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# PHY 151 Homework Solutions 09A

Name: _____________________

Linear Momentum
1. A particle of mass m moves with momentum of magnitude p. Show that the
kinetic energy of the particle is K = p2./2m.

p = mv
p2 = m2v2
p2/2m = ½ mv2 = K

2. An object has kinetic energy of 275 J and a momentum of magnitude 25.0 kg.m/s.
Find the speed and mass of the object.

K = p2/2m
275 = (25)2/2m
m = 625/2/275 = 1.14 kg

K = ½ mv2
275 = ½ (1.14)v2
v = sqrt(2 x 275/1.14) = 22.0 m/s

3. At one instant, a 17.5 kg sled is moving over a horizontal surface of snow at 3.50
m/s. After 8.76 s has elapsed, the sled stops. Use a momentum approach to find
the average friction force acting on the sled while it was moving.

## Isolated System (Momentum)

No External Forces
Conservation of Momentum
4. A 45.0 kg girl is standing on a 150 kg plank. Both are originally at rest on a frozen
lake that constitutes a frictionless, flat surface. The girl begins to walk along the
plank at a constant velocity of 1.50i m/s relative to the plank.
(a) What is the velocity of the plank relative to the ice surface?
(b) What is the girl’s velocity relative to the ice surface?
(a)
g = girl
p = plank
All velocities are relative to the ice.
Velocity of girl relative to ice is vgi = vgp + vpi
This comes from previous work on relative velocities

pf = pi
mgvgf + mpvpf = mgvgi + mpvpi
mg(vgp + vpi) + mpvpf = mgvgi + mpvpi
mg(vgp + vpi) + mpvpf = 0
vpi = mpf
mg(vgp + vpi) + mpvpi = 0
vpi = -mgvgp / (mp + mg) -45(1.50)/(150+45) = - 0.346 m/s

(b)
vgi = vgp + vpi
vgi = 1.50 – 0.346 = 1.15 m/s

## Non Isolated System (Momentum)

External Forces
Impulse - Momentum
5. A 1.2-kg object moving with a speed of 8.0 m/s collides perpendicularly with a
wall and emerges with a speed of 6.0 m/s in the opposite direction. If the object is
in contact with the wall for 2.0 ms, what is the magnitude of the average force on
the object by the wall?

## Initial motion is in the +x direction

Favgt = p/t = 1.5[-6.0 – (8.0)] = -21
Favg = -21 / 0.002 s = -10,500 N

6. A 2 000-kg truck traveling at a speed of 6.0 m/s makes a 90 turn in a time of 4.0 s
and emerges from this turn with a speed of 4.0 m/s. What is the magnitude of the
average resultant force on the truck during this turn?

## Favg = p/t = mv/t = 2000(4.0j – 6.0i)/4.0

Favg = 2000(4.0j – 6.0i)/4.0 = 2000j – 3000i
Favg = 2000(4.0j – 6.0i)/4.0 = 2000j – 3000i
Magnitude = sqrt(30002 + 20002) = 3605 N

Collisions in One
Conservation of Momentum
7. A 1200 kg car traveling initially at vCi = 25.0 m/s in an easterly direction crashes
into the back of a 9000 kg truck moving in the same direction at vTi = 20.0 m/s.
The velocity of the car immediately after the collision is vCf = 8.0 m/s to the east.
(a) What is the velocity of the truck immediately after the collision?
(b) What is the change in mechanical energy of the car-truck system in the
collision?
(a)
pf = pi
mCvCf + mTvTf = mCvCi + mTvTi
1200(8) + 9000vTf = 1200(25.0) + 9000(20.0)
9600 + 9000vTf = 210,000
vTf = (210,000 – 9600)/9000 = 22.3 m/s

(b)
KCf + KTf – KCi - KTi
½ (1200)(8)2 + ½ (9000)(22.3)2 – ½ (1200)(25.0)2 – ½ (9000)(20.0)2
38400 + 2237805 – 375000 – 1800000 = +101205 J

## 8. A 0.012 kg was of sticky clay is hurled horizontally at a 0.100 kg wooden block

initially at rest on a horizontal surface. The clay sticks to the block. After impact,
the block slides 7.50 m before coming to rest. If the coefficient of friction
between the block and the surface is 0.650, what was the speed of the clay
immediately before impact?

pf = pi
(0.012 + 0.100)vf = 0..012vi
vf = 0.012vi / 0.112 = 0.107vi

K = work of friction
½ (0.012 + 0.100)vf2 = (mg)d = 0.650(0.012 + 0.100)(9.80)(7.50)
½ vf2 = (mg)d = 0.650(9.80)(7.50)
½ (0.107)2vi2 = 47.78