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Visayas StateUniversity
College of Engineering

Department of Geodetic Engineering


Visca, Baybay City, 6521-A, Leyte,
Philippines
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Vision: The premier university of science and technology in the Visayas.
Mission: Provide excellent instruction, conduct relevant research and foster community
engagement that produce highly competent graduates necessary for the
development of the country.

GEng 143
Photogrammetry I

Name: Ma.Emmaliza Orillano Date Performed: Oct. 24, 2018


Lab Schedule: T 1:00-4:00 Date Submitted: Oct. 24, 2018
Group No:

Exercise No. 4
Scale of Aerial Photographs
Introduction

Scale may be represented in several ways. One may state that an inch on a photo represents
one mile in reality, or that two centimeters on an aerial photograph represents five kilometers
in reality. This form of representation is referred to as a verbal statement. Another form of scale
representation is graphic. This form is most common on road maps where a specific line
segment, when applied to the map, represents a certain actual distance. Finally, a numerical
representation is a common form. The most frequently used numerical representation is the
representative fraction (RF). The numerator is always "1" which is the photo distance.

It is very important to remember that an aerial photograph is not a map and that a
photographic scale determined in this way is a mean or averaged scale. That is, it is the scale
of the mean surface of the area photographed and not necessarily the accurate scale at any one
point. This activity will show the student the difference between the topographic map and the
aerial photographic map.

Objectives

To be able to compute the scale of aerial photographs using a map

Materials

1. Topographic map and aerial photographs of a place.


2. Engineer’s scale

Procedure

1. Measuring the corresponding photo and ground distance


a. Measure the distance of five road segments shown on both aerial photograph
and topographic map.
b. Compute actual distance of road segments above by multiplying their distance
obtained on the topographic map with the denominator of their representative
fraction scale.
DATA

Road Photo distance Map distance Actual distance Photo-scale


segment (cm) (cm) using map scale
(cm)
1 ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________
2 ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________
3 ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________
4 ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________
5 ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

Photo dis tan ce (cm)


Photo Scale 
Actual dis tan ce (cm)

c. Determine mean scale by taking average of all denominators (d) of the photo scale.

1
Mean scale (S) 
m

d1  d2 .......  dm
When m 
n

When d1 is the denominator of photo scale 1, d2 is the denominator of photo scale 2, …


and n is the total number of photo scales.

d. Compute the standard deviation (std. dev.) of the scale.

(d1  m) 2  ...  (dm  m) 2


Std. dev. of q m 
n 1

e. Compute the range of scale.

1
Range of scale (RS) =
m  std dev of m

2. Use of standard measurements such as a road.

The standard width of a one lane road is 6 m.

Measure the width of the road on the aerial photograph

Road Photo Width (cm) Scale


1 _________________ _________________
2 _________________ _________________
3 _________________ _________________
4 _________________ _________________
5 _________________ _________________

Photowidth (cm)
Scale 
600 cm

3. Use of focal length and flying height above the ground.

a. Determine the focal length of the camera used (f), mm.


b. The flying height above mean sea level (H), m. will be taken from the marginal
information of the photograph if it is in feet, it has to be converted to meters.
c. Determine the average elevation of the ground above mean sea level using the
topographic map (h), m. (refer to the soft copy of the map for better visualization on
the elevations).
f
Scale =
Hh

DATA SHEET

f (focal length) _____________________


H _____________________
h _____________________
Scale _____________________

Questions

1. Discuss the effect of f and flying height above ground on the scale of aerial
photographs.
2. Give any 2 features that have standard measurements. Illustrate.
3. Which has a smaller scale 1/50,000 or 1/10,000? Justify your answer.
4. Discuss the reasons for the following rules in measuring distances in an aerial
photograph:
 measure points that appear to be at the same elevation
 measure the longest distance possible on an aerial photograph
 do not make distance measurements close to the edge or near corners of
the aerial photograph

5. What is the photoscale of an aerial photograph taken with a 152 mm focal length
camera at a flying height above ground of 2850 m?
6. Identify the forestry application appropriate for the following scales: 1:5000, 1:10000,
1:15000, 1:25000, 1:50000
Results and Discussion

Table 1. Data for measuring the photo and ground distance

Road Photo Distance Map Actual Distance Photo-scale


Segment (mm) Distance (m)
(mm)
1 10 10 30000 1:3000
2 27 30 90000 1:3500
3 16 18 54000 1:3500
4 27 29 87000 1:3500
5 27 29 87000 1:3500
Mean Photo Scale
Range of Scale

Table 2. Data for the road measurement

Road Photo width(mm) Scale


1 0.2 1:30000
2 0.5 1:12000
3 0.3 1:20000
4 1 1:6000
5 0.1 1:60000

𝑃ℎ𝑜𝑡𝑜 𝑤𝑖𝑑𝑡ℎ
Given: Scale = 600𝑐𝑚

 Solving for the scale using focal length and flying height above the ground

DATA SHEET

Focal length (f) = 152.17 mm


Flying height =3,000 m
Elevation (h) = 7.5 m
Scale (s) =1: 20,000

 Mean elevation of road segment 1 and 2 = 7.5m


𝑓 152.17𝑚𝑚 1𝑚 1 𝟏
 Scale = 𝐻−ℎ = (3,000−7.5𝑚) ∗ 1000𝑚𝑚 = 19665.50568 𝑜𝑟 𝟐𝟎,𝟎𝟎𝟎

Table 1 shows the data for the computed photo scale and actual ground distance. Using
the map scale (1/50000) of the topographic map used, the actual distance of the places selected
was determined. And after that, using the computed actual distance, the photo distance was
then computed together with its photo scale. The mean photo scale was determined by getting
the average of all the photo scales of the places.

Table 2 shows the photo width and the photo scale of selected roads in the photograph.
Given with the standard measurement for the road (6 m) and using the photo width, the photo
scale of each road in the photograph was determined using the scale formula (PS=PD/GD).
The roads selected as observed had different photo width which indicate that this road had
different width in actual but also it may be affected by the angle of the plane in relation to the
vertical during the photo taking.

Images

TOPOGRAPHIC MAP AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH

Road Segment 1

Road Segment 2

Road Segment 3
Road Segment 4

Road Segment 5

Questions

1. Discuss the effect of f and flying height above ground on the scale of aerial
photographs.

The ratio of image to object size is the general scale of the aerial photograph and it follows that
the scale may be determined if the camera focal length and flight height are known. The focal
length determines the distance rear nodal point of the lens and the focal plane which is also in
similar to that of the flying height.

2. Give any 2 features that have standard measurements. Illustrate.

Olympic sized Swimming pool ( 50x25 m)


Runways for International Airport ( 5500x80 m)

3. Which has a smaller scale 1/50,000 or 1/10,000? Justify your answer.

1/50,000 has smaller scale compare to 1/10,000. Large scale photos or maps show a
smaller area but in more detail. Small scale photos or maps show a larger area but in
less detail.

4. Discuss the reasons for the following rules in measuring distances in an aerial
photograph:

Measuring points that appear to be at the same elevation is a necessary since same
elevation will also give similar distances to both topographic map and aerial
photographic map. Measuring the longest distance possible on an aerial photograph
is very necessary to apply since it gives accurate result. Making distance
measurements close to the edge or near corners of the aerial photograph may give
erroneous results since most of the time edges of maps happened to be distorted.
Usually, the most accurate part of a map is at its center.

7. What is the photoscale of an aerial photograph taken with a 152 mm focal length
camera at a flying height above ground of 2850 m? 6. Identify the forestry
application appropriate for the following scales: 1:5000, 1:10000, 1:15000,
1:25000, 1:50000

Given: Required:

Focal length (f) = 152 mm Photo scale =?


Flying height (H) = 2850 m\

Identify the forestry application appropriate for the following scale:


1/5000, 1/10000, 1/15000, 1/25000, 1/50000

𝑓
Photo scale = 𝐻

152𝑚𝑚 1𝑚
Photo scale = ∗ 1000𝑚𝑚
2850𝑚

𝟏 𝟏
Photo scale = 𝟏𝟖,𝟕𝟓𝟎 𝒐𝒓 𝟏𝟗,𝟎𝟎𝟎

Forestry application scale = 1: 25,000


Reference:

La Putt, Juny P., “Higher Surveying,” Second Edition, National Book Store,
Mandaluyong City, 1990.