Sei sulla pagina 1di 14

Topic:

Interactions involving microorganisms


of
Environmental Microbiology

Submit
To

Dr. Sagheer Ahmed


Submitted
By
Abdul Rehman

College Roll #: 43

University Roll #: 012244


Major: Zoology

1
INTERACTIONS INVOLVING MICROORGANISMS

Organisms living together in a community influence each other directly or in directly under
natural conditions. All the vital process of living such as growth, reproduction and nutrition
requires such interactions between individuals in the same species (intraspecific) or between
species (interspecific). These inter or intra relationships of individuals in a population or
community of an ecosystem is called biological interactions.

PARTNERS INVOLVED:

Following are the partners which are involved in the interactions;

 Microbe-Microbe Interactions
 Microbe- Plant Interactions
 Microbe- Animal Interactions
 Microbe-Human Interactions

INTERACTIONS:

Interactions are classified into two categories;

I. Positive interactions.
II. Negative interactions.
I. POSITIVE INTERACTIONS:

In positive interactions, the interacting populations help one another. The positive interaction
may be in one way or reciprocal. The benefit may be in respect of food, shelter or
transportation.

The two interacting partners may be in close contact in such a way that the tissues intermixed
with each other or they may live within a specific area of the other; or attached to its surface.

Different types of population interaction are;

 Mutualism
 Commensalism

2
MUTUALISM:

Mutualism, also called as symbiosis is a positive type of interaction. It is a symbiotic


association between two organisms in which both the interacting partners are mutually
benefited.

In mutualism the organisms enter into some sort of physical and physiological exchange.

EXAMPLES:

 Digestive bacteria and humans:


Human beings have what are often called "good" bacteria in their digestive systems. This
"good" bacteria exists in order to help the human to digest food.

Some foods cannot be digested entirely; so, when these foods are consumed, the bacteria in
the digestive system feed on those foods.

The bacteria stay alive.

The human gets help with the process of digestion.

 Protozoa and termites:

Much like the digestive bacteria in human digestive systems, protozoa help termites to digest
the food that they eat.

The protozoa benefits by getting food for itself.

The termite benefits by being able to live.

 Ants and fungus:


Ants actively create fungus, sometimes using leaves and their own fecal matter. Once the
fungus grows, the ants eat it to sustain life.
The fungus is given life by the ant.

The benefit to the ant is that the fungus is food.

3
 Spider crab and algae:

With the ocean as its habitat, spider crabs often spend their time in some of the moist shallow
areas of the sea making them highly visible to predators. However, living on their backs are
algae that act as camouflage.

The algae has a place to live.

The spider crab remains camouflaged and safe from predators.

COMMENSALISM:

It is a positive type of ecological interaction between two species in an ecosystem. In


commensalism, the association occurs between members of two different species where one
specie benefited the other is neither benefited nor harmed.

EXAMPLES:

 Fungi-bacteria relationship:

Many fungi are able to dissimilate cellulose to glucose and beyond (they are cellulolytic).
Many Bacteria are unable to utilize cellulose, but they can and do utilize the fungal
breakdown products of cellulose, e.g. the glucose and organic acids.

 Bacteria and Human:

Most commensal bacteria reside on epithelial surfaces that come in contact with the external
environment. They are commonly found on the skin, as well as in the respiratory tract and the
gastrointestinal tract. Commensal bacteria acquire nutrients and a place to live and grow from
their host. In some instances, commensal bacteria may become pathogenic and cause disease,
or they may provide a benefit for the host.

Populations of microorganisms inhabiting a common environment complete for nutrients and


other resources of the environment. In some cases, the populations even excrete into the
environment chemicals that are toxic or inhibitory to their competitors. Competition between
two populations tends to eliminate one of the populations from their common habitat,
especially when competition is focused on a single resource and when the populations do not

4
otherwise interact. However, a number of factors mitigate the severity of competition and
thus competitors often coexist.

II. NEGATIVE INTERACTIONS:

In negative interactions, one of the interacting populations is benefited and the other is
harmed. In negative interaction one population may eat members of the other population,
compete for foods or excrete harmful wasters.

Different types of negative population interactions are;

 Ammensalism
 Parasitism
 Predation
 Competition

AMMENSALISM;

It is a negative type of population interaction. In ammensalism one specie is harmed or


inhibited other is neither benefited nor harmed.

The term antibiosis can be used for the ammensalism. Antibiosis is a partial or complete
inhibition or death of one organism by another through the production of some substances or
environmental conditions as a result of its metabolic pathway. In antibiosis none of them
derives any benefit.

EXAMPLES:

 Penicillium sp. fungus and Positive Gram Bacteria

Mushroom penicillium sp. is a fungus that is utilized in modern biotechnology techniques as


antibiotics for humans. This fungus produces allelopathic compounds that can inhibit the
growth of gram-positive bacteria cause various deadly diseases. Penicillium fungus
interaction pattern with gram-positive bacteria can also be one example of symbiotic
amensalism.

5
 Algae Hydrodictyon and Scenedesmus

Just like interaction Penicillium sp., Scenedesmus algae Hydrodictyon and residues can also
produce compounds that can inhibit the growth of deadly even gram-negative bacteria. The
organism that exemplifies this symbiotic amensalism is also used as an antibiotic for the
treatment of disease in humans.

PARASITISM:

It is also a negative type of population interaction, parasitism belongs to the ‘exploitation’


category of negative population interactions.

In exploitation, one species harm the other by direct or indirect use for shelter or food. A
parasite is an organism living on or in body of another organism and deriving food from its
tissues. The harmed one is the host and the benefited one is called parasite. A parasite usually
takes a host which is usually larger than its body size.

EXAMPLES:

 Plant Parasites

Most parasitic diseases of plants are caused by fungi or oomycetes with the remainder due to
bacteria or viruses. Phytopathogenic fungi and oomycetes are often facultative parasites
called necrotrophic, whose saprophytic and parasitic phases alternate. They are responsible
for penetrating injuries and necroses on a broad host range. Others are obligate
parasites(biotrophic) developing only in living host plant. They require specialized bodies
intrusion ( haustorium), their host range is narrow, and often they cause different types of
symptoms. The majority of phytopathogenic fungi and oomycetes affect the aerial parts of
plants, causing diseases such as downy mildew (caused by oomycetes Phytophthora
parasitica on tomato or Plasmopara viticola on vines), powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis),
corn smut (Ustilago on corn), rust (Puccinia spp. On cereals).

 Many parasites cause diseases in living organisms i.e; Amoebiasis (cause disease by
Entamoeba histolytica, intestinal parasite cause dysentery in humans), trypanosoma (
a human parasite causing African sleeping sickness), AIDS(caused by HIV ),
apicomplexans(a large group of parasitic protozoa cause malaria).

6
PREDATION:

It belongs to the ‘exploitation’ category of negative type of population interactions. In


predation, one specie kills and feed on another species. The killer specie is called predator
and the one who dead are called prey. The predators are usually larger and powerful than
prey.

EXAMPLE:

 VAMPIROCOCCUS SUCKS THE LIFEBLOOD OUT OF ITS


VICTIMS

Vampirococcus is a small, ovoid-shaped bacterium that is found in the anoxic zones of lakes,
in particular karst lakes, where hydrogen sulfide accumulates and dense populations of
purple-sulfur bacteria develop. Vampirococcus appears to persist freely suspended in the
water but only multiplies when feeding off its ‘victim’ – the purple-sulfur
bacterium Chromatium. Most predatory bacteria feed off their prey from the
inside; Vampirococcus is unusual as it remains on the outside of the cell it is attacking. It
attaches to its prey via a specialised cytoplasmic bridge, a thin strand of cytoplasm that links
the two cells. Vampirococcus is much smaller than its prey and a single Chromatium cell can
be attacked by up to six vampirococci. The predator then releases enzymes into
the Chromatium prey that break down the cytoplasm, allowing the nutrients to be ‘sucked up’
in a vampire-like fashion (hence its name). As the Vampirococcus feeds it grows and divides
by binary fission until all it leaves is the empty shell of its prey, i.e. the cell wall, cytoplasmic
membrane and some intracytoplasmic inclusions.

 BDELLOVIBRIO – A FAST AND DEADLY INVADER

It latches onto the outside of its prey and, rotating like a corkscrew, it burrows itself inside
through a small hole it creates in the prey’s outer membrane. Bdellovibrio then enters the
host’s periplasmic space. Once inside the periplasm (the space between the cytoplasmic and
outer membranes) it seals off the outer-membrane hole so there is little or no leakage of the

7
cell’s contents. Bdellovibrio (below) can now start to feast on the contents of the unfortunate
bacterium by excreting a variety of enzymes that breakdown the prey’s cytoplasm, which it
uses for fuel and essential building blocks.

 Predatory fungi that tighten the noose – nematophagous fungi

Over 200 species of fungi use specialised mycelial structures to capture free-living
nematodes. Nematophagous fungi (nematode-destroying) occur in all sorts of soil
environments. They produce hyphae traps that capture, penetrate, kill and digest a
nematode’s contents.

The traps are usually formed in response to the presence of substances produced by the
nematodes. Hyphal differentiation occurs spontaneously, usually very quickly, within a few
hours, to produce functional structures (traps).

Predatory fungi have different devices for trapping the nematode that have evolved
separately. They are adhesive traps and constricting rings

COMPETITION:

Competition is association of two or more species, each specie is adversely effected by the
presence of other specie in respect of food, shelter, space, light etc.

Competition occur when individuals attempt to obtain a resource that is inadequate to support
all the individuals seeking it or even if the resources are adequate individuals harm one
another in trying to obtain it.

EXAMPLE:

 Bacteria can secrete a wide array of antibacterial compounds when competing with
other bacteria for the same resources. Some of these compounds, such as bacteriocins,
can affect bacteria of similar or closely related strains. In some cases, these secretions
have been found to kill sibling cells that belong to the same colony.
 Soil is inhabited by different kinds of microorganisms, and therefore they exhibit
competition among themselves for nutrients and space. In this kind of situation, the
best adapted microorganism will predominate or eliminate the others which are
dependent upon the same limited nutrient substance. The organisms with inherent
ability to grow fast are better competitors.

8
 Exogeneous nutrients are required for the germination of chlamydospores
of Fusarium, Oospores of Aphanomyces and conidia of Verticillium dahlaein soil. But
other fungi and soil bacteria deplete these critical nutrients required for spore
germination and thereby hinder the spore germination resulting into the decrease in
population. Soil bacteria compete for space and suppress the growth of the fungal
population.

QUESTIONS:

1- Differentiat between positive and negative interactions?


2- Interacting populations help one another how and why? Justify the statement?
3- Give examples of microorganisms that give benefit to their host ?
4- What do you understand by the term antibiosis?are microorganism benefited from it?
5- One specie give harm/kill the other and benefited from that harmed one, what type of
category is it? Give at least two examples?

Q:1 Differentiat between positive and negative interactions?

POSITIVE INTERACTIONS:

In positive interactions, the interacting populations help one another. The positive interaction
may be in one way or reciprocal. The benefit may be in respect of food, shelter or
transportation.

The two interacting partners may be in close contact in such a way that the tissues intermixed
with each other or they may live within a specific area of the other; or attached to its surface.

Different types of positive population interaction are;

9
 Mutualism
 Commensalism

NEGATIVE INTERACTIONS:

In negative interactions, one of the interacting populations is benefited and the other is
harmed. In negative interaction one population may eat members of the other population,
compete for foods or excrete harmful wasters.

Different types of negative population interactions are;

 Ammensalism
 Parasitism
 Predation
 Competition

Q-2 Interacting populations help one another how and why? Justify the
statement?

Interacting populations that help one another comes under the category of positive type
interaction. The positive interaction may be in one way or reciprocal. The benefit may be in
respect of food, shelter or transportation.

The two interacting partners may be in close contact in such a way that the tissues intermixed
with each other or they may live within a specific area of the other; or attached to its
surface.by which they get nourishment from the host and also give benefit to the host.

Therefore we can say that interacting populations help one another.

Q-3 Give examples of microorganisms that give benefit to their host ?

There are some microorganisms the give benefit to their host. These are as follows;

10
 Digestive bacteria and humans:
Human beings have what are often called "good" bacteria in their digestive systems. This
"good" bacteria exists in order to help the human to digest food.

Some foods cannot be digested entirely; so, when these foods are consumed, the bacteria in
the digestive system feed on those foods.

The bacteria stay alive.

The human gets help with the process of digestion.

 Protozoa and termites:

Much like the digestive bacteria in human digestive systems, protozoa help termites to digest
the food that they eat.

The protozoa benefits by getting food for itself.

The termite benefits by being able to live.

 Ants and fungus:


Ants actively create fungus, sometimes using leaves and their own fecal matter. Once the
fungus grows, the ants eat it to sustain life.
The fungus is given life by the ant.

The benefit to the ant is that the fungus is food.

 Spider crab and algae:

With the ocean as its habitat, spider crabs often spend their time in some of the moist shallow
areas of the sea making them highly visible to predators. However, living on their backs are
algae that act as camouflage.

Q-4 What do you understand by the term antibiosis? Did microorganisms


benefited from it?

ANTIBIOSIS:

11
Antibiosis is a partial or complete inhibition or death of one organism by another through the
production of some substances or environmental conditions as a result of its metabolic
pathway.

Microorganisms that are involved in this type of reaction are not benefitted.

Q-5 One specie give harm/kill the other and benefited from that harmed
one, what type of category is it? Give at least two examples?

The category under which one specie give harm/kill the other specie and benefitted from that
harmed one is PREDATION.

In predation, one specie kills and feed on another species. The killer specie is called predator
and the one who dead are called prey. The predators are usually larger and powerful than
prey.

EXAMPLE:

 BDELLOVIBRIO – A FAST AND DEADLY INVADER

It latches onto the outside of its prey and, rotating like a corkscrew, it burrows itself inside
through a small hole it creates in the prey’s outer membrane. Bdellovibrio then enters the
host’s periplasmic space. Once inside the periplasm (the space between the cytoplasmic and
outer membranes) it seals off the outer-membrane hole so there is little or no leakage of the
cell’s contents. Bdellovibrio (below) can now start to feast on the contents of the unfortunate
bacterium by excreting a variety of enzymes that breakdown the prey’s cytoplasm, which it
uses for fuel and essential building blocks.

 Predatory fungi that tighten the noose – nematophagous fungi

Over 200 species of fungi use specialised mycelial structures to capture free-living
nematodes. Nematophagous fungi (nematode-destroying) occur in all sorts of soil
environments. They produce hyphae traps that capture, penetrate, kill and digest a
nematode’s contents.

The traps are usually formed in response to the presence of substances produced by the
nematodes. Hyphal differentiation occurs spontaneously, usually very quickly, within a few
hours, to produce functional structures (traps).

12
Predatory fungi have different devices for trapping the nematode that have evolved
separately. They are adhesive traps and constricting rings

M.C.Q’s

1. Microoganisms fight with one another for…..?


a) For other specie b) For their parents

c) For shelter, space, food, light d) none of them

ANSWER:
c) for shelter, space, food, light

2. The interaction in which one specie is harmed and the other specie is neither harmed
nor benefitted

a) Commensalism b) Ammensalism

c) Competition d) Predation

ANSWER:
b) Ammensalism

3. A partial or complete inhibition or death of one organism by another through the


production of some substances or environmental conditions, the process is
a) Biosis b) Systematic

c) both a and b d) antibiosis

ANSWER:
d) Antibiosis

4. A fungus that produces allelopathic compounds that can inhibit the growth of gram-
positive bacteria cause various deadly diseases.

13
a) Penicillium b) strepcine

c) Alternaria d) both a and b

ANSWER:
a) penicillium

5. Bacteria that are present in human digestive system help in digestion and also get benefit
from there is an example of which

a) Commensalism b) Ammensalism

c) Parasitism d) Mutualism

ANSWER:
d) Mutualism

14