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Time Division Multiple

Access Methods for Wireless


Personal Communications
Carrillo Gómez César Rolando
TDMA as a Multiple Access Technique
• What do we look in a
radio system?
• Efficient use of the bandwidth
• Efficient use of the
infrastructure with minimum
cost and maximum
performance
• Solutions
• TDMA
• CDMA
• FDMA
TDMA as a Multiple Access Technique

• Where is TDMA used?


Second generation of digital
cellular systems
• Europe (GSM)
• North America (IS-54)
• Japan (PDC)
Wireless personal
communication systems
• Europe (DECT)
• Japan (PHS)
How does TDMA Works?
How does TDMA Works?
Downstream
Upstream

Inter-user interference
is prevented by strict
adherence to timeslot
scheduales!!
How do we separate Upstream and Downstream?

• There are two ways to


separate the upstream
and downstream channels
• Using two carriers
• By alternating in time
Why FDD or TDD?

FDD TDD
• Less transmission bandwidth per • Simpler duplex radio equipment
radio • Flexible bandwidth allocation
• Less precise synchronization of between downstream and
upstream and downstream to upstream traffic
minimize interference
Looking into the frame

• Each timeslot in a frame


generally contains data
and bits for syncronization,
adaptation, control, guard
time, etc.

• GSM, PHS, DECT -> 30%


• IS-54, PDC -> 20%
TDMA against other techniques

• If we compare CDMA and FDMA to TDMA we have


• In a common radio and modem equipment, at a given
carrier frequency, can be shared among N users at a base
station.
• In TDMA bit rates can be varied according to the number
of users
• TDMA has less stringent power control requirements since
inter-user interference is controlled by timeslot and not
by processing.
• TDMA has time to make measurements
TDMA against other techniques

• If we compare CDMA and FDMA to TDMA we have


• Less power from the envelop in TDMA
• If the bit rate is high it might need equalization
Capacity enhancement and evolutionary scenarios

We use macro cells and


small cells at the same
time to achieve a high
capacity and to get
coverage in certain places

We use HCS (Hierarchical


cell structures) which
means that different cell
types exists simultaneously
in different cell layers.
Capacity enhancement and evolutionary scenarios

We can increase the cell


capacity by two ways:

• Adaptive Channel
Allocation (ACA)

• Frequency Hopping (FH)


ACA and FH

• ACA

• It tries to avoid interference by


allocating channels based on the
instantaneous signal-to-interference
situation. This means that there is no
fixed reuse distance.
• When the traffic conditions are
varying, channels can be “moved” to
the peak traffic cells.
ACA and FH

• FH

• Using random Frequency Hooping can


help to increase the cell capacity, it can
be fast or slow.
• Slow FH is part of the GSM standard.
• The users inside a cell have the same
hopping sequence but offset from one
another such that they don’t interfere.