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Industrial Electronics N4

R B J van Heerden

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TROUPANT

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Publishers

PREfJ.\CE After many requests from lecturers and students and a great deal ofthought I finally
PREfJ.\CE
After many requests from lecturers and students and a great deal ofthought I finally decided to write this In-
dustrial Electronics N4 textbook. A common factor in the feedback from students and lecturers was the re-
quest for more background infonnation, as weIl as more explanations and worked examples. This textbook
therefore provides comprehensive coverage ofthe subject, in some cases going back as far as the NI course in
order to revise topics and to put difficult concepts in context.
Another important point is the fact that syllabuses will change in the near future and the book therefore not
only covers the present syllabus, but also includes topics and infonnation that in all probability will be re-
quired by the the new syllabus.
Also included in each module are the most recent exam questions. The list of formulae as supplied to stu-
dents in the exam can be found at the back of the book.
I hope those who study this textbook will not only find it interesting reading but also of great help in their
studies.
Roelf van Heerden
Decem ber 1999

COi'rrENTS

1.

DIRECT CURRENT THEORY

1

1.1

lntroduction

1

1.2

Ohm's law

1

1.2.1

Basic aplic3lions ofOhm's law

1

1.2.2

Advanced applications ofOhm's Jaw

2

I.J

Kirchhotrs laws

3

LJ.l

Current [aw

3

1.3.2

Voltage law

3

1.3.3

Applications ofKirchhofT's laws

4

1.3.3.1

Olle-baltery circuit

4

1.3.3.2

Two-battery circuit

6

1.4

Thevenin's theorem

7

1.4.1

Thevenin's theorem used with Olle

power supply

8

1.4.2

Thevenin's theorem use with two

power supplies

9

1.5

The superposition theorem

10

Exercise

1.1

12

2. ALTERNATING CURRENT THEORY

2.1 Introduction

2.2 The sine wave

2.2.1 Frequeney

2.2.2 Sine wave values

2.2.3

2.3

2A

2.5

2.6 AC eireuits with inductance

2.7 AC circuils with eapaeitance

2.8 lmpedallce

2.8.1 Series X,

2.8.2 Series Xc eircuit

2.8.3

2.8.4 The parallel X", Xl and R circuit

Phase angle The square wave The sawtooth wave AC eircuits with resistanee

circuit

Series Xe,X, and R eireuit

16

16

17

17

17

18

19

20

20

21

22

24

24

24

25

26

2.9

Power in AC eircuits

28

2.10

Complex numbers (J-notation)

28

2.11

Resonance

31

2.11.1

Serics resonant frequency

31

2.11.2

2.11.3

Q of a circuit

32

Bandwidth

32

2.11.4

Parallel rcsonance

32

Exercise 2.1

33

3.

SEMICONDUCTORS

(D10DES)

36

3.1 lntroduction

36

3.2 CharaClcristics of materials

3.2.\

3.2.2

36

Tempcralure

36

Photo-conduction

37

3.3

lnlrinsic scmiconduclors

37

3.4

N.type scmiconductors

37

35

P-type scmiconductor

38

3.6

The P-N junclion

39

3.7

Bias

39

3.7.1

Bias on the P-N junetion

40

3.8 Diode eharaeteristies

40

3.9 Diode equations

3.9.1

3.10

3.1\

42

Forward resislance

43

DC conditions (Ihe load line)

43

The :tener diode

44

3.1 I. 1

The

zener as

voltage regulator

44

3.12

The

varactor diode

45

3. \3

46

 

The tunnel diode Exereise 3.1

46

4.

POWER SUPPLIES

51

4.1

Introduction

51

4.2

The transronner

51

4.3

Rectifier eireuits

53

4.3.\

Half-wave reetification

53

4.3.2

Ripple

54

4.3.3

Full-wave reetification

55

4.3.3.1

Centre·tapped transfonner

55

4.3.3.2

Bridge reetifier eircuit

57

4.4

Filters

58

4.4.1

Simplc capacitor filtcr

58

4.4.1.1 Voltage regulation 61 6.3.2 99 4.4.2 The RC filter 62 6.3.3 99 4.4.3 The
4.4.1.1
Voltage regulation
61
6.3.2
99
4.4.2
The RC filter
62
6.3.3
99
4.4.3
The LC
filter
63
6.3.4
100
Exercise 4.1
64
6.3.5
Non-inverting amplifier
The voltage folIower
Voltage summer (adder)
Integrator
100
6.3.6
Differentiator
101
6.3.7
Summary
101
6.4
101
5.
TRANSISTOR AND
Audio amplifier
Exercise 6.1
103
AMPLIFIER
DEVICES
68
5.1
Introduction
68
5.2
The
basic junction transistor
68
5.3
The three basic circuits
70
7.
5.3.1
The common emitter circuit
70
ELECTRONIC POWER
CONTROL
106
5.3.2
The common base circuit
71
7.1
106
5.3.3
The common collector circuit
71
7.2
106
5.4
Biasing
72
7.3
109
5.5
Transistor characteristic curves
74
7.3.1
109
5.5.1
Input characteristic curve
74
7.3.2
109
5.5.2
Output characteristic curve
74
7.3.3
110
5.5.3
Transfer characteristic curve
75
7.4
110
5.6
Operating point
75
7.5
112
5.6.1
The load line
76
7.6
113
5.6.2
Operating
areas
76
7.6.1
113
5.6.3
Transistor gain
77
7.6.2
114
5.7
Classes of amplifier operation
78
7.7
114
5.8
Push-pull amplifiers
79
7.8
115
5.9
Distortion
80
7.9
115
5.9.1
Cross-over distortion
80
7.10
116
5.9.2
Feedback
81
7.11
117
5.10
Transistor hybrid circuit
(H-parameters)
7.11.1
117
82
7.11.2
117
5.10.1
Transistor modelling
82
7.12
118
5.10.2
Transistor hybrid circuit
(h-parameter)
7.12.1
118
83
7.12.2
118
5.10.3
Common emitter amplifier
84
7.12.3
119
5.10.4
Common base
85
7.13
119
5.11
Unijunction transistor (UJT)
86
7.13.1
119
5.12
Field-effect transistors (FETs)
88
7.13.2
119
5.12.1
Characteristics of the J-FET
89
7.13.3
5.12.2
MOS-FET construction
90
7.13.4
5.12.2.1
The depletion MOS-FET
90
Introduction
The SCR
Commutation
Commutation circuits
Parallel-capacitor commutation
Series-capacitor commutation
Duty cycle
Altemating current circuits
The triac
Summary of characteristics
Characteristic curve
The diac
The quadrac
Light-activated SCRs
Phase control
Interference
Direct emission
Transients
Different contral methods
Phase control
Cycle control
Cyclotronic control
Power contral
Open system
Closed system
Examples
Practical examples
Exercise 7.1
120
120
122
5.12.2.2
The enhancement MOS-FET
91
5.12.3
Practical circuits
Exercise 5.1
91
91
8.
TRANSDUCERS
125
8.1
125
8.2
126
6.
OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
97
8.3
6.1
Introduction
97
Introduction
Mechanical conversion of energy
Wheatstone bridge
Potentiometer
Strain gauges
Thermistors
Capacitive transducers
126
8.4
126
6.2
The ideal op-amp
97
8.5
128
6.3
Operating modes
98
8.6
129
6.3.1
Inverting amplifier
98
8.7
130

8.8

lnductivc lransducers

132

8.8.1

Variable reluctance transdUCCf

133

8.8.2

Linear variable differential

Iransfonner (LVDr)

134

8.9

Solid-state devices

135

8,9.1

Photoconduclors or light-dependcnI

resislors (LDRs)

135

8.9.2 Photodiodes

136

8.9.3 The phototransislor

138

8.9.4

Üplo-isolator

138

Exercise 8, t

139

9.

TESTING EQUIPMENT

141

9.1

Introduclion

141

9.2

The oscil1oscope

141

9,2.1

The calhode-ray tube (CRT)

141

9.2.2

Focusing Ihe beam

142

9.2.2.1

Gas focusing

142

9.2.2.2

Eleclrostatic focusing

142

9.2.2.3

Electromagnclic focusing

142

9.2.3

Deflecling the spot

143

9.2.3.1

Electromagnetic deflection

143

9.2.3.2

Electrostatic deflection

143

9.2.4

Basic operation

144

9.2.5

Stable display of a repetitive

signal (triggering)

144

9.2.6

Main conlrols and their functions

145

9.2,7

Signal analysis

146

9.2.7.1

Amplitude mcasuring

146

9.2.7.2 Time (period) measuring

147

9.2.7.3 Frequency measuring

147

9.3

The function generalor

147

Exercise

9.1

148

APPENDIX:

Fonnula List

151

OVERVIEW In this module, the following will be dealt with by means of theory and
OVERVIEW
In this module, the following will be dealt with by means of theory and worked examples.
• revision of Ohm's law by applying Kirchhoff's laws;
• solving simple one- and two-power-supply networks by applying:
- KirchhofI's laws,
- Thevenin's theorem,
- the superposition theorem.
1.1
INTRODUCTION
Many types ofcircuits have components that are not
connected in series, in parallel or in series-parallel.
One example is the circuit in a motor car, where the
batlery is on the one end and the generator on the
other end, with all the lights, radio, CD-player,
wires, etc. Another example is an unbalanced bridge
circuit. In cases where the mIes ofseries and parallel
circuits cannot be applied, we use more general
methods of analysis. These methods inc1ude the ap-
plication of Kirchhoff's laws, Thevenin's theorem
and the superposition theorem. Any circuit can be
solved by applying any one or a combination of
these methods because they do not depend on series
or parallel connectors. Ohm 's law is also an integral
part of these methods, and is usually applied to-
wards the end of the solution.
In order to obtain an efficient design, we must
analyse circuits to calculate the currents, voltages
and powers in the relative components. Kirchhoff
formulated two basic laws to provide a method to
work out the ratios in which the currents and volt-
ages would divide in any circuit, namely the current
and valtage laws. The best way to explain these laws
is to work through examples where they are applied.
not do the N2 or N3 courses but entered at N4
level, must ensure that they know Ohm' s law and
how to apply it to solve problems. An aspect of
mathematics, name1y ratios, will be dealt with in
this module to provide shortcuts to Ohm's law.
1.2 OHM'S LAW
Ohm 's law states that the current I in a homogeneous
conductor at constant temperature is:
• directly proportional to the pd V applied to the
ends of the conductor; and
• inversely proportional to the electrical resistance
R of the conductor.
We thus have that I oc V/R which becomes the equa-
tion 1= V/R, provided we measure JI;" 1, and R in com-
mensurate units. Tbe units with which the electrical
engineer is mainly concemed are the practical units,
i.e.:
V is measured in volts (V);
I is measured in amperes (A); and
R is measured in ohms (0).
1.2.1 Basic applications of Ohm's law
Note
Example 1.1
• Ohm's law is the most important concept in the
study of electronics and electricity. Students are
strongly advised to revise the sectiort dealing with
Ohm 's law in the N2 syllabus. Students who did
A 90 V voltage source is connected in series with a
20 0, a 100 0 and a 180 0 resistor as shown in fig.
1.1. Calculate the voltage drop across each resistor.

+

=-E

90V

Fig.1.1

Calculation

To solve this problem you must detennine the mag- nitude of the current in the circuit:

V

1= -

R

(Ohm's law)

90

90

300

-----=-=03A

20 + 100 + 180

'

With the total current known, the voltages can be worked out as folIows:

V R1 = IR,

= 0,3 x 20

= 6 V

V R2

V R3

= IR 2 = 0,3 x 100 = 30 V

= IR 3 = 0,3 x 180 = 54 V

Note

• In the series circuit, the current through all series resistances is the same, and the voltage drops across each resistor is proportional to its resis- tance.

Example 1.2

Refer to fig. 1.2 and detennine the relevant currents through the resistances, the total resistance as weIl as the voltage drop across each resistor.

Calculation It is clear from the diagram that all the resistors are in parallel, therefore the voltage across all of them must be the same. In this case it is equal to the sup- plied voltage, which is 6 V. With the voltage known, the current through a re- sistor can easily be ca1culated by using Ohm's law. The total resistance can be ca1culated by means of the usual fonnula.

2

:

+

6V

llA

-

+

6V

1

6V

!

6A

+

R}

IQ

R}

(a)

6V

1

!

5A

3A

R2

II

A

5A

Fig.1.2

V

1 1 = -

R

12 =- 6

R 2

(h)

6

R,

= -

6

= -

1

= 6 A

6

=- =3 A

2

6

6

1 3 =- =- =2A

R 3

3

Total resistance:

1

I

1

1

-=-+-+-

R T

R,

1

R 2

1

I

= - + - + -

1

2

3

R 3

= 1+ 0 5 + 0 333

"

+

1

2A

2A

2A

= 1,833 (but this is not yet the resistance,

it is the inverse, i.e. ~) R T

1

:.R T =-- = 0,5455 n

1,833

1.2.2 Advanced applications of Ohm's law

The mathematical principle of ratios can be applied to enable us to use shortcuts with Ohm's law. The best way to explain this is by means ofworked ex- amples.

Note I L = V L = 8,31 =0933 A 9 ' • Always remember
Note
I L = V L
= 8,31
=0933 A
9
'
• Always remember that the highest current flows
through the lowest resistance and the lowest cur-
rent flows through the highest resistance, pro-
vided that the voltage stays the same.
R L
Example 1.3
It is c1ear from the above two examples that even if
the load changes by only 1 0 the entire ca1culation
must be done again. Thevenin, a scientist, developed
a method that enables us to work out the current
without repeating the whole calculation. We will
deal with Thevenin's theorem in section 1.4.
1.3
KIRCHHOFF's LAWS
1.3.1
Current law
Fig.1.3
The current law states that the algebraic sum 0/ the
currents into any point 0/a circuit must equal the al-
gebraic sum o/the currents out o/that point, i.e. the
current in equals the current out (see fig. 1.4).
Refer to fig. 1.3 and ca1culate the current through
the relevant resistances.
Calculation
p lr=8A
It is possible to work out these currents in the normal
way by first calculating the total resistance and then
working backwards from first principles, but the
idea here is to take ratios:
18=3 A
Ca1culate the parallel resistanc first
3x9
R;; =-=2,260
12
Fig. 1.4
The voltage over the load can now be ca1culated
by taking ratios:
V = R;; x V
=
R T
2,26 x 12 = 6 34 V
'
4,26
L
It can be seen in the figure that 5 A and 3 Aare flow-
ing into the node P (point of connection) and then
they combine to become 8 A flowing away from P.
T
Use Ohm's law to calculate the load current:
1.3.2 Voltage law
I L =V L =6,34 =211 A
3
'
R L
Example 1.4
This law states that the algebraic sum o/the voltages
around any closedpath is zero, or the algebraic sum
o/the voltages in a circuit is equal to the voltages ap-
plied, as shown in fig. 1.5.
Refer again to fig. 1.3 but decrease the load. (This is
done by increasing the load resistance to 9 0.) Cal-
culate the relevant currents.
Calculation
R;; =--=450 9x9 18 '
VT
V L = R;; X V T = 4,5 x 12 =8,31 V
6,5
Fig.1.5
R T
3

In this case, the total voltage V r = V( + V 2 + V y The above laws are explained in more detail in the following examples.

Example 1.5

Calculate the resultant current for the circuit shown in fig. 1.6.

lI=lOA

Fig.1.6

Calculation

From Kirchhoff we get:

Ir

=

I( +1 2 +(-1 3 )=1] +1 2 -1 3

:.I r = 10 A+12 A-15 A :.I r = 7 A

h= I5A

Example 1.6

Calculate the voltage drop across the internal resis- tance R; of the battery shown in fig. 1.7 by using Kirchhoff's voltage law.

L

_

-

h=IA

Vi' =

20 V

Fig.1.7

Calculation

R2= 20 n

h=IA

4

:,V Rj

= V r - V R1 + V R2

But R] and R 2 are in parallel

. . ,V R1

_

-

=

Ir x --- R] xR

2

R( +R 2

1x 20 x 60

= 15 V

20+60

:,V Rj = 20-(15 + 4,9) = 0,1 V

Use Ohm's law to check the answer:

V Rj

= Ir xR j

= 1x 0,1 =0,1 V

1.3.3 Applications of. Kirchhoff's laws

By using Kirchhoff's laws, complex quantities can be solved. To explain this, we will first use very sim- ple examples. Refer to fig. 1.8, where the relevant currents and voltages must be calculated.

1.3.3.1 One-battery circuit

A

Vr =

= 24 V

F

Fig.1.8

E

D

IfOhm's law is used to solve the problem in fig. 1.8, then the total resistance must first be calculated by using Kirchhoff's laws. It is just a matter of setting up equations, as many as there are unknowns, and then by solving the equations, the relevant quantities are calculated. To solve this problem, the circuit is identified by one or more "Ioops" as shown in fig. 1.8, i.e. loops ABEFA and ABCDEFA.

Calculation

First take loop ABEFA, which on its own is aseries circuit, and apply the voltage law:

Note

• If the current direction is not specified, then con- ventional current flow direction is used, which is from positive to negative in the external circuit. It

is imponam thai when you Slan off with one con- venlion 10 keep 10 il
is imponam thai when you Slan off with one con-
venlion 10 keep 10 il for as long as you deal with
the same circuil. This is especially importam
when we get 10 circuits wilh more than power
source. In N3 only ooe power supply was used, in
the N4 course you are expected 10 deal with more
that one power supply!
According to Kirchhoff"s law, we get:
V, = 16 V; V 1 - 8 Vand V J = 8 V
Eumple 1.7
Refer to fig. 1.9 and use Kirchhotrs laws to calcu.
late the following:
I.
Ihe voltage drop across Rl;
2.
the value of R3; and
3.
. m
~-~+~
.
.
.
.
.
the value oflhe currenl flowing through Rz, i.c.
belween C and D.
According 10 Ohm's law,
B
11-11
A
C
V. :: R,)( I. and V 1 = R 1 X
1 1
:.v l
=8x/. and
h-
3mA
V 1 = 12(/, -1 2 ) as weil as
6x 1 1
R,-
Subslitute the values from fig.1.8 in equation I
SOkO
Vr=RI x!l+Rzx!2
.~U=8~+M
~
Loop ABCDEFA is also made up by means of a
series circuil and the voltage law must again be
used. It is again applied to equalion I.
F
E
o
Fig. 1.9
V T
=
R./ 1 +R)(ll-/ 1 )
Note
:.24 = 8/ 1 + 12(1. -/ 1 )
The following are some common definitions you
should know:
:::8/.+12/.-121 2
:.24 = 20/, -12/ 1
• A c10sed path is a loop.
• A principal node is a branch point wllere currents
divide or combine.
We now have two equations with two unknowns.
We use nonnal algebra 10 solve these equations as
folJows:
• A mesh is the simplesi possible loop. A mesh cur·
rent is assumed to now around thc mesh without
branching.
Multiply lZl with 2
48 = 16/, + 121.
.•
@
Culcularion
Add@and<1l
72 = 36/,
We follow Ihe same method as before.
Take loopABEFA. This is a seriescircuil with Rl
:./, = 2 A
and RJ.
VT
= V"I + V'')
Replace I,
=
2
A
in
l%l
:.200 = 1 1 x R, + 1 2 XR)
(/1 = 3 mAl
24=8 x 2+161 2
24-16=61 2
200:::4xIO l / l +3xIO-)xR)"
. <D
Take loop ACDFA which is also aseries circuit:
8 = 1,333 A
:./ 1 ::: -
6
VT
::: V"l
+ V')
:.1 1 -/ 1 =2-1,333
:.200:::/, xR,+R)(I.-/ 1 )
[1 2 =3mA]
= 0,667 A
200
= 4 X 10) I. + 50x 10){I. -3x 10-))
Ohm's law can now be used 10 calculale the voltage
drop across each resistor and then thc power dissi-
paled by each resistor can be calculated.
The voltages wod out as folIows:
200
= 4x 10)1 1 +50x 10)1 1 -50x 10) x3 x 10-)
200:::54xlO)/I-150
:.350::: 54x 10)/ ,
5

350

1

1 =

54 X

10 3

=

6,48 X 10- 3

=

6,48 mA

Substitute 1 1 in CD

200

=

4 x 10 3 x 6,48 x 10- 3 + 3 x 10- 3 X R 3

200

=

25,926 + 3 x 10- 3 X R 3

174,074

=

3 x 10- 3 X R 3

. R

=

174,074

••

3

3xl0- 3

 

=

58,025 kQ

Ohm's law can again be used to calculate the volt- ages:

= 25,926 V

V R2 = 174,07 V

V R1

Test:

V RI + V Rz = 25,926 + 174,07 = 200

V (Adds up)

1.3.3.2 Two-battery circuit

Two barteries (power supplies) in a circuit are not uncommon. A nonnal motor car is a typical exam- pie where you have a bartery and, connected in par- allel with it, the alternator / rectifier unit to charge the bartery. It is also possible to have the two power supplies in series, although each supply can have its own load in the fonn of resistance or other power consuming devices connected to each one respectively. We will explain this method by means of worked examples.

Example 1.8

Study fig. 1.10 and calculate the voltage drop across R L and the current through it.

RI =8 Q

FL

------lIIlI----

Fig.1.10

E

Rz=6Q

---

------'D

6

To be able to solve the problem you must:

• Decide which type of current flow will be used. Let us take conventional current flow from posi- tive to negative.

• Draw the circuit and label it in order to set up paths to work from and current flows in directions ac- cording to the polarities of the power supplies.

• Set up equations in each branch of the circuit, i.e. the two-power-supply circuit will have an equa- tion for each loop.

A

VR I = !IR]

B

B

VR Z = hRz

lt

 

Vz=

--=- 12 V

9V

-

F

E

E

Fig. 1.11

C

D

When solving equations, the following mIes must be applied:

• When going against the direction of current flow, the current is considered to be negative, i.e. -11, and when going with the flow of the current, it is considered to be positive, i.e. +1 1

• By entering the positive of apower supply, the voltage is considered to be positive, i.e. + VI, and when entering the negative the voltage is consid- ered to be negative, i.e. - V].

Calculation

Take loop ABEF

Take loop BCDE

VI

=

V R1

+ V RL

V 2 =V R2 + V RL

 

12

=

81 1 +

12(/) + 1 2 )

9

= 61 2 + 12(/1 + 1 2 )

12

= 81] + 121, + 121 2

 

9

= 61 2 + 121 1 + 121 2

12

= 201 1 + 121 2

CD

9 =

181 2 + 121 1

(g)

These two equations must now be solved.

12

121 2

9 = 121 1 + 181 2

=

201 1 +

••••••••••

••••••••••

CD

(g)

Multiply equation CD with a factor 1,5

18 = 301 1 + 181 2

Subtract (g) from @

@

9 = 181)

1

1 =

0,5 A

Substitute I, in equation @ 9 = 12 x 0,5 + 181 2 It follo~s
Substitute I, in equation @
9 =
12 x 0,5 + 181 2
It follo~s now that in this particular case, 1 3 will be
zero because I, as weil as 1 2 equals 1,5 A.
:.1 2 = - 9-6
=0,166 7 A
18
Now 1 3 can
be calculated as 1 2 + 1 3 = 0,6667 A.
1.4 THEVENIN'S THEOREM
Example 1.9
A.----
--.
This theorem is one ofthe greatest time-savers in the
solution of both direct current and altemating cur-
rent circuits. This is particularly true for the compli-
cated circuits used in the electronic and the
communications fields.
RL= 12 Q
F '-----
I---------t
-----oIIIII-------"
0
The
E
E=
rest
Fig. 1.12
120V
-
ofthe
circuit
I
Refer to fig. 1.12 and calcu1ate the three different
currents as weil as the voltage over R L •
In example 1.8, the two power supplies were con-
nected so that the positives are on the same side, and
in example 1.9 they are on opposite sides. (We used
the same component values to show the difference
in the two configurations.)
Note the direction of the relevant currents. In
some cases these current directions are wrong, and
will work out as negative current.
I
I
I
I
b
I
1
---
1
(a)
The
rest
Er
ofthe
1
circuit
Calculation
The circuit is again split up in two sections and
equations are set up for each circuit.
(h)
Take loop ABEF
Take loop BCDE
Fig.1.13
V(
=
V 2 =
V R \
+ V RL
V R2
+ V RL
12 =
81 1 +
12(11 - 1 2 )
9
=
61 2 +
12(11 - 1 2 )
12
= 81, + 121( -121 2
9
= 61 2 + 121, -121 2
Thevenin's theorem is applicable only to the terminal
voltage and current conditions ofa two-terminal net-
work. As formulated for direct current circuits, it
12
= 201, -121 2
·CD
9
= -61 2 + 121(
-@
states that we can replace a two-terminal network by
Multiply @ with 2
a voltage source E T and
a resistance R T connected in
18 = 241, -121 2 '
®
•.•
•••
Subtract CD from ®
6 =
41,
:.1,
=
1,5 A
Substitute 1 1 = 1,5 in CD
12.= 30 -121 2
18
:.1 2 = -
= 1,5 A
series. For example, in fig. 1.13 (a) we can replace
the circuit inside the dotted line by the equivalent
circuit shown in fig. 1.13 (b). If E T and R T have the
proper values, the va lues of the terminal voltage V;
and the current 1( will be the same for the circuit in
fig. 1.13 (b) as for the circuit in fig. 1.13 (a) regard-
less ofwhat we do to the rest ofthe circuit, provided
of course that we do the same in (a) as we do in (b).
Because of the simplicity of the equivalent series
12
7

circuit, Thevenin's theorem becomes mor~ useful as the complexity of the circuit within the dotted line increases. In order to find Rr, we reduce the strength of a11 of the sources within the network to zero, and then de- termine the resistance between the terminals of the network when "the rest of the circuit" is discon- nected. This value or resistance is Rr, which is the equivalent series resistance ofthe original circuit.

1.4.1 Thevenin's theorem used with one power supply

Example 1.10

Find the value ofErand R r for the network based on fig. 1.13. First let us draw the network with "the rest of the circuit" disconnected. This is shown in fig.1.14 (a). Now we work out the voltage rise Vba.

and b, representing the "the rest ofthe circuit". In the case ofthe original circuit, this current is:

I _ 120

T sc

-

75

= 1,6 A

And, in the case of the Thevenin equivalent circuit, this current is

I

T sc

= 55,7 = 16 A '

34,8

Which confirms the values we have computed.

Example 1.11

VT=

lOV

\,--

--

a

RL=

3,60

-

120V

750

650

a

t

VT

~

b

750

650

(a)

(b)

Fig. 1.14

Calculation

a

RT

L.-

Fig. 1.15

------tl

---_

b

Refer to fig. 1.15 and use Thevenin's theorem to cal- culate the current through the load resistor. b We must first ca1culate Vr and Rr. To do that we can ignore the load resistor. To work out Vr, we use fig. 1.16 (a) and to work out Rr, we use fig. 1.16 (b).

V =V =120~

ba

loc

65 + 75

= 120x65 =557 V

140

'

This is the value of Er. Now we let the power ofthe voltage source drop to zero. This results in a completed circuit through the place where the voltage source was, and we thus have the resistances connected as shown in fig. 1. 14(b).

R

T

_ 65x75

-

140

= 34,80

Now we have the values of Er and Rro As acheck, we can ca1culate the current which would flow through a short-circuit placed between a

Fig.1.16

b

(a) (b)

R

- R 1 R 2

T-

RI +R 2

4x6

10

=2,40

b

We can now place these Thevenin values in a new circuit as in fig. 1.17 which inc1udes the load resis- tor. By using this circuit, it is now an easy matter to work out the load current.

8

i ------- RT= 2,4 n - ~-- Calculation I I I I We firstly calculate
i
------- RT= 2,4 n - ~--
Calculation
I
I
I
I
We firstly calculate the Thevenin voltage and resis-
tance and then the current through the load:
I
I
RL=
= 3 x 12 = 4 V
ET=
V T
3,60
6V
--
9
I
6x3
I
R T =-=2n
I
9
I
I
.
V
4
T
·.I L =--=-=O,2A
~---------------~-
R
L +R
T 20
Fig. 1.17
In fig.l.17, the inside of the dotted lines represents
By using Ohm's law, we first have to work out the
parallel resistance, and then the voltage across the
load to be able to work out the current through the
load.
the Thevenin's equivalent circuit with the load at-
tached to points a and b. It is now an easy matter to
work out the current through the load, (as per defini-
tion, the voltage across it will be the Thevenin volt-
age which was worked out already):
3 x 18
R tt = --
=2,571 n
21
The voltage across the load can now be calculated by
taking the ratio of the resistances multiplied by the
total applied voltage as folIows:
- V 1h
6
_
I RL
-
-
2,4+
3,6
V
= 2,571
R T
ab
8,571
x 12 = 3 6 V
'
= ~=1 A
6
:.I L = 3,6 = 0,2 A
18
Ifthe load resistance now changes from 3,6 n to say
9,6 n, then the current will be:
This proves to be the same value as worked out by
means of Thevenin's theorem.
- V 1h
6
_
I RL
-
-
2,4+9,6
R T
1.4.2 Thevenin's theorem used with two
power supplies
=~=05A
12
'
A mathematical proof of Thevenin's was not given
but the next example will show that it works. We
will work out a simple circuit by means ofThevenin
as weIl as by means of Ohm's law.
Example 1.12
By using Thevenin's theorem, calculate the current
through the load in fig. 1.18. Prove Thevenin's
theorem by calculating the current through the load
by means ofOhm's law.
When two power supplies are part of the same cir-
cuit, then Er for each circuit must be worked out and
the two values added. To work out the Er for each
power supply, the two supplies are short-circuited in
turn. Only one R r is worked out and then the com-
plete circuit is simplified to only one power supply,
one internal resistance and the load. The following
example will explain how it is done.
A
a
VT=
RL=
12 V
18 n
F
D
E
b
Fig.1.18
Fig.1.19
9

Example 1.13

Calculate the value of the current through the load resistor in fig. 1.19. As you might havenoticed, this is the same asex· ample as 1.8. We will prove that the answer is the same, regardless ofthe method being used.

Cafculation

The Thevenin equivalenl vohage and resiSlance must be worked OUI before the load current can be calculated. To do this, remove the load resiSlance and work out the Thevenin voltages foreach supply and add them to get Ihe final Thevenin voltage. To work out Ihe Thevenin voltage. short out Ihe op- posile voltage and follow Ihe nonnal method. The 1bevenin resislance is simply the !Wo remiuances in parallel. Short out V:. then:

6

V TI = -xI2=5,143 V

I'

Short oul VI' then:

8

V n =-x9=5.143V

(11 is jusl a coincidence that these vollages are the same.) The final Thevenin vollage is now 10,286 V and the 1bevenin resislance is:

6 x 8=34290

"

"

'

lu =~ =

R r + R L

10,286

3.429+ 12

= 0,666 7 A

As you can see this is the same value as in example

1.8.

Note

• When the polaritiesofthe two power-supplies are in the oppositc directions, then the two Thevenin voltages must be subtractcd. (Refer to example 1.9. Vou will nolice thai the IWO Thevenin vo[t- agesare thesame, thus thesum will be zero and no current will Oow through the load, as worked OUI in example 1.9.)

1.5 THE SUPERPOSITION THEOREM

This theorem is useful to find the currenl in one

whieh conlains

several voltage sources. The method is to calculate

particular branch of a nelwork

how mueh current each of the individual sources' contributes to the branch in question. and then to add these eomponent eurrents algebraiealJy. To do this we leave only one voltage source at a time in Ihe nel- work, replacing the olher vohage sources by short·circuits. O( course. any resiSlances associated wilh Ihe displaced voHage sources are not shorH:ircuiled. This method can best be explained by means of an example.

Example I.IS

Refer to fig. 1.20 and find the cUTTenl1 sei up in the resistance R by the !wo vohage saurces E, and ~.

Fig.1.20

R,-

Ion

Calcufation

First find 1!Je curremlhrough the load if E l is short- eircuited. Redrawthecircuit as in fig. 1.21 (a). Let us call this CUTTem rand il is worked OUI as foliows:

(b)

Fig.1.21

10

r,

R2- 4!)

I;

= E2-150V

Rz-4 n

.i r

v~

1

i

v;.

1

r

R,- IOn

R,- ,on

I, I' _ EI = _10_0_ I-R+~ 2+!:.I!,", 1 1t1'ltL I, = 2Q.6 A V':'
I,
I' _
EI
= _10_0_
I-R+~ 2+!:.I!,",
1
1t1'ltL
I,
= 2Q.6 A
V':' = EI -R/; = [00-2><20,6
=58,8 V
R, •
120
I':~= 58.8
R
10
b
= 5,88 A
Fig.1.23
The current supplied by voltage E, 10 Ihe load is
5.88 A. Ta calculate the effect of E l , the same
method is followed. Refer {O fig.L2I(b) {O deter-
miner.
/"_
E 1
ISO
NOle how Ihe direclion of the current changed and
also the new identification for currents!
All three currents must now be worked out and
Ohm's law will be used.
The total resistance ofthe new cirtuit is:
:- R+~
= 4+ c,',"
·'l
R
= ~XRL +R
= 6xl2 +8
= 26.5 A
,
~ + R L
18
1
V;' = E 1 -1;R:
= 150-26.,4)( 4
72
=-+8=120:
= 44 V
18
, •
V;'
R.
44
V
=-xV,
=-=-
R
R,
10
V
4
6xl2
12
1
=
!!.=-
= 4,4 A
=--x- I
R
i8
12
6
j
11le currenl supplied by valtage E} 10 Ihe load is
4,4 A.
The total current I through the load resister is there-
= 0.667 A
=4V
V
V 2
1,=-
1)=-
rore the surn of rand r.
:./-5,88+4,4= IO.28A.
R,
R L
12
4
=-=IA
=-=0,333A
Anolner way. with more steps but Ihe same method,
12
12
is 10 break up Ihe currcnts in more detail and set up
equations. The following example will show how 10
Now we short out V l and identify new currents as in
fig. 1.24.
da this.
Example 1.16
I,
Referto fig. 1.22 and calculatc the relevant currents.
I.
I.
I,
I,
R, •
b
120
Vz-12V
Fig.1.24
Fig. 1.22
We can now calculate the new values for the differ-
ent currents:
The total resistance of the new circuit is now:
Ca/cutorioll
R:.xR
8xl2
96
Follow Ihe prcvious examplc's method and shon
out V, in this C3Se. Redraw the diagram as in fig.I.23.
R, =
L +R l =--+6=-+6=10.80:
R 1 +R L
20
20
11

R ab

Vb = -x R,

a

8x12

V

)

18

I

=--x- 5

20

10,8

=8V

V ab

8

=-=- R 2

8

=IA

=

~=1667A

10,8

'

V ab

8

I =-=-

6

R L

12

= 0,667 A

These current values must now be substituted in or- der to work out I a , I b and I c

I

a

= 1 4

-

I)

I b

= 1 2 -

1 5

I c =

1 3 + 1 6

Fig.1.26

RI=20

V2=9 V

l

3. Consider the circuit in fig. 1.27.

=

1,667 -0,667

= 1-1

= 0,333 + 0,667

RI=20

 

h

c

=IA

=OA

=IA

EXERCISE

1.1

~IIII

-=-

A

VI =

6 V

RL=

100

D

Note from the author

A question from the students which always annoyed me was: "Sir, how does the examiner ask questions on this section?" I therefore decided to include old exam questions in the exercises and I also mention when the particular question was asked. The ques-

tions go back as far as April 1994 and I hope that students as weIl as lecturers will benefit from this. (For extra practice, you can work out the same prob- lems using one or both ofthe alternative methods to check your answers.)

1. Study fig. 1.25. By taking a Thevenin break at ab, ca1culate and draw the equivalent circuit for the 4 Q and 10 Q resistances and 6 V battery. Use this information and calculate the current flow through the 2 Q resistor. (Apr. 94)

~--tllll~+----t.-a-----.,

VI=6V

R3=

100

V2=9V

Fig.1.27

RL=

30

3.1

Supply a short summary of how you would calculate the current flow through the load re- sistor with the aid ofthe following methods:

3.1.1 superposition method;

3.1.2 Thevenin's method.

3.2

Write down TWO equations to solve the cur- rent in the circuit using only the literal values given in fig. 1.27. (Apr. 96). (Do the ca1cula- tions for extra practice.)

4.1

A load has a constant resistance of 50 Q. If a variable resistor is connected in series with the load and set for 0 Q, how much power is dissipated throught the resistance in the load ifthe supply voltage is 12 V?

Fig. 1.25

b

2. Determine the value of the current flowing through the load resistor RL in fig. 1.26 using Kirchhoff's method. (Apr. 95)

VI=6V

Fig.1.28

12

RL=

100

R2=60

V2=9V

4.2 Ifthe variable resiSlor in 4.1 is set for a resis- lanee of20 n. how
4.2 Ifthe variable resiSlor in 4.1 is set for a resis-
lanee of20 n. how rnuch power is dissip3ted in
Ihe load?
4.3 Use the superposition method 10 detennine the
voltage drop aeross the load resistor in fig.
.,.
1.28. (Apr. 97)
,n
s.
Use Thevenin 's method 10 ca1culate lhe voltage
dropacross the Ioad resistor RL in fig. 1.29. (Apr.
98)
A
."
100
Fig.1.31
8.
Use the superposilion melhod 10 calculate the
current flow through the load resislor in fig.
1.32. (Aug. 95)
8
LI~~'I-V-V\'!',.J','-n-
Fig. 1.29
,---J1.J',V.IJ,",n---'
6.1
Describe the folJowing {WO laws ofKirchhofT:
6.1.1
voltage law;
.,.
6.1.2
currenl law.
,on
6.2
Detennine Thevenin '5 equivalcnl for the
cir·
cuit in fig.I.30.
Fig.1.32
I,
I,
."
IOn
6V
Fig.1.30
1
6.2.1
Use lhe values of lhe cquivalent cir-
cuit 10 calculatc the vollage drop
across the load resistor RL if RL
changcs from Ion 10 15 n. (Apr. 99)
Fig. 1.33
7.
Use Thevenin's mcthod 10:
7.1
Calculatc the current flow through the
9.1 Name IWO melhods which you would use to
calculate the current flow lhrough Ihe load re-
sislor RL in fig. 33.
Ioad resistor in fig.I.31; and
7.2
Delermine the currenl flow through
9.2 Which melhod would you recommend for a
person who wanlS to do research on a circuil
R. if R L changes from 5 n TO 8 n.
(Aug.94)
13

where the load resistor changes continu- ously7 Motivate your answer.

9.3 Which two laws would you use to set two equations for fig. 1.337

9.4 Use the literal values given in fig. 33 and write down two equations to detennine the current in the circuit. You do not need to solve the equations. (Aug. 96)

10.1 Refer to fig. 1.34. How much power is dissipated in the load re- sistor if the variable resistor is set at 0 07

r02Vrms

Fig.1.34

RL=

600

10.2 What is the power dissipated in the load ifthe variable resistor is set at 50 0 7

10.3 Use Thevenin's method to calculate the cur- rent flow through the load resistor in fig. 1.35. (Aug. 97)

Fig.1.35

RL=

3,20

11.

A circuit consists of the following compo- nents:

Resistors R land R2 in series, and resistor R3 in parallel with R2. If Rl = 1,2 kO, R2 = 1,5 kO and R3 = 10 kO, use Kirchhoff's method to calculate the volt- age drop across R3 if the applied voltage is 10 V. (Aug. 98)

12.1

Consider fig. 1.36 and supply a short sum- mary ofhow you would calculate the voltage

drop across the load resistor with the aid of Kirchhoffs method.

Fig. 1.36

h

12

12.2 Use Thevenin's method to calculate the cur- rent flow through the load resistor RL in fig.

1.37.

Fig. 1.37

RL=

100

13. Use Thevenin's method to calculate the cur- rent flow through the load resistor in fig. 1.38 as weil as the voltage drop acrossR3. (Nov. 94)

Fig.1.38

RL=

60

14. Use Thevenin's method to calculate the cur- rent flow through the load resistor in fig. 1.39.

14

(Nov.95)

16.1 Draw Thevenin 's equivalent circuit of fig. 1.41 and determine RTH, VTH, ITand the
16.1 Draw Thevenin 's equivalent circuit of fig.
1.41 and determine RTH, VTH, ITand the volt-
age drop across RL. (Nov. 98)
Fig.1.39
RL=
15.1 Use Thevenin's method to calculate the cur-
rent flow through the load resistor in fig. 1.40.
10 kO
(Nov.97)
Fig. 1.41
RL=
100
Fig. 1.40
15