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# spherical

## The Six Trigonometric Functions

a
1. sin θ = sinθ=ac
c
b
2. cos θ = cosθ=bc
c
a
3. tan θ = tanθ=ab
b
c
4. csc θ = cscθ=ca
a
c
5. sec θ = secθ=cb
b
b
6. cot θ = cotθ=ba
a

Complementary Identities
1. sin θ = cos(90∘ − θ) cscθ=sec(90∘−θ)
2. cos θ = sin(90∘ − θ)
3. tan θ = cot(90∘ − θ)
4. cot θ = tan(90∘ − θ)
5. sec θ = csc(90∘ − θ)
6. csc θ = sec(90∘ − θ)

Fundamental Identities
1
1. sin θ = sinθ=1cscθ
csc θ
1
2. cos θ = cosθ=1secθ
sec θ
1 sin θ
3. tan θ = = tanθ=1cotθ=sinθcosθ
cot θ cos θ
1 cos θ
4. cot θ = = cotθ=1tanθ=cosθsinθ
tan θ sin θ
1 cos
5. sec θ = secθ=1cosθ
θ
1
6. csc θ = cscθ=1sinθ
sin θ

Pythagorean Theorem
a 2 + b2 = c2 a2+b2=c2

Pythagorean Relations
1. sin 2 θ + cos2 θ = 1 sin2θ+cos2θ=1
2. tan 2 θ + 1 = sec2 θ tan2θ+1=sec2θ
3. 1 + cot 2 θ = csc2 θ 1+cot2θ=csc2θ

## Sum of Two Angles

1. sin(A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B sin(A+B)=sinAcosB+cosAsinB
2. cos(A + B) = cos A cos B − sin A sin B cos(A+B)=cosAcosB−sinAsinB
tan A + tan B
3. tan(A + B) = tan(A+B)=tanA+tanB1−tanAtanB
1 − tan A tan B

## Difference of Two Angles

1. sin(A − B) = sin A cos B − cos A sin B sin(A−B)=sinAcosB−cosAsinB
2. cos(A − B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B cos(A−B)=cosAcosB+sinAsinB
tan A − tan B
3. tan(A − B) = tan(A−B)=tanA−tanB1+tanAtanB
1 + tan A tan B

## Double Angle Formulas

1. sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ sin2θ=2sinθcosθ
2. cos 2θ = cos2 θ − sin 2 θ cos2θ=cos2θ−sin2θ
2a. cos 2θ = 1 − 2 sin 2 θ cos2θ=1−2sin2θ
2b. cos 2θ = 2 cos2 θ − 1 cos2θ=2cos2θ−1
2 tan θ
3. tan 2θ = tan2θ=2tanθ1−tan2θ
1 − tan 2 θ

## Half Angle Formulas

1 − cos θ
1. sin 12 θ = √ sin12θ=1−cosθ2
2
1 + cos θ
2. cos 12 θ = √ cos12θ=1+cosθ2
2
3.
1 − cos θ sin θ 1 − cos θ
tan 12 θ = = =√ tan12θ=1−cosθsinθ=sinθ1+cosθ=1−cosθ1+cosθ
sin θ 1 + cos θ 1 + cos θ

Powers of Functions
1. sin 2 θ = 1
2
(1 − cos 2θ) sin2θ=12(1−cos2θ)
1
2. cos2 θ = 2
(1 + cos 2θ) cos2θ=12(1+cos2θ)
1 − cos 2θ
3. tan 2 θ = tan2θ=1−cos2θ1+cos2θ
1 + cos 2θ

Product of Functions
1. sin A cos B = 1 [ sin(A + B) + sin(A − B)] sinAcosB=12[sin(A+B)+sin(A−B)]
2
2. sin A sin B = 2 [ cos(A − B) − cos(A + B)]
1 sinAsinB=12[cos(A−B)−cos(A+B)]
3. cos A cos B = 21 [ cos(A + B) + cos(A − B)] cosAcosB=12[cos(A+B)+cos(A−B)]

Sum of Functions
1. sin A + sin B = 2 sin 12 (A + B) cos 12(A − B) sinA+sinB=2sin12(A+B)cos12(A−B)
2. cos A + cos B = 2 cos 1 (A + B) cos 1 (A − B) cosA+cosB=2cos12(A+B)cos12(A−B)
2 2
sin(A + B)
3. tan A + tan B = tanA+tanB=sin(A+B)cosAcosB
cos A cos B

Difference of Functions
1. sin A − sin B = 2 sin 12 (A − B) cos 12(A + B) sinA−sinB=2sin12(A−B)cos12(A+B)
2. cos A − cos B = −2 sin 12(A + B) sin 12(A − B) cosA−cosB=−2sin12(A+B)sin12(A−B)
sin(A − B)
3. tan A − tan B = tanA−tanB=sin(A−B)cosAcosB
cos A cos B

Sine Law
a b c
= = asinA=bsinB=csinC
sin A sin B sin C
Cosine Law
1. a 2 = b2 + c2 − 2bc cos A a2=b2+c2−2bccosA
2. b2 = a 2 + c2 − 2ac cos B b2=a2+c2−2accosB
3. c2 = a 2 + b2 − 2ab cos C c2=a2+b2−2abcosC

Law of Tangents

a−b tan 12 (A − B)
1. = a−ba+b=tan12(A−B)tan12(A+B)
a+b tan 12 (A + B)
b−c tan 12 (B − C)
2. = b−cb+c=tan12(B−C)tan12(B+C)
b+c tan 12 (B + C)

c−a tan 12 (C − A)
3. = c−ac+a=tan12(C−A)tan12(C+A)
c+a tan 12 (C + A)

Mollweide's Equations

a+b cos 12 (A − B)
1. = a+bc=cos12(A−B)sin12C
c sin 21 C
a−b sin 21 (A − B)
2. =
c cos 12 C