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# THEORY

Air conditioning processes consists of five processes but we tried to focus only four types of
processes:

## 1. Simple Heating (raising the temperature)

2. Simple Cooling (lowering the temperature)
4. Dehumidifying (removing moisture)
5. Adiabatic Mixing of Air Streams (increase fresh air circulation)

## Air conditioning processes can be modeled as steady flow processes:

Mass conservation:
Dry air : ma,i = mw,e
Water : mw,i= mw,e or maii = ma,ee

Energy conservation:
Disregard kinetic and potential energy changes
Ei = Eo
Qi + Wi + mihi = Qe + We + mehe

## Simple heating and cooling:

1. The amount of moisture for simple heating and cooling remains constant
because no moisture is added or removed into the air stream. Therefore, the
specific humidity at the inlet and the exit remains equal (i= e ).

2. Heating method: the air stream flow inside a duct and passes resistance
wires (heaters). Heat is added to the air stream, so the dry bulb temperature
increases (Te> Ti).

Heating Element

1 2
Q

3. Cooling method: the air stream passes through cooling coil (evaporator
tubes of a refrigeration system). Heat transfer occurs from the hotter air
stream to the cooler refrigerant of chilled water flow , and the dry bulb
temperatures decreases ( Te< Ti)
Conservation of mass:
ma,1 = mw,2 and (1 = 2)
Conservation of energy:
Q = ma (h2 - h1)
q = h2 - h1
Cooling Element

1 2
Q

## Heating with humidification

1. Simple heating processes produced low relative humidity (air is dry), because the
moisture amount is constant (mv and constant) but the maximum moisture
absorption capacity (mg) increases with temperature rise.
2. If the humidifying agent used is steam, this will result in additional heating (T3 > T2).
3. If water is sprayed, the stream will be partially cooled (T3 < T2)

Heating Element
From water tank

Humidifier

1 2 3
Q

Mass conservation
Dry air mass balance: ma1 = ma2 =ma3 =ma

## Water mass balance: ma11 = ma22 , (1 = 2) (heating section)

ma22 + mw = ma33 ( humidifying section)
mw =ma(3 - 2)

Qin= ma(h2 - h1)

## Cooling with dehumidification:

1. Dehumidification is process to remove excess water in the dry air by
condensation. It is achieve by altering the cooling process.
2. The air is allowed to cool at a longer period until it reaches its dew point
(saturation state). Further cooling along the saturation state (100%
relative humidity 0 will result in condensation of part of the moisture in
the air.

Heating Element

1 2 \
Q Condesate Removal

ma22 + mw =ma3
mw =ma(1 - 2)

## Energy Balance: mhin= Qout+mhout

Qout = m (h2 - h1) - mwhw

## Adiabatic mixing of air streams.

1. The mixing process is assuming adiabatic (no heat transfer with the
surrounding).
2. Two stream of air (treated air from air conditioning process ing and fresh
outside air) is merging and exists as one single stream with combined
properties.

## Dry air mass balance :ma1 + ma2 = ma3

Water mass balance : ma11 + ma22 =ma33
Energy balance : ma1h1 +ma2h2 = ma3h3

m a1 2  h h2  h3
 
Eliminating ma3 :
ma 2 3  2 h3  h1
DISCUSSION

a) Answer all the problems in the experimental, and discuss the results obtained by
explaining the factors that contribute to the air property changes for each
process problems.

No Process
Based on the data, we can see that there are no changes in the temperature because it
does not involve with any variable. Even though, there is still a value for the first data but the
value is just a reading taken from the surrounding condition. So, at this moment we cannot
make any assumption and we still need more data from other variable to see clearly the relation
between all the variables. It can been seen that the value of dry temperature was higher
compared with wet temperature. Dry temperature higher because it was located nearest to
blower speed control which there has no steam produced at dry temperature. But at the wet
temperature, it located nearest to the steam injector. The dry temperature, t1 produced in no
process experiment was 26.1˚C and wet temperature, t2 produced was 23.6˚C. The temperature
increases up to 26.3˚C at t3 and then decrease back at t5, 25.8˚C and finally decrease at t7;
25.6˚C. Same for the wet temperature, the values increases at t4; 28.3˚C, then decrease at t6;
23.3˚C and finally increase back at t8; 25.7˚C. No process in air conditioning gives the meaning
of no heat produced in the air conditioning and all the properties produced same as it in the
room temperature.

Sensible Heating

During sensible heating process, we investigated that the temperature raises reading for
both wet bulb and dry increased compare to no process experiment. The different between these
two experiments is because in sensible heating experiment we use the pre-heat and re-heat to
heat the air while in no process experiment there is nothing particular changes had been made.
The usage of 1 kW pre-heater as well as 0.5 kW re-heater is the factor of temperature
increasingly. Theoretically, the pre-heat and reheat both of them is actually increasing the
temperature of the air since both of them is provide heat to the air. Unfortunately, there is still
some temperature drop during the air flow to the outlet. In order to solve this problem the air
must be reheat to a certain temperature so that we can get the temperature that we want.
Therefore, the changes that could be seen in the air property are that the air happens to be hotter
at this stage. That is why once the air conditioning system is switched on, the hot air will first
flow out from the system followed by the cooled air accordingly.
i. 1kW
For the value of dry and wet temperature, it had been showed that the dry
temperatures gave higher value compared with wet temperatures. The value for dry
temperature, t1 was 26.5˚C and wet temperature, t2 was 23.7˚C. Then the values
obtained from this process were not constant. For the dry temperature, it had been
increased at the t3 but then the value had been decreased until t7. The values obtained
in wet temperature also same pattern as dry temperature. Temperature increased at t4,
and then decreased linearly to t8.

ii. 1.5kW
For the value of dry and wet temperature, it had been showed that the dry
temperatures gave higher value compared with wet temperatures. The value for dry
temperature, t1 was 27.0˚C and wet temperature, t2 was 24.3˚C. Then the values
obtained from this process were not constant. For the dry temperature, it had been
increased at the t3 but then the value had been decreased until t7. The values obtained
in wet temperature also same pattern as dry temperature. Temperature increased at t4,
and then decreased linearly to t8.

Theoretically, the preheat and reheat both of them is actually increasing the temperature of
the air since both of them is provide heat to the air. Unfortunately, there is still some
temperature drop during the air flow to the outlet. In order to solve this proble the air must be
reheat to a certain temperature so that we can get the temperature that we want.

Steam Humidification

During the process, the air that passed through the section of water boiling to produce
steam will caused an increase in temperature because the steam has the ability to hold
maximum moisture of air. Moreover, the increasing of moisture capacity will respond with the
temperature rise. That is the reason for the temperature at state 2 increases as compared to state
1. 3kw of heat switched on to maintain the steam after the steam is produced. This is because,
the factor that contributes to the change of air property for this process is the present of heat at
higher value to ensure that the level of steam is maintained and at the same time, the property
of air is change into the form of steam.
Cooling and dehumidification

Based on our result, it can be noted that all of the value of readings obtained for both dry bulb
as well as wet bulb temperature are totally different compared to the previous processes. At
this stage the compressor of the refrigeration system is switched on and by the way, the air is
cooled until 18°C to 20°C (stable temperature). As for that, that is why all of the temperatures
reading are at a lower value since the process of cooling and dehumidification are both
involved. The cooled air starts to flow and the room temperature will cold down. In terms of
the factor that contributes to the change in air property for this process is due to the reason of
compressor usage which in a way it changes the temperature of the air to become lower and
producing a cooled air to flow out of the system. The value obtained for the both dry and wet
temperatures were increases. The reading at t3 decreases but t4 increases, then the same thing
happened at t5 and t6 and finally decreased back at t7 and t8. But, this process produced the
temperatures values up to t12. As for that, that is why some of the temperatures reading are at
a lower value since the process of cooling and dehumidification are both involved. The
cooled air has start to flow and the room temperature will cold down. All in all, in terms of
the factor that contributes to the change in air property for this process is due to the reason of
compressor usage which in a way it changes the temperature of the air to become lower and
producing a cooled air to flow out of the system.
b) Find the schematic of a modern air-conditioning system with advanced air
treatment process and explain the function of the main devices.

## The function of main devices

The three main parts of an air conditioner unit are the compressor, the condenser and the
evaporator. The compressor and condenser are located on the outside of the air conditioner and
the evaporator is located on the inside. The basic functioning of the air conditioner is based on
the principle of successive heating and cooling of a highly volatile liquid, such as a Freon. The
liquid first will enters the compressor, where its function is to compress into a gas. This reaction
will releases heat and makes the liquid cooler. After that, the dissipated heat is radiated
outwards with the help of a fan.
The liquid then enters the condenser, where its function is to absorb heat from the
surroundings to reconvert into a gas. Hence, the surroundings temperature will become cool.
The entire process continues and eventually causes of the cooling of the room. Besides the
three main air conditioner parts, an air conditioner also has a hot coil on the outside to dissipate
heat, a cool coil on the inside to absorb heat, two fans (one outside and one inside) and a control
circuit to modify the temperature. This is done by changing the rotation speeds of the fans using
a potentiometer.

Device Function
Compressor To compress the refrigerant refrigerant from
the low pressure at low temperature to high
pressure at high temperature.
Condenser Used to liquify the high presure refrigerant
from the compressor. In air, cooled condensers,
metallic surface cools the gas and changed to
form liquid. In the water-cooled condenser,
water had been circulated to produce the same
cooling effect.
Expension Valve It removes pressure from the liquid refrigerant
to allow expansion or change the state from
liquid to a vapour in evaporator. The high-
pressure liquid refrigerant enters in quite
situation and leaves it in cold situation. Orifice
within the valve does not remove heat but only
reduces the pressure.
Evaporator It absorbed heat from the surrounding air and
c) Explain with suitable diagrams the operation and arrangements in an
automotive air-conditioning unit.

COMPRESSOR

## Commonly referred to as the heart of the system, the compressor is a belt

driven pump that is fastened to the engine. It is responsible for compressing and
transferring refrigerant gas. The A/C system is split into two sides, a high pressure
side and a low pressure side; defined as discharge and suction. Since the compressor
is basically a pump, it must have an intake side and a discharge side. The intake, or
suction side, draws in refrigerant gas from the outlet of the evaporator. In some cases
it does this via the accumulator. Once the refrigerant is drawn into the suction side, it
is compressed and sent to the condenser, where it can then transfer the heat that is
absorbed from the inside of the vehicle.

CONDENSER

The condenser serves as the heat dissipation component. The condenser will
have similar appearance as the radiator in car as both have very similar functions. The
main function of condenser is to radiate heat. Basically it is located in front of the
radiator. Its location may differ due to aerodynamic improvements to the body of a
vehicle. Condensers must have good air flow anytime the system is in operation. On
rear wheel drive vehicles, this is usually accomplished by taking advantage of your
existing engine's cooling fan. On front wheel drive vehicles, condenser air flow is
supplemented with one or more electric cooling fan. As hot compressed gasses are
introduced into the top of the condenser, they are cooled off. As the gas cools, it
condenses and exits the bottom of the condenser as a high pressure liquid.

EVAPORATOR

Located inside the vehicle, the evaporator serves as the heat absorption
component. The evaporator provides several functions. Its primary duty is to remove
heat from the inside of your vehicle. A secondary benefit is dehumidification. As
warmer air travels through the aluminium fins of the cooler evaporator coil, the
moisture contained in the air condenses on its surface. Dust and pollen passing
through stick to its wet surfaces and drain off to the outside. On humid days you may
have seen this as water dripping from the bottom of your vehicle. Rest assured this is
perfectly normal. The ideal temperature of the evaporator is 32° Fahrenheit or 0°
Celsius. Refrigerant enters the bottom of the evaporator as a low pressure liquid. The
warm air passing through the evaporator fins causes the refrigerant to boil
(refrigerants have very low boiling points). As the refrigerant begins to boil, it can
absorb large amounts of heat. This heat is then carried off with the refrigerant to the
outside of the vehicle. Several other components work in conjunction with the
evaporator. As mentioned above, the ideal temperature for an evaporator coil is 32° F.
Temperature and pressure regulating devices must be used to control its temperature.
While there are many variations of devices used, their main functions are the same;
keeping pressure in the evaporator low and keeping the evaporator from freezing; A
frozen evaporator coil will not absorb as much heat.

## PRESSURE REGULATING DEVICES

A pressure regulating devices is a control valve that reduces the input pressure
of a fluid to a desired value at its output. Regulators are used for gases and liquids,
and can be an integral device with an output pressure setting, a restrictor and a sensor
all in the one body, or consist of a separate pressure sensor, controller and flow valve.

ORIFICE TUBE

The orifice tube, probably the most commonly used, can be found in most GM
and Ford models. It is located in the inlet tube of the evaporator, or in the liquid line,
somewhere between the outlet of the condenser and the inlet of the evaporator. This
point can be found in a properly functioning system by locating the area between the
outlet of the condenser and the inlet of the evaporator that suddenly makes the change
from hot to cold. You should then see small dimples placed in the line that keep the
orifice tube from moving. Most of the orifice tubes in use today measure
approximately three inches in length and consist of a small brass tube, surrounded by
plastic, and covered with a filter screen at each end. It is not uncommon for these
tubes to become clogged with small debris. While inexpensive, usually between three
to five dollars, the labour to replace one involves recovering the refrigerant, opening
the system up, replacing the orifice tube, evacuating and then recharging. With this in
mind, it might make sense to install a larger pre filter in front of the orifice tube to
minimize the risk of this problem reoccurring. Some Ford models have a permanently
affixed orifice tube in the liquid line. These can be cut out and replaced with a
combination filter/orifice assembly.
THERMAL EXPANSION VALVE

## Another common refrigerant regulator is the thermal expansion valve, or

TXV. Commonly used on import and aftermarket systems. This type of valve can
sense both temperature and pressure, and is very efficient at regulating refrigerant
flow to the evaporator. Several variations of this valve are commonly found. Another
example of a thermal expansion valve is Chrysler's "H block" type. This type of valve
is usually located at the firewall, between the evaporator inlet and outlet tubes and the
liquid and suction lines. These types of valves, although efficient, have some
disadvantages over orifice tube systems. Like orifice tubes these valves can become
clogged with debris, but also have small moving parts that may stick and malfunction
due to corrosion.

The receiver-drier is used on the high side of systems that use a thermal
expansion valve. This type of metering valve requires liquid refrigerant. To ensure
that the valve gets liquid refrigerant, a receiver is used. The primary function of the
receiver-drier is to separate gas and liquid. The secondary purpose is to remove
moisture and filter out dirt. The receiver-drier usually has a sight glass in the top. This
sight glass is often used to charge the system. Under normal operating conditions,
vapour bubbles should not be visible in the sight glass. The use of the sight glass to
charge the system is not recommended in R-134a systems as cloudiness and oil that
has separated from the refrigerant can be mistaken for bubbles. This type of mistake
can lead to a dangerous overcharged condition. There are variations of receiver-driers
and several different desiccant materials are in use. Some of the moisture removing
desiccants found within are not compatible with R-134a. The desiccant type is usually
desiccant type XH-7 and are compatible with both R-12 and R-134a refrigerants.
ACCUMULATOR

## Accumulators are used on systems that accommodate an orifice tube to meter

refrigerants into the evaporator. It is connected directly to the evaporator outlet and
stores excess liquid refrigerant. Introduction of liquid refrigerant into a compressor
can do serious damage. Compressors are designed to compress gas not liquid. The
chief role of the accumulator is to isolate the compressor from any damaging liquid
refrigerant. Accumulators, like receiver-driers, also remove debris and moisture from
a system. It is a good idea to replace the accumulator each time the system is opened
up for major repair and anytime moisture and/or debris is of concern. Moisture is
enemy number one for your A/C system. Moisture in a system mixes with refrigerant
and forms a corrosive acid. When in doubt, it may be to your advantage to change the
Accumulator or receiver in your system. While this may be a temporary discomfort
for your wallet, it is of long term benefit to your air conditioning system