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LQ Mississauga Madinah Book 1 Notes (v. 8) Topics   ْ   1 2 3
LQ Mississauga Madinah Book 1 Notes (v. 8)
LQ Mississauga
Madinah Book 1 Notes (v. 8)
Topics
Topics
 

ْ

 

1

2

3

4

5

Parts of Speech

Arabic Alphabets

Arabic Vowel Signs

Indefinite vs. Definite

This (اذَ هَ ) vs. That (كَ

ِ لذَ)

9 ةُ َ مهَ ْ و لِ صْ ولا ةُ َ مهَ ْ

ع طقلاَ

ِ

ز

َ

َ

ز

10 Preposition (

ر ج َ فرُ

ح) & Genitive case (

َ

11 Detached Pronoun (

12

)

13 Gender Introduction

)

17

18

19

20

21

The Relative Pronoun (لوُ

The Past Tense Verb (ي

ِ

َ

س

ْ

ضا ملا ل ُ ْ فلا)

ص ُ ْ ملا َ م ُ

و

ع

ِ

Attached Pronoun (لٌ

ِ

صت م ري مضَ )

ٌ

ُ

ِ

رخ ؤَُ م ٌ أدَ تبَ ُ و مٌد قَ ُ ر بخَ

ٌ

م

َ

ٌ َ

م

Plural (

ع ٌ ْ ج) َ

م

الا)

ِ

6

7

8

Solar vs. Lunar Letters

Noun Endings

Nominal Sentence Intro

14 Substitute (لٌ

دَ َ

ب)

15 Adverb (فٌ

ر

ْ

َ

ظ)

عَن)

16 Adjective (تٌ

ْ

 

22

23

24

Numbers (داٌ دَ عْ ا )

The Diptote (

ف رصلا

ِ

ْ

ن م عوُ

َ

ِ

نُْ م ملا)

َ

Types of predicate (رِ َ

بخلاَ

عاُ وْنا )

َ

 

1

Revision History Date Ver Author Revision Comments Nov. 23, 2012 1 Zahid Naeem Consolidated Part
Revision History
Revision History

Date

Ver

Author

Revision Comments

Nov. 23, 2012

1

Zahid Naeem

Consolidated Part 1 thru 5 as one set

Dec. 17, 2012

2

Zahid Naeem

Added some more pages for past tense verb

Feb. 2, 2013

3

Zahid Naeem

Modified some pages for plurals

Mar. 21, 2013

4

Zahid Naeem

Added some pages for irrational plurals

Apr. 25, 2013

5

Zahid Naeem

Added some pages for diptotes

Nov. 3, 2013

6

Zahid Naeem

Modified the slide for types of khabar

Sep. 10, 2014

7

Zahid Naeem

Minor fixes for typos (ركذم)

Mar. 24, 2015

8

Zahid Naeem

Fixed a number of typos

ِ There are no copyrights reserved for this material. You may make copies and distribute
ِ
There are no copyrights reserved for this material. You may make copies and distribute them Fi Sabilillah –
Report any errors, omissions or suggestions to lqmississauga@gmail.com
ه للا ليِ بِ س ي ف ِ
َ
Parts of Speech – English vs. Arabic English has eight parts of speech 1. Noun
Parts of Speech – English vs. Arabic
Parts of Speech – English vs. Arabic

English has eight parts of speech

1. Noun (A word which refers to a person, a place, or a thing, e.g. teacher, town, bus)

2. Pronoun (A word like he, they, and we used to replace a noun)

3. Adjective (A word that describes a noun, e.g. a tall man)

4. Adverb (A word that gives additional information about how, when or where an action takes place, e.g. He walked slowly, They will arrive tomorrow)

5. Interjection (A word that is independent of other words and is used as is, e.g. hello and hi)

6. Verb (The action or doing word, e.g. sleep, eat, drink)

7. Conjunction (A word joining two clauses in a sentence, e.g. and, because, but)

8. Preposition (A word used to relate a noun or pronoun to some other part, e.g. of, at)

Arabic has only three parts of speech

1.

Verb لٌ

3. Particle فٌ

2.

Noun ٌ

س ِ ا

ْ

م

ْ

ف

ع

ِ

ر ح

ْ َ

Parts of Speech – English vs. Arabic English Arabic Noun Pronoun Adjective Noun ٌ م
Parts of Speech – English vs. Arabic
Parts of Speech – English vs. Arabic
English Arabic Noun Pronoun Adjective Noun ٌ م س ِ ا ْ Adverb Interjection ِ
English
Arabic
Noun
Pronoun
Adjective
Noun
ٌ
م
س ِ ا
ْ
Adverb
Interjection
ِ
Verb
Verb
لٌ
ع ف
ْ
Conjunction
فٌ
ر ح
Particle
ْ َ
Preposition
Arabic Alphabets Arabic has 29 letters of alphabet 28 Consonants (have speech sound) Alif -
Arabic Alphabets
Arabic Alphabets

Arabic has 29 letters of alphabet

28 Consonants (have speech sound) Alif - serves two purposes

28 Consonants (have speech sound) Alif - serves two purposes

Elongates a consonant, e.g.

باتَ ك ِ

ٌ

Act as a bearer of ٌة مهَ

َ ْ

ز

(hamza), e.g.

با

ٌ

ر

ذ

د

خ

ح

ج

ث

ت

ب

ا

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

ف

غ

ع

ظ

ط

ض

ص

ش

س

ز

20

19

18

17

16

15

14

13

12

11

ء

ي

و

ه

ن

ق

م

ل

ك

29

28

27

26

25

24

23

22

21

Arabic Vowel Signs Arabic has 3 short vowels Name Sign Sound Example Dammah ( ةٌ
Arabic Vowel Signs
Arabic Vowel Signs
Arabic has 3 short vowels
Arabic has 3 short
vowels

Name

Sign

Sound

Example

Dammah (ةٌ

مضَ )

ُ

ــ

ـ

“u”

س دنْ ه م

ٌ

ِ

َ

ُ

Fathah (ةٌ

حتْفَ)

َ

َ

ــ

ـ

“a”

س دنْ َ م ُ

ٌ

ِ

ه

Kasrah (ٌة

ر َ سكَ ْ )

ــ

ـ

“i”

ٌ

س

نْ ه م

َ

د

ِ

ُ

 

ِ

Long vowels are formed by adding the associated letters to the short vowels
Long vowels are
formed by adding the
associated letters to
the short vowels

Long Vowel

Sound

Exam

p

le

و to elongate Dammah (ةٌ

مضَ )

“û”

ح وـتُ فْ م َ

ٌ

ا to elongate Fathah (ةٌ

حتْفَ)

َ

“â”

ب اـ ب َ

ٌ

ي to elongate Kasrah (ٌة

ر َ سكَ ْ )

“î”

ص ي قَ

ٌ

م

ِ

Absence of a vowel sign is denoted by Sukûn (ٌنوكُ س) ُ
Absence of a vowel
sign is denoted by
Sukûn (ٌنوكُ
س) ُ

Name

Sign

Example

Sukûn (ٌنوكُ

س)

ُ

ـــْ

ٌ

رو

ْ

ك

ُ

س

َ

م

Indefinite & Definite Like English, Arabic nouns can be indefinite ( ٌة كَن ) or
Indefinite & Definite
Indefinite & Definite

Like English, Arabic nouns can be indefinite (ٌة كَن) or definite (ةٌفَرِ

َ

ر ِ

ع

م)

ْ َ

An indefinite noun is indicated by نيوِنْتَ, which doubles the vowel sign at the end

of the word, e.g.

ٌ

A book – A chair -

ٌ

ِ

ْ

باتَ ك ِ

ي رُك

س

A Definite noun is indicated by ـ لاَ prefixed to the noun. This also results in

eliminating the نيوِنْتَ at the end of the word, e.g.

ْ

ٌ

ْ

The book -

The chair -

باتَ ِ لاَ

ُ

ك

س ركُ لاَ ْ

ي

ِ

ْ

ْ

ـ لاَ and

نيوِنْتَ ٌ cannot coexist. So

باتَ ك ِ

ٌ

لاَ ْ will be incorrect

Please note many proper nouns, e.g. definite

ٌد

لاخَ

ِ

,

ٌد ح َ ُ

م

م

end with نيوِنْتَ, but they are still

ٌ

This (اذَ هَ ) vs. That (كَ ِ لذَ) ْ Demonstrative pronoun ( ِ َ
This (اذَ هَ ) vs. That (كَ ِ لذَ)
This (اذَ هَ ) vs. That (كَ
ِ لذَ)

ْ

Demonstrative pronoun ( ِ

َ

ة راشَ إِ لا م س ِ ا)

ُ

ْ

اذَ هَ : بيِ

رِقَلْ ِ ة راشَ إِ لا م س ِ ا

ل

ِ

َ

ُ

ْ

ْ

ْ

كَ لذَ : دي بلْ ِ ة راشَ إِ لا م س ِ ا

ِ

ِ

ع ِ ل ِ

َ

َ

ُ

ْ

با ب َ كَ ِ لذَ) ِ That is a door ( با ب َ
با ب َ كَ ِ لذَ)
ِ
That is a door (
با ب َ كَ
لذَ
ٌ ٌ

Like all pronouns, these are definite These are masculine , i.e. these are used when pointing to masculine nouns They have feminine counterparts – will learn later

َ َ

َ

َ

َ

َ

َ

َ

اذه and ك ِ لذ are pronounced

but are written without the alif

as اذاه and ك ِ لاذ respectively,

This is a book ( باتَ ك ِ اذَ هَ ) باتَ ك ِ اذَ
This is a book (
باتَ ك ِ اذَ هَ )
باتَ ك ِ اذَ هَ
ٌ ٌ
ا َ َ م ن ن م) What (ا م) vs. Who ( ْ ْ
ا َ َ م ن ن م) What (ا م) vs. Who ( ْ ْ
ا َ َ
م
ن
ن
م)
What (ا
م) vs. Who (
ْ ْ َ َ
م
   

ا َ

م

 

ْ م َ

ن

Meaning

“What”

 

“Who”

 

Usage

Used for irrational things

Used for rational beings

(لٍ قاعَ ِ

يغَ ), e.g. non-living

ر ُ ْ

things, animals, plants

t

e c.

(

ل

ٌ

قاعَ ). These include Allah

ِ

(ىَلا عتَ و هَنا ُ حب

َ

َ

َ

س), humans beings,

ُ

jinns, and angels.

Example

What is this? (اذَ هَ

ا م) َ

Who is this? (اذَ هَ

م)

ْ َ

ن

Particle of Interrogation and Answer This is a house ( تٌ َ ي ْ ب
Particle of Interrogation and Answer
Particle of Interrogation and Answer

This is a house (تٌ

َ

ي ْ ب اذَ هَ )

ي ْ ب اذَ هَ ا )

Is this a house? (؟تٌ

َ

Prefixing ا to a statement turns it into a question

Used in this context ا is called ماِ ال means “no”

َ

هفْ ِ س

ْ

ت

الا فُ ر ْ َ

ِ

ح (particle of interrogation)

م ْ َ

ال and م ْ َ

عن means

َ

yes

عَن are called باِ

و

َ جلا َ فوُ ر ُ ُ

ح (particles of answer)

Solar vs. Lunar Letters (1 of 2) 28 Consonant Letters 14 14 This distinction is
Solar vs. Lunar Letters (1 of 2)
Solar vs. Lunar Letters (1 of 2)

28 Consonant Letters

14

14

Solar vs. Lunar Letters (1 of 2) 28 Consonant Letters 14 14 This distinction is only

This distinction is only for pronunciation of words starting with these letters when prefixed with ـلا (the definite article)

letters when prefixed with ـلا (the definite article) Solar Letters ةُ س ي مشلا ِ ْ

Solar Letters

ةُ س

ي مشلا

ِ

ْ

فوُ

ر ُ حلا ُ

Lunar Letters

ةُ مقلاَ

َ

يرِ

فوُ

ر ُ حلا ُ

سم شلا

ُ

ْ

شش is an example of a solar letter

ر ُ م َ قلا َ

قق is an example of a lunar letter

The letter ل IS NOT pronounced. The correct

pronunciation is ash-shamsu, not al-shamsu

The assimilation of ل is indicated by the

shaddah on the solar letter

Articulation of solar letters involves the tip of the tongue, e.g., ر ,ن ,ش ,س ,ت

The letter ل IS pronounced. The

pronunciation is al-qamaru

No shaddah is necessary on the lunar letter

Tip of the tongue plays no role for lunar letters, e.g., و ,ك ,م ,ق ,ب

Solar vs. Lunar Letters (2 of 2) س مشلا ْ ش رجاِ ُ تلا ت
Solar vs. Lunar Letters (2 of 2)
Solar vs. Lunar Letters (2 of 2)
س مشلا ْ ش رجاِ ُ تلا ت ُ ردْ ُ صلا ص ب و
س مشلا
ْ
ش
رجاِ ُ تلا
ت
ُ
ردْ ُ صلا
ص
ب
و ْ ثلا
ث
ُ
ف ُ
يضلا ْ
ض
كيدلا ُ
د
ب ِ طلا
لا
ط
بهَ ذلا
ذ
ُ
ُ
ر ُ ْ ظلا
ه
ظ
ل ُ
ج ُ رلا
ر
محْ ُ للا
ل
ةُ رهْ زلا
ز
َ
مجْ ُ نلا
ن
كُ
م َ سلا
س
ز َ مجْ ُ نلا ن كُ م َ سلا س مفلاَ ُ ف الا ب

مفلاَ

ُ

ف

الا

ب

ُ

أ

ُ مقلاَ َ

ر

ق

با بلا َ

ُ

 

ب

بلكلا َْ

ُ

ك

ُ

ةن

جلا

َ

ج

ءا ُ ملا َ

م

را ُ َ حلا

م

ِ

ح

دُ َل ولا

َ

 

بخلاُ ْ

ز

ُ

 

و

خ

ءا ُ َ هلا َ

و

ه

ُ ْ َ

ن علا

ي

ع

دُ يلا َ

ي

ءادَ غلاَ

ُ

غ

Noun Endings In Arabic, nouns have different endings to show their function in a sentence
Noun Endings
Noun Endings

In Arabic, nouns have different endings to show their function in a sentence

These are called noun cases or case-endings (

با رعْ ِٕا)

َ

ٌ

English

Arabic

Ending

Function in a sentence

Examples

 

Name

Name

Vowel

 

Sign

 

Nominative

عوٌ

ُف م

ر

ْ َ

Dammah

Subject

ب اب ,ٌدمحم ,ب اتك ,ب اتكلا

ٌ

ّ

ٌ

ُ

Accusative

بو صنْ م َ

ٌ

ُ

Fathah

Object of a verb

ًاباب ,ادً محم ,ًاباتك ,ب اتكلا

ّ

َ

Genitive

رو ٌ رجْ ُ م َ

Kasrah

Possessor of a thing, or comes after a preposition or an adverb

بٍ اب ,د محم ,بٍ اتك ,بِ اتكلا

ٍ

ّ

ةُ س ي م س الا ةُلَ ج ِ ِ ِ ِ ْ ْ The
ةُ س ي م س الا ةُلَ ج ِ ِ ِ ِ ْ ْ The
ةُ س
ي م س الا ةُلَ ج
ِ ِ
ِ ِ
ْ ْ
The Nominal Sentence (ةُ
ي م الا ةُلَ م
ْ ْ
م
ْ ُ ُ
ْ
ج
لا
لا)

A sentence that starts with a noun

ٌ

Has a subject (

Both the subject and the predicate are always nominative (عوٌ

أدَ تَْ ب

م) and a predicate (

ُ

ر ٌ بخَ َ )

ُف

م)

ْ َ

ر

The subject is mostly definite (ةٌفَرِ

The predicate is mostly indefinite (ٌة

م)

ْ َ

ع

ر كَن) ِ

َ

ر ٌ بخَ َ عوٌ ُف ْ م َ ر ٌة ر كَن ِ َ
ر ٌ بخَ َ
عوٌ
ُف ْ م َ
ر
ٌة
ر كَن ِ
َ
ٌدي ٌدي ج د د ج ِ ِ َ باتَ ِ لاَ باتَ ك ِ
ٌدي
ٌدي ج
د د ج
ِ
ِ
َ
باتَ ِ لاَ
باتَ ك ِ
ك
لاَ ْ
ْ
َ
ُ
ُ
رو س م م
رو ٌ س
ْ
ْ
ٌ
ُ
ُ
ك َ
ك َ
ملَقَ لاَ ْ لاَ
ملَقَ ْ
ُ
ُ
تٌ يْبَ
تٌ ْ ب
ي
َ
اذَ ذَ هَ
ا هَ
ٌ ٔادَ تَْ ب م ُ عوٌ ُف م ر ْ َ ةٌفَرِ ع م
ٌ
ٔادَ تَْ ب م
ُ
عوٌ
ُف م
ر
ْ
َ
ةٌفَرِ
ع م َ
ْ
The Joining Hamza (لِ صْ لِ صْ و و لا ةُ مهَ ) لا ةُ
The Joining Hamza (لِ صْ لِ صْ و و لا ةُ مهَ ) لا ةُ
The Joining Hamza (لِ صْ
لِ صْ
و و لا ةُ مهَ )
لا ةُ ز ز مهَ
ْ ْ
َ َ
َ
َ ْ ْ

The ا in ـلا (the definite article) is called لِ صْ

لا ْ ةُ

و

َ

ز

َ ْ

مهَ

If it is preceded by another word, it is not pronounced

ْ

E.g., تُ

as wa l-baitu and not wa al-baitu

ْ لاَ (the house) is pronounced al-baitu and تُ

َ

ي

ب

ْ

َ

ب

also appears in words without the لا, e.g.,

ِ

ه للا مِ سِب

ْ

ْ

و لا ةُ

َ

ِ

ْ

ي لا َ

و (and the house) is pronounced

لصْ و ٌ َ (Joining, uniting, attaching)
لصْ و
ٌ
َ
(Joining, uniting,
attaching)

لِ صْ

و

َ

ْ

لا ةُ

مهَ

ز

َ ْ

م

نب ٌ ْ ِ ا (son) – ميرم َ ََْ نبا ُ ْ ىسي َ ْ ع

ٌ

س ِ ا (name) –

ْ

To signify اااا as لِ صْ

A

(name) – ْ To signify ا ا ا ا as لِ صْ A مهَ , look

مهَ , look for one of the following three conditions:

َ ْ

ز

, look for one of the following three conditions: َ ْ ز symbol on alif, as

symbol on alif, as

Without any

Without any or ء symbol on alif

or ء symbol on alif

Completely omitted in writing, e.g.,

ِ

ه للا مِ سِب

ْ

Both ا and ل in ـلا are not pronounced when a word starts with a solar letter and is preceded with another word

E.g.,

مجْ نلا و

ُ

َ

is pronounced as wan-najmu and not wa al-najmu or wa an-najmu

ع طقَ لا ةُ مهَ عِ ْ ْ ْ ْ ِ طقَ لا ةُ ز
ع طقَ لا ةُ مهَ عِ ْ ْ ْ ْ ِ طقَ لا ةُ ز
ع طقَ لا ةُ مهَ
عِ
ْ ْ
ْ ْ
ِ
طقَ لا ةُ ز ز
َ ْ ْ
َ
مهَ

As opposed to لِ صْ

position in the sentence

ْ

لا ةُ

و

َ

مهَ

ز

َ ْ

, ع طقَ لا ةُ ز

ْ

ْ

َ مهَ ْ

ِ

is always pronounced, regardless of its

ع طقَ لا ةُ ز

ْ

ْ

َ مهَ ْ

ِ

is usually written with a ء symbol on (or below) the Alif, as follows:

أ

إ

Examples:

حا َ (one) – ٌد

ٌد

َ

حا ُ للا وهُ لْ ُق

ه

َ

ذْ ِٕا (when) –

كَ ر لاَ قَ ذْ ِٕا و

َ

ب

َ

عطق ٌ ْ َ (Cutting, Discontinuing, Separating)
عطق ٌ ْ َ
(Cutting,
Discontinuing,
Separating)
عِ طقَ لا ةُ ز ز مهَ ْ Examples from Quran ( عِ ْ طقَ
عِ
طقَ لا ةُ ز ز مهَ
ْ
Examples from Quran (
عِ ْ
طقَ لا ةُ مهَ
ْ
ْ
َ َ ْ ْ
,
لِ صْ
لِ صْ
و لا ةُ ز ز
و لا ةُ
ْ
ْ
َ
َ
َ َ ْ ْ
مهَ
مهَ
,
ةُ
ةُ مقلاَ و ةُ س
يرِ
يرِ مقلاَ و ةُ ي مشلا
ِ
ِ
َ
َ
َ
َ
ي س مشلا
ْ
ْ
فوُ
فوُ
ر ر
حلا
حلا
ُ ُ ُ ُ
)

Find solar letters (ةـُ

ِ

ْ

ي مشلا

س

فوُ ر ُ ُ

حلا), lunar letters (ةـُ

يرِ مقلاَ

َ

ِ

ْ

of لِ صْ

و

َ

ْ

لا ةُ مهَ and ع طقَ لا ةُ ز

ْ

َ ْ

ز

َ مهَ ْ

in Surat ul-Fâtiha

فوُ ر ُ ُ

حلا) and instances

۝نيِ دل ٱ مِ و ْ ي َ ك ِ ِ لا َ م ۝
۝نيِ دل ٱ
مِ
و
ْ ي َ ك ِ ِ لا َ
م ۝ ميِ
ح
ِ
رل
ٱ نِ
محْ
ٰ
َ
رل ٱ
۝
ني مَلا ع
ِ
ْ
َ
َ
ل
ٱ
ب
ر َ ه ِ ل ِ ل دُ م ْ ح َ ل ْ ٱ َ
طا ص ۝ ميَ
َ
ر
ِ
قتَْ س ل
ِ
م
ْ
ٱ
طا
َ
ُ
رصل ٱ دهْ
اَن
ِ
ِ
ٱ ۝
ني عتَْ سَن كاَ يِٕا
ِ
و دُ ب ُ عَن كاَ يِٕا
َ
َ
ُ
َ
ْ
۝ لاضل ٱ
ني
ضُ غْ م
ْ
َ
الَ
و مهِ يلَ عَ بوِ
َ
ْ
َ
ل رِ
ٱ يغَ مهِ يلَ عَ تَ م عْنا ني ذ
ْ
ْ
ْ
ْ َ
َ
ِ ل ٱ

Solar letter

Lunar letter

ْ ْ ْ ْ َ َ ِ ل ٱ Solar letter Lunar letter لِ صْ و

لِ صْ و

َ

ْ

لا ةُ َ مهَ

ْ

ز

letter لِ صْ و َ ْ لا ةُ َ مهَ ْ ز ع طقَ لا ةُ

ع طقَ لا ةُ مهَ

َ ْ

ز

ْ

ْ

ِ

ةُ َ مهَ ْ ز ع طقَ لا ةُ مهَ َ ْ ز ْ ْ ِ
Preposition ( ر ج َ فُ ر ْ َ ح) & Genitive Case ( رو
Preposition ( ر ج َ فُ ر ْ َ ح) & Genitive Case ( رو
Preposition (
ر ج َ فُ ر ْ َ
ح) & Genitive Case (
رو ٌ رجْ ُ م) َ

Literal meaning of

Examples of preposition (

ر ج َ فُ ر ْ َ

ح is “a particle of pulling”

ر ج َ فُ ر ْ َ

ح):

In – ي ِ

ف

On – ىلَ عَ

 
 

ْ

From –

م

 

ن

ِ

To – ىلِٕا َ

When a noun is preceded by a preposition, it is said to

be in genitive case (

رو ٌ رجْ ُ م) َ

ْ

ْ

The house - تُ ْ لا, In the house –

A house - تٌ ْ ب, In a house –

َ

ي

ب

ت لا ي ف ِ

ِ

ْ َ

ي

ب

َ

ي

ْ َ

ت ب ي ف ِ

ٍ

ي

ْ

ت لا ي ِ

ِ

ْ َ

ي

ب

ف is a ِ

ةلَ ج لا ه ب

ْ ُ

م

ُ ْ

ْ

ش (phrase) – It looks like a

ِ

sentence but is not one

تُ تُ ْ لا ي ي ب ب لا ْ ْ ْ َ َ تُ
تُ
تُ ْ لا
ي ي ب ب
لا ْ
ْ
ْ َ َ
تُ
ِ
got pulled to ت because
of the preceding ي ِ
ف
ت
ت
ِ
ِ
ي ي ب ب ْ
لا ي ِ
لا ي ف ف ِ
ْ
ْ َ َ
ْ
رو رجْ َ م س ِ ا
ٌ
ر ج َ فُ
ر
ح
ُ
م ٌ
ْ
ْ َ
Same as
رو ٌ رجْ ُ َ و َ را ج َ
م
More Prepositions and Examples from the Qur’ân (59:21) Had We sent down this Quran on
More Prepositions and Examples from the Qur’ân
More Prepositions and Examples from the Qur’ân
(59:21) Had We sent down this Quran on a mountain … لٍ ب ج ىلَعَ
(59:21) Had We sent down this
Quran on a mountain …
لٍ
ب ج
ىلَعَ
نَ آ ْ لا اذَ ٰـهَ انَ زنا
رقُ ْ
ل
ْ
َ َ
َ
وَل ْ
ىلَ عَ
On

(96:2) He created man from a clot

ْ

قٍلَعَ

نْ

م ناَ سنإِ لا

ِ

َ

قلَخَ

َ

ْ

ِ

م

ن

From

(26:50) we shall but return to our Lord نوَ ب لقنَ ِ م ُ انـــَ
(26:50) we shall but return to
our Lord
نوَ
ب لقنَ ِ م ُ انـــَ ر
ب
ُ
َ
ىَلِٕا ا نِٕا
ىَلِٕا
To

(97:1) We have indeed revealed this (Message) in the Night of Power

رِدْ قَ لا ةلَ يَل ْ ي ف هانَ ل زنا ا نِٕا

ْ

ِ

ِ

ُ

ْ

َ

In

ي ف ِ

(2:119) And thou will not be asked about the owners of hell- fire ميِ ح
(2:119) And thou will not be
asked about the owners of hell-
fire
ميِ
ح ج لا باِ حصْ ا
ِ
ْ
َ
َ
َ
نعَ لُ ا سُت ا ل و
About,
ْ
ْ
َ
نعَ ْ
concerning

(2:284) To Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth.

ا ْ

هـ ل ـ

ل

ِ

رْ لا ي ف ِ ا َ و تا و مٰ

م

َ

ِ

َ

سلا ي ف ِ ا م َ ِ

ضِ

Belongs to,

for

ل

ــ

ِ

(2:153) O ye who believe! seek help with patient perseverance and prayer; for Allah is
(2:153) O ye who believe! seek
help with patient perseverance
and prayer; for Allah is with
those who patiently persevere.
رِ بصلا ـِب اونيُ عتَ سا اونَُ مآ ني ذ ِ لا ا ه َ يا ا ي َ
ِ
ْ
ْ
َ
With, by,
ــِب
نيرِِباصلا َ
ع َ م َ هـ َ للا ن ِٕا ۚ ةالَ ِ صلا
و
at, in
َ

Notice the noun after the

ر ج َ فرُ

َ

ح is

رو ٌ رج

ُ

م , i.e. it has a ٌة رسكَ

َ

َ

at the end

Nominal Sentence with رو ٌ رجْ ُ َ و َ را ج َ م Muhammad
Nominal Sentence with رو ٌ رجْ ُ َ و َ را ج َ م
Nominal Sentence with
رو ٌ رجْ ُ َ و َ را ج َ
م
Muhammad is in the mosque the mosque in Muhammad دجِ ِ س ْ ملا َ
Muhammad is in the mosque
the mosque
in
Muhammad
دجِ ِ
س
ْ
ملا َ
ي ف ِ
ٌد ح َ م ُ
م
ٌ
رو رجْ م َ م س ِ ا
ٌ
ٌ
ْ
ر ج َ فُ
ر
ْ
ح َ
ٔادَتَْ ب م
ُ
ُ
ر بخَ ، ةلَ جلا ه ش ، رو رجْ م َ و را ج
ِ
ٌ
م
ِ
َ
ْ
ُ
ُ
ب
ْ
ٌ
ُ
َ
َ
It is on a table a table on It بٍ تَ م ْ ك َ
It is on a table
a table
on
It
بٍ تَ م
ْ
ك َ
ىلَ عَ
وهُ َ
ٌ
رو رجْ م َ م س ِ ا
ٌ
ُ
ٌ
ْ
ر ج َ فُ
ر
ْ
ح َ
ٔادَتَْ ب م
ُ
ر بخَ ، ةلَ جلا ه ش ، رو رجْ م َ و را ج
ِ
ٌ
م
ب
ِ
َ
ْ
ُ
ُ
ْ
ٌ
ُ
َ
َ
ِ ِ ِ ِ Detached Pronoun (لٌ ل صفَنْ ُ ري مضَ ) ٌ صفَنْ
ِ ِ ِ ِ Detached Pronoun (لٌ ل صفَنْ ُ ري مضَ ) ٌ صفَنْ
ِ ِ
ِ ِ
Detached Pronoun (لٌ
ل صفَنْ ُ ري مضَ )
ٌ
صفَنْ ُ ري
م م
ٌ ٌ
مضَ
 

Masculine

Singular

“Dual”

He, It

They (2)

وهُ

َ

ا مهُ

َ

ْ

دٌ رفْ م ُ

ىن ثَ م ُ

ٌ

َ

ْ

ر كذَ م ُ

ٌ

 

Plural

They

مهُ

ج َ

ع

م

3 rd Person

   

ٌ

   

دٌ رفْ م ُ

َ

 

ِ ئاغَ

ب

 

Singular

She, It

 

َ

 

ِ

ه

ي

   
 

Feminine

“Dual”

They (2)

ا مهُ

َ

ىن ثَ م ُ

ثٌ نؤَُ م

 

Plural

They

نهُ

ٌ

ْ

ج َ

ع

م

 
 

َ

ٌ

 

Masculine

Singular

“Dual”

You

You (2)

تنا ْ

ا متُ ْنا

َ

ْ

رفم ْ ُ

ىن ثَ م ُ

د

َ

ٌ

ْ

ر كذَ م ُ

ٌ

 

Plural

You (>2)

متُ ْنا

ج َ

ع

م

 

َ

2 nd person

   

ب طاخَ م ُ

ٌ

 

تْنا

ِ

دٌ رفْ م ُ

َ

 

Singular

You

 
 

Feminine

“Dual”

You (2)

ا متُ ْنا

َ

ىن ثَ م ُ

ثٌ نؤَُ م

 

Plural

You (>2)

نتُ ْنا

ٌ

ْ

ج َ

ع

م

 
 

Singular

I

اَنا

دٌ رفْ ُ

َ

م

 

م ٌ لكَ تَُ م

1 st person

Masc. & Fem.

ثٌ نؤَُ م و َ ر ٌ كذَ ُ

م

نحْ َن

ُ

ٌ

ْ

 

Plural

We

ج َ

ع

م

 
Detached Pronoun (لٌ ل صفَنْ ُ ري مضَ ) صفَنْ ُ ري ِ ِ ِ
Detached Pronoun (لٌ ل صفَنْ ُ ري مضَ ) صفَنْ ُ ري ِ ِ ِ
Detached Pronoun (لٌ
ل صفَنْ ُ ري مضَ )
صفَنْ ُ ري
ِ ِ
ِ ِ
ٌ
م م
ٌ ٌ
مضَ

Are always ةٌفَرِ م (definite)

Are never attached with any other word

ْ َ

ع

Are عوٌ

ُف ر ْ َ

م (nominative case), even though most of

them do not have a ةٌ مضَ

Are fixed in their case, i.e. their ending does not change

(dammah) ending

Fixed nouns in Arabic are called

ن

ي ِ ْ م َ

ب

وهُ َ

ا مهُ

َ

مهُ ْ

َ

ِ

ه

ي

ا مهُ

َ

نهُ

تنا ْ

َ

ا متُ ْنا

َ

متُ ْ ْنا

تْنا

ِ

ا متُ ْنا

َ

نتُ ْنا

اَنا

نحْ ُ َن

ضا ملا ل ُ ْ فلا) ِ ع ِ The Past Tense Verb (ي َ
ضا ملا ل ُ ْ فلا) ِ ع ِ The Past Tense Verb (ي َ
ضا ملا ل ُ ْ فلا)
ِ
ع
ِ
The Past Tense Verb (ي
َ

Verb = Action = لٌ

ع

ْ

ف

ِ

Doer = Subject = لٌ

ِ

عافَ

Base form of all Arabic verbs is in the past tense (ضاٍ

م)

َ

The base form of the verb always corresponds to the 3 rd person

singular masculine pronoun, i.e. he (

وهُ َ )

The doer of the action (لٌ عافَ) is hidden (

the verb (لٌ

ر تتَْ ِ س

ٌ

م) ُ within the base form of

رخَ َ

َ

ج

ِ

ف). ِ Notice the hidden “he” in

ْ

ع

(He left)

َ

ج

رخَ َ

ه يَلِٕا فاٌ ه يَلِٕا فاٌ ِ ِ ْ ْ ضَ ُ و فاٌ ضَ
ه يَلِٕا فاٌ ه يَلِٕا فاٌ ِ ِ ْ ْ ضَ ُ و فاٌ ضَ
ه يَلِٕا فاٌ
ه يَلِٕا فاٌ
ِ ِ
ْ ْ
ضَ ُ و فاٌ
ضَ م م ُ و فاٌ
َ َ
ضَ ُ
ضَ م ُ
م – Possessed & Possessor

Used to convey a “possession” relationship between two nouns

Also referred to as ةُفاَ ضَ الإِ

(Al-Idaafatu)

English uses “of” or “ ’s ” for such relationship, e.g. Book of Bilal or Bilal’s

book Made up of two parts:

Possessed (or possession) – فاٌ

ضَ ُ

م

Possessor – ه يَلِٕا فاٌ ِ ْ ضَ م ُ Possessor - ه ه يَلِٕا
Possessor –
ه يَلِٕا فاٌ
ِ
ْ
ضَ م ُ
Possessor -
ه ه يَلِٕا فاٌ
ِ ِ
يَلِٕا
ْ ْ
ضَ م ُ
ضَ ُ
م
لالَِب ٍ
باتَ ك ِ
Possessed - فاٌ
ُ
Is always
case)
رو ٌ رجْ ُ َ
م (genitive
(of) Bilal
book
Can take any case ending,
as the need be
Bilal’s book
Never takes
نيوِنْتَ ٌ (tanwîn)
Can take نيوِنْتَ (tanwîn) or
ٌ
or ـلا (the definite article)
ـلا (the definite article)
سِ ردَ ُ لا
م
ْ
بتَ م
ْ
ُ
ك َ
ِ
Is ةٌفَرِ ع ْ َ
Can be ٌة
رـ ِ
م (definite) or ٌة
رـ كـَن
َ
َ
كـَن (indefinite) or
(of) the teacher
table
(indefinite) based on
ةٌفَرِ ع ْ َ
م (definite)
The teacher’s table
هيَلِٕا ِ فاٌ
ضَ م ُ
ه يَلِٕا فاٌ ِ ِ Examples of Valid ه يَلِٕا فاٌ ْ ْ ضَ ُ
ه يَلِٕا فاٌ ِ ِ Examples of Valid ه يَلِٕا فاٌ ْ ْ ضَ ُ
ه يَلِٕا فاٌ
ِ ِ
Examples of Valid
ه يَلِٕا فاٌ
ْ ْ
ضَ ُ و فاٌ
ضَ ُ و فاٌ
م م
َ َ
ضَ م ُ
ضَ ُ
م

Different case endings for فاٌ

ضَ م ُ

Definite vs. indefinite

ِ

ه يَلِٕا فاٌ

ْ

ضَ م ُ

ةٌفَرِ ْ م َ

ع

لا

بِ ِ طلا

(of) the student

باتَ ك ِ

ُ

book

The student’s book

The student’s book

ٌة كَن

َ

ر ِ

َ

لا

بٍ ِ ط

باتَ ك ِ

ُ

(of) a student

book

A student’s book

عوٌ

ْ

ُف م

ر

ْ َ

ُف م ر ْ َ

ْ

سِ ردَ ُ لا

م

ك َ

بتَ م

ُ

(of) the teacher

table

The teacher’s table

 

Noun after ن

ِٕا is

 

بو صنْ م َ

ٌ

ُ

always

بو صنْ م َ

ٌ

ُ

ْ

ْ

   

سِ ردَ ُ لا

م

ك َ

بتَ م

َ

ن ِٕا

 

(of) the teacher

table

Verily

Verily the teacher’s table

 

رو ٌ رجْ ُ م َ

ْ

سِ ردَ ُ لا

م

ْ

ك َ

بِ تَ م

ىلَ عَ

(of) the teacher

table

on

On the teacher’s table

ه يَلِٕا فاٌ ِ ِ Incorrect vs. Correct ه يَلِٕا فاٌ ْ ْ ضَ ُ
ه يَلِٕا فاٌ ِ ِ Incorrect vs. Correct ه يَلِٕا فاٌ ْ ْ ضَ ُ
ه يَلِٕا فاٌ
ِ ِ
Incorrect vs. Correct
ه يَلِٕا فاٌ
ْ ْ
ضَ ُ و فاٌ
ضَ ُ و فاٌ
م م
َ َ
ضَ م ُ
ضَ ُ
م

فاٌ

ضَ م ُ

فاٌ

ضَ م ُ

cannot have

نيوِنْتَ ٌ

cannot have لا

يَلِإ فاٌ

ْ

ِ

ه

ضَ ُ

م

يَلِإ فاٌ

ْ

ِ

ه

ضَ ُ

م

cannot be عوٌ

ُف

ْ م َ

ر

cannot be

بو صنْ م َ

ٌ

ُ

لالَِب

ٍ

باتَ ك ِ

ٌ

لالَِب ٍ باتَ ك ِ ٌ

لالَِب

ٍ

ُ

باتَ كلا ِ

لالَِب ٍ ُ باتَ كلا ِ

لاٌ لَِبك ِ ٌ لالَِب ٍ ُ باتَ كلا ِ باتَ ك ِ ُ لاً لَِب باتَ

باتَ ك ِ

ُ

لاً لَِبُ باتَ كلا ِ لاٌ لَِب باتَ ك ِ ُ باتَ ك ِ ُ لالَِب ٍ

باتَ ك ِ

ُ

باتَ ك ِ ُ لاً لَِب باتَ ك ِ ُ لالَِب ٍ باتَ ك ِ ُ

لالَِب ٍ

باتَ ك ِ

ُ

ه يَلِٕا فاٌ ِ ِ More on ه يَلِٕا فاٌ ْ ْ ضَ ُ و
ه يَلِٕا فاٌ ِ ِ More on ه يَلِٕا فاٌ ْ ْ ضَ ُ و
ه يَلِٕا فاٌ
ِ ِ
More on
ه يَلِٕا فاٌ
ْ ْ
ضَ ُ و فاٌ
ضَ ُ و فاٌ
م م
َ َ
ضَ م ُ
ضَ ُ
م
ِ Even though ن ْ َ م is ه يَلِإ فاٌ ْ ضَ ُ م
ِ
Even though
ن
ْ َ
م is
ه يَلِإ فاٌ
ْ
ضَ ُ
م , it does not have ٌة
ر
سكَ
َ ْ
Whose book?
(kasrah) ending, because it is
Other similar examples:
ي ِ ب ْ َ
ن
م (indeclinable).
(of) who
book
ن م
ْ َ
باتَ ك ِ
ُ
ن ْ م َ
ملَقَ (Whose pen?)
ُ
ه يَلِإ فاٌ
ِ
ْ
ضَ م ُ
فاٌ
ضَ م ُ
ن ْ م َ ن ُ ْ
ب ِ ٱ (Whose
son?)
 

Mosque of Allah’s Prophet

 

(of) Allah

(of the) prophet

mosque

 

للا

ِ

ه

 

لو

ُ َ

س

ِ

 

دُ جِ

ْ

س

 

ر

م َ

 

ِ

ه يَلِإ فاٌ

ْ

ضَ م ُ

فاٌ

ضَ م ُ

ِ

ه يَلِإ فاٌ

ْ

ضَ م ُ

 

فاٌ

ضَ م ُ

 
Notice two sets of ه يَلِٕا فاٌ ِ ْ ضَ ُ و فاٌ م َ
Notice two sets of
ه يَلِٕا فاٌ
ِ
ْ
ضَ ُ و فاٌ
م
َ
ضَ م. ُ
لو س
ِ
ه يَلِإ فاٌ
ِ
ضَ ُ
لو ر دُ جِ س
ِ
ْ
س
ُ َ
ر is
م in
ُ َ
ْ
م and it
َ
is فاٌ
ضَ ُ
ه للا لو ر.
ِ
ِ
س
م in
ُ َ
ِ ِ Examples from Quran - ه يَلِٕا فاٌ ه يَلِٕا فاٌ ْ ْ ضَ
ِ ِ Examples from Quran - ه يَلِٕا فاٌ ه يَلِٕا فاٌ ْ ْ ضَ
ِ ِ
Examples from Quran -
ه يَلِٕا فاٌ
ه يَلِٕا فاٌ
ْ ْ
ضَ ُ و فاٌ
ضَ ُ و فاٌ
م م
َ َ
ضَ م ُ
ضَ ُ
م
(110:1) When comes the help of Allah …
(110:1) When comes the help of Allah …

ِ

ه للا

رصْ َن ءا

ُ

َ

َ

ج اذَِٕا

(114: 1) Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of mankind

 

نلا ب ر َ ِب ذوُ عُ ا لْ ُق

ساِ

(24:35) Allah is the light of the heavens and the earth
(24:35) Allah is the light of the heavens and the
earth

ا ْ

رْ لا و تا

َ

و مٰ

َ

سلا روُن

ُ

ضِ

ِ

ه للاَ

ُ

(7:73) This is the she camel of Allah

 

ه للا ةُقاَ َن هذهَ

ِ

ِِ

(48:29) Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah
(48:29) Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah

ِ

ه للا لُ

و ر ٌد م ح

ْ

ُ َ

س

َ م ُ

(6:127) For them is the home of safety

 

مَِال

سلا رادَ م

ُ

ْ هَل ُ

(40:55 & 77) Therefore have patience (O Muhammad). Lo (surely, certainly)! The promise of Allah
(40:55 & 77) Therefore have patience (O
Muhammad). Lo (surely, certainly)! The promise
of Allah is true

ق ح َ ه للا دَ عْ و ن ِٕا ربِ صاْ فَ

ِ

َ

ْ

ِ ِ Nominal Sentences with ه يَلِٕا فاٌ ه يَلِٕا فاٌ ْ ْ ضَ ُ
ِ ِ Nominal Sentences with ه يَلِٕا فاٌ ه يَلِٕا فاٌ ْ ْ ضَ ُ
ِ ِ
Nominal Sentences with
ه يَلِٕا فاٌ
ه يَلِٕا فاٌ
ْ ْ
ضَ ُ و فاٌ
ضَ ُ و فاٌ
م م
َ َ
ضَ م ُ
ضَ ُ
م
Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah (of) Allah Messenger Muhammad ه للا ِ لُ و
Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah
(of) Allah
Messenger
Muhammad
ه للا
ِ
لُ
و س ُ َ
ْ
ر
ٌد ح َ م ُ
م
رو ٌ رجْ م َ ، ه يَلِٕا فاٌ
ِ
ضَ م ُ ، ةَلالَ ج لا ظفَْل
ِ
ْ
ُ
ٌ
ُ
ْ
َ
فاٌ
ضَ
م ُ وهُ َ و َ ر ٌ َ
بخَ
ٔادَتَْ ب م
ُ
 

The student’s pen is broken

 

broken

(of) the student

 

pen

 

ْ

ٌ

ُ

ك َ

رو س م

 

لا

بِ ِ طلا

 

ملَقَ

ُ

ر بخَ ٌ َ
ر
بخَ
ٌ َ

ِ

ه يَلِإ فاٌ

ْ

ضَ م ُ

فاٌ

ضَ

م ُ وهُ َ

و

َ

ٌ أدَتَْ ب م ُ
ٌ
أدَتَْ ب م
ُ
Feminine: This ( ِ ذهَ ) vs. That (كَ ه ِ ل ِ ت) ْ
Feminine: This ( ِ ذهَ ) vs. That (كَ ه ِ ل ِ ت) ْ
Feminine: This ( ِ ذهَ ) vs. That (كَ
ه
ِ
ل ِ ت)
ْ

ثٌ نؤَُ م

ر كذَ م ُ

ٌ

 

ه

ِ ذهَ ِ

اذَ هَ

رِقَلِْ ل ة راشَ إِ لا م س ِ ا

ِ

َ

ُ

ْ

ْ

بيِ

ِ

كَ ل ْ ت

كَ لذَ

ِ

ْ

ِ

دي ل ة راشَ إِ لا م س ِ ا

ْ ِ

ع ل

َ

ِ

َ

ُ

ْ

ِ

ب

That is a car (ٌة ٌة را س كَ ل ْ ِ ت) را س
That is a car (ٌة
ٌة را س كَ ل ْ ِ ت)
را س كَ ل ْ
ي ي
ِ
َ َ
ت
َ َ

ذهَ

ِ

ه ِ

is pronounced as ِ ذاهَ

ه

ِ

but is written without the alif

This is a watch (ةٌ عاَ ةٌ عاَ س ه ِ ذهَ ) س ه
This is a watch (ةٌ عاَ
ةٌ عاَ س ه ِ ذهَ )
س ه ذهَ
ِ ِ ِ
َ َ
How to make Feminine noun from Masculine noun 2 Putting a ةٌ حتْفَ (fathah) on
How to make Feminine noun from Masculine noun
How to make Feminine noun from Masculine noun
2 Putting a ةٌ حتْفَ (fathah) on the letter before ة َ 1 Adding a
2
Putting a ةٌ حتْفَ (fathah) on the letter before ة
َ
1
Adding a ةَُ طو ُ
ب ْ ملا َ ءاتلا ُ
ر
at the end
Female
ةــٌ
ةــٌ
س ردَ ُ
س ردَ م ُ
م
س ردَ ُ
م
َ َ
teacher
ٌ
ةَُ طو ُ ْ ملا َ ءاتلا ُ
ب
ر
: The closed ta : ة

Teacher

Usually nouns which refer to male humans (and animals) and adjectives may be made feminine
Usually nouns which refer to
male humans (and animals)
and adjectives may be made
feminine b
y this method
ةـٌ ةـٌ ط بـ ِ لا بـ ِ ط لا َ َ َ َ
ةـٌ
ةـٌ ط
بـ ِ لا
بـ ِ ط
لا
َ َ
َ َ
ٌةدَ ٌةدَ و ِ لا لا ِ و َ َ
ٌةدَ
ٌةدَ و
ِ لا لا
ِ
و َ
َ
ةلا ٌَ زغ َ َ
ةلا ٌَ
زغ َ َ
ٌةريبِكَ َ ٌة ريبِكَ َ
ٌةريبِكَ َ
ٌة
ريبِكَ
َ

Female

Female

student

Mother

Mother

F

l

ema e

F l ema e