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immediate & temporary

care given to a person


who has been injured or
suddenly taken ill
-bridge the gap between
the victim and the doctor
1.alleviate suffering
2. prevent further injury
3. prolong life
• for self-help
• to help others
• for safety promotion
• for disaster management
Gentle
Resourceful
Observant
Tactful
Empathetic
Respectful
Do not do anything unless
you know what to do.
• Loosen all tight clothings.
• Keep onlookers away.
• Care for the most serious injuries first.
• Call or send for help.
• Handle victim to a minimum.
• Provide emotional support.
• Respect victim’s modesty and privacy.
• Obtain consent whenever possible.
• Identify yourself to the victim.
• Do NOT attempt to push any part back
into place.
• Do NOT place a tourniquet, unless the
bleeding is life threatening, as the entire
limb may be harmed.
• Do NOT forget that saving the person's life
is more important than saving a body part.
• Do NOT overlook other, less obvious,
injuries.
• Do NOT forget that saving the person's life
is more important than saving a body part.
• Do NOT overlook other, less obvious,
injuries.
• Do NOT come in contact with blood with
your bare hands (use gloves/clean cloth)
• Do NOT remove a blood-soaked dressing.
• Do NOT use direct pressure on a skull
fracture or an eye injury.
• Do NOT assume that the victim’s obvious
injuries are the only ones.
• Do NOT make unrealistic promises.
• Do NOT harm.
• Do NOT let the victim see his/her injury.
• Do NOT leave the victim except to get
help.
• Consent
• Duty to Act
• Standard of Care
• Negligence
• Abandonment
• Confidentiality
Remember
“Any person who, while performing a lawful
act with due care, causes an injury by mere
accident without fault or intention of causing
it” is exempt from criminal liability

-Article 12 No. 8 of Act No. 3815, Philippine


Revised Penal Code Book One
Remember

Anyone who shall fail to render assistance


to any person whom he shall in an
uninhabited place wounded or in danger pf
dying, when he can render such assistance
without detriment to himself shall constitute
a more serious offense

Anyone who shall fail to help or render


assistance to another when he has
accidentally wounded or injured
Art 275 Nos. 1&2 of Act No. 3815 of the Philippine Revised Code Book Two:
“Abandonment of person in danger and abandonment of one’s own victim”
PRINCIPLES

Get STARTED

Plan your action

Gather needed materials

Remember the initial response


A- ask for help
I-intervene
D-do no further harm

Instruct helpers
First Aid for Common Injuries

Wound/Soft Tissue Injury


break in the continuity of a tissue
of the body either internal or
external

can be open or closed


Identify the types of open wound
OPEN WOUND
•break in the skin or mucous membrane
Types
Types of Open Wound
• ABRASION- results from scraping the skin

• INCISION – a clean cut usually caused by a


knife, metal edges or other sharp objects

• LACERATION- jagged, irregular or blunt breaks in the skin

• PUNCTURE-wound that penetrates and is usually caused


by pointed objects such as nails and pins

• AVULSION- forcible separation or tearing of tissue from the


victim’s body; can be caused by animal bite or
bombs/explosives
Remember: (for avulsion)
If possible, obtain the part that has been torn
away, rinse it in water, wrap it in a dry
sterile gauze, seal it in a plastic bag, and
send it on ice with the casualty. Do not
allow part to freeze and do not
submerge in water. If the skin is still
attached, fold the flap back into its normal
position.
Minor Wounds
•Wash with soap
and clean water.

•Apply mild antiseptic.


Major Wounds
Control bleeding
Cover
Care for shock
Consult a doctor
• involves the underlying tissue without break/damage
in the skin

Signs and symptoms:


• pain & tenderness
• swelling
• discoloration
• blood in the mouth, nose or ear canal
• thirst
• uncontrolled restlessness
1.Contusion –painful bruise

2. Hematoma –painful lump-like lesion

3. Crush injuries (between 2 surfaces)


• Ice application
• Compression
• Elevation
• Splinting

• Note: To guard against frostbite, never


apply ice or cold packs directly to the
skin.
1. Arterial Bleeding
- blood spurts; most serious

2. Venous Bleeding
-even flow of blood

3. Capillary Bleeding
-most common; easiest to control
Bleeding
Bleeding control:
• apply direct pressure
• elevate
• pressure point bleeding control
Nosebleed

• Pinch nostril
• Slightly lean forward
• Put ice on nasal bridge or forehead
First Aid for
Musculoskeletal Injuries
• Sprain
• injury to a ligament or joint capsule

• Strain
• Injury to a tendon

• First Aid- PRICE (protect, rest, ice, compression,


elevate)
First Aid for Musculoskeletal
Injuries
Muscle Cramp/spasm
-sudden, painful tightening of a muscle

First Aid:

Have the victim stretch out the affected muscle.


Massage the cramped muscle firmly but gently.
Apply moist heat.
Get medical help if cramps persist.
First Aid for Musculoskeletal
Injuries
Dislocation- separation of two bones
where they meet at a joint.

Fracture- partial or complete break in the bone.

First Aid

I- mmobilize
A-ctivate medical assistance
C-ontrol shock
T- reat secondary injuries
FIRST AID FOR BURN
• Immerse the burned area in cool
water or apply a wet, cold cloth.

• DO NOT APPLY toothpaste.

• DO NOT USE ICE.

• Cover the burn with a dry sterile


dressing.
FIRST AID FOR BITES &
STINGS
lInsect Bites
a. remove stinger (scrape with any hard
material)
b. wash wound
c. cover the wound
d. apply a cold pack
e. watch for signals of allergic reaction
FIRST AID FOR BITES &
STINGS
• Marine life stings

a. If jellyfish, soak area in vinegar


b. If sting ray, soak in non-scalding
hot water until pain goes away
c. Clean and bandage the wound.
d. Call medical help if necessary.
FIRST AID FOR BITES
• Snakebite

a. Wash wound.
b. Keep bitten part still and lower than
the heart.
c. Bring to the nearest hospital.
• Do not induce vomiting.
• Bring a sample of the poison.
• Seek medical attention immediately.
SHOCK
-life-threatening medical condition as a
result of impairment in blood circulation

Signs and Symptoms:


• low blood pressure
• rapid, shallow breathing
• cold, clammy skin
• rapid, weak pulse
• dizziness
SHOCK
Types:

1. Septic shock – caused by bacteria


2. Anaphylactic shock –due to an allergic
reaction
3. Cardiogenic shock – from heart damage
4. Hypovolemic shock – from blood loss
5. Neurogenic shock – from spinal cord
trauma
SHOCK
First aid :

P-proper body position


P-proper body heat
P-proper transfer

*feet elevated; don’t raise the head


Heat Emergencies
• Heat Cramps

Cool down
Drink electrolyte-containing drinks
Massage gently the affected muscle group
Heat Emergencies

Heat Exhaustion
Cool and lie down with legs raised.
Take an electrolyte-rich drink.
Heat Emergencies

• Heat Stroke medical emergency

Signs and Symptoms:

• very high temperature


• rapid pulse
• disorientation
• unconsciousness
• warm, red, dry skin
Heat Stroke

Call an ambulance.
Lower body temperature (apply
cold wet cloths to the armpits,
neck, groin, etc.; immerse in a
tub of cool water)
CHOKING

• condition when a foreign object lodges in the


throat or windpipe blocking the flow of air

Common indications:
• inability to talk
• difficulty/noisy breathing
• skin, lips and nail turning blue
CHOKING
• Universal Sign

*Encourage to cough forcefully.


CHOKING
• “Five-and-five approach”

Give 5 back blows (use heel of the hand;


between shoulder blades)

Give 5 abdominal thrusts (Heimlich maneuver)

Alternate between back blows and abdominal


thrusts
First Aid for Choking (INFANT)
First Aid for Choking (Adult)
What are the factors that you need to
consider in transporting the victim?

•nature of the victim’s injury


•weight of the victim
•skill of the first aider
•number of people who can help
What are the factors that you need to
consider in transporting the victim?

•nature of the road


•distance to be covered
•equipment/materials available
•sex of the victim (last consideration)
What are the different methods of
carrying the victim?

One-man Carries

1. Assist to walk
2. Lover’s carry
3. Fireman’s carry
4. Fireman’s drag
5. Ankle drag
What are the different methods
of carrying the victim?

Two-man Carries

1. Assist to walk
2. Two-handed seat
3. Four-handed seat
What are the different methods
of carrying the victim?

Three or more-man carries

hammock carry