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Auckland Museum
Tukutuk u
Mao ri
Introduction 1
Teacher Background Information 2
Introduction Curriculum Links 8
Pre-Visit Activities 15
Post-Visit Activities 15
Activity Sheets 16

He Korero Introduction
Whakatuwhera This resource has been created
as a result of the Ministry of
I waihangatia tenei rauemi mo te Education contract for "Learning
mahi tukutuku I te Experie nces Outside the
w hakaaetanga o Te Manatu Classroom".
Matauranga kia riro mai tetahi This resource has been designed
kirimana I tenei roopu "Wheako for Kura Kaupapa,Total
Ako I Waho Atu I te Akomanga." Immersion,Bilingual and
He pai tenei rauemi ma nga Kohanga Reo schooling
Kura Kaupapa Maori,nga initiatives.
Whanau Reo Rua,nga Ruma The resource incorporates
Rumaki I te Reo me nga appropriate achievement
Kohanga-Reo Maori. objectives from the National
Anei e w hai ake nei nga whainga Curriculum Framework of New
paetae tika mai te Anga Zealand.
Matauranga o Aotearoa.Ko nga The Curriculum Statements
wahanga kaupapa e hipokina covered are Te Reo Maori,
atu, ko Te Reo Maori, te Pangarau, English and
Pangarau me Te Reo Pakeha. Mathematics (Levels 1-4).

Grat eful t hanks and appreciat ion for t heir help and advice i n t he
compiling of t his resource is made t o Moana Ri ni and Pet er Boy d.
Ma t e At ua e manaaki,
Ma t ana t ama,ko I hu Karait i e t iaki,
Ma t e Wairua Tapu e Arahi.
Tena Korua!

© 1997 Auckland Museum 1

Teacher Background Tukutuku Panel Structure:
Information The traditional tukutuku panel is
Tukutuku panels are a lattice-like frame made up of
synonymous w ith carvings and vertical stakes which form the
kow haiw hai patterns w hen we back layer of the frame (can NOT
think of Whare Whakairo- be seen); ho rizontal rods that
Wharenui. In most Meeting form the layer of the panel (that
Houses one can look forward to can be seen by t he viewer); and
admiring the tukutuku panels in flexible material, being both
between the poupou. The re, the pingao and kiekie w hich w hen
interpretation of each tukutuku threaded through the rods and
design w ill complement and stakes form the patterns and
reinforce the stories told in the designs.
carvings and kow haiw hai Toetoe stalks w ere the kakaho
patterns. (vert ical stakes). Stalks were
Not only are tukutuku patterns arra nged close together to form
an integral part of the the single back layer. Flow er
storytelling of each Whare, they ends and butt ends were laid
add aesthetic beauty to the alternately to maintain an even
interio r of the House. In contrast w idth.
to the spirals,sw irls and curved Wooden slats (horizontal rods),
lines of the carvings and coloured w ith wood-stain or
kow haiw hai paint-work, the paint, w ere placed close
straight lines that form the basis together. These completely
of all tukutuku design provide a covered the kakaho, forming the
distinctive component in the exposed layer on w hich the
overall art form of each House. pattern w ould be viewed.
In more recent times, tukutuku The leaves of the kiekie, (an
designs have become an epiphyte; a perching plant found
exciting feature to be found in grow ing in the branches of
Wharekai, Churches and trees) w ere gathered and
reception areas of business bleached to be used for the
houses. New innovations reveal colour w hite in the patterns.
the clever adaptation of Bleaching meant that the leaves
tukutuku to make fire-screens, were stripped, boiled and hung
glass covered table-tops and out to dry in the sun and w ind.
Strips w ere also dyed w hen the
room dividers.
pattern required the addition of

Sedge Kiekie. The fruit show n above Kiekie flowers. Know n to

(Pingao). were know n as ureure. Maori as taw hare.
© 1997 Auckland Museum 2
Pingao (a coastal plant grow ing Alternative materials for the
on sandhills) w as used for its vertical stakes and horizontal
rich gold/orange colour. rods are half-round w ooden
Preparation meant that pingao slats,dowels, bamboo and stalks
was gathered and sized into of the South American pampas
lengths, then hung out in a grass.
shady spot. Stripping was done
on the frame. Illustrations
Ro imata To ro a o r Ro imata
Turut uru: Albatross Tears


Detail of assembly of t ukut uku.

Mo dern Inno vatio ns
in the Making
Substitutes for traditional
materials have become widely
accepted, as they are readily The albatross is a rare and
available all year round and are wonderful visitor to the northern
more versatile. parts of New Zealand and was
revered by the pre-European
An excellent replacement for the
Maori. The tears of the albatross
lattice-like frame structure is
signified something that was
peg-board, w hich can be
both rare and beautiful and as
purchased in a range of sizes
such w as incorporated into
and then cut into different
tukutuku work.*
Dyed raffia and fibre plastic The story attached to this design
strips are often used instead of tells of the int roductio n of the
kiekie and pingao. These kumara plant, a story ending in
materials are available in vibrant misadventure and lamentatio n.
colours, some fluorescent and Pourangahau (Pourangahua ) was
w hen used, w ill produce an one of the chief scientists sent
exciting effect. These materials from Haw aiki to report on the
are also preferred as they have a climatic and geographical
longer life than traditional conditions of Aotearoa soon
materials and do not require after Kupe's voyage of
regula r maintenance. discovery. Accompanied by his
w ife, Kaniowai, and others, he

Design i nt erpret at ions are t aken from:

*Pow nell,Glen: N ew Zealand Maori Art s And Craft s 1976
**"Marae":Volume 1:Number 2:1974.

© 1997 Auckland Museum 3

surveyed his given area of For this crime of Pou's and for
Gisborne and the East Coast and the tears that Harongarangi and
calculated by the growth of Tiungarangi had shed, he
vegetation that spring was caused the pests anuhe
imminent. He returned in haste (caterpillar), mokoroa (a large
to Hawaiki, there to report to his white grub) and mokow hite to
chief Ruakapanga, w ho urged attack the kumara. To this day
his immediate return w ith the the kumara plant is still ravaged
kumara tipu (kumara shoots) to by these pests every year.
Aotearoa lest he be too late for Thus it is the roimata (tears)
the planting season. pattern - memorial to the tears
To aid him, Ruakapanga gave of the toroa (albatross) weeping
him the loan of his tw o giant for their loved one, that we
birds, Ha rongarangi and select w hen we wish to depict
Tiungarangi, to take him there disaster in war, death or
sw iftly: at the same time he gave catastrophe.**
Pou strict instructions as to his
route, the incantations that were Po utama: The Stairway To
necessary and the care that Heaven
must be lavished on the birds.
When he bid him farewell, he
entrusted to him Mamainuku
and Mamairangi, his two sacred
ko (digging implements). Exalted
by this honour - the first
recorded trans-Pacific air
crossing - and thrilled by the
comfort and speed of his flight
Pou forgot all thought of the
instructions and incantations
and prayers. Despite all this, he
was carried safely and sw iftly to
his destination.
However, on arrival he neglected The Poutama design in ancient
the birds shamefully. When, too lore symbolised a climb made by
late, he remembered his a folk hero Taw haki to receive
instructions he found the birds the three baskets of know ledge
outside his house w eeping tears from the gods.*
of w eariness and sorrow .Where
they had been fondled and The Maori interpretation of the
petted by their master word is "one w ho supports his
Ruakapanga, they were now family sub-tribe and tribe", in a
abused and neglected by Pou. word, chief or rangatira. When
His attempt to make amends we look at the construction of
being unsuccessful, he sent poutama, w e find a series of
them off on their homew ard steps denoting the steps of
journey. progress and advance. Briefly,
these are education and the
On their way they were beset by striving for betterment, the
Tunui-o-te-Ika and other planning of a child's future… by
evildoers so that w hen they parents, family and tribe - the
eventually arrived home, their ultimate mark of a born leader.
physical condition revealed the **
w hole sorry tale of neglect to

© 1997 Auckland Museum 4

Pat ikitiki: Flounder. Also t he Purapura Whetu: Purapura-
Maori name for group of stars myriads; whetu-stars
near t he Milky way- t he "Co al-


A poetic expression for the

multitude of stars seen in the
The flounder is a fairly common heavens at night…. the Maori
flat fish found near the beaches desire for a large family is a trait
and estuaries on the New handed dow n from our
Zealand coast. Of distinctive ancestors. Generally speaking, a
diamond shape and delicious man w ho visualises big things
flavour, this fish is a favourite usually has a large family; the
food of New Zealanders ‘in the head of a small family is often
know ’.* more prone to think and plan in
The constellation forms a a narrow er, more circumscribed
diamond shape and the experts manner. The pattern is striking,
of old had it that they sw ing in especially w hen encountered
their position near the Milky among more elaborate panels,
Way, according to the weather. for its simplicity and strength.
When the diamond lies parallel One building only in the w hole
to the Milky Way, expect fine of New Zealand had this pattern
weather,w hen the diamond exclusively and that is the
points away from the Milky Way, Rangiatea Church at Otaki [sadly
prepare for a spell of bad lost to fire]. The sentiment
weather. This w as a convenient depicted therein is that the
way of forecasting the weather Church may acquire members of
in the old days when the Maori the Christian faith "as many as
lived on the sea-coast, the stars in number."**
subsisting mainly on sea-foods.
When the indications by the
stars w ere favourable, great
harvests were the order of the
day as the flounder came in to
the shallow waters. Similarly,
other sea-foods were taken in
abundance. The design signified
good weather, abundance of
food and well-fed families.**

© 1997 Auckland Museum 5

Nihotaniwha: The Teet h of the Abstraction and symbolism, to
Drago n the point w here the human
element is difficult to recognise,
represents the interfusion of the
spiritual and temporal life of the
This pattern was dedicated to
the war-god, Tumatauenga. By
placing the pattern upside dow n,
we obtain the (military) chevron,
signifying promotion in rank
(the kaokao sentiment of
"discernment, decision and
design"). Prior to setting out on
a war expedition, all the warriors
were made to step on a takapau
(mat) w ith the kaokao pattern,to
inspire them. The open armpit
Taniw ha are mythical monsters distinguishes the warrior
usually associated with the (signif ying a raised arm ready
ocean, lakes and rivers of New for battle). The closed armpit,
Zealand. Feared for the the weak and frightened one
destruction they w rought, their huddled in fear.**
sharp diamond pointed teeth are Waamu o r Mumu and
symbolised by this design.* Whanganui Mumu
The persistency of the "taniw ha" Almost a draught-board effect of
stories throughout Maoridom is patterns arranged to produce a
now decreasing, but try to diagonal sequence and
picture the scene of old. The (sometimes) used w ith purapura
dying embers in the w hetu,kaokao,poutama,
Meetinghouse at night, the roimata… designs. A mumu
how ling w ind and the pelting gives a lightening and pleasing
rain--these were the atmosphere effect to an otherw ise
for such stories, and the lively dark recess. The
mind of the listener filled in the Whanganui people
gaps. The slaughter by the dread brought out the
monster, the trembling and mumu to advantage
fearful planning for revenge, the by dividing the panel
luring of the taniw ha, the into three equal
baiting, the attack, the kill - and vertical sections, and
suddenly the heavens w ithout by the judicious
are rent by jagged lightening employment of the
and thunder!** above patterns,made
Kao kao: Human Ribs-Armpits a great contribution
to interior
decoration. Their
meeting house at
Putiki, Te
Pakuoterangi, is a
striking w itness to
this. Its significance
is that of
combination; applied
inter-tribally, it
denotes inter-
marriage between
senior families.**
© 1997 Auckland Museum 6
Tumat akahuki: To bind in Bibliography
double or triple fashio n • Auckland University Marae
Booklet, page 23-29.
• Hamilton, Augustus; Mao ri
Art: The New Zealand Institute
• Neich, Roger; Pa inted
Histories: Early Maori
Figurative Paint ing (Auckland
University Press,1993)
• Pow nall,Glen; New Zealand
Maori Arts And Crafts
Background (Sevenseas Publishing,1976)
Information This double or triple binding page 90-101.
ensures extra strength and the • Retimana, Mihiata; Tukutuku
accurate alignment of all and Kowhaiwhai (History
materials horizontally, vertically, Guide) (Government
and diagonally.The Printe r,1972)
tumatakahuki forms a decorative • Taiapa, Pine; “Tukutuku”
pattern along the outside edges Marae: Volume 1, Number 2,
and other divisions of a panel. In (1974) page 3-9.
the days when all materials w ere Glossary
fashioned by hand, the square ko whaiwhai
and uniform level of the work scroll patterns often,
depended upon a firm secure alt hough not always,
method of binding.**
painted o n t he ceiling
Te Ho no A Matuku- rafters of a Meeting House
Tangotango: poupo u
When the end of a strand of upright carved slabs
kiekie has been reached, the
forming wall structure
new piece is attached by tying it
to the end of the first strand at inside Meeting House
the back of the panel. The hono wharekai
(a tying) of matuku-tangotango dining hall(s)
is employed.A slip-knot is whare whakairo /
fashioned in the new piece. This wharenui/whare
is slipped over the end of the Traditio nal Mao ri (Carved)
old short piece, pulled tight Meeting House(s)
against it and then tied. This has
the effect of turning the joined
piece back again so that the
work is ready to proceed w ithout
apparent break.**

Curriculum Links Koeke 3
Te Anga Marautana O Whainga Paetae
Aotearoa Ka matakitaki, ka marama te
The New Zealand akonga ki nga momo reo ataata,
reo-a-waha, me te mohio ano ki
Curriculum Framework te panga o tetahi ki tetahi.
Te Reo Maori Nga Pukenga
WHENU: M atakitaki ko te auahatanga o te whakaaro
(Whakaatu) reo ataata
Koeke 1 Aro M atawai
Whainga Paetae Ka w hakaaturia tana
Ka mau te akonga ko te tikanga tohungatanga ki te:
o te reo ataata he w hakaw hiti • w hakamarama I nga
korero. ahuatanga whai kiko, kaore
ranei e w hai kiko, o te noho
Nga Pukenga
tahi a te reo-a-waha me te reo
ko te tautu I nga tumomo reo-a-
waha e hangai ana ki te reo
ataata Koeke 4
Whainga Paetae
Aro M atawai Ka ahei te akonga ki te
Ka w hakaaturia tana w hakamarama I te ahua o nga
tohungatanga ki te panga o te reo ataata poto I
• tautu I te panga atu o te reo-a- takea mai I nga horopaki kaore
waha ki nga tohu ataata; ia e tino taunga ana.
• tautu I nga tohu a te Maori Nga Pukenga
penei I te niho taniw ha,te ko te w hakatauriterite I nga
mahinga reo ataata
• w hakautu tika nga tohu Aro M atawai
Ka w hakaaturia tana
mama. tohungatanga ki te:
• w hakatau I te whainga o tetahi
Koeke 2 mahinga reo ataata.
Whainga Paetae
Ka marama te akonga ki te WHENU:Whakaatu
hononga o te reo ataata ki te (M atakitaki)
reo-a-waha, mehemea ka puta Kooeke 1
ake I nga horpaki e taunga ana Whainga Paetae
ia. Ka taea e te akonga te
w hakaputa w hakaaro (e pa ana
Nga Pukenga ki ona hiahia I roto I tona ao ) ki
ko te tautu I nga mohiotanga e te reo-a-tinana me nga reo
tika ana kia mau e te akonga ataata.
mai I nga reo ataata e
Nga Pukenga
w hakaaturia ana ki te taha o te
reo a waha
• ko te w hakapuaki w hakaaro ki
te reo ataata
Aro M atawai • ko te tuhi reo ataata mama
Ka w hakaaturia tana hei w hakaw hiti mohio
tohungatanga ki te: Aro M atawai
• w hakamarama I te ahuatanga Ka w hakaaturia tana
o te reo ataata; tohungatanga ki te:
• w hakaputa reo-a-waha e • tuhi,ki te hanga I nga tohu
hangai ana ki te ahua o te reo ataata e hangai ana ki te reo -
ataata a-waha
• w hakaatu I nga tohu Maori
© 1997 Auckland Museum 8
Koeke 2 • w hakamahi ngatahi I te reo
Whainga Paetae ataata me te reo-a-waha kia
Ka taea e te akonga te w hai hua ai te korero.
w hakaputa reo-a-waha, reo
ataata hoki e pa ana ki nga Koeke 4
Whainga Paetae
kaupapa e taunga ana ia. Ka w hakaatu te akonga I te reo
Nga Pukenga ataata I nga horopaki huhua , a, e
• ko te matau ki nga hangai ana te w hakaaturanga ki
re reketanga o te reo ataata I te kaimatakitaki
te reo-a-waha Nga Pukenga
• ko te tautu I te putake o te reo • ko te tipako I nga ahuatanga
ataata reo ataata e hangai ana ki te
Curriculum • ko te hanga I nga ataata • ko te tautu I te hangai o nga
Links w hakaniko I te reo-a-waha. ahuatanga reo ataata ki te
Aro M atawai horopaki
Ka w hakaaturia tana Aro M atawai
tohuhangatanga ki te: Ka w hakaaturia tana
• w hakaw hiti mohio ki te reo tohungatanga ki te:
ataata • w hakaatu reo ataata kia w hai
• w hakamahi I nga ahuatanga hua ai ki te hunga matakitaki
reo ataata hei w hakaniko I te
reo-a-waha PANGARAU
• w hakaatu I nga w hakaaro ki te Te Ahuahanga
reo ataata Taumata 1
Whainga Paetae
Koeke 3 Te torotoro hangarite, panoni
Whainga Paetae I roto I nga horopaki w hai
Ka taea e te akonga te tikanga, me mohio te akonga:
w hakamahi ngatahi te reo-a- • ki te hanga, ki te whakaahua I
waha me te reo ataata kia puta nga tauira hangarite, tauira
ai nga panga e hiahiatia ana. taruarua .
Nga Pukenga He Tauira Horopaki
• ko te tautu I nga panga o • He ata tirotiro I nga tauira
etahi ahuatanga reo ataata tukutuku
• ko te w hakakotahi I te reo He Tauira M ahi
ataata me te reo-a-waha • he hanga, he matapaki ahua e
w hai wahi mai ana he panoni
• ko te tipako I te ahuatanga (w hakaatanga, huriha nga,
reo ataata e hangai ana ki te nekehanga, w hakarahinga )
reo-a-waha • he w hiriw hiri, he hanga tauira
• ko te w hakamahi I tetahi hangarite
ahuatanga reo ataata e w hai Aro M atawai
hua ai te korero. • He hanga tauira ki te riw ai, ki
Aro M atawai te hopi, ki te kahupeka, ki te
Ka w hakaaturia tana ukupoke ranei, ka mahi mai ai
tohungatanga ki te: I etahi tauira taruarua,
hangarite ranei.
• w hakamahi I nga ahuatanga
reo ataata mama
• w hakataurite i nga hua o nga
ahuatanga reo ataata

© 1997 Auckland Museum 9

Taumata 2 • ki te w hakaahua tauira I runga
Whainga Paetae ano I te ahua o te panoni, ara,
Te torotoro hangarite, panoni he w hakaatanga, he hangarite
I roto I nga horopaki w hai hurihuri, he nekehanga ke
tikanga, me mohio te akonga: ranei
• ki te hanga, ki te whakaahua • ki te hoahoa, ki te mahi mai I
tauira ahuahanga taruarua (ka tetahi tauira e w hai wahi mai
ana te nekehanga whakaata,
w hakaatu I te nekehanga), te hurihanga ranei
tauira hangarite huri, • ki te w hakanui I nga ahua
hangarite w hakaata ke ranei mama ki te pepa tukutuku, kia
He Tauira Horopaki hangai ai te rahinga ake ki
• He torotoro, he matapaki tera kua w hakaritea.
tauira hangarite, w hakaata He Tauira Horopaki
ranei I roto I nga tukutuku. • Hei w hakatauira, titiro ki te
w henua, ki nga aw a, ki nga
He Tauira M ahi pae maunga, ki nga pa
• he ata tirotiro I nga tauira I kainga, nga Marae, nga wahi
roto I nga tukutuku. Me ata tapu o mua.
mahi mai e nga akonga tetahi He Tauira M ahi
papa tukutuku hei w hakairi • Me mohio te akonga ki te
ma ratou ki roto I te w hakaahua tauira I runga ano
taiw hanga ako. I te ahua o te panoni, ara , he
• he torotoro w hakarahinga w hakaatanga, he hangarite
mama ,mai I tetahi tauira hurihuri, he nekehanga ke
tukutuku. Hei w hakatauira: ranei
(1)he w hakamahi kupu e tika ana
mo nga panoni, ara ko nga kupu
penei I enei:
hangarite… rara ngi… huri…
rite….. nekehanga… Puma u…
w hakatitaha… poupou…
w hakahuapae
(2)he hoahoa tauira e w hai wahi
mai ana he nekehanga, he
w hakaatanga, he hurihanga
ranei. Ko te wharenui tonu tetahi
wahi pai hei torotoro i enei
momo panoni- kei nga
kow haiw hai, nga w hakairo me
nga tukutuku etahi tauira o enei
panoni e mau ana .)
Aro M atawai • Me mohio te akonga ki te
He mahi mai I tetahi tauira hoahoa, ki te mahi mai I tetahi
tukutuku.Ahakoa he aha te tauira e w hai wahi mai ana te
momo, ko te mea nui ke kia neketanga, te w hakaatanga, te
hangarite te ahua, a, kia tika nga huritanga ranei
inenga. • Me mohio te akonga ki te
w hakaw hanui I nga ahua
Taumata 3 mama ki te pepa tukutuku, kia
Whainga Paetae hangai ai te rahinga ake ki
Te torotoro hangarite, panoni tera kua w hakaritea;
I roto I nga horopaki w hai (1)he w hakanui I te ahua o tetahi
tikanga, me mohio te akonga: tauira kua ata whakaritea hei
w hiriw hiri ma te akonga

© 1997 Auckland Museum 10

He Tauira M ahi
Me mohio te akonga ki te
w hakanui, ki te w haiti ranei I
tetahi ahu-2, ka tautuhi ai I nga
ahuatanga pumau;
• he torotoro I nga ahuatanga o
tenei mea, o te
w hakapekatanga me te
(2)he w hakaiti I te ahua o tetahi w hakamahi ano I nga mahi
tauira kua ata whakaritea hei tukutuku e tika ana
w hiriw hiri ma te akonga Aro M atawai
He hoahoa:
korow ai, w hariki ra nei he
tapaw ha, he tapatoru rane i kei
roto (me hanga ki te taputapu
Links tuhi ahua )

Aro M atawai English in the New Zealand

Ko te marae.Me ata w hiriw hiri-a- Curriculum
ropu nga ahuatanga hangarite o Level 1 - 2
roto I te w harenui. Visual Language: Viewing
(1)Ma ia akonga e w hakaatu, e Reading visual… texts…
w hakamarama tetahi tauira ki students should:
tana ropu • respo nd to meanings and
(2)Ka mahi takirua nga akonga.
ideas …ident ifying and
Ka ata tuhi te akonga I tetahi
describing t he…visual
haurua noa iho o tetahi tauira
kua kitea e ia.Ko ta tana hoa,he
In achieving the objectives of
w hakaoti I taua tauira i runga
understanding and using visual
ano I te ahua o nga
language, students should:
w hakamarama mai a te akonga
nana I timata te w hakaahua.Me • understand t hat
w hakaatu e te kaituhi mehemea communicatio n involves
he w hakaatanga,he hurihanga,he verbal and physical features
nekehanga ranei te panoni e which have co nvent io nally
hiahiatia ana hei w hakaoti tika I accepted meaning
tana tauira haurua . Teaching and Learning
Context: a study of Tukutuku
Taumata 4
Whainga Paetae
Te torotoro hangarite, panoni • The class visits the Aucklnd
I roto I nga horopaki w hai Museum, and students
tikanga, me mohio te akonga: observe and discuss the
• ki te w hakaahua I te hangarite tukutuku panels.
w hakaata, I te hangarite • The class makes a collection
hurihuri ranei o tetahi ahua, of illustrations and
taonga rane photographs of tukutuku
panels for a wall display.
• He Tauira Horopaki • The class discusses the ways
• TE MAHI WHAI-Hei tukutuku are presented and
w hakatauira, me pehea te how they convey their
hanga I te…(he w hakaaro e pa meanings.
ana ki te hapu, ki te iw i, ki te • During discussion the teacher
rohe ranei) introduces concepts and
• terms such as Poutama, Patiki,
Niho Taniw ha, Roimata Toroa.

© 1997 Auckland Museum 11

Assessment Levels 1 - 2
The teacher notes the extent to Visual Language: Presenting
w hich the students understand Using static images…students
the meanings of the Tukutuku should:
patterns they have explored in • use verbal and visual features
the course of the study.
to communicate info rmatio n,
Visual language: Presenting ideas o r narrative t hro ugh
Using static… images, students tukutuku pattern
• combine verbal and visual
• present ideas using simple
Tukutuku designs features to communicate
informatio n, ideas or
• use verbal and visual features narrative through tukutuku
to communicate ideas or pattern`
stories using Tukutuku
patterns. Teaching and Learning
Teaching and Learning Context: a topic related to the
Context: exploring the locality
interrelationship between • Students ex amine a range of
dramatic, verbal, and visual tukutuku patterns, and note
features features of language and
• The teacher and students presentatio n, such as layout
collabo rate in writing a story and design.
from a shared ex perience. • Each group of students is set
• The teacher and students the task of producing a group
select t he main features of design to promote some
their story t hat can be significant feature of their
portrayed in simple tukutuku locality to visitors.
• Students gat her, collate, and
• Individually o r in small
groups, students choose o ne assemble t he necessary
of the main features, and informatio n ready for
using peg-board and raffia, developing t heir presentatio n.
create a tukutuku design to • The groups prepare t heir
reflect their choice. draft designs and discuss
• Captio ns are written for each them wit h t heir peers for
design. respo nse in terms of
• Students arrange t heir work suitabilit y of the design and
in sequence to build a class accuracy of info rmatio n.
storyboard display. Draft patterns are revised.
• The teacher and students • Students create t heir designs
discuss how t he story and display t hem.
sequence is illustrated in Assessment
tukutuku patterns.
• The teacher and students
Assessment ex amine the designs and
• The teacher assesses t he assess them for effectiveness,
students' ability to retell t he coherence of organisatio n,
story and choose suitable layo ut, and suitability for t he
images. purpose.
• The teacher observes the
students during t he activit y • The teacher observes
and notes t heir participatio n, students' participatio n in t he
awareness, and process and t heir
understanding of ho w words understanding of the effects
and images relate to one of visual language.
anot her. Levels 3 - 4
Visual Language: Viewing
Reading visual… texts…

© 1997 Auckland Museum 12

students should: Mathematics in the New
• respo nd to and discuss Zealand Curriculum
meanings and ideas, Geomet ry
ident ifying and describing t he Level 1
effects of and links between Achievement Objectives
verbal and visual features Exploring shape and space:
• respo nd to and discuss Within a range of meaningful
meanings, ideas,and effects, contexts the students should be
ident ifying t he purposes for able to;
which t he verbal and visual • ident ify, and describe in t heir
features are used and own language, t he follo wing
combined 2-dimensio nal and 3-
In achieving the objectives of dimensio nal shapes: triangle,
square, oblo ng, pentago n,
understanding and using visual hex agon, diamo nd…
language, students should: Exploring symmetry and
• ident ify and discuss ways in transformations:Within a range
which verbal and visual of meaningful contexts,
features can be combined for students should be able to;
a particular purpose and • create and talk about
audience symmet rical and repeating
Teaching and Learning
Context: a study of Tukutuku Learning Experience:
patterns Exploring symmetry and
transformations; Students
• The class view a selectio n of should be:
Tukutuku designs. • designing and talking abo ut
• Students listen to ex planatio ns tukutuku patterns
and stories associated wit h • ex ploring ways of fitting
each design and note new shapes toget her to cover
vocabulary. surfaces(tessellatio ns)
• Students discuss how t hese • Finding wit hin tukutuku
ideas and stories are patterns and t hen talking
conveyed t hrough design form about pairs of objects, where
and colour. one is an enlargement of the
• In groups, students select a other.
To pic and/or Theme, and Assessment
work toget her to produce a While students are sitting back
tukutuku pattern t hat will be to back in pairs;
presented to the class, • using mosaic shapes, o ne
showing t he ways in which part ner creates a simple
they have combined t he visual tukutuku pattern and
and verbal elements to describes it. The part ner
makes the model pattern
portray t heir Topic/ Theme. based o n t he instructio ns
Assessment given.
• Group presentat io ns are Level 2
assessed for evidence t hat Achievement Objectives
impo rtant verbal and no n- Exploring symmetry and
verbal features have been transformations: Within a range
ident ified and ex plained. of meaningful contexts,
students should be able to;
create and talk about geomet ric
patterns which repeat, or which
have rotatio nal or reflectio n
symmet ry

© 1997 Auckland Museum 13

Learning Experiences Assessment
Exploring symmetry and • Students demo nstrate
transformations: Students
translatio n, reflectio n, o r
should be;
rotatio n by making a
• ex ploring and creat ing
tukutuku pattern using an
tukutuku patterns involving
translatio n, reflectio n, and image of their own choice,
rotatio nal symmetry using a perhaps from local history.
variet y of manipulat ive • Students enlarge an image
equipment/materials. wit hin t heir tukutuku pattern
Assessment by a specified scale such as 2
• Students use t he language of or 1/2.They describe any
geometry to describe t he features t hat t hey have not
distinguishing features of changed after the
tukutuku patterns t hey have enlargement.
• ident ify shapes t hat have bot h
rotatio nal and reflectio nal
symmet ry
• ident ify symmetry in shapes
they make while playing whai Level 4
(string games)
Achievement Objectives
Level 3 Exploring symmetry and
Achievement Objectives transformations: w ithin a range
Exploring symmetry and
of meaningful contexts,
transformations:Within a range
of meaningful contexts, students should be able to;
students should be able to; • apply t he symmet ries of
• describe patterns in terms of regular po lygo ns;
reflectio n and rotatio nal • describe t he ref lectio n o r
symmet ry, and translatio ns; rotatio nal symmetry of a
• design and make a pattern figure or object
which involves translat io n,
Learning Experiences
reflectio n, or rotatio n;
• enlarge o n grid paper simple Exploring symmetry and
shapes to a specified scale. transformations: students
should be;
Learning Experieces
Exploring symmetry and • describing t he symmet ry
transformations: Students (reflectio n and rotatio nal) in
should be; tukutuku, taniko and
• designing tukutuku patterns kowhaiwhai patterns.
which involve translatio n, Assessment
reflectio n, or rotatio n ; • Students design and make a
• showing t he enlarging or tukutuku pattern, involving
reducing of shapes to a translatio ns and reflectio ns
specified scale wit hin t heir
tukutuku design. and using, an image of their
cho ice as t he basic motif.
• tessellating quadrilaterals,
triangles, and regular
polygo ns.

© 1997 Auckland Museum 14

Pre-visit Activities Post-visit Activities
• Daily Storytime; using • As a class or in small groups
pictures/photos/draw ings, or as individuals,b rainstorm
retell the stories and impressions of the tukutuku
interpretations of tukutuku panels on display at the
designs in this Resource Museum. Use this as a focus
beginning w ith the Roimata for a class display.
Toroa pattern. • discuss and describe the
• stories that are retold by differe nces between the old
pupils/students are recorded and new tukutuku panels in
on tape. Hotunui.
Pre-visit • use printing techniques • use small pieces of peg-board
Post-visit (potato, lino, screen) to create and raffia so that each child
their ow n design: for the story can create their ow n pattern.
behind the Roimata Toroa Use larger pieces for group
pattern or a story of their work. Each child or group
choice. must be prepared to tell the
• use sticky coloured paper to story behind their design.
create patterns. • stories are taped and made
• use maths equipment available w hile view ing the
(cuisenaire rods, attribute tukutuku designs created by
blocks, plastic shapes) to each story-teller.
create patterns. Leave work • stories are published and
on display for the day so that used w ith taped version and
others may view . created designs to form either
• use grid-sheets of various unit a display (class, Lib rary,
sizes and felt or coloured School Entrance foyer) or a Big
pencils to create designs. Book to add to the School
• use an etching technique to SEE ALSO CURRICULUM LINKS
create a pattern on a clay-slab FOR MORE IDEAS AND LESSON
to make a Tukutuku Tile. OUTLINES .

© 1997 Auckland Museum 15

Auckland Museum Worksheet
The Tukutuku Panels of Hotunui
The follow ing are examples to help you in your observations of the
tukutuku panels in Hotunui.

Niho Taniwha
Ro imata To ro a Drago n Teet h
Albat ross Tears

Kao kao
Po utama Ribs-Armpit
The Stairway To Heaven

Pat iki

Purapura Whetu Mumu

Myriad of Stars Draughts-board
© 1997 Auckland Museum 16
Auckland Museum Worksheet
The Tukutuku Panels of Hotunui
Draw a line to match each word w ith the correct panel.
Use the doorway as a point of reference to find the correct tukutuku
Three panels have been completed for you.

Tukut uku panels Tukut uku panels

Roimata Toroa



Purapura Whetu

Niho Taniwha



Doorw ay

© 1997 Auckland Museum 17

Te Papa Whakahiku He Wharangi Mahi
Nga Mahi Tukutuku o Hotunui
Anei e w hai ake nei, etahi tauira hei aw hina I a koe I roto I to
tirotirohanga ki nga mahi tukutuku o Hotunui.

Niho Taniwha
Ro imata To ro a

Kao kao
Po utama

Pat iki

Purapura Whetu Mumu

© 1997 Auckland Museum 18

Te Papa Whakahiku
He Wharangi Mahi
Nga Mahi Tukutuku o Hotunui
Tuhia tetahi rarangi mai I te kupu tika ki te mahi tukutuku tika. Mai I
te kuaha o te w harenui, kia kimihia te mahi tukutuku tika.
Kua oti nga tauira e toru, mau.

Tukut uku panels Tukut uku panels

Roimata Toroa



Purapura Whetu

Niho Taniwha




Auckland Mus eum Educ ation

Department online:
http://www.akmus ed.c