Industrial Electronics N4
R B J van Heerden
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COi'rrENTS
_{1}_{.} 
DIRECT CURRENT THEORY 
1 

1.1 
lntroduction 
1 

_{1}_{.}_{2} 
_{O}_{h}_{m}_{'}_{s} _{l}_{a}_{w} 
_{1} 

_{1}_{.}_{2}_{.}_{1} 
Basic aplic3lions ofOhm's law 
1 

_{1}_{.}_{2}_{.}_{2} 
Advanced applications ofOhm's Jaw 
2 

_{I}_{.}_{J} 
Kirchhotrs laws 
3 

_{L}_{J}_{.}_{l} 
Current [aw 
^{3} 

_{1}_{.}_{3}_{.}_{2} 
Voltage law 
3 

1.3.3 
Applications ofKirchhofT's laws 
4 

_{1}_{.}_{3}_{.}_{3}_{.}_{1} 
Ollebaltery circuit 
4 

_{1}_{.}_{3}_{.}_{3}_{.}_{2} 
Twobattery circuit 
6 

1.4 
Thevenin's theorem 
7 

1.4.1 
Thevenin's theorem used with Olle 

power supply 
8 

_{1}_{.}_{4}_{.}_{2} 
Thevenin's theorem use with two 

power supplies 
9 

_{1}_{.}_{5} 
The superposition theorem 
10 

Exercise 
1.1 
12 
_{2}_{.} ALTERNATING CURRENT _{T}_{H}_{E}_{O}_{R}_{Y}
_{2}_{.}_{1} _{I}_{n}_{t}_{r}_{o}_{d}_{u}_{c}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}
_{2}_{.}_{2} _{T}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{i}_{n}_{e} _{w}_{a}_{v}_{e}
_{2}_{.}_{2}_{.}_{1} _{F}_{r}_{e}_{q}_{u}_{e}_{n}_{e}_{y}
_{2}_{.}_{2}_{.}_{2} Sine wave values
_{2}_{.}_{2}_{.}_{3}
_{2}_{.}_{3}
_{2}_{A}
_{2}_{.}_{5}
2.6 AC eireuits with inductance
2.7 AC circuils with eapaeitance
2.8 lmpedallce
2.8.1 Series X,
_{2}_{.}_{8}_{.}_{2} _{S}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{e}_{s} _{X}_{c} _{e}_{i}_{r}_{c}_{u}_{i}_{t}
2.8.3
2.8.4 The parallel X", Xl and R circuit
_{P}_{h}_{a}_{s}_{e} _{a}_{n}_{g}_{l}_{e} The square wave The sawtooth wave AC eircuits with resistanee
_{c}_{i}_{r}_{c}_{u}_{i}_{t}
Series Xe,X, and R eireuit
_{1}_{6}
_{1}_{6}
_{1}_{7}
_{1}_{7}
17
_{1}_{8}
19
20
20
21
22
_{2}_{4}
_{2}_{4}
_{2}_{4}
25
26
_{2}_{.}_{9} 
_{P}_{o}_{w}_{e}_{r} _{i}_{n} _{A}_{C} _{e}_{i}_{r}_{c}_{u}_{i}_{t}_{s} 
_{2}_{8} 
_{2}_{.}_{1}_{0} 
_{C}_{o}_{m}_{p}_{l}_{e}_{x} _{n}_{u}_{m}_{b}_{e}_{r}_{s} _{(}_{J}_{}_{n}_{o}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{)} 
_{2}_{8} 
2.11 
Resonance 
31 
_{2}_{.}_{1}_{1}_{.}_{1} 
_{S}_{e}_{r}_{i}_{c}_{s} _{r}_{e}_{s}_{o}_{n}_{a}_{n}_{t} _{f}_{r}_{e}_{q}_{u}_{e}_{n}_{c}_{y} 
_{3}_{1} 
2.11.2 2.11.3 Q of a circuit 
32 

Bandwidth 
32 

2.11.4 Parallel rcsonance 
32 

Exercise 2.1 
33 

_{3}_{.} SEMICONDUCTORS 

(D10DES) 
36 

_{3}_{.}_{1} lntroduction 
36 

_{3}_{.}_{2} CharaClcristics of materials 3.2.\ _{3}_{.}_{2}_{.}_{2} 
36 

Tempcralure 
36 

Photoconduction 
_{3}_{7} 

3.3 lnlrinsic scmiconduclors 
37 

3.4 N.type scmiconductors 
37 

_{3}_{5} Ptype scmiconductor 
38 

_{3}_{.}_{6} The PN junclion 
_{3}_{9} 

3.7 Bias 
39 

_{3}_{.}_{7}_{.}_{1} Bias on the PN junetion 
40 

_{3}_{.}_{8} Diode eharaeteristies 
40 

3.9 Diode equations ^{3}^{.}^{9}^{.}^{1} _{3}_{.}_{1}_{0} _{3}_{.}_{1}_{\} 
42 

^{F}^{o}^{r}^{w}^{a}^{r}^{d} ^{r}^{e}^{s}^{i}^{s}^{l}^{a}^{n}^{c}^{e} 
^{4}^{3} 

DC conditions (Ihe load line) 
_{4}_{3} 

The :tener diode 
44 

_{3}_{.}_{1} _{I}_{.} _{1} The 
zener as voltage regulator 
44 
_{3}_{.}_{1}_{2} The 
varactor diode 
_{4}_{5} 
^{3}^{.} ^{\}^{3} 
^{4}^{6} 

^{T}^{h}^{e} ^{t}^{u}^{n}^{n}^{e}^{l} ^{d}^{i}^{o}^{d}^{e} Exereise 3.1 
46 

^{4}^{.} 
^{P}^{O}^{W}^{E}^{R} ^{S}^{U}^{P}^{P}^{L}^{I}^{E}^{S} 
^{5}^{1} 
^{4}^{.}^{1} 
^{I}^{n}^{t}^{r}^{o}^{d}^{u}^{c}^{t}^{i}^{o}^{n} 
^{5}^{1} 
_{4}_{.}_{2} 
The transronner 
51 
_{4}_{.}_{3} 
Rectifier eireuits 
53 
_{4}_{.}_{3}_{.}_{\} 
Halfwave reetification 
53 
^{4}^{.}^{3}^{.}^{2} 
^{R}^{i}^{p}^{p}^{l}^{e} 
^{5}^{4} 
^{4}^{.}^{3}^{.}^{3} 
^{F}^{u}^{l}^{l}^{}^{w}^{a}^{v}^{e} ^{r}^{e}^{e}^{t}^{i}^{f}^{i}^{c}^{a}^{t}^{i}^{o}^{n} 
^{5}^{5} 
_{4}_{.}_{3}_{.}_{3}_{.}_{1} 
Centre·tapped transfonner 
55 
4.3.3.2 
Bridge reetifier eircuit 
57 
^{4}^{.}^{4} 
^{F}^{i}^{l}^{t}^{e}^{r}^{s} 
^{5}^{8} 
4.4.1 
Simplc capacitor filtcr 
58 
8.8 
lnductivc lransducers 
_{1}_{3}_{2} 
8.8.1 
Variable reluctance transdUCCf 
_{1}_{3}_{3} 
8.8.2 
Linear variable differential 

Iransfonner (LVDr) 
_{1}_{3}_{4} 

8.9 
Solidstate devices 
_{1}_{3}_{5} 
8,9.1 
Photoconduclors or lightdependcnI 

resislors (LDRs) 
_{1}_{3}_{5} 

8.9.2 Photodiodes 
_{1}_{3}_{6} 

8.9.3 The phototransislor 
138 

8.9.4 
Üploisolator 
_{1}_{3}_{8} 
Exercise 8, t 
139 

9. 
TESTING EQUIPMENT 
_{1}_{4}_{1} 
9.1 
Introduclion 
_{1}_{4}_{1} 
9.2 
The oscil1oscope 
_{1}_{4}_{1} 
9,2.1 
The calhoderay tube (CRT) 
_{1}_{4}_{1} 
9.2.2 
Focusing Ihe beam 
_{1}_{4}_{2} 
9.2.2.1 
Gas focusing 
142 
_{9}_{.}_{2}_{.}_{2}_{.}_{2} 
_{E}_{l}_{e}_{c}_{l}_{r}_{o}_{s}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{c} _{f}_{o}_{c}_{u}_{s}_{i}_{n}_{g} 
_{1}_{4}_{2} 
_{9}_{.}_{2}_{.}_{2}_{.}_{3} 
_{E}_{l}_{e}_{c}_{t}_{r}_{o}_{m}_{a}_{g}_{n}_{c}_{l}_{i}_{c} _{f}_{o}_{c}_{u}_{s}_{i}_{n}_{g} 
_{1}_{4}_{2} 
_{9}_{.}_{2}_{.}_{3} 
_{D}_{e}_{f}_{l}_{e}_{c}_{l}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{s}_{p}_{o}_{t} 
_{1}_{4}_{3} 
9.2.3.1 
Electromagnetic deflection 
_{1}_{4}_{3} 
9.2.3.2 
Electrostatic deflection 
_{1}_{4}_{3} 
9.2.4 
Basic operation 
_{1}_{4}_{4} 
9.2.5 
Stable display of a repetitive 

signal (triggering) 
_{1}_{4}_{4} 

9.2.6 
Main conlrols and their functions 
145 
9.2,7 
_{S}_{i}_{g}_{n}_{a}_{l} _{a}_{n}_{a}_{l}_{y}_{s}_{i}_{s} 
_{1}_{4}_{6} 
9.2.7.1 
Amplitude mcasuring 
146 
9.2.7.2 Time (period) measuring 
_{1}_{4}_{7} 

9.2.7.3 Frequency measuring 
_{1}_{4}_{7} 

9.3 
The function generalor 
_{1}_{4}_{7} 
^{E}^{x}^{e}^{r}^{c}^{i}^{s}^{e} ^{9}^{.}^{1} 
^{1}^{4}^{8} 

APPENDIX: Fonnula List 
_{1}_{5}_{1} 
+
=E
90V
Fig.1.1
Calculation
To solve this problem you must detennine the mag nitude of the current in the circuit:
V
1= 
R
(Ohm's law)
90
90
300
==03A
20 + 100 + 180
'
With the total current known, the voltages can be worked out as folIows:
V _{R}_{1} = IR,
= 0,3 x 20
= 6 V
V _{R}_{2}
V _{R}_{3}
= IR _{2} = 0,3 x 100 = 30 V
= IR _{3} = 0,3 x 180 = 54 V
Note
• In the series circuit, the current through all series resistances is the same, and the voltage drops across each resistor is proportional to its resis tance.
Example 1.2
Refer to fig. 1.2 and detennine the relevant currents through the resistances, the total resistance as weIl as the voltage drop across each resistor.
Calculation It is clear from the diagram that all the resistors are in parallel, therefore the voltage across all of them must be the same. In this case it is equal to the sup plied voltage, which is 6 V. With the voltage known, the current through a re sistor can easily be ca1culated by using Ohm's law. The total resistance can be ca1culated by means of the usual fonnula.
2
:
+
6V
llA

+
6V
1
6V
!
6A
^{+}
R}
IQ
R}
(a)
6V
1
!
5A
3A
R2
II
A
5A
Fig.1.2
V
1 _{1} = 
R
12 = 6
R _{2}
(h)
6
R,
= 
6
= 
1
= 6 A
6
= =3 A
2
6
6
1 _{3} = = =2A
R _{3}
3
Total resistance:
1
I
1
1
=++
R _{T}
R,
1
R _{2}
1
I
=  +  + 
1
2
3
R _{3}
= 1+ 0 5 + 0 333
"
+
1
2A
2A
2A
= 1,833 (but this is not yet the resistance,
it is the inverse, i.e. _{~}_{)} ^{R} T
1
:.R _{T} = = 0,5455 n
1,833
1.2.2 Advanced applications of Ohm's law
The mathematical principle of ratios can be applied to enable us to use shortcuts with Ohm's law. The best way to explain this is by means ofworked ex amples.
In this case, the total voltage V _{r} = V( + V _{2} + V _{y} The above laws are explained in more detail in the following examples.
Example 1.5
Calculate the resultant current for the circuit shown in fig. 1.6.
lI=lOA
Fig.1.6
Calculation
From Kirchhoff we get:
Ir
=
I( +1 _{2} +(1 _{3} )=1] +1 _{2} 1 _{3}
:.I _{r} = 10 A+12 A15 A :.I _{r} = 7 A
h= I5A
Example 1.6
Calculate the voltage drop across the internal resis tance R; of the battery shown in fig. 1.7 by using Kirchhoff's voltage law.
L
_

h=IA
Vi' =
20 V
Fig.1.7
Calculation
R2= 20 n
h=IA
4
:,V _{R}_{j}
= V _{r}  V _{R}_{1} + V _{R}_{2}
But R] and R _{2} are in parallel
. . ^{,}^{V} _{R}_{1}
_

=
Ir x  R] xR
2
R( +R _{2}
1x 20 x 60 
= 15 V 
20+60 
:,V _{R}_{j} = 20(15 + 4,9) = 0,1 V
Use Ohm's law to check the answer:
V _{R}_{j}
= Ir xR _{j}
= 1x 0,1 =0,1 V
1.3.3 Applications of. Kirchhoff's laws
By using Kirchhoff's laws, complex quantities can be solved. To explain this, we will first use very sim ple examples. Refer to fig. 1.8, where the relevant currents and voltages must be calculated.
1.3.3.1 Onebattery circuit
A
Vr =
= 24 V
F
Fig.1.8
E
D
IfOhm's law is used to solve the problem in fig. 1.8, then the total resistance must first be calculated by using Kirchhoff's laws. It is just a matter of setting up equations, as many as there are unknowns, and then by solving the equations, the relevant quantities are calculated. To solve this problem, the circuit is identified by one or more "Ioops" as shown in fig. 1.8, i.e. loops ABEFA and ABCDEFA.
Calculation
First take loop ABEFA, which on its own is aseries circuit, and apply the voltage law:
Note
• If the current direction is not specified, then con ventional current flow direction is used, which is from positive to negative in the external circuit. It
350
1 
1 = 
54 X 
10 3 
= 
6,48 X 10 ^{3} 

= 
6,48 mA 
Substitute 1 _{1} in CD
200 
= 
4 x 10 ^{3} x 6,48 x 10 ^{3} + 3 x 10 ^{3} X R _{3} 

200 
= 
25,926 + 3 x 10 ^{3} X R _{3} 

174,074 
= 
3 x 10 ^{3} X R _{3} 

. R 
= 
174,074 

•• 
3 
3xl0 3 

= 
58,025 kQ 
Ohm's law can again be used to calculate the volt ages:
= 25,926 V
V _{R}_{2} = 174,07 V
V _{R}_{1}
Test:
V _{R}_{I} + V _{R}_{z} = 25,926 + 174,07 = 200
V (Adds up)
1.3.3.2 Twobattery circuit
Two barteries (power supplies) in a circuit are not uncommon. A nonnal motor car is a typical exam pie where you have a bartery and, connected in par allel with it, the alternator / rectifier unit to charge the bartery. It is also possible to have the two power supplies in series, although each supply can have its own load in the fonn of resistance or other power consuming devices connected to each one respectively. We will explain this method by means of worked examples.
Example 1.8
Study fig. 1.10 and calculate the voltage drop across R _{L} and the current through it.
RI =8 Q
FL
lIIlI
Fig.1.10
E
Rz=6Q

'D
6
To be able to solve the problem you must:
• Decide which type of current flow will be used. Let us take conventional current flow from posi tive to negative.
• Draw the circuit and label it in order to set up paths to work from and current flows in directions ac cording to the polarities of the power supplies.
• Set up equations in each branch of the circuit, i.e. the twopowersupply circuit will have an equa tion for each loop.
A 
VR _{I} = !IR] 
_{B} 
B 
_{V}_{R} _{Z} _{=} _{h}_{R}_{z} 

lt 

Vz= 

= 12 V 
_{9}_{V} 
 

F 
E 
E 
Fig. 1.11
C
D
When solving equations, the following mIes must be applied:
• When going against the direction of current flow, the current is considered to be negative, i.e. 11, and when going with the flow of the current, it is considered to be positive, i.e. +1 _{1} _{•}
• By entering the positive of apower supply, the voltage is considered to be positive, i.e. _{+} VI, and when entering the negative the voltage is consid ered to be negative, i.e.  V].
Calculation
Take loop ABEF
Take loop BCDE
VI 
= 
V _{R}_{1} + V _{R}_{L} 
V _{2} =V _{R}_{2} + V _{R}_{L} 

12 
= 
81 _{1} + 
12(/) + 1 _{2} _{)} 
9 
= 61 _{2} + 12(/1 + 1 _{2} ) 

12 
= 81] + 121, + 121 _{2} 
9 
= 61 _{2} + 121 _{1} + 121 _{2} 

12 
= 201 _{1} + 121 _{2} 
CD 
9 = 181 _{2} + 121 _{1} 
(g) 
These two equations must now be solved.
_{1}_{2}
121 2
9 = 121 1 + 181 2
=
201 1 +
••••••••••
••••••••••
CD
(g)
Multiply equation CD with a factor 1,5
18 = 301 1 + 181 2
Subtract (g) from @
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
@
9 = 181)
1
_{1} =
0,5 A
circuit, Thevenin's theorem becomes _{m}_{o}_{r}_{~} useful as the complexity of the circuit within the dotted line increases. In order to find Rr, we reduce the strength of a11 of the sources within the network to zero, and then de termine the resistance between the terminals of the network when "the rest of the circuit" is discon nected. This value or resistance is Rr, which is the equivalent series resistance ofthe original circuit.
1.4.1 Thevenin's theorem used with one power supply
Example 1.10
Find the value ofErand R _{r} for the network based on fig. 1.13. First let us draw the network with "the rest of the circuit" disconnected. This is shown in fig.1.14 (a). Now we work out the voltage rise Vba.
and b, representing the "the rest ofthe circuit". In the case ofthe original circuit, this current is:
I _ 120
T sc

75
= 1,6 A
And, in the case of the Thevenin equivalent circuit, this current is
I
T ^{s}^{c}
= 55,7 = 16 A '
34,8
Which confirms the values we have computed.
Example 1.11
VT=
lOV
\,

a
RL=
3,60
^{}
120V
750
650
_{a}
_{t}
VT
~
b
750
650
(a) 
(b) 
Fig. 1.14 

Calculation 
_{a}
RT
L.
Fig. 1.15
tl
_
b
Refer to fig. 1.15 and use Thevenin's theorem to cal culate the current through the load resistor. b We must first ca1culate Vr and Rr. To do that we can ignore the load resistor. To work out Vr, we use fig. 1.16 (a) and to work out Rr, we use fig. 1.16 (b).
V =V =120~
ba
loc
65 + 75
= 120x65 =557 V
140
'
This is the value of Er. Now we let the power ofthe voltage source drop to zero. This results in a completed circuit through the place where the voltage source was, and we thus have the resistances connected as shown in fig. 1. 14(b).
R
T
_ 65x75

140
= 34,80
Now we have the values of Er and Rro As acheck, we can ca1culate the current which would flow through a shortcircuit placed between a
Fig.1.16
b
(a) (b)
R
 R 1 R 2
^{T}^{}
RI +R _{2}
4x6
10
=2,40
b
We can now place these Thevenin values in a new circuit as in fig. 1.17 which inc1udes the load resis tor. By using this circuit, it is now an easy matter to work out the load current.
8
Example 1.13
Calculate the value of the current through the load resistor in fig. 1.19. As you might havenoticed, this is the same asex· ample as 1.8. We will prove that the answer is the same, regardless ofthe method being used.
Cafculation
The Thevenin equivalenl vohage and resiSlance must be worked OUI before the load current can be calculated. To do this, remove the load resiSlance and work out the Thevenin voltages foreach supply and add them to get Ihe final Thevenin voltage. To work out Ihe Thevenin voltage. short out Ihe op posile voltage and follow Ihe nonnal method. The 1bevenin resislance is simply the !Wo remiuances in parallel. Short out V:. then:
6
V _{T}_{I} = xI2=5,143 V
I'
Short oul VI' then:
8
V _{n} =x9=5.143V
(11 is jusl a coincidence that these vollages are the same.) The final Thevenin vollage is now 10,286 V and the 1bevenin resislance is:
6 ^{x} 8=34290
"
"
'
lu =~ =
R _{r} + R _{L}
10,286
3.429+ 12
= 0,666 7 A
As you can see this is the same value as in example
1.8.
Note
• When the polaritiesofthe two powersupplies are in the oppositc directions, then the two Thevenin voltages must be subtractcd. (Refer to example 1.9. Vou will nolice thai the IWO Thevenin vo[t agesare thesame, thus thesum will be zero and no current will Oow through the load, as worked OUI in example 1.9.)
1.5 THE SUPERPOSITION THEOREM
This theorem is useful to find the currenl in one
whieh conlains
several voltage sources. The method is to calculate
particular branch of a nelwork
how mueh current each of the individual sources' contributes to the branch in question. and then to add these eomponent eurrents algebraiealJy. To do this we leave only one voltage source at a time in Ihe nel work, replacing the olher vohage sources by short·circuits. O( course. any resiSlances associated wilh Ihe displaced voHage sources are not shorH:ircuiled. This method can best be explained by means of an example.
Example I.IS
Refer to fig. 1.20 and find the cUTTenl1 sei up in the resistance R by the !wo vohage saurces E, and ~.
Fig.1.20
•
•
^{R}^{,}^{}
Ion
Calcufation
First find 1!Je curremlhrough the load if E _{l} is short eircuited. Redrawthecircuit as in fig. 1.21 (a). Let us call this CUTTem rand il is worked OUI as foliows:
(b)
Fig.1.21
10
r,
R2 4!)
I;
= E2150V
Rz4 n
.i r
v~
1
•
•
i
v;.
1
•
r
R, IOn
R, ,on
_{R} ab
Vb = x R,
a
8x12
V
)
18
I
=x 5
20 
10,8 
=8V 
^{V} ab
^{8}
== R _{2}
8
=IA
=
~=1667A
10,8
'
^{V} ab
^{8}
I ==
6
R _{L}
12
= 0,667 A
These current values must now be substituted in or der to work out I _{a} , I _{b} and I _{c} •
I
_{a}
= 1 _{4}
_{}
I)
I _{b}
= 1 _{2} _{}
1 _{5}
I _{c} =
1 _{3} + 1 _{6}
Fig.1.26
RI=20
V2=9 V
l
3. Consider the circuit in fig. 1.27.
= 
1,667 0,667 
= 11 
= 0,333 + 0,667 
RI=20 

h 
c 

=IA 
=OA 
=IA 
EXERCISE
1.1
~IIII
=
A
VI =
6 V
RL=
100
D
Note from the author
A question from the students which always annoyed me was: "Sir, how does the examiner ask questions on this section?" I therefore decided to include old exam questions in the exercises and I also mention when the particular question was asked. The ques
tions go back as far as April 1994 and I hope that students as weIl as lecturers will benefit from this. (For extra practice, you can work out the same prob lems using one or both ofthe alternative methods to check your answers.)
1. Study fig. 1.25. By taking a Thevenin break at _{a}_{b}_{,} ca1culate and draw the equivalent circuit for the 4 _{Q} and 10 Q resistances and 6 V battery. Use this information and calculate the current flow through the 2 Q resistor. (Apr. 94)
~tllll~+t.a.,
VI=6V
R3=
100
V2=9V
Fig.1.27
RL=
30
3.1 
Supply a short summary of how you would calculate the current flow through the load re sistor with the aid ofthe following methods: 
3.1.1 superposition method; 

3.1.2 Thevenin's method. 

3.2 
Write down TWO equations to solve the cur rent in the circuit using only the literal values given in fig. 1.27. (Apr. 96). (Do the ca1cula tions for extra practice.) 
4.1 
A load has a constant resistance of 50 Q. If a variable resistor is connected in series with the load and set for 0 _{Q}_{,} how much power is dissipated throught the resistance in the load ifthe supply voltage is 12 V? 
Fig. 1.25
b
2. Determine the value of the current flowing through the load resistor RL in fig. 1.26 using Kirchhoff's method. (Apr. 95)
VI=6V
Fig.1.28
12
RL=
100
R2=60
V2=9V
where the load resistor changes continu ously7 Motivate your answer.
9.3 Which two laws would you use to set two equations for fig. 1.337
9.4 Use the literal values given in fig. 33 and write down two equations to detennine the current in the circuit. You do not need to solve the equations. (Aug. 96)
10.1 Refer to fig. 1.34. How much power is dissipated in the load re sistor if the variable resistor is set at 0 07
r02Vrms
Fig.1.34
RL=
600
10.2 What is the power dissipated in the load ifthe variable resistor is set at 50 0 7
10.3 Use Thevenin's method to calculate the cur rent flow through the load resistor in fig. 1.35. (Aug. 97)
Fig.1.35
RL=
3,20
11. 
A circuit consists of the following compo nents: 
Resistors R land R2 in series, and resistor R3 in parallel with R2. If Rl = 1,2 kO, R2 = 1,5 kO and R3 = 10 kO, use Kirchhoff's method to calculate the volt age drop across R3 if the applied voltage is 10 V. (Aug. 98) 

12.1 
Consider fig. 1.36 and supply a short sum mary ofhow you would calculate the voltage 
drop across the load resistor with the aid of Kirchhoffs method.
Fig. 1.36
h
12
12.2 Use Thevenin's method to calculate the cur rent flow through the load resistor _{R}_{L} in fig.
1.37.
Fig. 1.37
RL=
100
13. Use Thevenin's method to calculate the cur rent flow through the load resistor in fig. 1.38 as weil as the voltage drop acrossR3. (Nov. 94)
Fig.1.38
RL=
60
14. Use Thevenin's method to calculate the cur rent flow through the load resistor in fig. 1.39.
14
(Nov.95)
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