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Investigation and Implementation of Bike Sharing system in Kuala Lumpur

Article · August 2012

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Gholamreza Khorasani
University of Canterbury


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International Conference on Transport, Environment and Civil Engineering (ICTECE'2012) August 25-26, 2012 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

Investigation and Implementation of Bike

Sharing system in Kuala Lumpur
Gholamreza Khorasani

of private car , motorcycle and taxi thus the time travel and
Abstract—This paper presents the needs of Kuala Lumpur to fuel consumption are high thus these factors can effect on
implementation of bike sharing transit to reduce the wasting time in interest of visitors and tourists to travel to these area. There
congestion area in KL and enhance the quality of life and decrease are many policy and program to implement in these areas to
the fuel consumption and fare payment in Kuala lumpur. Thus we
reduce this congestion but with consideration of foundation
investigate the performance of current transit system in Kuala lumpur
and growth of population and needs to new type of public and infrastructure we offer the bike sharing transit in this area.
transportation system with consideration to foundation and
Keywords— Bike sharing, Kuala lumpur, Malaysia, Malaysia has witnessed an explosive rise in the demand for
transport vehicles in recent decades in conjunction with its
rapid economic growth. The highest growth of urbanization
I. INTRODUCTION and motorization was recorded in Kuala Lumpur, the capital

P UBLIC bicycle systems, also known as bicycle sharing

systems, have been introduced as part of the urban
transportation system to extend the accessibility of public
of Malaysia and the Klang Valley region in which the rates of
increase in vehicle ownership are the highest in Kuala Lumpur
compared to any other part of the country. Currently, the
transportation systems to final destinations. By integrating number of private own vehicles registered in Malaysia shows
with other public transportation systems and providing free or increasing trends. Malaysia’s national car projects also have
affordable access to bicycles for city travel, the public bicycle played a role in motor vehicle growth by limiting the options
systems are used to lessen the use of automobiles for short available to the government. The public transport system in
trips inside the central business district, thereby alleviating Malaysia is poor and hence, the private transport flourished
traffic congestion and reducing noise/air pollution. Public that about 24% increase was observed in private transport
bicycle systems are viewed as an innovative inner-city usage between the years 1985-2005. Most of the urban cities
like Kuala Lumpur, Penang, Johor Bahru, Kuching and Kota
transportation mode to meet many commuters’ needs and to
have an increased car population rate. More than 35% of the
integrate them with other public transit systems. The idea is
nation’s oil consumption is by transportation sector. Private
that the commuters can take the bicycles whenever they need
vehicles today have become the main means of travel of urban
them and leave them behind when they reach their living in developing countries. Consistent economic growth,
destinations. rising incomes, and urbanization have led to rapid growth in
Since public bicycles were first introduced in Amsterdam in vehicle ownership and usage hence air pollution and other
the 1960s (the so-called white bicycle plan), public bicycle environmental hazards are another important concern. The
systems have been promoted in urban cities around the world rapid urbanization and motorization seen in Malaysia at
such as Paris, Barcelona, Berlin, Montreal, Salt Lake City, and present is mainly due to the expanding economy since 1987.
so on [1]. Malaysian economy is developing so fast that most of the
Kuala lumpur is the capital and the largest city of Malaysia people afford to have private vehicles and hence the vehicle
in terms of population. The city proper, making up an area of population has also boomed. The current trend shows that
243 km2, has a population of 1.4 million as of 2011, also private vehicle ownership is consistently increasing in
known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 Malaysia which may have serious environmental and socio
million. It is the fastest growing metropolitan region in economic consequences. Congested roads, lack of public
country, in terms of population and economy. During these transport facilities and parking space are main problems
years Kuala lumpur and Klang valley are facing to congestion among other [2].
and heavy traffic in most of central area because of high usage In Malaysia, the total number of registered motor vehicles
has increased 15 million vehicles (motor cars, motorcycles,
taxis, buses and freight vehicles) at the end of 2005 in which
Gholamreza Khorasani is with the University Putra Malaysia, Dept. Civil
Engineering (corresponding author to provide phone:+60-104377724; e-mail: Motorcycle takes the largest share at 7 million (47%), followed closely by passenger cars at 6.5 million (43%) .

International Conference on Transport, Environment and Civil Engineering (ICTECE'2012) August 25-26, 2012 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

Vehicle ownership in the Klang Valley increased from 247

vehicles per 1,000 persons in 1990 to 546 and 994 vehicles
per 1,000 persons in 1996 and 2002 respectively, far beyond
the national level per 1,000 population of 91 vehicles in 1990,
133 in 1996 and 210 vehicles in 2002 . Rising vehicle
congestion and slower travel speeds are the most obvious
impact of rapid motorization. With the increase in vehicle
ownership, it has been emphasized that the demand for travel
to central city areas would grow far beyond the capacity of the
road network. The strong fleet growth as compared to low
road network growth has resulted in rising vehicle density
ratios in Malaysia. The ratio reached 71 vehicles per road
kilometer in 1999 as compared to only 46 vehicles in 1994,
further intensifying traffic congestion. The difficulty of Fig. 2 Current trend of growth in private vehicle (Motorcycle and
constructing new roads and widening existing ones, especially car) ownership in Malaysia [2]
in Kuala Lumpur, is already well known [2].
Just like the car numbers, motorcycles increased in III. PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN KUALA LUMPUR
Malaysia and are among first place in the world to have
Public transport in Kuala Lumpur and the rest of the Klang
extremely large number of motorcycles in the cities.
Valley covers a variety of transport modes such as
Motorcycle is also popular in Malaysia (Table 1) and is more
bus, rail and taxi. Despite efforts to promote usage of public
prone to fatalities and causalities. Motorcycle users are more
transportation, utilization rates are low as only 16 percent of
vulnerable to fatalities and injuries [3].
the population used public transportation in 2006. Rail
TABLE1 transport in Kuala Lumpur encompasses light rail, rapid
INCREASE IN MOTORCYCLE REGISTRATION FROM 2005-2009 [3] transit, monorail and commuter rail. Kuala Lumpur is served
by three separate rail systems which meet in the city and
Years Motorcycles registered extend towards other parts of the Klang Valley,
1 2005 422255
namely RapidKL Light Rail Transit, KL Monorail, and KTM
2 2006 448751 Komuter. These lines have underground, elevated or at-grade
3 2007 484598 stations around the city. The main rapid transit hub is KL
4 2008 543122
Sentral which facilitates as an interchange station for the rail
5 2009 441545
systems. KL Sentral is also a hub for intercity railway
operated by KTM Intercity.
Figure 1 shows new registered motor vehicles by types in The largest public transportation operator in Kuala Lumpur
2010. While Figure 2 shows the current trends of vehicle and the Klang Valley is Rapid KL. Since the take over from
ownership (cars and motorcycles) (Noresah Mohd Intrakota Komposit Sdn Bhd, RapidKL has redrawn the entire
Sharif,2012). bus network of Kuala Lumpur and Klang Valley metropolitan
area to increase ridership and improve Kuala Lumpur's public
transportation system. The management of RapidKL has
adopted the hub and spoke system to provide greater
connectivity, and cut down the need of more buses. RapidKL
is also the operator of two light rail lines in Kuala Lumpur and
the Klang Valley, namely Ampang Line and Kelana Jaya
Line. By 2016, the Sungai Buloh – Kajang Line will be
completed providing a faster efficient ride to the city canter.
Constructing roads to meet the demand is not so easy
especially in Kuala Lumpur. Besides the factors like travel
time and travel cost, distance from home to public transport
and distance from home to work are the contributing factors
that influence the modal shift from car to public transport in
Fig. 1 New registered motor vehicles by type, 2010 Malaysia.
Source: Ministry of Transport Malaysia, 2011[2]
Most people prefer cars because of the degree of freedom,
accessibility, passion for car and driving, comfort or at times,
negative perception on public transport.Furthermore, use of
public transport may put them in between traffic and thus
waste their time.Urban cities like Kuala Lumpur, Penang,
Johor Bahru, Kuching and Kota have an increased car

International Conference on Transport, Environment and Civil Engineering (ICTECE'2012) August 25-26, 2012 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

population rate. More than 35% of the nation’s oil outstripped growth in every other form of urban transport.
consumption is by transportation sector. As far the nations From figure 4 the growth of bicycle sharing system in 5
own automotive company is concerned, the first automotive selected countries can be seen [4] .
company, Proton was started in 1981. The other national car,
Perodua was established in 1993. In 1998, the percentage of
the national cars sold was 90%. Non-motorized transport has
been constrained in cities like Kuala Lumpur.
Generally, non-motorized transport means to walk or use
bicycles. Normally as the country develops, less will be the
non-motorized transport users. In Malaysia, the people are less
concerned or unaware of the impacts of motorized transport
and hence non-motorized transport is not so, common means
for travel.


With present of all these transit systems Kuala Lumpur is
today facing a serious problem of traffic congestion. This
problem is due in part to the recent increase in automobile Fig. 3 Growth in bicycle -sharing schemes and fleet 2000-2010 [4]
ownership and increase of visitor and foreign student. Traffic
congestion is Kuala lumpur can be classified in two type , the
first type of traffic congestion is related to commuters come
from urban area around the KL and happened in highways and
roads approach to KL central and the other congestion is
related to commuters, visitors ,tourists and foreign students
those come to KL central with taxi or their own cars and its
happens in Kuala lumpur spectacular areas such as Jalan Bukit
Bintang ,Jalan Raja Chulan , Jalan Ampang ,Jalan Pudu and
many other areas.There are several policy and program to
reduce these congestions but Bike Sharing is one of these
solutions that it’s appropriate and sufficient to accommodate
with these areas.

V. OVERVIEW OF BICYCLE-SHARING SCHEMES Fig. 4 Growth in bicycle -sharing schemes in selected countries 2005
-2010 [4]
Bike sharing system also called “Public-Use Bicycles”
(PUBs), “Bicycle Transit” , “Bikesharing” or “Smart Bikes”,
bicycle-sharing schemes comprise short-term urban bicycle VI. RATIONALE FOR BICYCLE -SHARING
rental schemes that enable bicycles to be picked up at any self- The ultimate goal of bicycle-sharing is to expand and
serve bicycle station and returned to any other bicycle station, integrate cycling into transportation systems, so that it can
which makes bicycle-sharing ideal for point-to-point trips. more readily become a daily transportation mode. In general,
The principle of bicycle-sharing is simple: individuals use the rationale for introducing bicycle-sharing is to promote
bicycles on an “as-needed” basis without the costs and cycling, increase mobility choices, improve air quality and
responsibilities of bicycle ownership [4]. reduce congestion. It is also seen as a means to promote the
Over the past ten years, bicycle-sharing schemes have viability of public transport by providing an “extension
developed from being interesting experiments in urban service” for the “first/ last mile” - the distance which many
mobility to mainstream public transport options in cities as consider to be too far to walk between home and public
large and complex as Paris and London. Ten years ago, there transport and/or public transport and the workplace.
were five schemes operating in five countries (Denmark, Although travel distance by mode varies from country to
France, Germany, Italy and Portugal) with a total fleet of country and city to city, most people are willing to walk up to
4,000 bicycles (the largest was Copenhagen with 2,000 10 minutes. Cycling distances generally fall within the 1km to
bicycles). Today there are an estimated 375 bicycle -sharing 5km range. Bicycle -sharing can therefore fill an important
schemes operating in 33 countries in almost every region of niche in the urban transportation system in terms of trip length
the world using around 236,000 bicycles1 (the largest is and costs as shown in Figure 5.
Hangzhou with an estimated 40,000 bicycles). As can be seen Bicycle -sharing can fill another niche in urban
from Figure 3, the rate of growth in bicycle -sharing schemes transportation: speed of implementation. Bicycle -sharing
and fleets has been very rapid since 2008 and has probably schemes can be installed relatively quickly. In Paris, the initial

International Conference on Transport, Environment and Civil Engineering (ICTECE'2012) August 25-26, 2012 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

700 docking stations and 10,000 bicycles were installed in less Also it has several advantages over other modes of public
than six months and the system doubled in size six months transportation for short-distance urban trips because they [4]
later. [4] [5] [6]:

1) Reach underserved destinations,

2) Require less infrastructure in comparison with other type
of transportations,
3) Are relatively inexpensive to purchase and maintain,
4) Generally do not add to vehicular congestion,
5) Do not create pollution in their operation,
6) Provide the user with the added benefit of exercise.



There are many assumed benefits of bike sharing. Bike

share trips provide an alternative transportation option for
Fig. 5 The role of bicycle -sharing systems in urban mobility [4] short trips and increase accessibility to transit services in kuala
lumpur. Connecting bike share with transit allows riders to be
Table 2 summarizes the rationale for bicycle-sharing in located further away and still be able to access a transit stop or
terms of the objectives articulated by cities for their respective station. Other potential benefits include the following [5] [6]:
TABLE 2 1) User Cost Savings - Using bicycle share is less
expensive than operating and owning a motor vehicle
System Objectives
or using taxi in Kuala lumpur.
Barcelona · Improve interchange between different modes of
Spain transport, and promote 2) Travel Time Savings - For many short trips within the
sustainable travel. service area, bicycle share trips are likely faster and
· Create a new individual public transport system
for citizens’ habitual travel more convenient than using a motor vehicle or taxi
needs. service because in most of high level of congestion
· Implement a sustainable, health-inducing service area in Kuala lumpur. The best way for escape from
fully integrated with the city’s
public transport system. traffic and congestion is not using motor vehicle or
· Promote the bicycle as a common means of train for short trip.
transport. 3) Congestion Reduction - More people using bicycles
· Improve quality of life, reduce air and noise
may decrease the number of people using motor
vehicles and therefore reducing traffic congestion.
Göteborg · Raise the status of cycling. 4) Relieve Transit Ridership - Where transit is at or
Sweden · Promote using bicycles for short distance trips.
exceeding capacity, bike share provides an
Lyon · Help create a more sustainable transportation alternative mode of transportation.
France system in the region by launching 5) Improved Public Heath - Bicycle share will increase
a public bicycle system that provides a new active transportation and exercise.
mobility option for short trips.
· Help achieve transport and land use planning 6) Decrease the pollutions of Kuala lumpur (Air, Sound,
objectives including pollution etc.).
emission reductions, reduced traffic congestion, 7) Decrease petrol cost.
road and parking cost savings,
consumer cost savings, energy conservation, 8) Decline in cost of building infrastructure.
reduced crash risks, improved 9) In addition using bike sharing cause vitality and make
public health, and support for smart growth land more energy for people.
use development.
Montreal · Encourage the use of public bicycles instead of
Canada cars for short, inner -city trips VIII. CONCLUSION

Bike transportation system is a type of public transportation

Paris · Act on air quality and public health
France · Improve mobility for all that can be used in great cities with high population and
· Render the city a more beautiful and agreeable problems such as traffic congestion, air pollution, time
place to live in wasting and there are many of short journeys. As we
· Encourage economic vitality
· Reinforce regional solidarity mentioned Kuala lumpur has many of these problem that we
Washington · Provide as many transportation options as investigated and considered them and at last we checked some
DC possible and reduce the level of of advantages and drawbacks of implementation bike sharing
congestion, especially downtown.
in Kuala lumpur. Thus with high growth of population,

International Conference on Transport, Environment and Civil Engineering (ICTECE'2012) August 25-26, 2012 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

motorist and motorcyclist to enhance the level of traffic and [5] Gris Orange Consultant,” BIKE-SHARING GIUD.”Ministry of
transport,canada,pp. 1-9,2009.
reduce congestion, travel time, fuel consumption we can [6] M. Burden, R. Barth, S. Hornick, E. Mackintosh, H. Slatkin,
implement bike sharing in spectacular area and congestion W. O’Brien, Counsel, “BIKE-SHARE OPPORTUNITIES IN
area. The last consequence of this public transit system is NEW YORK CITY, “, NYC Dept,City Planning, 2009, pp. 14-19.
saving in fund and time.

REFERENCES Gholamreza Khorasani was born in 1984 in Semnan,

Iran. He is student of MSc’s Degree at Highway and
[1] J Rong Lin, T Hui Yang,” Strategic design of public bicycle sharing Transportation in University Putra Malaysia. His research
systems with service level constraints,” Transportation Research, interests are Public transportation, Road safety, New
ScienceDirect,2011. transit system and traffic. Now, he is the manager of a
[2] N. Mohd Shariff ,“Private Vehicle Ownership and Transportation road company in Iran. He has experience in more than 3
Planning in Malaysia,” Singapore, International Conference on Traffic constructed projects in road design and traffic.
and Transportation Engineering, vol. 26 ,pp. 64-68, 2012.
[3] A. Salem, I. Almselati, R. Atiq, O.K. Rahmat, and O. Jaafar, “An
Overview of Urban Transport in Malaysia”, vol.6, pp. 24-33,2011
[4] P. Midgley, Bicycle-sharing Schemes: Enhancing sustainable mobility in
urban areas.Global Transport Knowledge Partnership. International
Road Federation, New York,no. 8, pp. 1-6,2011.


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