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 1. What are opportunity costs? How do explicit and implicit costs relate to opportunity costs? ANS: The opportunity cost of an item refers to all those things that must be forgone to acquire that item. Both explicit and

implicit costs are included as opportunity costs.

 2. A key difference between accountants and economists is their different treatment of the cost of capital. Does this cause an ANS: accountant's estimate of total costs to be higher or lower than an economist's estimate? Explain. An accountant would not include the forgone interest income that the money could have earned elsewhere if it had not

been invested in the business. Therefore, an accountant's estimate of total cost will be less than an economist's.

 3. The production function depicts a relationship between which two variables? Also, draw a production function that exhibits diminishing marginal product. ANS:

The production function depicts the relationship between output and a given input. The graph below shows output increasing but at a decreasing rate as the quantity of inputs increases.

4. How would a production function that exhibits decreasing marginal product affect the shape of the total cost curve?

Explain or draw a graph.

ANS:

produced rises.

The total cost curve will increase at an increasing rate, or in other words, the total cost curve gets steeper as the amount

 5. What effect, if any, does diminishing marginal product have on the shape of the marginal cost curve? ANS: Diminishing marginal product causes the marginal cost curve to rise.

6.Bob Edwards owns a bagel shop. Bob hires an economist who assesses the shape of the bagel shop's average total cost (ATC) curve as a function of the number of bagels produced. The results indicate a U-shaped average total cost curve. Bob's economist explains that ATC is U-shaped for two reasons. The first is the existence of diminishing marginal product, which causes it to rise. What would be the second reason? Assume that the marginal cost curve is linear. (Hint: The second reason relates to average fixed cost)

ANS:

causing the average total cost curve to fall.

Average fixed cost always declines as output rises because fixed cost is being spread over a larger number of units, thus

 7. If the average total cost curve is falling, what is necessarily true of the marginal cost curve? If the average total cost curve ANS: is rising, what is necessarily true of the marginal cost curve? When average total cost curve is falling, marginal cost is below ATC. If the average total cost curve is rising, marginal cost is above ATC. 8. According to the mathematical laws that govern the relationship between average total cost and marginal cost, where must ANS: these two curves intersect? The two curves will cross at the minimum point on the average total cost curve.

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