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MOTHER TERESA SR. SEC. CO-ED SCHOOL KOLAR ROAD BHOAPL

DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS

PROJECT REPORT

INVESTIGATORY PROJECT ON

PN JUNCTION AND DIODES

PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by

Govind Patel

RegisterationNo:

Submitted to Mrs Ratna Hajela

in

DEPARTMENT OF PHYICS

MOTHER TERESA SR. SEC. CO-ED SCHOOL BHOPAL

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In the accomplishment of this project successfully, many people have best

owned upon me their blessings and the

heart pledged support, this time I am utilizing to thank all the people who have been concerned with project. Primarily I would thank god for being

able to complete this project with

success. Then I would like to thank my principal Mr. James MJ and physics teacher Mrs Ratna hajela, whose valuable guidance has been the ones

that helped me patch this project and

make it full proof success her suggestions and her instructions has served as the major contributor towards the completion of the project. Then I

would like to thank my parents and

friends who have helped me with their valuable suggestions and guidance has been helpful in various phases of the completion of the project. Last but not

the least I would like to thank my

classmates who have helped me a lot.

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that project work titled A STUDY ON PN JUNCTIONS AND DIODES being submitted by Govind Patel a

student of class XII-A has successfully completed the research on the below mentioned project under the guidance of Mrs Ratna Hajela ( Subject Teacher ) during the year 2016-17 in partial fulfillment of physics practical examination conducted by AISSCE

Signature of external

examiner

Signature of

physics teacher

INDEX

PN Junction Diode Equation Zener Diodes

Semiconductor: An

Introduction

Semiconductor: An Introduction • Conductors: Allow Electric current to flow through them • Insulators: Do not

Conductors: Allow Electric current to flow through them

Insulators: Do not Allow Electric current to flow through them

Semiconductors: Materials whose conductivity lies in between of

Semiconductor: An Introduction • Conductors: Allow Electric current to flow through them • Insulators: Do not

Conductors and Semiconductor

Insulators, Semiconductors,

and Metals: Comparison

This and conduction separation bands of the valence

properties determines of the the electrical material Insulators gap have a large energy

electrons conduction can’t bands jump from valence to

  • no current flows

Conductors very energy small gap (or (metals) nonexistent) have a

  • electrons bands due easily to thermal jump to excitation conduction

  • current flows easily

Semiconductors moderate energy have gap a

  • only conduction a few electrons band can jump to the

leaving “holes

  • only a little current can flow

P-N JUNCTION

  • Also known as a diode

  • One of the basics of semiconductor technology -

  • Created by placing n-type and p- type material in close contact

  • Diffusion - mobile charges (holes) in p-type combine with mobile charges (electrons) in n-type

P-N JUNCTION

  • Region of charges left behind (dopants fixed in crystal lattice)

    • Group III in p-type (one less proton than Si- negative charge)

    • Group IV in n-type (one more proton than Si - positive charge)

  • Region is totally depleted of mobile charges - “depletion region”

    • Electric field forms due to fixed charges in the depletion region

    • Depletion region has high resistance due to lack of mobile charges

  • THE P-N JUNCTION

    Direction of

    Current

    THE P-N JUNCTION Direction of Current
    THE P-N JUNCTION Direction of Current
    THE P-N JUNCTION Direction of Current

    DEPLETION LAYER FORMATION

    
    D EPLETION L AYER F ORMATION  The “potential” or voltage across the silicon changes in
    D EPLETION L AYER F ORMATION  The “potential” or voltage across the silicon changes in

    The “potential” or voltage across the silicon changes in the depletion region and goes from + in the n region to in the p region

    Biasing the P-N

    Diode

    DIODES CAN BE

    CONSIDERED AS SWITCH

    Biasing the P-N Diode DIODES CAN BE CONSIDERED AS SWITCH Forward Bias Applies - voltage to
    Biasing the P-N Diode DIODES CAN BE CONSIDERED AS SWITCH Forward Bias Applies - voltage to
    Biasing the P-N Diode DIODES CAN BE CONSIDERED AS SWITCH Forward Bias Applies - voltage to
    Forward Bias Applies - voltage to the n region and + voltage to the p region
    Forward
    Bias
    Applies -
    voltage to the
    n region and
    + voltage to
    the p region
    CURRENT!

    Reverse Bias

    Applies +

    voltage to n

    region and voltage to p region

    NO

    CURRENT

    P-N Junction Reverse Bias

    positive voltage placed on n-type material

    electrons in n-type move closer to positive terminal, holes in p-type move closer to negative terminal

    width of depletion region increases

    allowed current is essentially zero (small “drift” current)

    Depletion layer width Increses
    Depletion layer width
    Increses

    No current Flow

    P-N Junction Forward Bias

    positive voltage placed on p-type material

    holes in p-type move away from positive terminal, electrons in n-type move further from negative terminal

    depletion region becomes smaller - resistance of device decreases

    voltage increased until critical voltage is reached, depletion region disappears, current can flow freely

    P-N Junction – Forward Bias  positive voltage placed on p-type material  holes in p-type

    P-N Junction - V-I characteristics

    Voltage-Current relationship for a p-n junction (diode)

    P-N Junction - V-I characteristics Voltage-Current relationship for a p-n junction (diode)
    P-N Junction - V-I characteristics Voltage-Current relationship for a p-n junction (diode)

    Current-Voltage

    Characteristics

    Current-Voltage Characteristics THE IDEAL DIODE Positive voltage yields finite current Negative voltage yields zero current REAL

    THE IDEAL DIODE

    Positive voltage yields finite current

    Negative voltage yields zero current

    Current-Voltage Characteristics THE IDEAL DIODE Positive voltage yields finite current Negative voltage yields zero current REAL

    REAL DIODE

    Ideal diode equation

    The diode equation gives an expression for the current through a diode as a function of voltage. The Ideal Diode Law, expressed as:

    Ideal diode equation The diode equation gives an expression for the current through a diode aselectron charge ; k = Boltzmann's constant ; and T = absolute temperature (K). " id="pdf-obj-15-9" src="pdf-obj-15-9.jpg">

    where:

    I = the net current flowing through the diode; I 0 = "dark saturation current", the diode leakage current density in the absence

    of

    light;

    V = applied voltage across the terminals

    of

    the

    diode;

    q = absolute value of electron charge;

    k

    =

    and

    T = absolute temperature (K).

    Semiconductor diode -

    opened region

    The p-side is the cathode, the n-side is the anode

    The dropped voltage, V D is measured from the cathode to the anode

    Opened: V D V F :

    V D = V F

    I D = circuit limited, in our model the V D cannot exceed V F

    Semiconductor diode -

    closed region

    Closed: V F < V D 0:

    V D is determined by the circuit, I D = 0 mA Typical values of V F : 0.5 ¸ 0.7 V

    Semiconductor diode - cut-off region

    Cut-off: 0 < V D < V F :

    I D 0 mA

    Zener diode

    A Zener diode allows current to flow from its anode to its cathode like a normal semiconductor diode, but it also permits current to flow in the reverse direction when its "Zener voltage" is reached. Zener diodes have a highly doped p-n junction. Normal diodes will also break down with a reverse voltage but the voltage and sharpness of

    the knee are not as well defined as for a Zener

    diode. Also normal diodes are not designed to operate in the breakdown region, but Zener diodes can reliably operate in this region. The device was named after Clarance Melvin Zener, who discovered the Zener effect. Zener reverse breakdown is due to electron quantum tunnelling caused by a high strength electric field. However, many diodes described as "Zener" diodes rely instead on avalanche breakdown. Both breakdown types are used in Zener diodes with the Zener effect predominating under 5.6 V andavalanche breakdown above. Zener diodes are widely used in electronic

    equipment of all kinds and are one of the basic building blocks of electronic circuits. They are used to generate low power stabilized supply rails from a higher voltage and to provide reference

    voltages for circuits, especially stabilized power

    supplies. They are also used to protect circuits from over-voltage, especiallyelectrostatic discharge

    Zener diode shown with typical packages. Reverse current is shown. Zener diodes are widely used asshunt regulators to regulate the voltage across small circuits. When connected in parallel with a variable voltage source so that it is reverse biased, a Zener diode conducts when the voltage reaches the diode's reverse breakdown voltage. From that point on, the relatively low impedance of the diode keeps the voltage across the diode at that value. In this circuit, a typical voltage reference or regulator, an input voltage, U , is regulated down to a stable output voltage U . The breakdown voltage of diode D is stable over a wide current range and holds U relatively constant even though the input voltage may fluctuate over a fairly wide range. Because of the low impedance of the diode when operated like this, resistor R is used to limit current through the circuit. In the case of this simple reference, the current flowing in the diode is determined using Ohm's law and the known voltage drop across the resistor R; The value of R must satisfy two conditions : 1.R must be small enough that the current through D keeps D in reverse breakdown. The value of this current is given in the data sheet for D. For example, the common BZX79C5V6 device, a 5.6 V 0.5 W Zener diode, has a recommended reverse current of 5 mA. If insufficient current exists through D, then U is unregulated and less than the nominal breakdown voltage (this differs to voltage-regulator tubes where the output voltage will be higher than nominal and could rise as high as U ). When calculating R , allowance must be made for any current through the external load, not shown in this diagram, connected across U . 2.R must be large enough that the current through D does not destroy the device. " id="pdf-obj-19-2" src="pdf-obj-19-2.jpg">

    Zener diode shown with typical packages.Reverse current

    is

    shown. Zener diodes are widely used as voltage references and as shunt regulators to regulate the voltage across small circuits. When connected in parallel with a variable voltage source so that it is reverse biased, a Zener diode conducts when the voltage reaches the diode's reverse breakdown voltage. From that point on, the relatively low impedance of the diode keeps the voltage across the diode at that value. [8]

    In this circuit, a typical voltage reference or regulator, an input voltage,

    U IN , is regulated down to a stable output voltage U OUT . The breakdown voltage of diode D is stable over a wide current range and holds U OUT relatively constant even though the input voltage may fluctuate over a fairly wide range. Because of the low impedance of the diode when operated like this, resistor R is used to limit current through the circuit. In the case of this simple reference, the current flowing in the diode is determined using Ohm's law and the known voltage drop across the resistor R; The value of R must satisfy two conditions :

    1.R must be small enough that the current through D keeps D in reverse breakdown. The value of this current is given in the data sheet for D. For example, the common BZX79C5V6 [9] device, a 5.6 V 0.5 W Zener diode, has a recommended reverse current of 5 mA. If insufficient current exists through D, then U OUT is unregulated and less than the nominal breakdown voltage (this differs to voltage-regulator tubes where the output voltage will be higher than nominal and could rise as high as U IN ). When calculating R, allowance must be made for any current through the external load, not shown in this diagram, connected across U OUT . 2.R must be large enough that the current through D does not destroy the device.

    2.If the current through D is I D , its breakdown voltage V B and its

    maximum power dissipation P MAX correlate as such:

    . A load may be placed across the diode in this reference circuit, and as long as the Zener stays in reverse breakdown, the diode provides a stable voltage source to the load. Zener diodes in this configuration are often used as stable references for more advanced voltage regulator circuits. Shunt regulators are simple, but the requirements that the ballast resistor be small enough to avoid excessive voltage drop during worst-case operation (low input voltage concurrent with high load current) tends to leave a lot of current flowing in the diode much of the time, making for a fairly wasteful regulator with high quiescent power dissipation, only suitable for smaller loads. These devices are also encountered, typically in series with a base-emitter junction, in transistor stages where selective choice of a device centered around the avalanche or Zener point can be used to introduce compensating temperature co-efficient balancing of the transistor pn junction. An example of this kind of use would be a DC error amplifier used in aregulated power supply circuit feedback loop system. Zener diodes are also used in surge protectors to limit transient voltage spikes. Another application of the Zener diode is the use of noise caused by its avalan che breakdown in a random number generator.

     NCERT textbook class 12  NCERT physics lab Manuel  INTERNET  www.yahoo.com  www.scribd.com
    • NCERT textbook class 12

    • NCERT physics lab Manuel

    • INTERNET

    • www.yahoo.com

    • www.scribd.com

    • www.google.com