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Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research

Vol. 16, June 1991, pp. 137-139

A study on the properties of fabrics made from rotor-spun


and ring-spun yarns
.
Indra Doraiswamy, P Chellamani, S Karthikeyan & K Gnanasekar
'

The South India Textile Research Association, Coimbatore 641 014, India
Received 5 May 1990;-revised received 13 August 1990; accepted 26 November 1990

A cOOlprehensivestudy on the properties of fabrics made from ring and OE yams spun out of popular
man-madefibres(MMF) and their blends has beencarried out. The tensileand tear strengths offabrics made
from rotor-spun man-made fibre (MMF) yams have been found 6-19% lower than that offabrics woven
from ring-spun yarns. Whilethe air permeabilityof rotor-spun MMF fabricsis poorer by 13-30%,the crease
recovery of OE fabrics is higher by 10-39% in different fabrics.

Keywords:Fabric properties, Man-made fibres, Ring-spun yams, Rotor-spun yarns

1 Introduction sizing were done using SITRA's miniature sizing


The characteristics of fabrics made from machine. The sizing recipes used are glveQ.' in
rotor-spun cotton yarns are different from those of Appendix I. The fabric samples were ,tested for the
made from ring-spun cotton yarnsl. The basic following properties:
differences' between ring and OE yarns are found in -Tensile strength
fibre extent, fibre migration and fibr.e packing -Tear strength
density2. Fabrics from OE yarns were found weaker -Abrasion resistance
in terms of tensile and tear-strength, better in terms of -Air permeability
abrasion resistance and distinctly superior in terms of --Crease recovery, and
appearance and fabric coverl. -Colour fastness (washing and rubbing)
Most of the studies on rotor spinning in India have The fabric samples were dyed to assess the colour
been confined to OE yarns and fabrics made out of fastness. Polyester component was dyed using
cotton. Very little published information is available disperse dyes whereas viscose component was dyed
with regard to the properties of fabrics woven from using reactive dyes.
rotor-spun MMF yarns vis-a-vis ring-spun yarns. 3 Results and Discussion
The present study is an attempt to investigate the 3.1 Tensile and Tear Strengths of Fabrics
major properties of plain fabrics made out of rotor- Table 2 shows that the tensile strength of rotor yarn
and ring-spun MMF yarns; fabrics is distinctly inferior to that of ring yarn fabrics.

2 Materials and Methods


Polyester, viscose, polyester/viscose (48/52) and Table I~Properties of ring/rotor yarns from MMF and blends
[Yarn count, 15s]
polyester/cotton (67/33) fibres/blends were used for
the study. 15s yarn was produced from all the four Property Ring yarn Rotor yarn
varieties on a Lakshmi-Rieter MI/2 OE spinning V
28
29
148
24
12.6
8652
II
4]
62
36
4134
31
4 PIC P 41.
11.2 24928.0
12.1
11.6
P 10.8
14.0 11.1
10.6
16.0
9.3 25.0
11.6
10.6 19.0
17.0
P/V
machine.Thick
Equivalent ring yarn samples were also Thin places
places
Evenness.
NepsImperfections/km
P-~Po]yester; U% P/V~Po]yester/Viscose
V--Viscose; (48/52); P/C~Polyester!Cotton
and (67/33)
produced forR.Km, g/tex
comparison purpose. The properties of
the various yarn samples produced are given in Table
I. The causes for the difference in the properties of
ring- and rotor-spun yarns are explained
elsewhere3•
The yarn samples were woven into fabrics [Count
(warp x weft), 15s x 15s; ends x picks, 56 x 44;
weave, plain] at SITRA Pilot Mill. Warping and

137
INDIAN J.FIBRE TEXT. RES., JUNE 1991

91
110
P/V77
2.6
210
V
90
4218
220
61
206
217
242
2.3
21.5
104
108
2.254
79
1.8
92
72
36583
3384
2328
2869
2852
64
2707
85
82
80
3418
58
3459
3351
195
8P8
2557
2992
4048
2813
3168
PIC 3520
1.3
256
68
94
69
3008 Rotor
23 2-PropertiesRing
Table of open-end and ring-spun yarn fabrics
(warp
Warp + filling), deg
% Wt.1oss
cc/s/cm2

..

This is mainly because of the lower yarn strength of Table 3-Strength ratios of rotor yarn/ring yarn and rotor
the former. fabric/ring fabric
However, it is observed that the strength fall in Material Yarn tenacity Fabric strength ratio
rotor spinning comes down from yarn to fabric stage ratio (rotor/ring)
in all the cases. This is clear from Table 3 which shows (rotor/ring)
Warp-way Weft-way
the ratios of strength of rotor-spun to ring-spun
67.9 87.0 86.1
material at yarn and fabric stages. It is observed from 100% Polyester
100% Viscose 66.4 90.9 90.6
Table 3 that the strength ratio improves from yarn to
66.3 91.1 83.1
fabric stage in l5s Ne. This is mainly because of the 48/52 Polyester/Viscose
68.0 92.4 93.8
better fabric assistance derived from rotor-spun 67/33 Polyester/Cotton
yarns in relation to ring-spun yarns. Fabric
assistance arises from the interlacement of warp and
weft yarns due to which the adjoining threads start the yarn. The weft-way tear strength is invariably
supporting one another and the specimen under test found to be lower than warp-way tear strength,
acts more like one body than as individual threads in a mainly due to the difference in the number of ends and
multiple strand. Interlacement of yarns causes the picks per unit length maintained in the fabric.
outer layers of yarn to carry a higher share of load 3.2 Abrasion Resistance
than in free state. Also, the rotor yarns provide a Abrasion resistance was determined by the weight
better fabric cover which is visible to the naked eye. As loss method, a higher weight loss indicating poorer
a result, the area of contact between warp and weft abrasion resistance. The fabrics made from rotor
yarns is increased, leading to improved fabric yarns show a higher abrasion resistance as compared
assistance. The difference in the surface structure of to fabrics made from ring-spun yarns for all the 4
rotor and ring yarns may also be contributing to a fibres/blends taken for the study. The values are given
better interlocking of the yarns in OE fabrics. in Table 2. The range of improvement in abrasion
Table 3 also shows that the warp-way fabric resistance values varies from 15% for 100% viscose to
strength is always higher than the weft-way fabric 32% for polyester/cotton blends. P/V blends and
strength, the difference being 27-29% in ring-spun 100% polyester fabrics show improvement of 21 %
fabrics and 27-34% in rotor-spun fabrics. This is and 28% respectively. Fabrics from P/C blends show
attributed to the' lower number of picks/unit length the maximum improvement in abrasion resistance.
maintained in the fabric. The reduction in tensile and tear strengths of fabrics
The tear strength offabrics made from rotor-spun between rotor and ring materials is also the lowest for
yarns is 6-19% lower than that of fabrics made from PIC blends.
ring-spun yarns (Table 2). The lower tear strength of The improved abrasion resistance of OE-spun
rotor yarn fabrics is partly due to the lower tenacity of products arises from the variations in the

138

1',11 II il!'IllltH I
" I' II '""'''1'''' III' ""'1'1'11' '1'""111" I'j; 1;1 I
OORAISWAMY et a/.: PROPERTIES OF FABRICS

cross-section caused by helical corrugations in OE 4. Conclusions


yarns4• As·a result, the peak of the corrugations alone 4.1 The tensile and tear strengths of fabrics made
comes into contact with the abrading medium and the from rotor-spun MMF yarns are 6-19% lower than
surface fibres do not disintegrate as fast as in those of fabrics made from ring-spun yarns. This is
ring-spun yarns. The maximum improvement in mainly due to lower yarn strength ofOE materials.
abrasion resistance of fabrics from P/C blends could However, fabric assistance is better in OE products.
be explained as follows. 4.2 Rotor yarn fabrics have better abrasion resistance
In P/C blends, the extent offibre length variability in relation to ring fabrics. The helical corrugations in
is more as compared to that in other fibre types, viz. rotor yarns resist disintegration of the surface fibres
100% polyester, 100% viscose and polyester/viscose. and, therefore, OE products exhibit better abrasion
Therefore, the beneficial effect of OE spinning in resistance.
avoiding drafting waves will be more pronounced for 4.3 Air permeability is poorer but crease recovery is
PIC blends as compared to other fibre types better for fabrics from rotor-spun yarns due to the
considered for the study. This would mean that the bulkiness of OE yarns.
extent of reduction in yarn imperfections in OE yarns 4..4 Wash fastness is the same for both ring and OE
will be more while processing P/C blends. This could fabrics. However, OE fabrics exhibit poorer rubbing
be the reason for the maximum improvement in fastness due to their peculiar structure.
abrasion resistance of OE yarns from PIC blends.
Acknowledgement
The authors are thankful to Mr T V Ratnam,
3.3 Air Permeability and Crease Recovery Director, SITRA, for his guidance and valuable
The air permeability values and the crease recovery suggestions during the progress of this study.
angles for rotor- and ring-spun yarn fabrics are
given in Table 2. It is observed that the air References
permeability is poorer for fabrics from rotor-spun I Seshan K N, Chellamani P, KhuranaS K, Mittal R M, Sood M
yarns by 13-30% in different fibres/blends. The short C, Desai A N & Balasubramanian N, Rotor spinning
comparisons, A Joint Study by ATIRA, BTRA & SITRA
fall is relatively more for fabrics from 100% polyester (SITRA, Coimbatore), 1986,33-50.
and 100% viscose by 24% and 30% respectively. The 2 Aswani K T & Mahadevan R, Indian Text J, 98(10) (1988) 144.
lower air permeability for the rotor-spun yarn fabrics 3 Indra Doraiswamy, Chellamani p, Karthikeyan S &
is attributed to the higher bulkiness of rotor yarns. Gnanasekar K, Indian J Fibre Text Res, 16 (1991) \33
Table 2 also shows that the crease recovery of 4 Kampen W, Lunenschloss J, Phoa T T & Rossbach.o, lnt Text
Bull Spinning, 3 (1979) 373.
rotor-spun yarn fabrics is higher than that of ring
fabrics by 10-39 degrees. The higher crease recovery
for OE material arises due to the higher diameter of Appendix I-Size recipes used for MMF and blends
OE yarns which makes the fabrics more resilient. The Type of yarn Size recipe
improvement in crease recovery of OE material is
Constituent %
relatively lower at 10-11% for viscose and
Polyester Thin boiling starch 85
polyester/viscose blends.
(Ring & OE) Acrylic 5
PYA 5
3.4 Colour Fastness of OE and Ring Fabrics Softener 3
Antistatic 2
The various OE and ring fabrics woven in
Viscose Thin boiling starch 85
connection with this project were tested for fastness
(Ring & OE) Acrylic 5
to washing and rubbing. The fastness ratings have CMC 5
been given on the basis of 'Grey Scale Ratings' in Softener 3
Table 2. The ratings for fastness are given in 5 grades Antistatic 2
(from 1to 5). 5 would mean that the colour fastness is PnlyesterjViscose Thin boiling starch 94
the best. Alternatively, the colour fastness is the worst (Ring & OE) Acrylic 3
if the grade is I. In most of the cases, the wash fastness Softener 2
Antistatic I
is the same for both rotor and ring fabrics. However, 60
Polyester jCotton Thin boiling starch
the fastness to rubbing is poorer forOE fabrics for the 25
(Ring & OE) Acrylic
materials studied in this investigation. This perhaps PVA 10
can be attributed to the differences in structure of the Softener 4
yarns, the rotor-spun yarns being less compact on the Antistatic I
surface than ring-spun yarns.

139