;

Step 3: Judge population size np >¼ 5N, if afﬁrmative, goto step 5, otherwise implement step 4;

Step 4: Choose the np =2 better individuals and np =4 deleterious individuals and goto step 6;

Step 5: Choose the np =3 better individuals and np =6 deleterious individuals and carry out next step;

Step 6: Gather these individuals into individual pool and implement the permutation operation;

Step 7: Set the probability pc ¼ 0:5, If the random number (q 2 ½0; 1) q > pc then implement the translocation operation,

otherwise perform transformation operation;

Step 8: Carry out the mutation operation with adaptive mutation probability;

Fig. 3. Example of reconstruction operator.

Please cite this article in press as: Z. Sun et al., Type-1/type-2 fuzzy logic systems optimization with RNA genetic algorithm for double

inverted pendulum, Appl. Math. Modell. (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2014.04.035

6 Z. Sun et al. / Applied Mathematical Modelling xxx (2014) xxx–xxx

np N pc

No

Yes

Calculate individual fitness value

Translocation operator

No

np 5N Transformation operator

Yes

Choose n p / 3 better individuals Mutation operator

and n p / 6 deleterious individuals

Meet end No

Choose n p / 2 better individuals condition

and n p / 4 deleterious individuals

Yes

End

Permutation operator

Step 9: Perform the reconstruction operation to produce the corresponding complementary individuals and combine

them with the former individuals;

Step 10: Judge whether the optimum in current generation meets the termination criteria. If met then stop, else return to

step 2.

To demonstrate the searching ability of RNA genetic algorithm, ﬁve nonlinear constrained benchmark functions are taken.

Table 1 compiles a list of commonly used test functions, which represent a group of landscape classes with various charac-

teristics: large search space, numerous local minima and fraudulence. For comparison, standard GA is adopted to optimize

these functions. The corresponding parameters setting of GA and RNA genetic algorithm are shown in Table 2.

For every test function, the optimization process will end when the inequality jOb O j 6 e ¼ 107 is satisﬁed, where Ob

denotes the best optimized objective function value, O is the real optimal value, and e is the precision requirement. Each

algorithm runs R ¼ 50 times for every test function. Here, Gav e ; Gmax and Gmin are denoted the average evaluation generation

number, the maximum and minimum evaluation generation for measuring the convergence speed of the algorithm. Obvi-

ously, the less Gav e ; Gmax and Gmin are, the faster the algorithm is. The corresponding results are shown in Table 3. The global

search ability is measured by, F av e ; F max and F min , which represent the average, maximum and minimum optimal value of the

best objective function over R runs respectively. The testing results are shown in Table 4. From these results, we can see that

Table 1

Test Functions.

2 2

þ ð1 x1 Þ (1,1) 0

x1 ; x2 2 ½5:12; 5:12

2

minf2 ðxÞ ¼ 1 þ ðx1 100Þ4000

þðx2 100Þ 2

(100,100) 0

pﬃﬃ Þ

2

x1 ; x2 2 ½200; 200

P

minf3 ðxÞ ¼ ni¼0 x2i (0, . . .,0) 0

xi 2 ½5:12; 5:12; n ¼ 10

P

minf4 ðxÞ ¼ ni¼0 ½x2i 10 cosð2pxi Þ 10 (0, . . .,0) 0

xi 2 ½5; 5; n ¼ 10

Pn 2 Q n xiﬃ

1

minf5 ðxÞ ¼ 4000 i¼0 xi i¼0 cosð iÞ þ 1

p (0, . . .,0) 0

xi 2 ½10; 10; n ¼ 10

Please cite this article in press as: Z. Sun et al., Type-1/type-2 fuzzy logic systems optimization with RNA genetic algorithm for double

inverted pendulum, Appl. Math. Modell. (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2014.04.035

Z. Sun et al. / Applied Mathematical Modelling xxx (2014) xxx–xxx 7

Table 2

Parameters setting of algorithms.

GA RNA–GA

Generation = 1000 Generation = 1000

Population size = 20 Population size = 20

Binary encoding method Quaternary encoding method

Roulette wheel selection Roulette wheel selection with balance way

Elitist mechanism Elitist mechanism

Single point crossover operation Permutation operation

with pc ¼ 0:8 Transformation operation

Adaptive mutation operation Translocation operation

Adaptive mutation operation

Reconstruction operation

Table 3

Comparison of efﬁciency.

Functions RNA–GA GA

G av e Gmax Gmin G av e Gmax Gmin

f2 99.88 365 11 167.72 1000 12

f3 778.08 1000 238 1000 1000 1000

f4 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

f5 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

Table 4

Comparison of accuracy ability.

Functions RNA–GA GA

F av e F max F min F av e F max F min

f1 0 0 0 0.0345 1.0303 0

f2 0 0 0 0.0177 0.1105 0

f3 3.742E07 3.818E06 6.275E08 4.22E04 5.0E4 4.0E04

f4 0.7921 4.0363 1.483E05 1.1542 9.1815 0.0949

f5 0.0525 0.1109 0.0148 0.1637 0.2772 0.0839

RNA genetic algorithm shows better performance in convergence speed, searching ability and especially works well for opti-

mization problems with high dimensional space.

In this section, we propose type-1 and type-2 FLSs optimization method by using the RNA genetic algorithm to optimize

the associated membership function parameters. The fuzzy system optimized process is depicted in Fig. 5.

4.1. Type-1 and type-2 MFs encoding and objective function formulation

Here, two input variables and one output variable Mamdani fuzzy inference system with seven fuzzy language partitions

is adopted, and the corresponding rule base is shown in Table 5. According to the type-1 and interval type-2 MFs formula in

Eqs. (14) and (15), these two types MFs parameters are encoded respectively by using RNA encoding, and the relevant encod-

ing process for one of these variables is shown in Figs. 6 and 7.

" #

ðx mÞ2

lA ðxÞ ¼ exp ð14Þ

2r2

" #

ðx mÞ2

leA ðxÞ ¼ exp r 2 ½r1 ; r2 ð15Þ

2r2

Please cite this article in press as: Z. Sun et al., Type-1/type-2 fuzzy logic systems optimization with RNA genetic algorithm for double

inverted pendulum, Appl. Math. Modell. (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2014.04.035

8 Z. Sun et al. / Applied Mathematical Modelling xxx (2014) xxx–xxx

RNA genetic

algorithm

Learning

Process

Knowledge Base

RuleBase

Defuzzification

Input Fuzzification Inference Engine Output

Type-Reducer

Table 5

Rule base of FLSs for double inverted pendulum system.

EC NB NM NS ZO PS PM PB

E

NB NB NB NM NM NM NS NS

NM NB NM NM NM NS ZO PS

NS NM NM NS NS ZO PS PM

ZO NM NS NS ZO PS PS PM

PS NM NS ZO PS PS PM PM

PM NS ZO PS PM PM PM PB

PB NS PS PM PM PM PB PB

1

0.9 NB NM NS ZO PS PM PB

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

-6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6

(* * * * )(* * * * ) (* * * * )(* * * * )

In order to carry out the optimization process, the objective function need to be conﬁrmed. According to the double

inverted pendulum system description which will be presented in Section 5, the ﬂuctuation of h2 ; h1 and x (upper pole angle,

lower pole angle and cart position) should be small during the control process stage. Based on the characteristics of double

inverted pendulum, the upper pole angle should have more weight than the lower pole angle and cart position in control

P

N 2 2 2

stage. Then the objective function can be denoted as F obj ¼ min i¼1 x þ 50h1 þ 250h2 .

Please cite this article in press as: Z. Sun et al., Type-1/type-2 fuzzy logic systems optimization with RNA genetic algorithm for double

inverted pendulum, Appl. Math. Modell. (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2014.04.035

Z. Sun et al. / Applied Mathematical Modelling xxx (2014) xxx–xxx 9

1

0.9 NB NM NS ZO PS PM PB

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

-6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6

... mPM PM 1 PM 2 mPB PB1 PB 2

Fig. 7. RNA encoding method for IT2FLS MFs parameters.

Table 6

Optimized MFs parameters of T1FLS and T2FLS with RNA genetic algorithm

NB NM NS ZO PS PM PB

T1FLS m: 6.000 4.024 2.001 0.1960 1.630 4.244 6.000

r: 0.9379 1. 098 0.8587 0.5274 0.8069 1.215 1.393

T2FLS m: 6.000 4.167 1.860 0.4853 1.779 3.561 6.000

r1 : 0.5978 0.5997 0.9037 1.1080 1.206 0.9184 0.5841

r2 : 1.197 0.6574 1.272 1.229 1.230 1.302 0.9643

1 390

GA−T1

NB NM NS ZO PS PM PB 380 RNA−GA−T1

0.8

370

Fitness value

0.6 360

350 336.4266

0.4 340

330

0.2 319.5155

320

0 310

−6 −4 −2 0 2 4 6 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Generation

(a) (b)

Fig. 8. T1 MFs with RNA genetic algorithm and evolutionary tendency.

According to double inverted pendulum system requirements, the objective function need to be minimized for getting the

best parameters. Here, taking type-2 FLS for example, the procedure of type-2 FLS with RNA optimization is addressed as

follows.

Step 1: Set the type-2 variable ranges and encode the variables with RNA encoding method in a chromosome;

Step 2: Initialize the population (np ¼ 20) and evolutionary generation (G ¼ 50), then implement type-2 FLS and calculate

ﬁtness value according to the objective function;

Step 3: Carry out the selection operation with elitism strategy in the population to select the high value individuals and

reproduce the similar individuals;

Step 4: Implement the permutation operation and set the probability pc ¼ 0:5, If the random number (q 2 ½0; 1) q > pc

then implement translocation operation, otherwise perform transformation operation;

Please cite this article in press as: Z. Sun et al., Type-1/type-2 fuzzy logic systems optimization with RNA genetic algorithm for double

inverted pendulum, Appl. Math. Modell. (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2014.04.035

10 Z. Sun et al. / Applied Mathematical Modelling xxx (2014) xxx–xxx

Step 5: Set high bit position probability and low bit position probability and implement mutation operation; then execute

the reconstruction operation to produce the corresponding complementary individuals;

Step 6: If the termination condition is met or iteration is completed then stop, else return to step 2.

The procedure is similar for type-1 FLS optimization. For further comparison, standard genetic algorithm is adopted to

optimize two types of FLSs. The generation of GA is denoted G ¼ 50, and others parameters are stated in Table 2. Finally

the optimization results and evolved tendency are shown in Table 6, Figs. 8 and 9.

1 350

GA−−T2

NB NM NS ZO PS PM PB RNA−GA−−T2

0.8

300

Fitness value

0.6

240.2925

0.4

250

0.2 213.1699

0 200

−6 −4 −2 0 2 4 6 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

Generation

(a) (b)

Fig. 9. IT2 MFs with RNA genetic algorithm and evolutionary tendency.

m2 g

1

m1 g

F Cart

x

Fig. 10. The double inverted pendulum system.

Table 7

Parameters and values of the double inverted pendulum

Mass of cart m0 1.32 kg

Mass of lower pole m1 0.215 kg

Mass of upper pole m2 0.132 kg

Inertia of lower pole around the lower joint J1 0.008398 kg m2

Inertia of upper pole around the upper joint J2 0.01825 kg m2

Length of lower pole L1 0.16 m

Length of upper pole L2 0.40 m

Length from lower joint to the center of mass of lower pole l1 0.13 m

Length from upper joint to the center of mass of upper pole l2 0.22 m

Friction of cart f0 23.6782 N/s/m

Friction of lower pole f1 0.003425 N/s/m

Friction of upper pole f2 0.003425 N/s/m

Gravitational acceleration g 9.8 m/s2

Please cite this article in press as: Z. Sun et al., Type-1/type-2 fuzzy logic systems optimization with RNA genetic algorithm for double

inverted pendulum, Appl. Math. Modell. (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2014.04.035

Z. Sun et al. / Applied Mathematical Modelling xxx (2014) xxx–xxx 11

The double inverted pendulum system is a complicated MISO system, which is a typical high-speed multi-variable, non-

linear and dynamically unstable system. As shown in Fig. 10, it composes of a cart and two rigid poles with the length L1 and

L2 . The end of the lower pole is mounted on the car. The top end of the lower pole is connected with the end of the upper

pole. The control goal is to balance the poles by pushing the cart back and forth on a track of limited length.

Table 8

Double inverted pendulum initial values

Con1 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.5 0.1 0.4

Con2 0 0.2 0.25 0.8 0.1 0.5

Con3 0.1 0.1 0.15 0.1 0.05 0.8

Con4 0.2 0.1 0.15 0.5 0.1 0.6

0.4 6

Benchmark Benchmark

T1

0.3 GA−T1

T1

RNA−GA−T1 4 GA−T1

RNA−GA−T1

0.2 RNA−GA−T2 RNA−GA−T2

Angle1 rate

2

Angle1

0.1

0 0

−0.1

−2

−0.2

−0.3 −4

−0.4 −6

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

time(s) time(s)

0.15

Benchmark Benchmark

T1 1 T1

0.1 GA−T1 GA−T1

RNA−GA−T1 RNA−GA−T1

RNA−GA−T2 RNA−GA−T2

0.05

Angle2 rate

0.5

Angle2

0

0

−0.05

−0.1 −0.5

−0.15

−1

−0.2

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

time(s) time(s)

0.35 1.5

Benchmark Benchmark

T1 T1

0.3 GA−T1

RNA−GA−T1

1 GA−T1

RNA−GA−T1

cart position

0.5

Cart rate

0.2

0.15 0

0.1

−0.5

0.05

−1

0

−0.05 −1.5

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

time(s) time(s)

(a) (b)

Fig. 11. The comparison of different FLSs with (0.3 0.2 0.1 0.5 0.1 0.4) initial value.

Please cite this article in press as: Z. Sun et al., Type-1/type-2 fuzzy logic systems optimization with RNA genetic algorithm for double

inverted pendulum, Appl. Math. Modell. (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2014.04.035

12 Z. Sun et al. / Applied Mathematical Modelling xxx (2014) xxx–xxx

The state of the double inverted pendulum system can be described by six variables (x; x; _ h1 ; h_1 ; h2 ; h_2 ; F), denoted as the

displacement of the cart, cart velocity, lower pole angle and its angular velocity, upper pole angle and its angular velocity and

the force.

The differential equation of double inverted pendulum is described as follows, and the description of parameters [36] are

listed in Table 7.

23 2 3 2 3

€x x_ 1

6 7 6 7 6 7

Mðh1 ; h2 Þ4 h€1 5 ¼ Fðh1 ; h2 ; h_1 ; h_2 Þ4 h_1 5 þ Nðh1 ; h2 Þ þ 4 0 5 ð16Þ

h€2 h_2 0

0 1

m0 þ m1 þ m2 ðm1 l1 þ m2 L1 Þ cos h1 m2 l2 cos h2

B 2 C

Mðh1 ; h2 Þ ¼ @ ðm1 l1 þ m2 L1 Þ cos h1 J 1 þ m1 l1 þ m2 L21 m2 l2 L1 cosðh2 h1 Þ A ð17Þ

2

m2 l2 cos h2 m2 l2 L1 cosðh2 h1 Þ J2 þ m2 l2

0 1

f0 ðm1 l1 þ m2 L1 Þh_1 sin h1 m2 l2 h_2 sin h2

B C

Fðh1 ; h2 ; h_1 ; h_2 Þ ¼ @ 0 f1 f2 m2 l2 L1 h_2 sinðh2 h1 Þ þ f2 A ð18Þ

0 m2 l2 L1 h_1 sinðh2 h1 Þ þ f2 f2

0.5 5

Benchmark Benchmark

0.4 T1 4 T1

GA−T1 GA−T1

0.3 RNA−GA−T1

RNA−GA−T2

3 RNA−GA−T1

RNA−GA−T2

0.2 2

Angle1 rate

0.1 1

Angle1

0 0

−0.1 −1

−0.2 −2

−0.3 −3

−0.4 −4

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

time(s) time(s)

0.06

Benchmark Benchmark

0.04 T1 1 T1

GA−T1 GA−T1

RNA−GA−T1 0.8 RNA−GA−T1

0.02 RNA−GA−T2

0.6 RNA−GA−T2

Angle2 rate

0 0.4

Angle2

0.2

−0.02

0

−0.04 −0.2

−0.06 −0.4

−0.6

−0.08

−0.8

−0.1 −1

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

time(s) time(s)

0.12

Benchmark Benchmark

T1 1 T1

0.1 GA−T1 GA−T1

RNA−GA−T1 0.8 RNAGA−T1

RNA−GA−T2 RNAGA−T2

0.08 0.6

cart position

0.4

Cart rate

0.06

0.2

0.04 0

−0.2

0.02 −0.4

0 −0.6

−0.8

−0.02 −1

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

time(s) time(s)

(a) (b)

Fig. 12. The comparison of different FLSs with (0 0.2 0.25 0.8 0.1 0.5) initial value.

Please cite this article in press as: Z. Sun et al., Type-1/type-2 fuzzy logic systems optimization with RNA genetic algorithm for double

inverted pendulum, Appl. Math. Modell. (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2014.04.035

Z. Sun et al. / Applied Mathematical Modelling xxx (2014) xxx–xxx 13

0 1

0

B C

Nðh1 ; h2 Þ ¼ @ gðm1 l1 þ m2 L1 Þ sin h1 A ð19Þ

gðm2 l2 Þ sin h2

For convenient control of the pendulum in FLSs these six variables are assembled into E and EC. In this simulation process,

we denote the error and rate of error (E; EC) as FLSs input variables and denote the force of control (F) as output variable. The

stability of double inverted pendulum system is much more sensitive at different pole angles. According to the experimental

research, four kinds of initial conditions are set up for testing the control systems i.e., (a) h1 P 0; h2 P 0; (b) h1 0; h2 0; (c)

h1 P 0; h2 0; (d) h1 0; h2 P 0. These four kinds of random initial value are listed in Table 8. Furthermore, we add external

disturbances to this double inverted pendulum system at beginning of stage to demonstrate the superiority of type-2FLS in

treating unpredicted disturbances. The ITAE (integral of time-weighted absolute value of the error) index is used to examine

the control performance of different FLSs.

Based on the optimized results of type-1FLS and type-2FLS, these optimized parameters are combined respectively with

type-1 and type-2 FLSs to keep the double inverted pendulum balanced at different initial status. The experimental simula-

tion results and the comparison with different fuzzy logic systems are shown in Figs. 11–14 and Table 9.

0.3 2

Benchmark Benchmark

T1 T1

1.5

0.2 GA−T1

RNA−GA−T1

GA−T1

RNA−GA−T1

RNA−GA−T2 1 RNA−GA−T2

Angle1 rate

0.1

Angle1

0.5

0 0

−0.5

−0.1

−1

−0.2

−1.5

−0.3 −2

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

time(s) time(s)

0.8

0.1 Benchmark Benchmark

T1 T1

0.08 GA−T1 0.6 GA−T1

RNA−GA−T1 RNA−GA−T1

0.06 RNA−GA−T2 RNA−GA−T2

0.4

Angle2 rate

0.04

Angle2

0.02 0.2

0

−0.02 0

−0.04

−0.2

−0.06

−0.08 −0.4

−0.1

−0.6

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

time(s) time(s)

0.8

Benchmark Benchmark

0.14 T1 T1

GA−T1 0.6 GA−T1

0.12 RNA−GA−T1 RNA−GA−T1

cart position

RNA−GA−T2 RNA−GA−T2

0.4

0.1

Cart rate

0.08 0.2

0.06 0

0.04

−0.2

0.02

0 −0.4

−0.02 −0.6

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

time(s) time(s)

(a) (b)

Fig. 13. The comparison of different FLSs with (0.1 0.1 0.15 0.1 0.05 0.8) initial value.

Please cite this article in press as: Z. Sun et al., Type-1/type-2 fuzzy logic systems optimization with RNA genetic algorithm for double

inverted pendulum, Appl. Math. Modell. (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2014.04.035

14 Z. Sun et al. / Applied Mathematical Modelling xxx (2014) xxx–xxx

0.2 4

Benchmark Benchmark

T1 T1

0.15 GA−T1 3 GA−T1

RNA−GA−T1 RNA−GA−T1

0.1 RNA−GA−T2 RNA−GA−T2

2

Angle1 rate

0.05

Angle1

1

0

0

−0.05

−1

−0.1

−0.15 −2

−0.2 −3

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

time(s) time(s)

0.1 0.6

Benchmark Benchmark

T1 T1

0.08 GA−T1 0.4 GA−T1

RNA−GA−T1 RNA−GA−T1

RNA−GA−T2 RNA−GA−T2

0.06 0.2

Angle2 rate

Angle2

0.04 0

0.02 −0.2

0 −0.4

−0.02 −0.6

−0.04 −0.8

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

time(s) time(s)

0.3 0.8

Benchmark Benchmark

T1 T1

0.25 GA−T1 0.6 GA−T1

RNA−GA−T1 RNA−GA−T1

RNA−GA−T2 RNA−GA−T2

0.2 0.4

cart position

Cart rate

0.15 0.2

0.1 0

0.05 −0.2

0 −0.4

−0.05 −0.6

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

time(s) time(s)

(a) (b)

Fig. 14. The comparison of different FLSs with (0.2 0.1 0.15 0.5 0.1 0.6) initial value.

Table 9

The ITAE index of simulation with different FLSs

Con1 GA-T1 16.4679 34.2746 7.5406 46.7014 5.0725 20.9215 130.9786

RNA–GA-T1 14.9130 30.5150 7.3769 42.4123 4.6941 19.8659 119.7773

RNA–GA-T2 13.1954 22.7341 6.5222 40.2563 4.1478 18.4856 105.3413

T1 16.2096 33.8640 8.1437 53.7295 4.9397 20.0171 136.9035

Con2 GA-T1 13.4573 27.5805 5.7144 41.5389 4.1238 16.0934 108.5083

RNA–GA-T1 13.2788 26.1803 5.3987 33.4460 3.8972 15.4262 97.6271

RNA–GA-T2 10.1193 10.2747 2.9597 23.3137 1.4630 8.0354 56.1659

T1 19.7429 39.1097 9.0953 47.1801 6.4400 22.7006 144.2686

Con3 GA-T1 18.9855 33.7843 7.7565 40.8942 5.8894 19.1682 126.4781

RNA–GA-T1 14.0734 29.2253 6.8075 36.3747 4.7399 17.3987 108.6494

RNA–GA-T2 11.4509 20.5743 5.4276 29.2688 3.6486 14.7804 85.1506

T1 34.0512 55.0192 10.7468 52.0946 8.0212 24.3365 184.2695

Con4 GA-T1 31.6007 50.8420 9.8468 44.4833 7.4770 21.5116 165.7614

RNA–GA-T1 29.4931 44.6151 8.7092 37.8748 6.8284 19.5547 147.0753

RNA–GA-T2 24.7384 35.9629 7.0171 31.0495 5.6376 14.8201 119.2256

Please cite this article in press as: Z. Sun et al., Type-1/type-2 fuzzy logic systems optimization with RNA genetic algorithm for double

inverted pendulum, Appl. Math. Modell. (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2014.04.035

Z. Sun et al. / Applied Mathematical Modelling xxx (2014) xxx–xxx 15

Comparing the fuzzy system with no optimization technique, GA optimized type-1FLSs and the type-1FLS with RNA opti-

mization, the latter shows better performance under different initial conditions. It demonstrates the RNA genetic algorithm

can ﬁt very well for system parameter optimization especially when there are many parameters to be optimized. Moreover,

from Figs. 11–14 and Table 9, we can see that the least oscillation and ITAE index can be achieved when we use RNA–GA

optimized type-2FLS. So the results indicates that the optimized type-2FLS achieves the aim of system control especially

when we have to confront with more uncertainties and unexpected disturbances.

6. Conclusions

In this paper, we have discussed the control system of the type-1 and type-2 fuzzy systems for the double inverted pen-

dulum. By comparing type-1 fuzzy system with optimized type-2FLS, the latter shows superiority in eliminating the persis-

tent oscillations and vibrations. And comparing with GA, RNA genetic algorithm demonstrates the advantage in multi-

variable systems optimization problem. Thus, the proposed method in this paper is generic, and can be applied to control

systems that have various parameters and unexpected disturbances.

Acknowledgement

This work was supported partly by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 60874072,

61363033, the National Science & Technology Pillar Program of China under Grant No. 2013BAF07B03.

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inverted pendulum, Appl. Math. Modell. (2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apm.2014.04.035