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Musical Daybreaks for Beginners in Measured Music 639 2, You should not sing for yourself, being content just to read notes and get the rhythm right: and this is so that you won't sing out of tune. 3. Do not twist or distort your waist, your head, your eyes, your mouth, etc., pecause it is ugly to see. 4, Do not sing in your nose, OF through your teeth, or in your throat. 5. Sing precisely with some mordents, accenti,' graces, etc, and if your voice has a natural trill or gorge employ it in performance with great modesty, without using it on every note; ‘and if you do not have it natu- rally, seek to develop one by artifice. 6. Give liveliness to the notes as well as to the words, making them clear and understandable. 7. Af two parts have gorghe or tills, do them one after the other and not poth together, one imitating the other in the exchange (chiamate). 5. In order for the five vowels to be sung ‘with the proportionate opening of the mouth, you should know that for the A, you open the mouth at the maximum a little less than three fingers one above the other: for the E, at the maximum, @ little less than two, for the I, of one finger, for the O, of three fingers, for the U, of one finger only. 9, Do not make passaggi, OF movimenti2 on the vowels 1 and U. 10. Count the beats in your head, or at least softly, so as not to disturb your partner. 11. Follow the words, as discussed in chapter 18. That is, sing happily if the words are happy; if they are lively and. spirited, sing with spirit and vivace; if they are about grief, pain, torment, etc., sing, mournfully and slowly. 12, And lastly go as often as possible to concerts, especially where there are good singers, because you always learn something; and if nothing else, you vill Iearn the style, the sweetness, the accenti, the graces, etc. of good singing, ‘This much suffices for beginners in singing figured music. Improvised escape tones on or before the peat; see the Glossary of Foreign Performance Terms, p_ 223, Caccng’s one-note til was oF lates the distinction between Penna’ til ‘and the related Forga may have been one between Pulls beginning above the main note and on the main note. Beret ommplete text of Pena’ chapter 10 “OF ‘Meledic Accidentals” reads: “Because singi08 the aes and words in rhythm as they are writen, Orithout any embellishments would not give Pleasure to the eat, one mst lear 10 $6 vite, Me graces. Among the other things that git face to singing are making some ong sand tills on the notes, emitting the vores Tt wit Bea ren ow with Caprio’, now wh FoReISESL following as much as possible the sense sapthe words, pronouncing them distinctly (0 Me them understood, ete. But because itt ‘iffieult to explain such things with writted seanples, and because the student is welt informed by his maestro, not only about all that Fimaten here but about many other things that I ea let go to avoid tedium, wil not put any more tt ‘paper. only point out thatin compositions Where at” appears with n dot in dis manner: fs there a trill must be made.” wher ont are Mlstrated in chapter 20 of book 1s a6 vtrisions between semibreves (pp. 46-49): ie the Glossary of Foreign Performance Terms: P. 904 640 105 LORENZO PENNA BOOK II CHAPTER 14. OF ACCOMPANYING COMPOSITIONS FOR SOLO VOICE In all compositions, whether in two, three, or four voices, ete., the organist must be accurate and ready of hand, eye, and ear, as well as of spirit, in order to accompany the singers’ voices on the keyboard. But in compositions for solo voice, it is necessary to be very alert and ready to accompany the voice. And this is true as much in ariette, in quick pieces, etc., as well as in expressive and slow ones, ete. Ordinarily in compositions for solo voice you see the singer's line in score, placed above the organist's line, scored up, although at times (but rarely) you will meet a part without it. In both cases you observe the following rules. First rule The organist should keep a quick, open eye not only on his part, but also on the singer's line, placed above, to accompany with the keys that correspond to the voice, for example, for a soprano, play in the soprano register [see Ex. Al]; if contralto, play in the alto register [Ex. A2], striving to be ready to touch the key to give the pitch to the singer. [Example Al] [Example A2] Second rule When it is not possible to accompany all the notes sung, take only the conso- nances, or at least the first and last of the downbeat part of the tactus, and the first and last of the upbeat part,’ letting the others go, as in the example, taken from the examples given above. All this holds true even in ariette. [Exx. B] and B2] 3, “Levar di mano.” In common time, the hand descended at the beginning of a semibreve tactus, or whole note, and rose on the second half. In modern terms, the “beat is in two.” Penna is thus saying that the organist isto play on whatever begins the tactus and on the pickup to the second half of the tactus; similarly the continuo sounds the first and last notes of the second half of the tactus. If the tactus were a semibreve, chords would occur on each quarter-note. The implied falling and rising of the hand have been marked by the editor in the musical example. Musical Daybreaks for Beginners in Measured Music 641 [Example B1] [Example B2] \ \ \ \ 1 Third rule In the ritornelli or during rests placed to relieve the singe! x, the organist should play something improvised, imitating the arietta or something spirited newly invented. This is clear without giving any examples. Fourth rule In the recitative style, where there are many expressive devices using disso- nances, you must be ready to play them quickly, making the necessary har- mony. The most frequent of the dissonant affetti are the following five: « The first is based on the basso continuo which plays a tone of one or one- half measure, or longer, in the same place 1 The second occurs when the basso continuo leaps downa fourth, or upa fifth. » The third, when it falls down a fifth or leaps uP 4 fourth + The fourth, when two successive notes descend by step, + The fifth, when the bass makes a suspension of a second, and resolves to a third, making a cadence. ‘The realizations ofall five are in the following rules. making a cadence. Fifth rule Tf the bass remains on the same tone for one or one-half bar or for even more notes, the dissonances, or bad notes as we callthem, must be played; whichistosay the major 7ths, 9ths, Liths, and minor 13ths, or their equivalents, all sounded together with the right hand, whether descending [Ex, C1] or ascending [Ex. C2]; and before resolving to the consonances, play the Joth or 12th, as it better. [Example C2] [Example C1] Realization Realization 2 1 16 178 #4