Sei sulla pagina 1di 16

Developing your personal philosophy of classroom

management
John De Nobile
School of Education, Macquarie University
With adaptations by Roberto H Parada, School of Education, Western Sydney University

This resource consists of a series of linked activities chapter-by-chapter to the De Nobile et


al 2017 course text Positive learning environments: Creating and maintaining productive
classrooms. These activities enable you to progressively work on and develop your own
philosophy, plan and style of classroom management.

A classroom philosophy, simply put, is a statement of what you believe about how to best
manage a class and how you will go about achieving that vision. This resource will help you
build it bit by bit. Complete the activities linked to each chapter of the text and by the end
of chapter 10 you should be able to bring your work together to form your classroom
philosophy.

FINAL PERSONAL PHILOSOPHY FOR ASSESSMENT 2

Insert in the box below your final personal philosophy (max 1000 words).

A good teacher is one who has great control over the class but still respects each
student equally. A good teacher is able to deliver content to all the students in the class
targeting each student’s needs, understanding that each student learns at a different
level. When a teacher is planning their strategy for classroom management, it is
important to consider inclusivity and differentiation. Inclusivity is a term that refers to
giving all students an equal opportunity especially those that may be left out in class.
There are certain activities that are conducted to incorporate differentiation to cater for
students at different levels. I believe a positive learning environment is about ensuring all
students feel a sense of comfort and belonging in the classroom. This will ensure that the
students are engaged in the classroom and the teacher is able to set standards for the
students to comply with.
I believe classrooms should be places where students are able to connect to their
teacher on a basic level drawing the line between personal and professional. Students
should be encouraged to learn, develop new skills and have the confidence in themselves
to answer questions based on their own knowledge without the fear of being judged.
Classrooms should also be a place for personal development allowing the students to
grow as individuals and better themselves through their knowledge.
I believe that good communication between teacher and student is vital to a
positive classroom climate because it gives the student the ability to trust the teacher and
vice versa because if the teacher trusts the students they can create activities that are
student centred. Teacher personal beliefs affect the way we create Positive Learning
Environments as each classroom has different needs. You cannot expect each student to
think the same or each class. It is important to find suitable strategies that suit each
student and classroom ensuring there is a positive learning environment. Differentiation
is a vital tool that can be used to create a positive learning environment as the teacher
can choose which activities best suit their classes. I believe professional reflexivity is
important to my teaching because it focuses on how we as teachers can integrate
pedagogy into the content being taught. It is also important as it focuses on how students
are behaving in class and how activities can engage students in class. As a consequence of
this belief, I will continuously assess myself based on what the head teacher of my faculty
is doing and see what I am doing well and what needs improvement. In saying so, I will
also take into account what strategies have worked and focus on ways to maintain and
improve them ensuring a positive learning environment for the students.

Planning my teaching program, I will begin to see if there is a problem. If there is a


problem I will re-evaluate the content that needs to be delivered throughout the year and
see where the problem starts. From there I will brainstorm ideas that could be the
possible solutions. From there I will choose the best idea and fit it into the teaching
program keeping in mind that the content should flow to make it easier for both teaching
and learning. I believe that students best learn through group work as the responsibility is
shared between students relieving pressure off each other. This will then allow the
students to develop a relationship with each other and allow them to develop
communication skills. Therefore, I will use ICT for presentation and small sided games for
practical lessons so students place an emphasis on teamwork thus creating a student
centred approach. A value that I hold that is important to establishing an orderly,
productive and positive classroom is respect. A whole classroom can be established on
respect. Respect your fellow classmates and respect the teacher, we are all equal. In
saying so, the rules and expectations are that students do not call out in class, they do not
tease each other and do not speak while the teacher is speaking. If students are found to
be breaking the rules they will be given a first and last warning and if behaviour persists
they will receive a demerit stamp according to the school system. If a student receives
more than 3 demerit stamps for that subject, they will receive a lunch detention.

After reading Zirpoli and Killu and reflecting on the lecture content, I feel as
though I have targeted the importance of classroom management throughout my
philosophy. By simply respecting each other and having a relationship between teacher
and students it becomes easier to manage the classroom creating a positive environment
for learning. In my classroom the theme of respect will be utilised as a tool for the
classroom setting. The students are expected not to call out in class, they are expected to
listen to each other without disruptions, they are encouraged to answer questions but
only once they put their hand up and the teacher acknowledges them, asking them to
speak. With regard to classroom management, I would add the need for empathy.
Sometimes the teacher may not understand what the student is going through and may
just judge the student based on their actions rather than taking the time to understand
them. It is important for the students to be empathetic for each other and not bully each
other. This will improve classroom management as students are becoming more
understanding of each other and what they are going through.

I would like to acknowledge the following theorists for their work which helped me
develop this personal philosophy:

Glasser, M. D., & Meagher, J. (2014). Choice theory.


Kaplan, J. S., & Carter, J. F. (1995).
Grunwald, B. B., & Pepper, F. C. (2013),
(Week 1) Pedagogy for Positive Learning Environments: A problem based
approach
Reflection of the week’s Lecture, tutorials and readings.
The following activities are designed to get you thinking about your own model of teaching
and classroom management.

1.1 What is a ‘good teacher’? Think about the teachers from your days in primary and
secondary schooling. What qualities did they have that made them ‘good’? Make a list Commented [A1]:
What do you remember most about your ‘favourite teacher?
in the box below.
How did they make you feel?

A good teacher is one who has great control over the class but still respects each student
equally. A good teacher is able to deliver content to all the students in the class targeting
each student’s needs, understanding that each student learns at a different level.

1.2 Using the what you have learnt about ill structured vs structured problems in relation to Commented [A2]:

classroom behavior, what do you think are the key considerations when a teacher is
planning their strategy for classroom management? list them below.
Most courses and textbooks on behaviour management work
on decades old assumptions that behaviour and emotional
When a teacher is planning their strategy for classroom management, it is important to difficulties are ‘well-defined’ types of problems. That is, they
have specific goals or expected solutions which match the
consider inclusivity and differentiation. Inclusivity is a term that refers to giving all problem.
students an equal opportunity especially those that may be left out in class. There are
These challenges are in fact ‘ill-defined’ and they do not
certain activities that are conducted to incorporate differentiation to cater for students at have clear goals, solution paths, or expected solutions.
different levels.
Ill-structured problems are typically situated in and
emergent from a specific context. In situated problems,
one or more aspects of the problem situation are not well
specified, the problem descriptions are not clear or well
1.3 With your responses to the last two activities as a source of ideas, complete the defined, or the information needed to solve them is not
sentence in the box below. contained in the problem statement.

I believe a positive learning environment is about ensuring all students feel a sense of
comfort and belonging in the classroom. This will ensure that the students are engaged in
the classroom and the teacher is able to set standards for the students to comply with.
(Week 2) Review of classroom management theories
This week you have been introduced to some theories of behaviour/classroom
management. Your readings (Ch 8 & 9 of the text and De Jong in tutorials) introduced you to Commented [A3]: Chapter 8: Stories from the field.
Range of teachers: Lisa, Andrew and Wendy are secondaries.
different views on why young people misbehave and particularly what to do about it. Some Additional stories from Cenage Companion Website.
of these might have caused you to react in some way, either negatively or positively. Of the
Gives educational context followed by story and then commentary
ones you developed a positive feeling about, was there a particular theory that stood out? in terms of links with Lyford Model and various theoretical
Was there a theory or approach that you felt might fit your view of how children should be frameworks.
treated and how teaching happens? Think about this before responding to the activities.
Commented [A4]: Chapter 9:
Your theory into practice.

An effective CMP is a critical prerequisite to creating a positive


2.1 In the box below, list the theories that you think are ‘not for you’ under the heading learning environment.
‘Not me’, and the theories that you think are more favourable under the heading ‘More
Basically, reflects on the Lyford Model and key theories and
like me’. processes underpinning it.

Leads you through the steps of reviewing your philosophy and


Not me More like me drafting your first Class Management Plan.
Choice Theory (William Glasser) Goal Centered Theory (Rudolf Dreikurs)
Commented [A5]: De Jong:
Assertive Discipline (Lee & Marlene Carter) Cognitive behavioural theory (e.g. Jane Kaplan
Applied Behaviour Analysis (e.g. Paul Alberto & & Jane Carter)
7 Principles: Student behaviour management programs need to be
Anne Troutman)  Eco- systemic perspective/comprehensive approach
 Embrace a health-promoting approach
 Embrace inclusiveness
Student-centred philosophy/holistic
2.2 Now take a closer look at the theories you placed in the ‘More like me’ column. Read Linked to the quality of the learning experience
the suggested readings provided in this chapter and the online companion. Get to know  Embrace Positive relationships.
Enhanced through internally based school support systems.
the theories more intimately. Use this new knowledge, specifically the key philosophies
behind the theories (or theory), to develop your own statement of belief about the sort 7 Characteristics of best practice:
 Clearly articulated and comprehensive behaviour management
of places classrooms should be. Complete the following sentence and perhaps add policy.
another to accompany it. Health- Promotive culture.
Relevant and engaging curriculum
Effective Pedagogy.
I believe classrooms should be places where students are able to connect to their teacher  Democratic and Empowering approach
Well established internal and externs support structures
on a basic level drawing the line between personal and professional. Students should be Alternative, flexible learning environment.
encouraged to learn, develop new skills and have the confidence in themselves to answer Commented [A6]:
questions based on their own knowledge without the fear of being judged. Classrooms Theories underpinning the Lyford Model:
should also be a place for personal development allowing the students to grow as Humanist
Knowledge Acquisition Theory
individuals and better themselves through their knowledge. Ecological systems
Sociocultural
Psychoeducational.

Additional Classroom management theories and models:

Positive Behaviour Leadership Model (Bill Rogers)


Developmental Management Approach (Ramon Lewis)
Balance model (Richmond)
Supportive School Classroom Environment Model ( Peter Miles)
Solution Focused Approach (Louise Porter)
10 further theories and models around classroom management
which have found application in schools in Australia.
(Week 3) Relationships, communication & professional reflexivity
Effective communication is a key component of effective classroom management, and
quality teaching depends on it. The lecture, tutorial readings as well as Ch 2 & 3 of the
textbook describe some very useful skills for dealing with inappropriate student behaviour
in a non-confrontational and positive way. Being aware of non-verbal cues will lead a Commented [A7]: Non verbal cues:

teacher to be more sensitive to how their messages are being received as well as how to Facial expression/ eye contact.
send messages and provide feedback more effectively. Active listening allows teachers and Gesture ,posture and positive positioning.
Proximity, touch and physical setting.
students to interact with minimal interference from underlying emotional factors. I-
messages provide the teacher with a tool to convey to students how their behaviour is Important because:
It is less consciously controlled;
affecting the class in a non-submissive, informative and positive manner. More effective in communicating emotions

Need to interpret accurately.


Teaching philosophies often describe the way a teacher will interact with their students and
this, in turn, provides a window into the classroom climate that a teacher is trying to
establish. The following activities should help you to identify your preferred way of Commented [A8]:
communicating with the class generally as well as in dealing with inappropriate behaviour. Active Listening:
After completing them you should have a better idea of how your classroom philosophy will Response as specific as possible;
Paraphrase
describe your communication style in the classroom. Both verbal and non- verbal cues.

Open Questioning:
How, what, when or where.
3.1 Using your readings of the chapters, in particular the Relationships and communication,
Asserting:
Interference, Communication process and Non-verbal communication sections, Recognises the rights of the speaker without infringing on the rights
complete the sentence in the box below. You might need to add a second or even a of the listener.
third sentence. I-Messaging:
Describes the problem, how you feel about it ,and why you feel that
way.
I believe that good communication between teacher and student is vital to a positive When…I feel…because …
classroom climate because it gives the student the ability to trust the teacher and vice Calm, matter of fact.
versa because if the teacher trusts the students they can create activities that are student
Commented [A9]:
centred.
Negotiating:

Identify the problem


This week you also looked at how personal beliefs can help or hinder in your relationships Identify possible Options
Identify the outcomes of each option
and communication with students. Delete unacceptable options
Apply the agreed solution
Identify a time for review.
3.2 Briefly outline your understanding of how beliefs can help or hinder your ability to
create positive learning environments: Commented [A10]:

Reflection on classroom management


Teacher personal beliefs affect the way we create Positive Learning Environments as each Reflexivity: Acting on Reflection.
classroom has different needs. You cannot expect each student to think the same or each
Peer mentoring
class. It is important to find suitable strategies that suit each student and classroom Action research – Develop a plan, Activate plans,
ensuring there is a positive learning environment. Differentiation is a vital tool that can be Observe and record, Reflect on the findings.
used to create a positive learning environment as the teacher can choose which activities
best suit their classes.

Your teaching philosophy should describe how and for what purpose you might engage in a
cycle of professional reflexivity, be it through critical analysis using various perspectives or
an action research model, or both.
3.3 Why should teachers engage in professional reflexivity?. Once you have given this some
thought and done some further reading, complete the following sentence.

I believe professional reflexivity is important to my teaching because it focuses on how we


as teachers can integrate pedagogy into the content being taught. It is also important as it
focuses on how students are behaving in class and how activities can engage students in
class.

3.4 Having thought up a justification for it, how will you go about engaging in reflection
about your practice in your teaching career? Once you have thought this out, think of
some practical and achievable ways you can engage in professional reflexivity and
complete the next sentence.

As a consequence of this belief, I will continuously assess myself based on what the head
teacher of my faculty is doing and see what I am doing well and what needs
improvement. In saying so, I will also take into account what strategies have worked and
focus on ways to maintain and improve them ensuring a positive learning environment for
the students.
(Week 4) Classroom organisation and curriculum, assessment and pedagogy
Classroom management is not just about managing behaviour. At the heart of teaching and Commented [A11]:
learning are the curriculum taught, the pedagogy used and the assessment designed to LYFORD MODEL:
measure how well that curriculum was taught and how well the pedagogy worked. This Four Positive Practices:
Relationships and Communications
chapter takes you through these three areas one at a time.  Curriculum.Assessment and pedagogy
Classroom Organisation
Professional Reflexivity.
The next part of your teaching philosophy will be about how you will deliver curriculum and
assess student achievement/growth. After reading this chapter, please reflect on the
following:
 What will you take into consideration when planning your teaching program?
 How will you know what to teach and where to start?
 What are the many ways in which your students could demonstrate achievement other Commented [A12]:

than tests and quizzes? Pre or baseline: What do they already know: Mind maps
 What teaching approaches will you use and what philosophical views will your Formative: reasonable progress towards outcomes?
Summative? At the completion
pedagogies reflect? Types of assessment? Multi modal

4.1 Using the PIR Cycle (see Ch 5 p118) as a stimulus, explain how you will go about Commented [A13]:
planning your teaching program in the box below. PLAN IMPLEMENT and REVIEW
There are many variations on the theme.
Element in Professional Practice Standards.
Planning my teaching program, I will begin to see if there is a problem. If there is a
problem I will re-evaluate the content that needs to be delivered throughout the year and
see where the problem starts. From there I will brainstorm ideas that could be the
possible solutions. From there I will choose the best idea and fit it into the teaching
program keeping in mind that the content should flow to make it easier for both teaching
and learning.

4.2 Pedagogy refers to how you will teach the curriculum. Usually, the type of pedagogy Commented [A14]:
you implement is influenced by a basic belief about how students best learn. After Art and science of teaching
considering your pedagogical approach and strategies, complete the sentences below.
#Accommodating different levels of learning
#Task relevance
I believe that students best learn through group work as the responsibility is shared #achievability
#success
between students relieving pressure off each other. This will then allow the students to #Feedback, values and expectations
develop a relationship with each other and allow them to develop communication skills. #Self-efficacy
#Motivation
Therefore, I will use ICT for presentation and small sided games for practical lessons so
students place an emphasis on teamwork thus creating a student centred approach.

As explained in Chs 3 & 4, there are several dimensions to classroom organisation. Each of Commented [A15]:
these put together become the manifestation of your classroom culture. Your classroom Rows, groups,U shapes, workstations, access and movement
culture is, simply put, the way your class operates and incorporates:
 rules and procedures
 organisation of the physical space.
It is now time to think about how your teaching philosophy will describe these two aspects
and explain them in terms of an overarching set of beliefs or approaches. After reading
these chapters, complete the next two activities.

4.3 What values do you hold as important to establishing an orderly, productive and Commented [A16]: Classroom should facilitate:
Security, social contact, student/teacher interaction/group
positive classroom? Answer this question below, then list the key rules/expectations identification/task instrumentality, pleasure and growth.
you think flow naturally from those values and which you want to stress in your class.
Complete the section by explaining how rules and consequences will be established in Commented [A17]:
Reasoned, purposeful, logical, achievable
your classroom. explicitly and positively stated and measureable
taught at least initially,
referred to regularly
A value that I hold that is important to establishing an orderly, productive and positive age appropriate.
classroom is respect. A whole classroom can be established on respect. Respect your
Rights and Responsibilities
fellow classmates and respect the teacher, we are all equal. In saying so, the rules and Code of conduct /values statement/ set of behaviours.
expectations are that students do not call out in class, they do not tease each other and
do not speak while the teacher is speaking. If students are found to be breaking the rules
they will be given a first and last warning and if behaviour persists they will receive a
demerit stamp according to the school system. If a student receives more than 3 demerit
stamps for that subject they will receive a detention.

1900’s
1970’s
2000’s
(Week 5 ) Principles of behaviour modification
This week we looked at fundamental aspects of behaviourism and learning (see Ch 6 & 7 of Commented [A18]:
your text) But also Zirpoli from your references in the Learning Guide and Killu your tutorial CHAPTER 6:
reading which provide examples of the application of such theory and research to classroom
Behavioural approaches to classroom and behaviour
management and behaviour change. Important concepts such as reinforcement, functional management.
purpose of behaviour and behaviour shaping are discussed
De Nobile et.al describes each approach in its ‘pure form’ and
important to think about how each one may complement one
another.
5.1 After reading Zirpoli and Killu and reflecting on the lecture content what would you add
The steps/ processes are outlined for each one.
about aspects of your classroom management that have not been mentioned so far in
your philosophy? Add these in the box below in rough draft form. You can refine them  APPLIED BEHAVIOURAL ANALYSIS (ABA)
FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOUR ASSESSMENT (FBA).
later. ASSERTIVE DISCIPLINE
POSITIVE BEHAVIOUR SUPPORT (PBS)

After reading Zirpoli and Killu and reflecting on the lecture content, I feel as though I have
targeted the importance of classroom management throughout my philosophy. By simply
respecting each other and having a relationship between teacher and students it becomes Conducting a behavioural intervention:
easier to manage the classroom creating a positive environment for learning.
Establish a need for behavioural intervention
Identify the inappropriate (target) behaviour
Identify an appropriate (replacement ) behaviour.
Implement an intervention to change behaviour.
Review the intervention. ...
Commented [A19]:

CHAPTER 7

Cognitive Behavioural Approaches:

Typified by:
Individuals make choices about behaviour
Individuals are self- directed
Behavioural choices are influenced by consequences and social
contexts, values, motivation …feedback from others
Develops self - discipline as internalised compliance.

MODELS:

RATIONAL EMOTIVE BEHAVIOUR THERAPY (REBT)

THE ‘TALK SENSE TO YOURSELF’ PROGRAM

THE ‘STOP, THINK, DO ‘PROCESS.

...
Commented [A20]:

ZIrpoli : Positive Behavioural Supports: Reinforcement Strategies.


Identifies high-preferenced reinforcers;
Steps in establishing an effective reinforcement program;
Schedules of reinforcement;
Shaping behaviours.

Killu: Developing Effective Behaviour Intervention Plans:


Suggestions for School Personnel.
“Effective interventions are not developed in isolation but rather
are the product of individual and cumulative efforts and global
and specific assessment strategies.”
(Week 6) Applying behaviour modification in schools PBIS
Positive Behaviour Intervention and Support also known as Positive Behaviour Support (see Commented [A21]:
Text Ch 6 p168) has become an accepted and often implemented part of schooling in NSW. Four key features:
A key aspect of PBIS is to teach students behavioural expectations.
Informed by behavioural science
Applies practical intervention
Committed to lifestyle outcomes
6.1 Previously (see week 4) you reflected on what your classroom could be like. In the Adopts a lifestyle perspective.

section below pick 1 expectation (e.g., respect self and others) and list how you will
teach what this expectation looks like, is exemplified by and demonstrated in your A three tiered approach : primary, secondary and tertiary.

classroom. Give as many examples as you can. Commented [A22]:

What will look like in YOUR classroom??


In my classroom the theme of respect will be utilised as a tool for the classroom setting.
The students are expected not to call out in class, they are expected to listen to each Role modelling?
Hypothetical scenarios?
other without disruptions, they are encouraged to answer questions but only once they What is happening when you don’t see it ????
put their hand up and the teacher acknowledges them, asking them to speak.
(Week 7) Social Emotional Learning in Schools SEL
Readings: Cohen, J. (2006) & Zins, et al (2007).
Social and Emotional Learning brings your attention to focus efforts on promoting students’
social and emotional competencies. Many leaders in the field underscore the importance of
skills-based teaching and learning to properly address this important facet of teaching the
whole child.
7.1 After reading Cohen and Zin and reflecting on the lecture content what would you add Commented [A23]:
about aspects of your classroom management that have not been mentioned so far in Cohen: Social, Emotional, Ethical and Ethical Education: Creating a
your philosophy? Add these in the box below in rough draft form. You can refine them Climate for Learning, Participation in Democracy, and Well-Being.
later. “Goals of education need to be reframed to prioritise not only
academic learning, but also social, emotional and ethical
competencies. “
With regard to classroom management, I would add the need for empathy. Sometimes
the teacher may not understand what the student is going through and may just judge Argues neglecting to do so, “amounts to a social injustice. “

the student based on their actions rather than taking the time to understand them. It is
important for the students to be empathetic for each other and not bully each other. This
will improve classroom management as students are becoming more understanding of Commented [A24]:
each other and what they are going through. Zins et al. The Scientific Base Linking Social and Emotional Learning
to School Success.

Makes a “compelling conceptual and empirical case for linking SEL


to improved school attitudes, behaviour and performance.”
(Weeks 8 & 9) Drafting your personal reflection/philosophy
In the space below cut and paste each of the sections you have completed above and create
a (very) draft version of your personal philosophy

My personal reflection/teaching philosophy (Draft 1)

This is a draft ; NOT your final submission.

Ready to roll …
Now, read it to yourself, and start editing to a maximum of 1000 words, it’s time to prepare Commented [A25]: Does it need an opening/introduction?
Cohesive devices and transitional signals throughout?
your final submission. Look at the Unit Learning Guide rubric and instructions and now write Is it cohesive?
your own personal reflection and philosophy You have to reflect on what you have learnt Fluent and coherent?
Is there something missing for you?
and what you are still to learn. This reflection is an opportunity to provide your own
behaviour management philosophy/model. DOES IT REFLECT YOUR PERSONAL JOURNEY AND GROWTH?

WHAT DO YOU STILL NEED TO LEARN??????


Your personal model can be based on your personal experience and any of the theories and
AND HOW MIIGHT THAT HAPPEN?????
research explored in PPLE or other Units which form part of your course. You need to
appropriately identify and credit these theories which influenced your thinking in relation to
the development of your personal approach within your text. You must provide at the end
(not counted to word limit) an ‘acknowledgement’ section where you may list the Commented [A26]: Think about what you have read; perhaps
your professional experience in school or your learnings with your
theories/policies/ people that may have influence your model to date. peers and others.

Into the future!


However, please be aware that your philosophy may well change as you gain experience in
teaching and are exposed to other ideas from your ongoing professional development, your
interactions with peers and other sources of inspiration. It will be an interesting task for you
to go back to this philosophy you have just completed in 10 years’ time and compare it to
the one you have then. Will it have changed much? How have your approaches evolved?
What kind of teacher have you become?

NOW WRITE YOUR FINAL DRAFT OF YOUR PERSONAL PHILOSOPHY (1000 Commented [A27]: SO IMPORTANT:

words Max) IN THE SPACE PROVIDED AT THE START OF THIS DOCUMENT! Now go back and submit your final submission in the space at the
beginning of your log.