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PHY 151 Homework Solutions 09A

Name: _____________________

Linear Momentum
1. A particle of mass m moves with momentum of magnitude p. Show that the
kinetic energy of the particle is K = p2./2m.

p = mv
p2 = m2v2
p2/2m = ½ mv2 = K

2. An object has kinetic energy of 275 J and a momentum of magnitude 25.0 kg.m/s.
Find the speed and mass of the object.

K = p2/2m
275 = (25)2/2m
m = 625/2/275 = 1.14 kg

K = ½ mv2
275 = ½ (1.14)v2
v = sqrt(2 x 275/1.14) = 22.0 m/s

3. At one instant, a 17.5 kg sled is moving over a horizontal surface of snow at 3.50
m/s. After 8.76 s has elapsed, the sled stops. Use a momentum approach to find
the average friction force acting on the sled while it was moving.

F = p/t = m(vf – vi) / t = 17.5(0 – 3.50)/8.76 = -7.0 N

Isolated System (Momentum)


No External Forces
Conservation of Momentum
4. A 45.0 kg girl is standing on a 150 kg plank. Both are originally at rest on a frozen
lake that constitutes a frictionless, flat surface. The girl begins to walk along the
plank at a constant velocity of 1.50i m/s relative to the plank.
(a) What is the velocity of the plank relative to the ice surface?
(b) What is the girl’s velocity relative to the ice surface?
(a)
g = girl
p = plank
All velocities are relative to the ice.
Velocity of girl relative to ice is vgi = vgp + vpi
This comes from previous work on relative velocities

pf = pi
mgvgf + mpvpf = mgvgi + mpvpi
mg(vgp + vpi) + mpvpf = mgvgi + mpvpi
mg(vgp + vpi) + mpvpf = 0
vpi = mpf
mg(vgp + vpi) + mpvpi = 0
vpi = -mgvgp / (mp + mg) -45(1.50)/(150+45) = - 0.346 m/s

(b)
vgi = vgp + vpi
vgi = 1.50 – 0.346 = 1.15 m/s

Non Isolated System (Momentum)


External Forces
Impulse - Momentum
5. A 1.2-kg object moving with a speed of 8.0 m/s collides perpendicularly with a
wall and emerges with a speed of 6.0 m/s in the opposite direction. If the object is
in contact with the wall for 2.0 ms, what is the magnitude of the average force on
the object by the wall?

Initial motion is in the +x direction


Favgt = p/t = 1.5[-6.0 – (8.0)] = -21
Favg = -21 / 0.002 s = -10,500 N

6. A 2 000-kg truck traveling at a speed of 6.0 m/s makes a 90 turn in a time of 4.0 s
and emerges from this turn with a speed of 4.0 m/s. What is the magnitude of the
average resultant force on the truck during this turn?

Favg = p/t = mv/t = 2000(4.0j – 6.0i)/4.0


Favg = 2000(4.0j – 6.0i)/4.0 = 2000j – 3000i
Favg = 2000(4.0j – 6.0i)/4.0 = 2000j – 3000i
Magnitude = sqrt(30002 + 20002) = 3605 N

Collisions in One
Conservation of Momentum
7. A 1200 kg car traveling initially at vCi = 25.0 m/s in an easterly direction crashes
into the back of a 9000 kg truck moving in the same direction at vTi = 20.0 m/s.
The velocity of the car immediately after the collision is vCf = 8.0 m/s to the east.
(a) What is the velocity of the truck immediately after the collision?
(b) What is the change in mechanical energy of the car-truck system in the
collision?
(a)
pf = pi
mCvCf + mTvTf = mCvCi + mTvTi
1200(8) + 9000vTf = 1200(25.0) + 9000(20.0)
9600 + 9000vTf = 210,000
vTf = (210,000 – 9600)/9000 = 22.3 m/s

(b)
KCf + KTf – KCi - KTi
½ (1200)(8)2 + ½ (9000)(22.3)2 – ½ (1200)(25.0)2 – ½ (9000)(20.0)2
38400 + 2237805 – 375000 – 1800000 = +101205 J

8. A 0.012 kg was of sticky clay is hurled horizontally at a 0.100 kg wooden block


initially at rest on a horizontal surface. The clay sticks to the block. After impact,
the block slides 7.50 m before coming to rest. If the coefficient of friction
between the block and the surface is 0.650, what was the speed of the clay
immediately before impact?

pf = pi
(0.012 + 0.100)vf = 0..012vi
vf = 0.012vi / 0.112 = 0.107vi

K = work of friction
½ (0.012 + 0.100)vf2 = (mg)d = 0.650(0.012 + 0.100)(9.80)(7.50)
½ vf2 = (mg)d = 0.650(9.80)(7.50)
½ (0.107)2vi2 = 47.78

vi = sqrt(47.78 x 2) / 0.107 = 91.4 m/s