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Putting

the
Power
to Work.

An Introduction to Turbodrill
Components & Evolution
Formation of Smith Turbodrilling Business
Sii Neyrfor Formed in August 2002

Neyrfor- Weir Ltd – Turbodrilling Segment


Acquired August 2002

Tiebo Tiefbohrservice – Turbodrilling Services


Acquired April 2002
• 1??? Principle of Turbodrilling hundreds of years old
• 1924 applied to drilling in USSR
• 1956 first licensees in West
• 1982 first steerable motor for Neyrfor
• 1986 first Weir Turbodrill run
• 1988 Weir part-buy Neyrfor
• 1991 Neyrfor-Weir founded
• 1991 Weir pump technology applied to Turbodrills
• 1992 First Neyrfor-Weir Steerable (Bent) Turbodrill
• 2001 First HiTORQ Turbodrill commercial run
• 2002 Sii Neyrfor
Sii Neyrfor Locations
Stavanger, Norway
Aberdeen, Scotland
Halifax, Canada Alloa, Scotland
Beverwijk, Holland
Hassi, Algeria Cairo, Egypt
Houston
Abu Dhabi, UAE Muscat, Oman
Anaco, Venezuela
Singapore

Santa Cruz, Bolivia

Perth

Engineering (2) Inventory & Assembly (2) Turbodrill Assembly (8) Sales w/o Assembly (3)
•Lithology
•Formation Strength
•Faults Formation
Characteristic

What
•Milled Tooth Determines
•TCI ROP?
•PDC
•Impreg Drill Bit
Power
Type
Supplied •WOB
•RPM
•Hydraulics
ROP v DOC

200

150

100 RPM
ROP (ft/hr)

200 RPM
100
500 RPM
1000 RPM

50

0
0.005 0.01 0.02 0.05
Depth of Cut (in)

Depth Of Cut
The purpose of a downhole motor is to increase the amount
of mechanical power available at the bit. The benefits are:

•Increased Penetration Rates


•Reduced Rotary Speed and Torque
•Reduced Borehole Friction

The power delivered to the bit from the downhole motor


occurs by converting hydraulic power, from pumping drilling
mud at the surface, to mechanical power downhole.

There are two types of downhole motors.


•Positive Displacement Motor (PDM)
•Turbine
PDM and Turbine Operation
The PDM The turbine
works on the deflects drilling
reverse fluid on to blades
application of that than rotate
the Moineau at high RPM
pump principle.

PDM’s Turbines give


generate a high a high bit RPM
torque output and low torque
and low bit output
RPM

Materials The turbine


used are an blades are all
elastomer metallic Rotor
Blading
Disk

stator and materials Stator


Blading
Stator
Blading
Disk
Disk
metallic rotator Rotor
Mud
Flow
Blading
Disk

Motor
Section
Turbine
Body
rd
nwa
Dowhrust
T
Assembly
makes up
One Motor Stage
Turbine
Shaft
Generally………..
Turbines - Higher Power Potential
- Higher Pressure Drop Required
- Higher Bit Speed / Lower Torque Delivery
- Harder Formations
- Deeper / Smaller Hole
- Diamond Bits and Heavier Set PDC Bits
- Lower Flow Rates and Bit Hydraulics
- Higher Temps / Robust and Reliable
- Excellent Hole Quality

PDM’s - Limited Power Potential


- Lower Pressure Drop Required
- Lower Bit Speed / Higher Torque Delivery
- Softer Formations
- Shallower / Larger Hole
- PDC and Roller Cone
- Higher Flow Rates and Bit Hydraulics
- Lower Temperatures
- Cheaper to Buy and Build
Create Excellent Hole Quality
Eliminate Hole Spiraling
Steer Where PDM’s Struggle or Fail
Improve Sliding ROP

Balance Drum Thrust Reduction Adjustable Bent Housings


Diamond Thrust Bearings Flow Bypass Option
Pressure Profile Blades Four Different Standard Blade Types
Titanium Flexible Shaft Replaceable Stabilisers
Very High Temperature Capability Pin or Box Connection to the Bit
Typical Turbine Characteristics

Nominal
Torque Power Pressure

0.75
Runaway Stall
Pressure

0.5
Torque
Power

0.25

Torque x Speed = Power Output


5252
0
0 0.5 1
Stall Nominal Speed Runaway
Speed
Differing blade types give a different pressure profile:
Mk1 Blades have a constant pressure profile.
Mk2 Blades vary in pressure.
Result is easy to see stall and On bottom Pressure is less than Off bottom.

Pressure Profiles Mk 1 Blades


2000

1500

Pressure
1000

500

0
Stall On Bottom Off Bottom
MK1 Blades MK2 Blades
If Turbines are so good……Why don’t we use them all the time?

12¼” Hydraulically disadvantaged, needs a large pressure drop to generate useful torque output -
pressure that is seldom available.
Insufficient torque output for efficient PDC operation in larger hole sizes – stalling or scraping

PUMP PRESURE UTILISATION


12-14" HOLE SECTION

4500

4000 Typical Achievable Turbine Flow Typical Flow Required

3500
PRESSURE (PSI)

3000

2500 Available For Turbine


2000 Parasitic Losses

1500

1000

500

0
500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950
FLOW RATE (GPM)
In 8½” section and below hydraulics are better
Good turbine hydraulics – enough pressure available for effective turbine drilling power

Higher torque output – enough for efficient PDC drilling

High speed output for effective drilling with diamond bits

PUMP POWER UTILISATION


8-1/2" HOLE SECTION

4500

4000 Typical Flow Required

3500
Typical Achievable Turbine Flow
PRESSURE (PSI)

3000

2500 Available For Turbine


2000 Parasitic Losses

1500

1000

500

0
300 350 400 450 500 550 600
FLOW RATE (GPM)
Misconceptions… The Truth…

• ”Turbines will turn too fast for PDC • PDC are still 37% of our world-wide
bits!” market today.
• In some cases, an aggressive
impreg run at high-speed may be the
right solution…

• “Turbines won’t keep hole vertical.” • All turbines come stabilized full-
gauge

• “We’ll need to ream very often.” • No, turbodrilling gives much better
calipered hole, reaming is not
necessary

• “Turbine will affect MWD readings.” •By the contrary, turbines are
balanced and generate less
vibrations and shocks
Misconceptions… The Truth…
• “Turbines won’t permit to circulate with • Most of common LCM will go through
LCM” our tools at a wide range of
concentration

• “Turbine have a big tendency to stall” • Not if you use the correct parameters,
even less with pressure-reactive blades

• “If it stalls too often, it will be damaged” • The metallic materials used means that
there is no damage, apart from a slight
pressure change, nothing will happen to
the turbine
Vibration Comparison:

Turbodrill V’s PDM

Vibration level w/PDM

Vibration level w/Turbodrill


Turbodrill Configurations:
Straight Hole and Steerable Turbodrill

t
Straight Hole Turbodrill 58 f

t Balance
38 f Drum
Port

SBS Bent Housing Turbodrill

Patented Bit Box Stabiliser


Turbodrill Configurations:
Straight Hole Turbodrill

Conventional T3 (3 Motor Section) Turbodrill

Overall length could be 70+ ft


(dependent on tool size i.e. OD)
Turbodrill Design Remit (1990’s)

REQUIREMENT REASON

Reduce Overall Tool length Closer to MWD / LWD Tools


Improve Efficiency Higher Power Output & Reliability
Incorporate Bent Housing Apply benefits to DD Applications
Provide Pressure Profile Enable Positive Feedback to Driller
Address Hole Spiralling Issues Reduce Hole Geometry Problems
Explore Geared Down Mechanics Extend Turbine Applications
Turbodrill Evolution
Original SBS Steerable Turbine

Utilised “Geared Coupling”


(CV Joint) + Bent Housing

t Balance
38 f Drum
Port

SBS Bent Housing Turbodrill

Patented Bit Box Stabiliser

(Now Obsolete)
FBS Steerable Turbodrill
Typical Layout
Thrust Balance Drum

Turbine Stages

Single Motor Section

Interchangeable Intermediate Stabiliser

Adjustable Bent Housing

Interchangeable Lower
Bearing Stabiliser

Flexible Titanium Shaft

PDC Thrust Bearings

Lower Radial Bearing

Pin-Ended Shaft

Box Connection Bit With


Integral Turbine Sleeve
Turbodrill Components

Turbine Blades: Stage Arrangement


Rotor
Blading
Disk

Stator
Stator Blading
Blading Disk
Disk

Mud
Rotor Flow
Blading
Disk

Motor
Section
Turbine
Body
rd
nwa
Dowhrust
T
Assembly
makes up
One Motor Stage
Turbine
Shaft
Turbodrill Blades & Stage Assembly
• Converts Flow to Rotary Movement
• Typically 100 stages per Turbodrill.
• Number and type optimized for particular applications
• Principal difference with PDM’s – all Metallic

Stage
(Assembly)

Stator

Rotor
Turbodrill Evolution
Turbine Blade Design
Turbodrill Configurations &
Components
Forces and Load Support Turbodrill Hydraulic Thrust

Thrust >110,000 Lbs

80,000 Lbs

W.O.B. ± 30,000 Lbs

Weight on Bit
(For 9-1/2” T3(Mk1), 750 Gpm, OBM)
Turbodrill Components

Turbine Elastomer Bearing Arrangement

Moving
Disc
Thrust
Bearing
Moving
Disc

Labyrinth
Spacer Front
Bearing

Flexible
Shaft
Fixed
Disc Bent
Housing

Front Bearing
Stabiliser

Bit Box Stabiliser


Turbodrill Evolution
Turbine PDC Bearings

Dramatic Improvement in Efficiency & Reliability!!


Turbodrill Diamond Thrust Bearings
• Supports Axial Load ie. WOB & Thrust Loading from Blades
• Extremely Resistant to Abrasion & Heat, up to 450 deg/F.
• Replaces older elastomer bearings – All Metallic
Turbodrill Components

Turbine Radial Bearing Arrangement (standard)

(Rubber type HNBR – O.K. up to 190°C)

Cr Ox coating (0.003” thk.)


Lower Radial Bearing Intermediate Radial Bearing
Turbodrill Components

Turbine Radial Bearing Arrangement (Metallic)

WallCarb™
lining
(Bush)
LaserCarb™ Highest recorded
coating
Temperature when
(Sleeve)
successfully
using a Turbine –

± 260°C

Lower Radial Bearing


Turbodrill Configurations &
Components
Bearing Section Lower Shaft Flow Arrangement

± 95 %

Flow Port
Turbodrill Evolution
Turbine Thrust Balance Drum (TS B)

Balance Drum Assembly

Motor Section

Micro
Annulus
Pressure Equalising
Leakage Flow
Main Flow to
Motor Section

Main Mud Flow


into Turbodrill
Leakage Flow
Exits to Annulus
Balance
Drum
Turbine Housing
Shaft
SiiN 03003
Turbodrill Evolution
Turbine Thrust Balance Drum (TS B)
FLOW Thrust area Thrust area
for Balance for blades
Drum etc

Hydraulic Diameter ‘Db’


THRUST THRUST

Turbine Blade
Balance Drum
Diameter ‘Dd’

THRUST EFFECTS?
Resultant
6-5/8” : Thrust reduced by 50% Thrust area
9-1/2” : Thrust reduced by 70%
Turbodrill Evolution
Turbine Thrust Balance Drum (TS H)
With a TS H tool the shaft is hollow.
The TSH Balance Drum Housing
has a field-changeable nozzle to
bypass a chosen % of the flow – or
can be blanked-off. (Leakage flow
through shaft)
Tooling, Nozzle-Carrier & nozzles
shown below.

Balance Drum Housing


(TSB)

Leakage Flow to
Annulus?
TSB : Yes
TSH : NO
Turbodrill Evolution
Flexible Titanium Shaft

Adjustable Bent Housing


Turbodrill Configurations &
Components
Turbodrill Assembly: compression tooling
1957 2003

Hydraulic Q. How much load is applied?


Pump 9-1/2” FBS stator = >237,000 lbs
(108 Tonnes)
Turbodrill Configurations &
Components
Connecting Turbodrill Tool Sections
Female Tapered Coupling with
Spline Guides

Male Tapered Coupling


with Spline Guides
Turbodrill Components
Connecting Turbodrill Tool Sections
Turbodrill Configurations &
Components
Ball
Bearings

Turbine Shaft Locking Nut


Turbodrill Shaft Locking Mechanism
Locking Mechanism Operation

1. When the shaft is rotating, the


mechanism is disengaged
2. When the shaft stops, the mechanism
engages, allowing rotation of the housing
to turn the shaft
3. The mechanism can engage and
disengage over and over again as
required
New Locking Mechanism
Flow restriction Locking Mechanism

Even low flow is


Diverted from
locking balls

Direction of flow
Turbodrill Configurations &
Components
Rig Site Interchangeable Stabilisers

Intermediate Stabiliser
(Rig-changeable)

Lower Bearing Stabiliser


(Rig-changeable)
Global Turbine Mean Time Between Failure
(All Tools 1990 – December 2003)

•Total Number Runs 4,881


•Total Footage Drilled 2,912,511
•Total Operating Hours 264,692
•Total Number Failures 131
•MTBF 2,548 Hours
•MFBF % 2.7%
Well bore quality: smooth ? …
Reduced hole spiralling effects & smoother well bore.
(Hole spiralling negatively impacts measurements, mud, cement, casing
running, etc.)
- data from image tools would indicate less spiralling than competitors
(primarily PDM’s + Rock BIts)

Borehole Image with typical profile Borehole Image with typical profile
generated by PDM + Rockbit generated by Turbine + long gauge bit
Well bore quality: Hole Spiralling 1…
Well bore quality: Hole Spiralling 2…
Well bore quality: Hole Spiralling problems…
Turbine Stabilisation in the 80’s
Effect of Spiralling - 1
Bit-Box Stabiliser
Effect of Hole Spiralling - 2
Box-Connection Bit with Protected Sleeve
The Perfect Fit…
4.6Ft *

LONG GAUGE NEAR BIT BOX END BOTTOM BEARING


PIN CONNECTION. STABILISER. SHAFT STABILISER

2.6Ft *
LONG GAUGE BOX END BOTTOM BEARING
PIN CONNECTION. SHAFT STABILISER

2.2Ft*
SHORT GAUGE
PIN CONNECTION BIT BOX BOTTOM BEARING
STABILISER STABILISER

1.4Ft*
BOX-UP BOTTOM BEARING
LONG GAUGE BIT. STABILISER

(* typical- may vary)


Basic Turbodrill Hydraulics
Factors influencing Turbodrill selection:
 Turbine Blade Design
 Sufficient pressure-drop (i.e. power) for application

 Thrust Bearings & mechanical limits

Factors influencing overall Hydraulics:


 BHA & DP selection

 Rig Pump capacity


 Hole-cleaning requirements

 Bit Hydraulic Horsepower requirements


Turbine Blade Design
INLET FLOW

Entrance Angle

(Stator:
FIXED)

(Rotor:
MOVING)
Rotation
(C.W. looking down)

(Stator:
FIXED)
Exit Angle
Turbine Blade Design
Hydraulic Components:
HYDRAULIC
POWER IN
(Flow x Pressure)

FIXED

Rotation

Axial
Thrust

FIXED

Rotation
Sufficient Pressure-drop (i.e. Power) for the application?

Your actual requirements will depend on several things. .

Mechanical Hp/in² : How much*?


Straight - hole applications:
Impreg. Bits : 3.0 Hp/in² min.
(will drill long, but not fast…)

PDC Bits : 4.0 Hp/in² min.

Steerable applications:
Impreg. Bits : 3.5 Hp/in² min.
(more hole angle? – then more power..)

PDC Bits : 4.5 Hp/in² min.


(Generally, if you have this power level,
then it should be a good application..)

Mechanical Hp/in²
(Part-copy of hydraulics sheet ‘HYDRO7E’)

(*: This is a ‘rule-of-thumb’ which is dependent upon Bit Type, formation


drilled, hole quality, previous history etc – and is for a rough guide only)
Basic Turbodrill Hydraulics
Factors influencing overall Hydraulics:
 BHA, DP selection & Rig Pump capacity
BHA selection: Drill Collars & HWDP are a source of pressure loss
which could be better put to use for the Turbodrill. Turbodrills use
less W.O.B. than PDM’s/Rotary: make sure you do not have excess
weight (& pressure loss) below the Jars...
DP Selection: Where does the pressure go ?
S urf a c e Lo s s e s
S urf a c e Lo s s e s
2%
2%
A nnnulus
A nnnulus
7%
9% 5" D P
2 1%
4 1/ 2 " D P
33%

B it
3%
6 1/ 2 " D C
B it 4%
3%

6 1/ 2 " D C
T urbo drill 4% T urbo drill BHA in 8 ½ hole
5 1% 6 1%
Putting
the
Power
to Work.

Geared Turbodrills
An Introduction ……….
Hydraulic Motors: General

Input Output
Mechanical
Hydraulic
Energy
Energy
Black Box Motor
Pressure Torque
Flow Speed

Power Input = Pressure x Flow X Efficiency = Torque x Speed = Power Output


1714
5252
Turbodrills: Operational Issues

• Some drill bit types in certain formations


are best drilled at lower rotational speeds

• Incorporating reduction gearing in the


power train means turbodrills still maintain
high power delivery

• Gear reduction significantly increases


torque output while reducing rotational
speed
Available Rig pump pressure: 12-1/4” hole

PUMP PRESURE UTILISATION


12-14" HOLE SECTION

4500

4000 Typical Achievable Turbine Flow Typical Flow Required

3500
PRESSURE (PSI)

3000

2500 Available For Turbine


2000 Parasitic Losses

1500

1000

500

0
500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950
FLOW RATE (GPM)
9-1/2” Geared Turbodrill
9.1/2" Turbodrill Torque V's Pressure Available

35000
30000
Torque (Ft-lbs)

Geared Turbodrill
Turbine Stall

25000
20000
15000
10000 Standard Turbodrill

5000
0
1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500

Pressure Available (Psi)


Gear Unit basics
• The 9-1/2” gear unit resides between the turbine
(power) section and the bearing section

• The gear unit receives no axial thrust from either


section

BEARING SECTION GEAR UNIT BALANCED TURBINE SECTION


Gear Unit basics
• Both the 9-1/2” & 6-5/8” Gear Units are of the
‘Planetary’ style

• The ‘Planetary’ style’ gear system is well suited to


the space envelope & coaxial design of downhole
tools

• Other common uses for planetary gears:


– Automatic automobile transmissions
– Electric screwdrivers
Planetary Gear Unit: basics

• The input to the


gear unit is the
Sun Gear

• The output from


the gear unit is
the Planet Carrier
Neyrfor Design Geared Unit

9 ½” Gear Unit
• 8 Planet Gears
(foreground)
• Input Sun Gear shown
at left of image
• Output shaft attached to
the Planet Carrier
shown at right of image
Gear Turbodrill advantages
Can operate in either of two modes:
1. Increased torque compared to direct drive turbodrill
2. Equivalent torque regime
– If operating with equivalent torque, hydraulic
requirements are greatly reduced
i.e. Less pressure requirement (Typically 35 – 50%)

Bit Side - 225 RPM Turbine Side - 850 RPM

Sii NEYRFOR 9-1/2” GEARED TURBODRILL


Dual Stage Gearbox

Bit Side - 85 RPM Turbine Side - 850 RPM

(Animation!)
Geared Turbodrill Facts

• The Neyrfor design gear unit: Gear ratio of 3.25:1


(input:output – e.g. 1000:308)
• The Smith design gear unit: Gear ratio of 3.5:1
(input:output – e.g. 1000:286)
• Dual-stage Smith design gear unit: Gear ratio of
12.25:1 (input:output – e.g.1400:115)
• Dual-stage Neyrfor design gear unit:Gear ratio of
10.5:1 (input:output– e.g. 1400:142)
Gear Unit: Torque & Rpm/pressure

• Torque and RPM are inversely proportional


Reducing RPM by 2x, increases torque by 2x

• Torque and Pressure are ~ directly proportional


For a given torque, reducing RPM by 2x reduces
necessary pressure by ~ 2x
9-1/2”Geared Turbodrill V’s PDMs:
Downhole Speed Torque output Power Differential
Motor RPM ftlbs HP Pressure
PSI
9 5/8 PDM
7-8 lobes
5 stages
130 8476 183 350
9 5/8 PDM
5-6 lobes
3 stages
135 8200 180 320 Assuming flow of
900 GPM of water
9 5/8 PDM
5-6 lobes
4 stages
135 8560 220 350

..
. 9 5/8 PDM
.
.
.
.
..
.
. 1-2 lobes
315 2417 145 350
5 stages
9 ½ Geared
Turbine
60 Stages
305 9040 285 995
9 ½ Geared
Turbine
87 Stages 305 13275 385 1325
Geared Turbodrill: General Description

• The modular gear unit is rig interchangeable

• Designed for optimum reliability and operational


flexibility

• Suitable for use in all mud systems

• Standard tools are suitable for use up to 347° F


(175° C)
Turbine blades

• Blades: use any standard turbine blades

• Stage Numbers: adjust to suit application

• Tailor make the tool to suit the customers needs


for each job
4-3/4” Turbodrill Blades
Directional

• The Geared Turbodrill is suitable for use in


straight-hole or directional applications

• The standard FBS with bend angles up to 1.25


deg can be used

• Estimated doglegs of 6-7 deg are achievable


with 9 ½” tool
Neyrfor Geared Turbodrill – first drilling test…
GEARED TURBINE ACHIEVES EXCELLENT RESULTS ON FIRST DRILLING TEST
The new 9 ½ HiTORQ Turbine has outperformed PDMs in the 12’’ ¼ section of a GDF well offshore Holland. Initially
planned to compare with ‘’high performance’’ motors in a 400 meters long Chalk section, it proved so efficient that the
client decided to turbodrill the next claystone and sandstone formations with the same long-gauge box-connection
PDC bit. Overall results on these two turbine runs resulted in a saving of a total of 7 days.
The 9 ½ HiTORQ Turbine is the first tool of a complete line of steerable and straight-hole Geared Turbines, designed
to provide a reliable and efficient drilling solution whenever the formation requires the use of PDC or rock-bits.
The Neyrfor HiTORQ Turbine’s unique features will deliver high torque and power at low speeds, in all drilling
environments.

Well Tool Drilled Rop Rpm Form. Bit Wear

K12-14 9 ½ PDM 389m 23.9 50-180 Chalk M62 1.1CT.S.X.0.WT.BHA

K12-13 9 ½ PDM 388m 16.2 235-310 Chalk M62 4.2.WT.A.X.0.FM

K12-15 9 ½ HiTORQ 486m 30.4 330-340 Chalk M62 1.1.WT.A.X.IN.CT.BHA


Run 1 Turbine
K12-15 9 ½ HiTORQ 769m 14.9 330-370 Clayst. M62 2.5.WT.S.X.IN.CT.BHA
Run 2 Turbine Sst. RR

– saved client ± $ 750,000…


Gear Reduced Turbodrill
COMPARATIVE DRILLING PERFORMANCE
DUTCH BLOCK K12
AVG ROP (Mtr / Hr)

20
GEAR REDUCED TURBINE RUNS
15

10
ROTARY RUNS

5 PDM RUNS

0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700

AVG RUN LENGTH (Metres)


Time depth graph K12-G7 25-Nov-03
0
3 0 " C P at 12 6 m

-500

16 " ho le t o 1555 m
Run #1: (Limestone / Chalk)
-1000

W OW
Drilled 306m in 11.5 hrs
-1500
13 3 / 8 " casing at 1550
m
Run #1 ROP: 26.6 m/hr
-2000 T wist o f f B HA Rotary Assembly
Run #2: (Clay, Silt, Limestone)
DEPTH (m)

through Chert

-2500 Drilled 976 m in 122 hrs


Run #2
-3000
12 1/ 4 " ho le t o 3 6 4 9 m
ROP: 8.0 m/hr
Run #3
-3500
Run #3: (Claystone, Siltstone)
9 5/ 8 " casing at 3 6 4 4 m
Run #4
8 3 / 8 " ho le t o 3 79 5 m
D ry + P & A Pro d ucer + Drilled 177 m in 56.25 hrs
-4000 7" liner at 3 79 4 m C o mp let ed

5 7/ 8 " ho le t o 4 2 9 1 m ROP: 3.1 m/hr


5" liner at 4 2 9 0 m
-4500
Run #4: (Claystone, Siltstone)
-5000
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Drilled 362 m in 81 hrs
DAYS
Prognosed Actual
ROP: 4.5 m/hr