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PL Interpretation

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Outline

1- Traditional PL Interpretation
2- Selected advanced topics:
Fluid mechanics
Spinner
Gradiomanometer
Thermometer
E-probes
SPRInt
Examples
PSP Planner
Wireline & Testing Interpretation
Traditional
PL Interpretation

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Production Logging

• Introduction
• Single phase flow
– Flowmeters
– Thermometer
– Pressure gauges
– Interpretation principles
• Multi phase flow
– Fluid density tools
– Interpretation principles
• PVT and fluid conversions
• Auxilliary sensors
Wireline & Testing Interpretation
PL Applications

• Evaluation
– Production profile distribution
– Zonal productivity
• Monitoring
– Production profile changes
– Fluid type changes: Water or gas breakthrough
• Diagnosis
– Source of high GOR or Water Cut
– Detection of leaks and crossflow
• Production Enhancement
– Data for workover planning
– Completion and treatment effectiveness
Wireline & Testing Interpretation
Key Applications and Features
• Wide variety of problems and applications
– Flexible tool configuration
– Large variety of sensors
• Dynamic environment
– Simultaneous measurements
• Complex downhole regimes
– Surface readout
• Need thourough wellsite quality control
– Wellsite interpretation

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Monophasic Flow
• Flowrate measurement relies on relative fluid-tool
velocity

V
Cable Velocity

Fluid Velocity

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Spinner Response
• No fluid viscosity or mechanical friction

Spinner
RPS

Fluid Velocity

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Spinner Response
• Mechanical friction

Spinner
RPS

Ideal

Static friction

Fluid Velocity
Wireline & Testing Interpretation
Spinner Response
• Fluid viscosity

Spinner
RPS

Ideal

Viscosity shifts
response curve

Fluid Velocity
Wireline & Testing Interpretation
In-Situ Calibration

Perforations
Flowing region

Cable Speed
ft/min
Spinner
response
rps

Zero flow
region

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


In-Situ Calibration - Zero Flow

Spinner
rps Best fit calibration line

∆R

Slope, m= ∆R (rps/ft/min)
∆V
∆V

Down

Tool Velocity
Threshold velocity, Vt ft/min

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


In Situ Calibration - Flowing

Fluid
Spinner Velocit
rps y
∆R(i) Zero flow line
y-axis
intercept
∆V(i)
Slope, m(i)=∆R(i) (rps/ft/min)
∆V(i)

Down

Tool Velocity
Threshold velocity, Vt ft/min

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Velocity Calculation
• Based on Zero Flow In-Situ Calibration
– Determine threshold velocity, Vt
• Based on Flowing In-Situ Calibration(s)
– If possible, determine threshold velocity, Vt(i)
– Determine y-axis intercept for rate (i), y(i)
– Determine response slope, m(i)
• Velocity given by:

y(i)
Vmax(i) = + Vt[(i)]
m(i)

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Frequently Asked Questions - I
• Why use Vt from flowing passes?
– Vt depends heavily on fluid properties and as the zero-flow
region is often in the sump, the fluid there may be different
from that being produced
• What if we can’t determine Vt?
– At high fluid velocities, Vt has little influence on accuracy, so
it may be ignored (e.g. Vmax>100 fpm)
– Use a value from experience in other wells (e.g. 5 fpm)
• Why are the response curves not parallel?
– Increased efficiency of energy transfer to the spinner at
higher speeds
– Different fluid mixture (holdup) and type

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


In Situ Calibration

Spinner
RPS

-Vt?
Up Down

Cable Speed
2 x Vt

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Frequently asked Questions - II
• Why is the threshold not symmetrical?
– The tool is not symmetrical between upper and lower
surfaces
– Static friction may become important at low speeds causing
a ‘stall’ and skewing the line fit
• What causes a negative threshold velocity?
– In deviated wells, flow segregation takes place. Oil flows
faster on the upper side of the casing, displacing water on
the lower side. The spinner sees oil flow when logging down
and water when logging up, causing the apparent ‘negative
threshold’.

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Effect of Deviation

Oil velocity is high


due to bouyancy

Some water is displaced


by the oil and moves down
Segregation occurs
quickly
Main body of water
moves upwards

Oil entry

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Laminar Flow

Vmax
Spinner measurement is centralized
and tends to read the maximum flow
velocity.

Vavg Rate calculations require an average


fluid velocity. In laminar flow, the
relationship between the two is:
Vmax
Vavg =
2

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Turbulent Flow

In turbulent flow, the relationship


Vmax between the maximum and average
velocities is not simple

Onset of turbulence is controlled


Vavg by Reynold’s Number, NRe:
Laminar Flow NRe < 2000
Turbulent Flow NRe > 2000

Polyphasic flow is ALWAYS


turbulent

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Reynold’s Number

Reynold’s Number is a dimensionless group:

Dvρ
NRe = 7.742 x 103
µ
where:

D = Pipe Internal Diameter (ins)


v = Fluid Velocity (ft/s)
ρ = Fluid Density (g/cm3)
µ = Fluid Viscosity (cp)

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Example

Given the following parameters, the table shows calculated


Reynold’s Number and velocity profile correction factor

ρ = 0.7 g/cm3
Q (BPD) V (ft/s) NRe C
µ = 0.5 cp
100 0.031 2088 0.621
D = 6.184 ins
200 0.062 4177 0.748
500 0.156 10441 0.787
1000 0.312 20883 0.799
1500 0.467 31324 0.806 Turbulent flow is
2000 0.623 41766 0.811 almost always
5000 1.558 104414 0.827 encountered in
10000 3.116 208828 0.839 flowing wells, due to
rate or multiple
phases

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Velocity Profile Correction Factor

1.0

Correction Factor, C
0.9

0.8

Transition Region
Laminar
0.7 Flow
Turbulent Flow
0.6

0.5
0.4

0.2

0.1
101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108
Reynolds Number, NRe
Wireline & Testing Interpretation
Velocity Profile Correction Factor

In most cases, and for use in the field, a value of:


C=0.83
will give satisfactory results

For computational use, a curve fit can be used using:


m=log10(NRe)
where m is defined and C computed from the table

0.000 < m < 3.200 C=0.5


3.200 < m < 3.348 C=1.0135m - 2.7432
3.348 < m < 3.554 C=0.4440m - 0.8360
3.554 < m < 3.850 C=0.1450m + 0.2390
8

3.850 < m < C=0.0400m + 0.6260

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Spinner Reversal

Increasing
velocity
Fluid entries

Spinner rotates
clockwise due to
tool movement
in static fluid
No Flow

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Spinner Reversal

Spinner rotates
clockwise more
Fluid entries

slowly due to
fluid entry

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Spinner Reversal

Spinner stalls when


tool velocity is
Fluid entries

very close to fluid


velocity

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Spinner Reversal

Fluid entries

Spinner starts turning


again, but in the
opposite direction, as
fluid velocity exceeds
tool velocity

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Conventions - I
• Positive velocity is DOWN
– Consider that depth is assumed to be increasing as we go
down, so velocity must be positive
• Production is NEGATIVE velocity
– Based on the first convention, since production is moving
upwards, the velocity is negative
• Calibration plot axes

Positive Spinner

Up Velocity Down Velocity

Negative Spinner

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Conventions - II
• Spinner is NEGATIVE when tool moves UP
– This follows from the previous convention that the tool
velocity is negative when moving upwards
• Spinner turns POSITIVE after a reversal
– Since the fluid speed is more negative than the tool speed,
the difference again becomes positive:

V = Vtool-Vfluid

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Worked Example I
Spinner (rps)
0 5 10 15 20
6000
A
110 fpm

80 fpm
6100

32 fpm B
115 fpm
6200
Depth (ft)

82 fpm

50 fpm
C
6300
Perforations

D
6400
Wireline & Testing Interpretation
Worked Example I

Speed Spi nner Rotati on (rps)


(fpm) A B C D

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Worked Example I

Speed Spi nner Rotati on (rps)


(fpm) A B C D
115
82
50
-32
-80
-110

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Worked Example I

Speed Spi nner Rotati on (rps)


(fpm) A B C D
115 20. 0 15. 2 9. 2 5. 1
82 18. 7 13. 5 7. 5 3. 5
50 17. 2 12. 2 5. 4 2. 1
-32 13. 2 8. 2 1. 9 -1. 1
-80 11. 5 6. 2 0. 0 -3. 0
-110 9. 9 4. 8 -0. 5 -4. 6

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Worked Example I

Spinner
20
Rotation
(rps)
15

10

Up 0 Down
-150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150

-5 Cable Speed (fpm)

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Worked Example I
• Casing Size is 7” 29#
– From chart, conversion factor is 18.7 fpm/kBPD
• Spinner response
– From calibration lines
• Slopes are A: 0.045, B: 0.046 and C: 0.047 rps/fpm
• Intercepts are: A: 14.9, B: 9.8 and C: 3.5
– From zero flow lines, threshold velocity is 7 fpm
• Zonal rates
– QA = (14.9 / 0.045 + 7) x 1000 / 18.7 x 0.83 =
15,000 BPD
– QB = (9.8 / 0.046 + 7) x 1000 / 18.7 x 0.83 = 9,800
BPD
– QC = (3.5 / 0.047 + 7) x 1000 / 18.7 x 0.83 = 3,600
BPD
– QD = 0

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Fluid Conversions
• For comparison with surface rates
– A poor match may indicate potential leaks in the tubulars
– A good match provides confidence in the results
• Fluid properties at downhole conditions
– Oil, water and gas densities for holdup measurements with
the gradiomanometer
• Well operating parameters
– Bubble point pressure compared to flowing pressure
indicates if gas-liquid flow is expected

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Black Oil Model
• Assumes oil and gas do not react chemically
• Assumes composition remains constant throughout
the process

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Fluid Conversions

Rs Solution Gas Oil Ratio

1 Bbl oil at surface + Rs cubic feet of solution gas

1 cubic foot of free gas at surface


Bo Oil Formation
Volume Factor Gas Formation
Bg
Volume Factor

Bo Bbls oil downhole Bg cubic feet free gas downhole

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Temperature Applications
• Tool and fluid corrections
– Most tools are affected by temperature
– Fluid conversions require downhole temperature data
• Flow behind pipe
– Temperature surveys are affected by flow inside and outside
of pipe
• Fluid entries and type
– Fluid entries cool the flowstream by mixing
– Gas expansion causes additional local cooling
• Quantitative Mass Flowrate
– Under favourable conditions the mass flowrate can be
calculated directly

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Temperature Surveys

Geothermal gradient
Fluid Entries

Below the first fluid flow


the temperature follows the
geothermal gradient

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Temperature Surveys

Geothermal gradient If there were no other fluid


entries, the temperature would
eventually be parallel to the
geothermal gradient
Fluid Entries

As the temperature difference


increases, more heat is lost and
the temperature drops

At the fluid entry, the mass


flow tries to maintain the
entry temperature as it travels
upwards

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Temperature Surveys

Geothermal gradient If there were no other fluid


entries, the temperature would
eventually be parallel to the
geothermal gradient
Fluid Entries

At the next fluid entry, mixing


of the cooler fluid occurs, so
the temperature drops

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Fluid mechanics

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Flow structures
University of Tulsa Observations
Re-plotted from SPE # 38810

ed
d
se

s
er
er

isp
isp

D
n
D

re

ly
ly

ur

ine
ine

-C

yF
yF

Co

r
r

Ve
Ve
2 ,0 0
45°
2 " P ip e 30°
15°

1 ,5 0

1 ,0 0

0 ,5 0

0 ,0 0
0 ,0 0 0 ,2 5 0 ,5 0 0 ,7 5 1 ,0 0
W a te r c u t

nt
re
ow

ur

gs
Fl

r-c

lu
l
ed

na

te

-s
un
s

do
io
er

sit

Co

eu
sp

an

Ps
Di

er
Tr

at
W

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


MapFlo

O
il
λ
M
La ixin
ye g
r

W
at
er

λ = constant for a given pipe deviation


λ = 0 for a horizontal pipe
λ = infinity for a vertical pipe

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Flow structures domains
Video

90
Flagship & Analyser
Coiled
Pure Oil Tubing
/
Tractor
Pure Water

50~70
Logging
Analyser Analyser

Pure oil
Deviation

Pure Water
Wireline
/
Slickline
Monitors
Logging
0

0% Water Holdup 100%

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Flow structures domains
Video
90

90
Flagship & Analyser
Coiled
Pure Oil Tubing WC = Yw - (Qs/Qt)
/ 7” pipe
Tractor
Pure Water
50~70

50~70
Logging
Analyser Analyser
10,000 bpd
4,000 bpd
Pure oil Pure oil
2,000 bpd
Deviation

Deviation
Pure Water Pure Water
Wireline 1,000 bpd
/
Slickline
Monitors Monitors
Logging
0

0% Water Holdup 100% 0 0% Water Holdup


Water Cut 100%

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Flow map - 45deg pipe

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Flow map - 70deg pipe

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Flow map - 85deg pipe

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Spinner

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Spinners

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


The spinner pitch

Spinner = Screw
Fluid = Bolt

When the fluid (bolt) moves one pitch,


the screw (spinner) makes one turn.

pitch = 1 / (Calibration slope)

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Spinner response

s e
on
Spinner response - rps
esp
a lr
Ide
with viscous and
mechanical effects

with mechanical
friction
Fluid velocity
“threshold”

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Spinner factor - monophasic flow

Vspinner
> 1
<Vflow>

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Spinner factor - monophasic flow
Turbulent flow
1.0

0.9
!
Spinner factor

0.8
Spinner size / Pipe size
0.7 0.2
0.4
0.6 0.6 Only valid for
0.8 Monophasic
0.5 Flow
1000 10000 100000 1000000
Re = ρ v D / µ
Wireline & Testing Interpretation
Spinner performance
deviated 2 phase flow wells
Flow loop tests. 7.87 inches ID pipe. Water cut = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.
FBS-B (Diam = 4.92 inches, Pitch = 2.87 inches)
5
0 deg
5 deg
4 15 deg
25 deg
45 deg
3
65 deg
Spinner - RPS

Monophasic

-1
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Total Flow Rate - BPD

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Spinner performance
deviated 2 phase flow wells

DEVIATION=25 DEG DEVIATION=45 DEG


2000 2000
(Measure rate - True rate) in bpd

(Measure rate - True rate) in bpd


1000 1000

Qt=1000bpd Qt=1000bpd
0 Qt=2000bpd 0 Qt=2000bpd
Qt=3000bpd Qt=3000bpd
Qt=4000bpd Qt=4000bpd
-1000 Qt=5000bpd -1000 Qt=5000bpd
Qt=6000bpd Qt=6000bpd

-2000 -2000
0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0
Water Holdup Water Holdup

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Spinner performance
deviated 2 phase flow wells
Qt = 3000 bpd
2000

1500
(Measured rate - True rate) in BPD

1000

500

0
Water Cut
-500 0,8
0,6
-1000 0,4
0,2
-1500 0,1

-2000
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Pipe Deviation
5
ENP Flat Blades - 2.5 Inches OD Spinner
4,5
ENP Flat Blades - 3.5 Inches OD Spinner

4 ENP Flat Blades - 4.5 Inches OD Spinner

Spinner rotation speed - rps


3,5

2,5

1,5
Monophasic response for 2100 bpd of water:
1
2.5 Inches Spinner : 3.7 rps
0,5 3.5 Inches Spinner : 3.6 rps
4.5 Inches Spinner : 3.1 rps
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
Pipe deviation in °

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Spinner performance
deviated 2 phase flow wells
Flow loop tests. 7.87 inches ID pipe. Water cut = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.
FBS-B (Diam = 4.92 inches, Pitch = 2.87 inches)

90
Spinner overestimates rates
80 Spinner underestimates rates
MapFlo boundary
70

60

50
Deviation

40

30

20

10

-10
0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1
Water Holdup

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Gradiomanometer

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Gradiomanometer physics
θ
P1 = Pa + ρso g h Cosθ
P2 = Pa + ρfluid g h Cosθ + ∆Pfriction
Pa ∆P = P2 - P1 = (ρfluid - ρso) g h Cosθ + ∆Pfriction

ρfluid = (∆P - ∆Pfriction) / g h Cosθ + ρso


ρso
h
calling:
silicon oil

ρfluid
ρgradio = ∆P / g h Cosθ + ρso
ρfriction = ∆Pfriction / g h Cosθ
Pb
P1 P2 then:
ρfluid = ρgradio - ρfriction

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Friction effect magnitude
Dcasing Gradio friction effect variation with flowrate
Reference chartbook roughness E=0.0006 inches

ρfluid
1
ID=4" & Rough=E/10
ID=6" & Rough=E/10

Dtool ID=4" & Rough=E

e 0.1
ID=6" & Rough=E
ID=4" & Rough=10E

ρ app / ρ ) - 1
ID=6" & Rough=10E

(
Va Va 0.01

h
0.001
1000 10000 100000
Flow rate - bpd

Typical values for friction effect:


1% @ 10,000 bpd in 7” pipe
10% @ 10,000 bpd in 5” pipe
Vtool
Wireline & Testing Interpretation
In situ friction effect “calibration”
ρfriction K V2

ρgradio

ρfriction
K
ρfluid

V2

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Gradio & flow structurations

Pa

Pb

Because it measures the pressure difference between 2 planes,


the gradiomanometer is not sensitive to flow structurations

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Multiphasic friction
Fmultiphasic / Fmonophasic

Water holdup
0% 100%

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Thermometer

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Temperature exchanges in a well

Ge
ot
he
rm
al

Semi vertical gradient


Wireline & Testing Interpretation
Typical temperature log

Third entry
Q3

Geo
the
rma
l
Second entry
Q2

First entry
Q1

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Temperature log interpretation

TG3 TL3 T3
Third entry
Q3

Ge
oth
e
rm
al
TG2 TL2 T2
Second entry
Q2

(Q1 + Q2 ) TL2 = Q1 T2 + Q2 TG2


Qi = Qi-1 (Ti - TLi) / (TLi - TGi)

First entry TL1


Q1

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Examples of non-geothermal entries

Rock
friction

Ge
oth
e
rm
al
Gas
detente

Channeling

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


E-probes

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


The electrical probe

Ground electrode
(For oil continuous phases)

0.125mm 0.66mm

~1mm

~0.4mm

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Electrical probe - principle

Ground electrode
(For oil continuous phases)

Time in short circuit


Water Holdup =
Total time

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


E-Probe thresholding
Water continuous

Set
threshold
close to the
continuous
phase Oil continuous
level

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Electrical probes positions

90
Use
protectors

Use outermost Deviation 50/70


probe position
0

0% Water holdup 100%


Wireline & Testing Interpretation
E-probe detector response

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Threshold Setting Problem

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Threshold Setting Principle

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Automatic Threshold Algorithm
Compute Waveform Avg, Min., Max.

No
Avg / Min < 1.25 or Avg / Max > 0.9

Yes (Mono Phasic Flow)


No
Avg < F (PFRE)

Yes
Avg < 2.5 V
Non Event Detect.
Max.-Min. > 0.3 V Yes
No
No = Keep Previous Warning : Change
Threshold Value Yes PFRE, if not at max.

Oil Continuous Phase Water Continuous Phase


Threshold = Waveform Avg Threshold = Min. + Epsilon Threshold = Max. - Epsilon1
Epsilon =0.2 Volt Epsilon1 =0.6 Volt

Continue

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


SPRInt

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


SPRInt - Single Pass Rate Interpretation

SPRInt = Classic 3 phase interpretation + Bubble rate

Based on a single logging pass...

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


SPRInt - Single Pass Rate Interpretation
3 Phase
Spinner Pitch 2.352 IN
Spinner Thresold 1.7 FT/MN
Spinner Efficiency 1
Stand Alone HC Bubble Size 0.06 IN
Water Density 1.0 GR/CC
Oil Density 0.7 GR/CC
Gas Density 0.15 GR/CC

bubble bubble
ρm
size rate


rates

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


SPRInt “classic” computations

• Spinner gives mixture velocity Vm

• Caliper and Vm gives mixture flowrate Qm

• Caliper and Vm allow gradio friction correction ρm

• FloView water holdup and ρm give Yw, Yo, Yg

• Oil and gas slip velocities Vso and Vsg are then computed

• To finally obtain: Qwater, Qoil, Qgas

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


3 phases QC crossplot
1
Electrical probes water holdup
Water
0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 Gas Oil
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Mixture density - gr/cc
Wireline & Testing Interpretation
“Classic” equations

Vm = mixture velocity = ( S P + T - Cs ) E Yw = Ywfv


Qm = mixture rate = Vm A Yh = 1 - Yw
ρh = ( ρm - Y w ρw ) / Y h
Y o = Y h ( ρh - ρg ) / ( ρo - ρg )
Yg = 1 - Yw - Yo
Yl = Yw + Yo
Vso = Algo ( ρw, ρo, Yw/Yl, θ )
ρm = mixture density = ρ gradio - ρ friction
Vsg = Algo ( Yl, θ )
Qso = Yw Yo Vso Aa
Qsg = Yl Yg Vsg Aa
Ql = Yl Qm -Qsg

Qw = Yw Qm - Qso / Yl - Qsg Yw / Yl
Qo = Ql - Q w
Qg = Qm - Q l
Wireline & Testing Interpretation
Spinner pitch estimation

Vm = mixture velocity = ( S P + T - Cs ) E

When Vm=0 (zero flow zone or shut-in),

Pestimated = ( Cs - T ) / S

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Slippage
Water / oil slippage - ( ρw =1gr/cc ρo=0.7gr/cc )
20

Deviation
0
15 10

Vso (1-Yw) Yw - ft/mn


20

Qso = Vso Yw (1-Yw) Aa 10


30
40
50

Qw = Yw Qt - Qso 60
70
5

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Water holdup

Gas / Liquid Slippage


60
Deviation
50 0
10
20

Vsg (1-Yl) Yl - ft/mn


40

Qsg = Vsg Yl (1-Yl) Aa 30


30
40
50

Ql = Yl Qt - Qsl 20
60
70

10

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Liquid holdup

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Bubble rate & size concept

Tp

<Vb> = <C> / <Tp> - Cs


We measure <Tp> and Cs

• Bubble rate if <C> is known (model)


• Bubble size if Vb is estimated from spinner Vm

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Bubble sizes - field data
14
Bubble diameter - mm
12 North Sea well
Middle East well
10
Alaska well
8
6
4
2
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Water holdup
Wireline & Testing Interpretation
Bubble size model
Pipe size

Bubble diameter
Bub
ble
s coa
les
cen
ce

“Stand alone”
bubble size

0% Water holdup 100%

If (Spherical bubbles) then Bubble chord = 2/3 Bubble diameter

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Bubble size vs holdup crossplot

16
Bubble diameter - mm 14
12 Log data
10 Model
8
6
4
2
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Water holdup

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Experimental data
15.000
Model
Model
Flow loop
North Sea well
Bubble diameter - mm Middel East well
10.000

5.000

0.000
0.000 0.200 0.400 0.600 0.800 1.000

Water holdup

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Bubble velocity equation

C
Tp
Tp

Yw = 1 - Σ (Tp) / T
<Tp> = ( Σ (Tp) / T ) / Bc
<Tp> = ( 1 - Yw ) Bc
Vb = <C> / <Tp> - Cs
Vb = ( <C> Bc ) / ( 1 - Yw) - Cs

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Bubble rate and size
Vb = ( <C> Bc ) / ( 1 - Yw) - Cs

Rate Size
Pipe size
ModelModel Assume Vb = Vm (from spinner)

SPRInt uses a single


stand alone bubble size value
Dbm = 3/2 ( Vm + Cs ) ( 1 - Yw ) Bc

Db
Pipe size

0% 100%
Inverse
Model model
Yw
SPRInt also computes an estimated
stand alone bubble size QC log

<C> = 2/3 Db
Qb = Vb ( 1-Yw ) A Dbm
Qb = ( Bc <C> - Cs ( 1 - Yw ) ) A
0% Yw 100%

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Multi-pass overlay

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Multi-pass cross plot
Bubble Bc = ( Vb + Cs ) ( 1 - Yw ) / <C>
count

<Bubble chord> = ( 1 - Water holdup ) / Slope

Dispersed phase
velocity Slope

Logging
speed
Spinner
RPS

Mixture
velocity

Logging
speed

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Examples

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Jetting effect

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Temperature Hysterisis

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Fluid Density from Manometer

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Borflow Example

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Borflow Example

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


Sprint Example

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


North Sea well

E D
A S
L E
R E
O T
N
T A
D A
Wireline & Testing Interpretation
Norwegian well

E D
A S
L E
R E
O T
N
T A
D A
Wireline & Testing Interpretation
South America well

E D
A S
L E
R E
O T
N
T A
D A
Wireline & Testing Interpretation
Middle East well

E D
A S
L E
R E
O T
N
T A
D A
Wireline & Testing Interpretation
PSP Planner

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


PSP Planner prototype
INPUT DATA RESULTS
SURFACE STANDARD CONDITIONS DOWNHOLE CONDITIONS COMPUTATION RESULTS
Water flowrate 300 bpd Bubble point pressure 4452 psi
Oil flowrate 50 bpd Total flowrate 401 bpd
Gas flowrate 80000 cf/d Water flowrate 304 bpd
Oil density 0.800 gr/cc Oil flowrate 83 bpd
Gas gravity, air=1 0.650 Solution gas flowrate 14 bpd
NaCl concentration 80000 ppm Free gas flowrate 0 bpd
DOWNHOLE CONDITIONS Water density 1.044 gr/cc
Pressure 3200 psi Oil density 0.590 gr/cc
Temperature 170 degf Gas density 0.166 gr/cc
Casing ID 6.366 inches ESTIMATED PRODUCTION LOGGING ENVIRONMENT
Well deviation 45 degrees Water holdup 98.2 %
Oil holdup 1.6 %
Gas holdup 0.2 %
Mixture density 1.035 gr/cc
Mixture velocity 7.1 ft/mn
ESTIMATED PL TOOLS RESPONSES
Spinner with a 1" pitch 1.4 rps
Gradiomanometer* 1.035 gr/cc
E-probes bubble count 8 bubbles/s

*corrected for deviation, but not for friction

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


PSP Planner prototype cont’d
University of Tulsa Observations
Re-plotted from SPE # 38810

ed
ed

s
s

er
er

isp
isp

D
n
D

re

ly
ly
Probable

ur

ine
ine

-C

yF
yF

Co

r
r

Ve
Ve
Flow
Structure 2 ,0 0
45°
for 2 " P ip e 30°
15°

this job 1 ,5 0

1 ,0 0

0 ,5 0

0 ,0 0
0 ,0 0 0 ,2 5 0 ,5 0 0 ,7 5 1 ,0 0
W a te r c u t

nt
re
ow

ur

gs
Fl

r-c

lu
l
ed

na

te

-s
un
s

do
io
er

sit

Co

eu
sp

an

Ps
Di

er
Tr

at
W

Wireline & Testing Interpretation


PSP Planner prototype cont’d
PBMS
Measure points Well sketch
Gamma ray
Pressure & temperature
CCL

Gradio
PGMC
PFCS

Spinner & Caliper


E-probes

Wireline & Testing Interpretation