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Practical Statistics for Nursing Using SPSS 1st Edition

Knapp Solutions Manual

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Vietnam War
Chiến tranh Việt Nam (Vietnamese)
Part of the Indochina Wars and the Cold War
Clockwise, from top left: U.S. combat operations in Ia Đrăng, ARVN
Rangers defending Saigon during the 1968 Tết Offensive, two A-4C
Skyhawks after the Gulf of Tonkin incident, ARVN recapture Quảng
Trị during the 1972 Easter Offensive, civilians fleeing the 1972 Battle
of Quảng Trị, and burial of 300 victims of the 1968 Huế Massacre.
Date 1 November 1955[A 1] – 30 April 1975
(19 years, 5 months, 4 weeks and 1 day)
Location South Vietnam, North Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, South
China Sea, Gulf of Thailand
North Vietnamese victory
Vietnamese civilian dead: 627,000–2,000,000[44][70][71]
Vietnamese total dead: 966,000[43]–3,812,000[72]
Cambodian Civil War dead: 275,000–310,000[73][74][75]
Laotian Civil War dead: 20,000–62,000[72]
Non-Indochinese military dead: 65,494
Total dead: 1,326,494–4,249,494
For more information see Vietnam War casualties and Aircraft losses
of the Vietnam War
a Upper figure initial estimate, later thought to be inflated by at least
30% (lower figure), possibly includes civilians misidentified as
combatants, see Vietnam War body count controversy[43][49]
Indochina Wars
Military engagements during the Vietnam War
Massacres of the Vietnam War
The Vietnam War (Vietnamese: Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known
as the Second Indochina War,[76] and in Vietnam as the Resistance
War Against America (Vietnamese: Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply
the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and
Cambodia from 1 November 1955[A 1] to the fall of Saigon on 30
April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially
fought between North Vietnam and the government of South Vietnam.
The North Vietnamese army was supported by the Soviet Union,
China,[29] and other communist allies; the South Vietnamese army
was supported by the United States, South Korea, the Philippines,
Australia, Thailand and other anti-communist allies.[77] The war is
considered a Cold War-era proxy war by some US perspectives.[78]
The war would last approximately 19 years and would also form the
Laotian Civil War as well as the Cambodian Civil War, which resulted
in all 3 countries becoming communist states in 1975.

There are several competing views on the conflict. Some on the North
Vietnamese and National Liberation Front side view the struggle
against U.S. forces as a colonial war and a continuation of the First
Indochina War against forces from France and later on the United
States,[79] especially in light of the failed 1954 Geneva Conference
calls for elections. Other interpretations of the North Vietnamese side
include viewing it as a civil war, especially in the early and later phases
following the U.S. interlude between 1965 and 1970,[80] as well as a
war of liberation.[79] In the perspective of some, the Provisional
Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam, the
successor to the Việt Cộng, was motivated in part by significant social
changes in the post-World War II Vietnam, and had initially seen it as
a revolutionary war supported by Hanoi.[81][82] The pro-government
side in South Vietnam viewed it as a civil war, a defensive war against
communism,[80][83] or were motivated to fight to defend their homes
and families.[84] The U.S. government viewed its involvement in the
war as a way to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam. This
was part of the domino theory of a wider containment policy, with the
stated aim of stopping the spread of communism.[85]

Beginning in 1950, American military advisors arrived in what was

then French Indochina.[86][A 3] Most of the funding for the French
war effort was provided by the U.S.[87] The Việt Cộng, also known as
Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or FNL (the National
Liberation Front), a South Vietnamese communist common front aided
by the North, fought a guerrilla war against anti-communist forces in
the region, while the People's Army of Vietnam, also known as the
North Vietnamese Army (NVA), engaged in more conventional
warfare, and had launched armed struggles from 1959 onward. U.S.
involvement escalated in 1960 under President John F. Kennedy, with
troop levels gradually surging under the MAAG program from just
under a thousand in 1959 to 16,000 in 1963.[88][89]

By 1964 there were 23,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam, but this escalated
further following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U.S.
destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast
attack craft. In response the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave Lyndon
B. Johnson authorization to increase U.S. military presence, deploying
ground combat units for the first time and increasing troop levels to
184,000.[88] Every year onward there was significant build-up despite
little progress, with Robert McNamara, one of the principal architects
of the war, beginning to express doubts of victory by the end of
1966.[90] U.S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority
and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations,
involving ground forces, artillery, and airstrikes. The U.S. conducted
a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam.
Following the Tết Offensive, U.S. forces began withdrawal under the
Vietnamization phase; the Army of the Republic of Vietnam
unconventional and conventional capabilities increased following a
period of neglect and became modeled on heavy fire-power focused
doctrines like US forces. Operations crossed international borders:
bordering areas of Laos and Cambodia were used by North Vietnam
as supply routes and were heavily bombed by U.S. forces.

Gradual withdrawal of U.S. ground forces began as part of

"Vietnamization", which aimed to end American involvement in the
war while transferring the task of fighting the communists to the South
Vietnamese themselves and begun the task of modernizing their armed
forces. Morale declined significantly among U.S. forces during the
wind-down period and incidents of fragging, drug-use and
insubordination increased[91] with General Creighton Abrams
remarking "I need to get this army home to save it".[92] From 1969
onwards the military actions of the Việt Cộng insurgency decreased as
the role and engagement of the NVA grew. Initially fielding less
conventional and poorer weaponry, from 1970 onward the People's
Army of Vietnam and its branch People's Liberation Armed Forces of
South Vietnam had increasingly became mechanised and armoured,
capable of modernised combined arms and mobile warfare and begun
to widely deploy newer, untested weapons.[93] These two sides would
see significant, rapid changes throughout its lifetime from their
original post-colonial armies, and by mid-1970s the ARVN became
the fourth largest army[94] with the PAVN became the fifth largest
army in the world[95] in two countries with a population of roughly 20
million each.[96]
Despite the Paris Peace Accord, which was signed by all parties in
January 1973, the fighting continued in which both Saigon and Hanoi
attempted to take territory before and after the accord and the ceasefire
was broken just days after its signing.[97] In the U.S. and the Western
world, a large anti-Vietnam War movement developed as part of a
larger counterculture, the largest such anti-war movement up to that
point in history.[98] The war changed the dynamics between the
Eastern and Western Blocs, and altered North–South relations,[99] and
had significantly influenced the political landscape in the United
States,[100] across much of Western Europe[101] and U.S. ground-
force intervention spurred the rise of transnational political movements
and campaigning.[102]

Direct U.S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result

of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.S. Congress.[103]
The capture of Saigon by the North Vietnamese Army in April 1975
marked the end of the war, and North and South Vietnam were
reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in
terms of fatalities (see Vietnam War casualties). Estimates of the
number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from
966,000[43] to 3.8 million.[72] Some 275,000–310,000
Cambodians,[73][74][75] 20,000–62,000 Laotians,[72] and 58,220
U.S. service members also died in the conflict, and a further 1,626
remain missing in action.[A 2] The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged
following the lull during the Vietnam War and ties between the DRV
and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National
Union of Kampuchea, the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea
begun almost immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer
Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with
Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War. The
end of the war and resumption of the Third Indochina War would
precipitate the Vietnamese boat people and the bigger Indochina
refugee crisis, which saw an estimated 250,000 people perish at sea.