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Guided Reading & Analysis: A New World

Chapter 1- A New World of Many Cultures, 1491-1607, pp 1-13
This guide is not only a place to record notes as you read, but also to provide a place and structure for
reflections and analysis using your noggin (thinking skills) with new knowledge gained from the
reading. This reading guide is ESSENTIAL for mastery of the course and AP exam await all who
choose to process the information as they read/receive.
So… young Jedi… what is your choice? Do? Or do not? There is no try.
(Image Source:

1. Pre-Read: Read the prompts/questions within this guide before you read the chapter.
2. Skim: Flip through the chapter and note titles and subtitles. Look at images and read captions. Get a feel for the content you are about to read.
3. Read/Analyze: Read the chapter. If you have your own copy of AMSCO, Highlight key events and people as you read. Remember, the goal is not to “fish” for a
specific answer(s) to reading guide questions, but to consider questions in order to critically understand what you read!
4. Write Write your notes and analysis in the spaces provided OR complete digitally on Canvas. If you are completing paper copy, complete it in INK!

Key Concepts FOR PERIOD 1:

NOTE: College Board released revisions to the APUSH framework July of 2015. The key concepts and objectives addressed in your texts reflect the 2014
version of the framework. This guide includes the 2015 revisions to the key concepts. In general, the expectations are not that different. College Board
simply sought to clarify and simplify the expectations.

Key Concept 1.1: As native populations migrated and settled across the vast expanse of North America over time, they developed
distinct and increasingly complex societies by adapting to and transforming their diverse environments.

Key Concept 1.2: Contact among Europeans, Native Americans, and Africans resulted in the Columbian Exchange and
significant social, cultural, and political changes on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean.

SECTION 1 - Period Perspectives, p.1

Consider the data in the chart at right as well as page 1 of
the text when completing this section.

1. Period 1 begins with 1491. If the American Indian population in

what is now the United States was nearly 10 million before 1492,
why is the United States population in modern times only 2 to 3%
American Indian?
The population in America has grown vastly
and many American Indians were killed by
settlers that brought diseases like smallpox.

2. Period 1 ends with the establishment of Jamestown, the first

permanent British settlement in North America. Explain why
1607 is a major turning point in United States history.

This marked the beginning of the framework

of a new nation.
SECTION 2 Guided Reading, pp 2-13
As you read the chapter, jot down your notes in the middle column. Consider your notes to be elaborations on the Objectives and Main Ideas presented in the left
column. When you finish reading the section and taking notes, process and analyze what you read by answering the question in the right hand column. You do not
need to write in complete sentences.

3. Cultures pp 2-5

Key Concepts &

Main Ideas Notes Analysis
In what ways did native peoples transform North
Before the arrival Cultures of Central and South America… American environment before European colonization?
of Europeans, Mayan built cities in the Yucatan Peninsula between A.D. 300 and 800. (list)
native Aztecs developed a powerful empire several centuries after, with a
populations in population of about 200,000. a.
North America Incas built vast empire Built large empires
developed a Highly organized societies, extensive trade, and accurate scientific b.
wide variety of calendars. Cultivated crops
social, political, Cultivated crops: corn for Mayas/Aztecs, potatoes for Incas c.
Cultures of North America… Hunted animals
and economic
Natives were smaller and less sophisticated than in SA or Mexico because d.
of slow cultivation of corn Knew how to make tools
based in part on
Most complex and populous societies disappeared by the 1400s
interactions with Men hunted and made tools, women gathered plants and nuts, or grew Identify one key similarity and one key difference
the environment corn, beans, and tobacco between societies that developed in Central and South
and each other. Language… America to those that developed in North America.
More than 20 language families and more than 400 distinct languages.
As settlers Southwest Settlements… Similarity: The two societies were agriculturally similar
migrated and Multifaceted societies supported by farming with irrigation.
settled across Lived in caves, under cliffs, and multistoried buildings
the vast expanse Died out by the time Europeans got there Difference: The Central and South Americans were more
of North America Northwest Settlements… populous and sophisticated than the North Americans
over time, they Permanent longhouses or plank houses.
developed quite Rich diet on hunting, fishing, gathering nuts, berries, and roots.
different and Stories, legends, myths, large totem poles
increasingly Great Plains… Explain the significance of the difference between
complex Nomadic hunters or sedentary farmers and traders. Lived in tepees. Central /South America and North America.
societies by Midwest Settlements…
adapting to and Rich food supply. Hunting, fishing, and agriculture. The significance of the difference in the population and
transforming Northeast Settlements… intelligence is that when the Europeans arrived in North
their diverse Hunting and farming. Move to fresh land frequently. Iroquois were America there was less of using them as slaves and
environments. powerful, battling rival American Indians and Europeans forcing them into labor
Atlantic Seaboard Settlements…
Built timber and bark lodging along rivers, which provided a rich food

4. Europe Moves Toward Exploration, pp 5-6

Key Concepts
& Main Ideas Notes Analysis

New Improvements in technology… Identify the key difference between Viking voyages of the 12th century to
technology, The Renaissance. that of Columbus in the 15th century.
new Began use of gunpowder (invented by Chinese) and the Columbus’s discovery had a long impact and the Viking voyages didn’t cause
knowledge, sailing compass (adopted from Arab merchants who large migration
and new goals learned from the Chinese)
spurred Major improvements in shipbuilding and mapmaking.
European Invention of the printing press in the 1450s How did new technology enable Christopher Columbus to dominate
exploration. Religious conflict… the “New World?”
The Roman Catholic Church was threatened by The Compass helped him stay in the right direction
Ottoman Turks who were followers of Islam, and by a
revolt against the pope’s authority.
Spanish Christians reconquered most of Spain from the What was the impact of the Catholic victory in Spain and the European
Islam, Isabella and Ferdinand married, then the rest of Reformation on North America?
Spain was conquered, and Columbus went on his first New leaders and Christianity was being spread more
Revolt against the pope known as Protestant
Reformation, which caused Catholics and Protestants to
want to spread their own versions of Christianity to
other continents. God was added to gold and glory.
5. Expanding Trade, pp 6-7

Key Concepts
& Main Ideas Notes Analysis

New Routes… List three main effects of Europe’s expanding

Economic Wanted to find a new way to rich Asian trade. Sailing south along the West trade in the 15th century.
motives drove African coast and east to china, or sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean.
Portuguese chose the south and east route, which eventually opened up a long a.
exploration, sea route around South Africa’s Cape of Good Hope. New routes were established
and Vasco da Gama was the first to reach India by that route in 1498, and Columbus b.
“discovery” had attempted the west route by this time. Trading of slaves
altered the Slave Trading… c.
In the 15th century, the Portuguese began trading West African slaves and slaves Nation-states were developed
European, were used on sugar plantations on the Madeira and Azores islands. Europeans
African, and later establish colonies using the slave system Which effect was most significant? Explain your
America African Resistance… answer.
economically, Enslaved Africans tried to resist slavery by running away, sabotaging work, or The most significant effect was the new routes that
revolting. were established because it led to the discovery of a
politically, and
African culture was maintained through music, religion, and folkways new world
culturally. Developing Nation-States…
Small kingdoms were uniting into large ones and enormous multiethnic empires
were breaking up. Nation-states replaced both, which is where the people have a
common culture and loyalty to the government.
The monarchs depended on trade to bring in needed revenue and on the church
to justify their right to rule. They used their power to search for riches and spread
Christianity overseas.

6. Early Explorations, pp 7-10

Key Concepts &

Main Ideas Notes Analysis

European overseas Christopher Columbus… How did European expansion impact European
expansion resulted inSpend 8 years gaining money to go west to the “Indies”. Won the backing to society
the Columbian go in 1492 from Isabella and Ferdinand. Columbus sailed from the Canary Brought new crops and trade opportunities
Exchange, a series ofisland on September 6th to an island in the Bahamas in October 12th. This
interactions and brought him a burst of glory in Spain, but little gold and spices, and no
adaptations among simple path to China and India
Columbus’s Legacy…
societies across the
He died in 1506 believing he discovered a route to India. Many Spaniards
viewed him as a failure because they suspected he found a “New World.”
Many people dislike the naming and treatment of the natives.
I. The arrival of
Most historians agree on Columbus’s importance. How did European expansion impact Native
Europeans in the Exchanges… American society?
Western Hemisphere The Columbian Exchange: Contact between natives and Europeans. Brought diseases and new technology
in the 15th and 16th Transfer of plants, animals, and disease. Millions of natives dies because of
centuries triggered smallpox and measles.
extensive Dividing the Americas…
demographic and The pope drew a vertical line, and everything east was given to Portugal,
social changes on and everything west was given to Spain. Line of Demarcation. Agreement
both sides of the called Treaty of Tordesillas.
Atlantic. Spanish Exploration and Conquest…
The conquistadores increased the gold supply in Spain by 500%, making it
European expansion the richest and most powerful nation in Europe.
into the Western English Claims…
Hemisphere caused Cabot explored the coast of Newfoundland in 1497. Henry VIII broke up Which of these consequences were the most
intense with the Roman Catholic Church. England challenged Spanish shipping by significant? Explain your answer.
social/religious, attacking ships and seizing gold and silver. The most significant was the bringing of disease to the
political, and French Claims… Native Americans because it greatly decreased the
economic competition Looked for a northwest passage from America to Asia. Slow to develop population.
in Europe and the colonies in 1500s. Preoccupied by European wars and internal religious
promotion of empire conflict. In the 1600s they claimed more land in America. First permanent
building. settlement is Quebec. Explored upper Mississippi river and Louisiana
Dutch Claims…
During the 1600s, the Netherlands started exploration. Searched for the
northwest passage. Hudson River and New Amsterdam (later New York)
7. Spanish Settlements in North America, pp 10-11

Key Concepts &

Main Ideas Notes Analysis
What were three chief features of the Spanish empire in America?
European expansion Florida…
into the Western Spanish formed permanent settlement as St. a.
Hemisphere caused Augustine after a number of failed attempts and Christianizing the natives.
intense b.
strong resistance of natives
social/religious, Conquering the land
New Mexico… c.
political, and
economic Santa Fe became capital. Efforts to Christianize Obtain the gold and resources
competition in natives caused Pueblo to revolt. Spanish driven Identify one cause and one effect of Spanish settlement in North
Europe and the from area. America.
promotion of empire Texas…
building. Grew in the early 1700s as Spain attempted to Cause: Attempt to Christianize natives
resist French exploration of lower Mississippi
California… Effect: Natives revolted and drove the Spanish out.
Permanent settlements in San Diego and San
Francisco in response to Russian exploration in

8. European Treatment of Native Americans, pp 11-12

Key Concepts &

Main Ideas Notes Analysis

Contacts among Spanish Policy… Identify three major consequences of European

American Indians, Spanish forced Incas and Aztec into labor. contact with American Indians?
Africans, and Bartolome de Las Casas was an advocate for better treatment of
Europeans the Native Americans, even though he owned land and slaves a.
challenged the Diseases
and fought against them. He convinced the king to end Indian
worldviews of each b.
slavery. Conflict
group. The Valladolid Debated was over the role for Indians in the c.
European overseas Spanish colonies. One side argued the natives were equal and Trading
expansion and the other side argued that the natives were lesser. Neither side
sustained contacts won the debate Which of these were the most significant? Explain
with Africans and English Policy… your answer.
American Indians English settled in areas without large native empires. Initially in The conflict was the most significant because the tension
dramatically Massachusetts, the English and natives coexisted, traded, and between the Natives and Europeans caused the natives to
altered European either flee or fight.
shared items. Natives taught settlers how to grow new crops and
views of social, hunt. Peace eventually lead to conflict and warfare. The English
political, and
occupied the land and forced the natives out.
among and French Policy…
between white and Viewed natives as potential economic and military allies. They In what ways was English policy toward Native
nonwhite peoples maintained good relations with the American Indians. The Americans different from those of France and Spain?
French set up trading post to sell furs.
Different from France in that…
The English ended up with conflict against the natives and
forced them out

Different from Spain in that…

Native American Reaction… The English didn’t use the natives as slave labor
Each tribe saw themselves as groups distinct from each other,
so the Europeans didn’t have to be concerned with a unified
response. The natives were decimated by the Europeans How effective were Native Americans in overcoming
through killing and disease, the natives needed new ways to the negative aspects of European policies?
survive. Some migrated and others joined with a European They were not effective because many died because of
disease and they were held back by the lack of advanced
9. Historical Perspectives: Was Columbus a Great Hero? p.13

Key Concepts &

Main Ideas Notes Analysis

European overseas Washington Irving… Support or refute the following statement: Christopher
expansion and He wrote a biography of Christopher Columbus, praising his virtues. Columbus was a hero.
sustained contacts Christopher Columbus was not a hero
with Africans and President Franklin Roosevelt…
American Indians He ordered October 12 a national holiday.
altered European Revisionists…
views of social, Revisionists are people that are very critical of Columbus. They view List 3 pieces of evidence to support your answer.
political, and him as the first conqueror of America rather than the discoverer.
economic a.
relationships He wanted power to control people and own lots of land
among and Arthur Schlesinger…
between white and He believes that what drove Columbus was the challenge of the b.
nonwhite peoples. unknown. He used the natives as slaves

Fact and fiction… he wanted wealth
Historians will forever debate the nature of Columbus’s achievement. List 3 pieces of evidence that support the alternate

He helped colonize the new world

He formed a new trade route

He helped the economy of Spain grow

10. Explain the HIPP of the image below.

Image Source: Public Domain, Library of Congress,

First landing of Columbus on the shores of the
New World, at San Salvador, W.I., Oct. 12th 1492,
Dióscoro Teófilo Puebla Tolín

Historical Context:

Intended Audience:

Author’s Purpose:

Author’s Point of View:

+Other Context (similar in kind, from a different time…give an example of similar theme in a different place/time period):
Section 3 MAP
The College Board framework for the course includes specific places and locations significant to the development of North America and the United
states. This section provides you with the opportunity to locate and review these items.

1. Read the framework excerpts located to the right of the map, and ensure you understand & know where/what is referenced.
2. Circle or highlight the following groups: Pueblo, Chinooks, Iroquois, Algonquian, Wamponoags, Pequot, Powhatan
3. Label/Trace the starting point and expansion of maize cultivation.

On a North American
continent… The spread of
maize cultivation from
present-day Mexico
northward into the
American Southwest and
beyond supported
economic development and
social diversification among
societies in these areas; a
mix of foraging and hunting
did the same for societies
in the Northwest and areas
of California.

Societies responded to the

lack of natural resources in
the Great Basin and the
western Great Plains by
developing largely mobile

In the Northeast and along

the Atlantic Seaboard
some societies developed a
mixed agricultural and
hunter–gatherer economy
that favored the
development of permanent

European overseas
expansion resulted in the
Columbian Exchange, a
series of interactions and
adaptations among
societies across the
Atlantic. The arrival of
Europeans in the Western
Hemisphere in the 15th
and 16th centuries
triggered extensive
demographic and social
changes on both sides of
the Atlantic.

Source: North American Continent; Western Hemisphere Indian Culture Map,

Reading Guide written by Rebecca Richardson, Allen High School

Sources include but are not limited to: 2015 edition of AMSCO’s United States History Preparing for the Advanced Placement Examination,, College Board Advanced Placement
United States History Framework, writing strategies developed by Mr. John P. Irish, Carroll High School, 12th edition of American Pageant,,,, and other sources as cited in document and collected/adapted over 20 years of teaching and collaborating.