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NAME: __________________________________

BSME – 5B

NATURAL GAS
(ME – 514A: Alternative Energy Resources)
GENERAL OUTLOOK
WHAT IS NATURAL GAS?

Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane,
but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small
percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium. It is formed when layers of
decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure under the
surface of the earth over millions of years. The energy that the plants originally obtained from
the sun is stored in the form of chemical bonds in the gas.

HOW DID NATURAL GAS FORM?

Millions of years ago, the remains of plants and animals (diatoms) decayed and built up in
thick layers, sometimes mixed with sand and silt. Over time, these layers were buried under
sand, silt, and rock. Pressure and heat changed some of this organic material into coal, some
into oil (petroleum), and some into natural gas. In some places, the natural gas moved into large
cracks and spaces between layers of overlying rock.

HISTORY OF NATURAL GAS

1000 B.C. - The Chinese used it to heat seawater and separate the salt to make the water
drinkable.
100 A.D. - the King of Persia (Iran) built a kitchen in his palace around a natural gas flame that
had been ignited by lightning.
1700 - Britain became the first country to commercialize the use of natural gas
1816 - Natural gas was first used in Baltimore (America) to fuel street lamps.
1858 - William hart formed the America’s first natural gas company, Fredonia Gas Light
Company.
1885 - German chemist and physicist Robert Von Bunsen perfected the Bunsen BURNER.

Today, natural gas is widely used. In fact, it is the third largest source of energy after petroleum
and coal.

10 LARGEST NATURAL GAS RESERVES IN THE WORLD

1. RUSSIA - PROVEN RESERVES: 47,800,000 m3


2. IRAN - PROVEN RESERVES: 34,020,000 m3
3. QATAR - PROVEN RESERVES: 24,530,000 m3
4. USA - PROVEN RESERVES: 9,659,000 m3
5. SAUDI ARABIA - PROVEN RESERVES: 8,489,000 m3
6. TURKMENISTAN - PROVEN RESERVES: 7,504,000 m3
7. UAE - PROVEN RESERVES: 6,091,000 m3
8. VENEZUELA - PROVEN RESERVES: 5,617,000 m3
9. NIGERIA - PROVEN RESERVES: 5,111,000 m3
10. ALGERIA - PROVEN RESERVES: 4,504,000 m3

NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION (by Country)

1.USA - CONSUMPTION PER YEAR: 778,000 m3


2.RUSSIA - CONSUMPTION PER YEAR: 391,500 m3
3.IRAN - CONSUMPTION PER YEAR: 191,200 m3
4.CHINA - CONSUMPTION PER YEAR: 177,300 m3
5.JAPAN - CONSUMPTION PER YEAR: 113,400 m3
6.SAUDI ARABIA - CONSUMPTION PER YEAR: 106,400 m3
7.CANADA - CONSUMPTION PER YEAR: 102,500 m3
8.MEXICO - CONSUMPTION PER YEAR: 83,200 m3
9.BRAZIL - CONSUMPTION PER YEAR: 77,200 m3
10.GERMANY - CONSUMPTION PER YEAR: 74,600 m3

THE FUTURE OF NATURAL GAS

•CNG - Compressed natural gas (CNG) (methane stored at high pressure) is a fuel which
can be used in place of gasoline (petrol), diesel fuel and propane/LPG. It is safer than other
fuels in the event of a spill, because natural gas is lighter than air and disperses quickly
when released.
•LNG - Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4, with some
mixture of ethane C2H6) that has been cooled down to liquid form for ease and safety of
non-pressurized storage or transport.

WHEN WILL NATURAL GAS RUN OUT?

If we increase gas production to fill the energy gap left by oil, then those reserves will only
give us an additional eight years, taking us to 2060.

WHAT WILL BE THE FUTURE FOR NATURAL GAS?

• Multiple scenarios have been analyzed until 2030 and 2060. In all scenarios, gas
consumption grows. The global demand for energy will grow and by 2060 the electricity
demand will double. The greatest growth in gas demand is expected in Asia.

Continued increases in natural gas demand for electricity and other uses could result in
shortages and significant price increases in the future.

WHAT WILL BE THE FUTURE USES OF NATURAL GAS?

An important application of future development is trigeneration to obtain cold as well as heat


and electricity. Another application is in hydrogen cells to generate electricity in different
types of land transport. In domestic use, natural gas will begin to be used combined with
electricity to generate heat in kitchens, washing machines, dryers, dishwashers, that is, a
hybrid of electrical appliances with gas appliances.

NATURAL GAS AND THE ENVIRONMENT


• Natural gas is a relatively clean burning fossil fuel
• Natural gas is mainly methane, a strong greenhouse gas
• Natural gas production affects the environment
• Advances in drilling and production technologies have positive and negative effects on the
environment
• Natural gas production, transportation, distribution, and storage require strict safety
regulations and standards

A SAFETY PRECAUTION

Because natural gas is colorless, odorless, and tasteless, distributors add mercaptan (a
chemical that smells like sulfur) to give natural gas a distinct unpleasant odor (it smells like
rotten eggs). This added odor serves as a safety measure to help detect leaks in natural gas
pipelines.

NATURAL GAS IS THE CLEANEST BURNING FOSSIL FUEL.

• When burned, natural gas releases 25-30% less CO2 than oil.
• And produces 40-50% less CO2 than coal.

PROS: CONS:

1. Produces Less Soot 1. Highly Inflammable


2. Abundant Supply 2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions
3. Infrastructure in Place 3. Non-Sustainable
4. Cheaper 4. Not Easy to Use
5. Can be easily transported 5. Expensive Pipelines

HEALTH PROBLEMS RELATED TO NATURAL GAS LEAKS

• Asphyxiation
-It is a serious health condition where the body is not able to get sufficient oxygen
supply, which may lead to loss of consciousness, brain damage and death.
• Effects on Respiratory System
-Symptoms such as pneumonia, nausea, vomiting, irregular breathing, memory loss,
fatigue, sinus pain and headache are also reported because of the exposure to natural gas.
• Physiological Effects
-When mercaptan is inhaled in sufficient amounts, it causes physiological effects such
as dizziness, headache, vomiting, shivering, fever and unconsciousness.

MORTALITY RATE OF NATURAL GAS COMPARED TO OTHER NON – RENEWABLE


ENERGY SOURCES

Coal - 100,000 (41% global electricity)


Oil - 36,000 (33% of energy, 4% of electricity)
Natural Gas - 4,000 (22% global electricity)
Nuclear - 90 (11% global electricity)
TYPES OF TECHNOLOGIES
I. ADVANCES IN THE EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION SECTOR

Technological innovation in the exploration and production sector has equipped the industry
with the equipment and practices necessary to continually increase the production of natural
gas to meet rising demand. Some of the major recent technological innovations in the
exploration and production sector include:

• 3-D AND 4-D SEISMIC IMAGING - Exploration teams can now identify natural gas
prospects more easily, place wells more effectively, reduce the number of dry holes drilled,
reduce drilling costs, and cut exploration time.
• CO2-SAND FRACTURING - Fracturing techniques have been used since the 1970s to help
increase the flow rate of natural gas and oil from underground formations.
• COILED TUBING - This greatly reduces the cost of drilling, as well as providing a smaller
drilling footprint, requiring less drilling mud, faster rig set up, and reducing the time normally
needed to make drill pipe connections.
• SLIMHOLE DRILLING - a method of drilling exploratory wells in new areas, drilling deeper
wells in existing fields, and providing an efficient means for extracting more natural gas
from un-depleted fields.
• OFFSHORE DRILLING TECHNOLOGY - improved offshore drilling rigs, dynamic
positioning devices and sophisticated navigation systems are allowing safe, efficient
offshore drilling in waters more than 10,000 feet deep.
• HYDRAULIC FRACTURING - A liquid mix that is 99 percent water and sand is injected into
the rock at very high pressure, creating fractures within the rock that provide the natural
gas a path to flow to the wellhead.

II. LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS

• Cooling natural gas to about -260°F at normal pressure results in the condensation of the
gas into liquid form, known as Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG).
• LNG can be very useful, particularly for the transportation of natural gas, since LNG takes
up about one six hundredth the volume of gaseous natural gas.
• LNG is typically transported by specialized tanker with insulated walls, so that any heat
additions are countered by the energy lost from LNG vapor that is vented out of storage
and used to power the vessel.

III. NATURAL GAS FUEL CELLS

• Fuel cells powered by natural gas are an extremely exciting and promising new technology
for the clean and efficient generation of electricity.
• Fuel cells have the ability to generate electricity using electrochemical reactions as
opposed to combustion of fossil fuels to generate electricity.

The use of natural gas-powered fuel cells has a number of benefits, including:

• Clean Electricity
• Distributed Generation
• Dependability
• Efficiency

IV. NATURAL GAS TECHNOLOGY RESOURCES

The natural gas industry is joined by government agencies and laboratories, private research
and development firms, and environmental technology groups in coming up with new
technologies that may improve the efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and environmental
soundness of the natural gas industry.

DESCRIPTION OF VARIOUS SYSTEMS


NATURAL GAS DRILLING AND PROCESSING

HOW DO WE GET NATURAL GAS?

1. Geologists locate the types of rock that are likely to contain natural gas deposits. Some of
these areas are on land and some are offshore and deep under the ocean floor.
2. They often use seismic surveys on land and in the ocean to find the right places to drill wells.
3. Seismic surveys on land use echoes from a vibration source at the surface of the earth.
4. Seismic surveys in the ocean rely on sound that create sonic waves to explore the geology
beneath the ocean floor.
5. If a site seems promising, an exploratory well is drilled and tested. Once a formation is proven
to be economic for production, one or more production wells are drilled down into the formation,
and natural gas flows up through the wells to the surface.

HOW IS NATURAL GAS BEING PROCESSED?

The actual practice of processing natural gas to pipeline dry gas quality levels can be quite
complex, but usually involves four main processes to remove the various impurities:

1. Oil and Condensate Removal


• In order to process and transport associated dissolved natural gas, it must be separated
from the oil in which it is dissolved. This separation of natural gas from oil is most often
done using equipment installed at or near the wellhead.
2. Water Removal
• In addition to separating oil and some condensate from the wet gas stream, it is necessary
to remove most of the associated water. Most of the liquid, free water associated with
extracted natural gas is removed by simple separation methods at or near the wellhead.
3. Separation of Natural Gas Liquids
• Natural gas coming directly from a well contains many natural gas liquids that are
commonly removed. In most instances, natural gas liquids (NGLs) have a higher value as
separate products, and it is thus economical to remove them from the gas stream.
4. Sulfur and Carbon Dioxide Removal
• Natural gas from some wells contains significant amounts of sulfur and carbon dioxide.
This natural gas, because of the rotten smell provided by its sulfur content, is commonly
called ‘sour gas’.
• The process for removing hydrogen sulfide from sour gas is commonly referred to as
‘sweetening’ the gas.
• It is quite similar to the processes of glycol dehydration and NGL absorption. In this case,
however, amine solutions are used to remove the hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide.
This process is known simply as the ‘amine process’.

LNG PROCESSING SYSTEM

HOW IS LIQUIFIED NATURAL GAS BEING PROCESSED?

With LNG, gas is liquefied and transported internationally via tankers and then regasified into its
original state for distribution and sale. Additionally, the hydrocarbon takes up significantly less
space as a liquid than a gas; LNG is approximately 1/600th the volume of the same amount of
natural gas.

1. Liquefaction
• Natural gas is liquefied by lowering the temperature of the hydrocarbon to approximately
-260 degrees Fahrenheit (-160 degrees Celsius). This temperature drop liquefies the
methane present in the natural gas, making transportation at atmospheric pressure in the
form of LNG possible.
2. Transportation
• LNG is kept in its liquid form via autorefrigeration. This is a process in which the fuel is
kept at its boiling point. Through autorefrigeration any additions of heat are offset by the
energy lost from the LNG vapor, vented out of the storage and used to power the tanker.
3. Regasification
• Once it has reached its destination, the LNG is offloaded from the tanker and either stored
or regasified. The LNG is dehydrated into a gaseous state again through a process that
involves passing the LNG through a series of vaporizers that reheat the fuel above the -
260 degree Fahrenheit (-160 degrees Celsius) temperature mark. The fuel is then sent via
established transportation methods, such as pipelines, to the end users.

HOW DOES THE NATURAL GAS DELIVERY SYSTEM WORK?

1. Gathering Systems - This includes a processing facility, which removes impurities like water,
carbon dioxide or sulfur that might corrode a pipeline, or inert gases, such as helium, that
would reduce the energy value of the gas.
2. The Transmission System - It is composed of steel pipes ranging from 20 inches to 42 inches
in diameter. They move large amounts of natural gas to local distribution companies (LDCs).
3. Compressor Stations - Compressor stations are located approximately every 50 to 60 miles
along each pipeline to boost the pressure that is lost through the friction of the natural gas
moving through the steel pipe.
4. Linepack - A transmission line operating at about 1,000 pounds of pressure that stores about
200 million cubic feet of gas, in case of hourly fluctuations.
5. Gate Stations:
• reduce the pressure in the line
• add an odorant so that consumers can smell even small quantities of gas.
• measure the flow rate of the gas
6. The Distribution System - Within each distribution system, there are sections that operate at
different pressures, with regulators controlling the pressure. Generally speaking, the closer
natural gas gets to a customer, the smaller the pipe diameter is and the lower the pressure
is.
7. Introducing Natural Gas into Your Home - Natural gas runs from the main into a home or
business in what's called a service line. When a gas furnace or stove is turned on, the gas
pressure is slightly higher than the air pressure, so the gas flows out of the burner and ignites
in its familiar clean blue flame.

SOURCES & APPLICATIONS


SOURCES OF NATURAL GAS

1. SHALE GAS

•Shale is a fine-grained, sedimentary rock that does not disintegrate in water.


•Thick sheets of this impermeable rock can “sandwich” a layer of natural gas between them.
•Shale gas is considered an unconventional source because of the difficult processes
necessary to access it.

2. BIOGAS

•Biogas is biological matter that comes from plants or animals, living or non-living
•a type of gas that is produced when organic matter decomposes without oxygen being
present.
•This takes place in landfills or where organic material such as animal waste, sewage, or
industrial byproducts are decomposing.

3. TIGHT GAS

•Tight gas is trapped underground in an impermeable rock formation that makes it extremely
difficult to extract.
•Extracting gas from “tight” rock formations usually requires expensive and difficult methods,
such as fracking and acidizing.

4. COALBED METHANE

•Historically, when coal was mined, the natural gas was intentionally vented out of the mine
and into the atmosphere as a waste product.
•As its name implies, coalbed methane is commonly found along seams of coal that run
underground.

5. METHANE HYDRATES
•Methane hydrates were discovered only recently in ocean sediments and permafrost areas
of the Arctic.
•Methane hydrates form at low temperatures (around 00C, or 320F) and under high pressure.
•When environmental conditions change, methane hydrates are released into the
atmosphere.

6. OFFSHORE NATURAL GAS

•Although most of the natural gas wells are on land, some wells are drilled into the ocean
•Drilling for natural gas offshore, in some instances hundreds of miles away from the nearest
landmass, poses a number of different challenges over drilling onshore.
7. TOWN GAS

•Town gas or coal gas refers to a gaseous mixture, used as a fuel, that is released when
bituminous coal is burned.
•Town gas was introduced as a fuel for lighting and cooking in the early 19th century.

*Natural gas is a versatile, clean-burning, and efficient fuel that is used in a wide variety of
applications.

USES OF NATURAL GAS

1. Electricity Generation - The primary use for natural gas is to generate electrical power.
2. Heating - Natural gas heat feels warmer than an electric heat pump.
3. Cogeneration - Electrical energy and heating can be used simultaneously through
Cogeneration.
4. Trigeneration - Trigeneration is the combination of electricity, heating and cooling.
5. Transportation - natural gas has been used to power vehicles since the 1930’s.
6. Manufacturing - Natural gas is used in a wide variety of manufacturing processes.

ALTERNATIVE USES OF NATURAL GAS

1. Fertilizers - Natural gas is a major feedstock for the production of ammonia, via the Haber
process, for use in fertilizer production.
2. Hydrogen Production - Natural gas can be used to produce hydrogen. Hydrogen has many
applications: it is a primary feedstock for the chemical industry, a hydrogenating agent, an
important commodity for oil refineries, and the fuel source in hydrogen vehicles.
3. Animal and fish feed - Protein rich animal and fish feed is produced by feeding natural gas
to “Methylococcus capsulatus” bacteria on commercial scale.
4. Others - Natural gas is also used in the manufacture of fabrics, glass, steel, plastics, paint,
vinyl flooring, carpeting, artificial limbs and heart valves, sun glasses, deodorant and cell
phones.

NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION (by Sector)

• ELECTRIC POWER
Applications: natural gas power plants, thermal power plants; electricity cogeneration.
• INDUSTRIAL
Applications: steam generation; central heating systems; food industry; cement industry;
drying; firing ceramic products; metal casting; heat treatments; metal tempering and
annealing; smelting furnaces
• RESIDENTIAL
Applications: hot water; heating; cooking; dryers; gas fires; barbecues; preheating
• COMMERCIAL
Applications: climate control: central heating systems; hot water; cooking/preparing food
• VEHICLE FUEL
Applications: buses; taxis; transport fleets; forklift trucks; private vehicles
ENERGY PRODUCTION/GENERATION
ELECTRICITY FROM NATURAL GAS

Steam Generation Units


• consists of a steam generation unit, where fossil fuels are burned in a boiler to heat water
and produce steam that then turns a turbine to generate electricity.
Centralized Gas Turbines
• hot gases from burning fossil fuels (particularly natural gas) are used to turn the turbine and
generate electricity.

Natural gas power plants usually generate electricity in gas turbines (which are derived from jet
engines), directly using the hot exhaust gases of fuel combustion.

PARTS OF A GAS TURBINE

COMPRESSOR - Takes in air from outside of the turbine and increases its pressure.
COMBUSTOR - Burns the fuel and produces high pressure and high velocity gas.
TURBINE - Extracts the energy from the gas coming from the combustor

HOW DO GAS GENERATORS PRODUCE ELECTRICITY?

1. Air-fuel mixture ignites.


The gas turbine compresses air and mixes it with fuel that is then burned at extremely high
temperatures, creating a hot gas.
2. Hot gas spins turbine blades.
The hot air-and-fuel mixture moves through blades in the turbine, causing them to spin
quickly.
3. Spinning blades turn the drive shaft.
The fast-spinning turbine blades rotate the turbine drive shaft.
4. Turbine rotation powers the generator.
The spinning turbine is connected to the rod in a generator that turns a large magnet
surrounded by coils of copper wire.
5. Generator magnet causes electrons to move and creates electricity.
The fast-revolving generator magnet creates a powerful magnetic field that lines up the
electrons around the copper coils and causes them to move. The movement of these
electrons through a wire is electricity.

NATURAL GAS POWER PLANT (2 types)

SIMPLE CYCLE GAS PLANTS

• Simple cycle gas plant consists of a gas turbine connected to a generator.


• The simple cycle is fairly straight forward yet less efficient than the combined cycle, and is
only used for meeting the fluctuating electricity needs of society, known as peaking power.

COMBINED CYCLE GAS PLANTS

• Combined cycle gas plant consists of a simple cycle plant in combination with another
external combustion engine, hence its name "combined cycle".
• It makes up for the efficiency of simple cycle plants, because it makes use of the hot
exhaust gases that would otherwise be dispelled from the system.

*About 20.3% of the world’s electricity comes from natural gas.

TOP 5 LARGEST NATURAL GAS POWER PLANTS IN THE WORLD

1. Surgut-2 Power Station (5,597 MW) - RUSSIA


2. FUTTSU Power Station (5,040 MW) – JAPAN
3. Kawagoe Power Station (4,802 MW) – JAPAN
4. TATAN power plant Power Station (4,384 MW) – TAIWAN
5. Chita thermal power station (3,996 MW) – JAPAN

*About 22.9% of our country’s electricity comes from natural gas.

NATURAL GAS POWER PLANTS IN THE PHILIPPINES

SAN GABRIEL COMBINED-CYCLE NATURAL GAS-FIRED POWER PLANT


•Began commercial operations in November 2016
•Has 414-MW installed power generation capacity
•Reaches full capacity in under two hours
•The most efficient natural gas plant in Southeast Asia, at ISO (International Organization
for Standardization) conditions

AVION OPEN-CYCLE NATURAL GAS-FIRED POWER PLANT


•Started commercial operations in September 2016
•Has a 97-MW installed power generation capacity
•The first land-based power plant in the Philippines to use aero-derivative engines, allowing
the plant to reach full load in under 15 minutes
•Can start and stop multiple times a day to react to the needs of the grid

THE ILIJAN COMBINED-CYCLE POWER PLANT

•The largest natural gas facility in the country with a design life of 25 years
•The Ilijan plant's construction began in March 1999 and was commissioned in June 2000.
•It is designed to draw natural gas from the Malampaya gas field.

SAN LORENZO COMBINED-CYCLE NATURAL GAS-FIRED POWER PLANT

•Commenced commercial operations in October 2002


•Has an installed power generation capacity of 500 MW
•Has been operating for almost 20 years, but is still in tip-top condition due to numerous
operational activities

SANTA RITA COMBINED-CYCLE NATURAL GAS-FIRED POWER PLANT

•Came online in October 2001


•Has been operating for almost 20 years, but is still in tip-top condition due to numerous
upgrades and activities
•Sells its electric output to Meralco, the largest distributor of electricity in the Philippines
MEMBERS:

• BAÑARES, JAIRUS ALJON


• CRISTO, ALDRIN
• GAÑOLO, RONALD
• MADRIDANO, RAYNATH
• MARCAIDA, PATRICK JOHN
• ODOÑO, DUSTIN

SOURCES:

• https://www.forbes.com/sites/jamestaylor/2017/01/10/natural-gas-is-the-future-of-energy-and-
its-not-even-close/#54e9bfc164ae
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production-and-problems/278913/
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use.html
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energy/#38f5fe475e19
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