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Women Economic Participation Theory and its approach in economy

The earlier crowding hypothesis by (Edgeworth, 1922) had focussed on the collective action of
joining together in excluding women from ‘men’s work’, causing an oversupply of women and
the reduction of their wages. As (Bergmann, 1974) ‘crowding’ hypothesis proposed that women
and blacks were historically confined by social stereotyping or employer discrimination to a
narrow range of occupation.

As (Rosburg, 2010)also explained the two potential models for the occupational crowding. They
are exclusion model and crowding model.

1. Exclusion Model - minorities systematically excluded from higher-paying jobs and hired
only to fill lower-paying jobs; Payment is not linked to available productivity and not
determined by market forces where minorities are women and black.
2. Crowding model - minorities systematically excluded from more desirable jobs and
crowed into less desirable ones. Example female labor supply artificially reduced in more
desirable jobs.

Feminist economists admit that individuals and groups make choices and exercise agency, but
there are limits imposed by the structural distribution of rules, norms, assets and identities
between different in their society. Gender shortcoming in the labor market is a product of these
structures of constraint which operate over the life course of men and women from different
social groups (Folbre, 1994).

According to Hausmannet al (2012), gender-sensitive economic indicators reveal human capital


utilization gaps andmarket inefficiencies. With women representing one-half of human
capital,limiting the ability of women to contribute hinders economic growth.

According to World Bank(2011), there is widespread evidence of legal differences between men
and women which differentiated their incentives or capacity to engage in waged work or to set
up their own businesses. These restrictions ranged from the less frequently reported ones of
needing husband’s permission to start a business to the more frequently reported ones that
differentiate access to, and control over, land and other property.
However,WEE is a prerequisite for sustainable development, pro-poor growth and the
achievement of all the MDGs. Different donors and multilaterals are hostile with aspects of
women’s economic empowerment and incline towards approaches such as micro-credit schemes
or supporting women entrepreneurs. They were also encountered challenge to reach poor women
who are landless labourers, smallholder agricultural producers, cross-border traders and factory
and domestic workers and ensure that these women have access to the opportunities and benefits
of economic growth and trade. The specific challenges when working with the poorest women
such as: lower levels of literacy, lower levels of access to and control over resources, lower
levels of access to networks and people who can assist and support, greater vulnerability to
sexual exploitation and abuse at the community level, if not the household level(DAC, 2011).

According to UN(2015), the SDGs renewed the commitment to a transformational agenda on


gender equality and the empowerment of women as a critical contribution to developmental
progress across the 17 goals and 169 targets, but also in a standalone goal. The goal five commits
to achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls through eight targets, two of which
are to expand women’s economic opportunities and recognise their rights to resources, and to
recognise and value unpaid care work. Goal eight to promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable
economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all is also related to
WEE in promoting decent work.